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CNG THC LP 12

CHNG 0. C HC VT RN
1. NG HC VT RN * Lin h gia tc gc v tc di

v = R

* Gia tc tip tuyn

an = R 2
* Gia tc php tuyn * Gia tc ton phn
2 a = at2 + an

at = R

* Tc gc trung bnh

=
* Gia tc gc trung bnh

t t

=
* Gia tc gc tc thi

= t + 0

* Gc quay c trong thi gian t

1 = t 2 + 0t 2
* Cng thc c lp vi thi gian
2 2 0 = 2 .

* Gc quay c trong giy th n * Chu k quay u

n = (n 0,5) + 0 T= 1 2 = f

* Tc quay

=
2. MOMEN QUN TNH
* Cng thc tng qut

n 30
n: s vng quay/pht

I = ( mR 2 )
* Momen qun tnh ca vnh trn ng cht

I = mR 2
* Momen qun tnh ca a trn ng cht

I=
I=

1 mR 2 2
1 2 ml 3

* Momen qun tnh ca thanh quay quanh 1 u

* Momen qun tnh ca thanh quay quanh trc gia

I=
I=

1 ml 2 12
2 mR 2 5

* Momen qun tnh ca hnh cu ng cht

gocriengtrenban.com6

CNG THC LP 12

* Momen qun tnh ca mt cu ng cht

I=

2 mR 2 3

* Cng thc nh l Huyghens

I M = I O + md 2
d: khong cch MO

3. NG LC HC VT RN
* Momen lc
M = F.d F /O

d: cnh tay n * Phng trnh ng lc hc vt rn

M I M M can = F I

* o hm ca momen ng lng

M=
4. NNG LNG
* Momen ng lng

dL dt

L = I

* Bo ton momen ng lng cho 2 a

I1 1 + I 2 2 = ( I1 + I 2 )

* ng nng quay

Wd =
W=

1 2 I 2

* ng nng va quay va tnh tin

1 2 1 2 I + mv 2 2

* Lin h gia ng nng quay v momen ng lng

Wd =

L2 2I

CNG THC LP 12

CHNG 1. DAO NG C HC
1. DAO NG IU HO * Tn s, chu k

= 2 f = 2 / T
T: chu k (s)

* Phng trnh vn tc

v = sin( t + ) v = A cos( t + + / 2) a = 2 cos( t + ) a = A 2 cos( t + + )

* Phng trnh gia tc

* Tc /Gia tc cc i

vmax = A
* Lin h vn tc v li

amax = A 2

v2 = 2 ( A2 x 2 ) A2 = x 2 +
* Lin h gia tc v li

v2 2

a = 2 x
* Lin h amax v vmax

a = max vmax vtb =

2 vmax A= amax

* Tc trung bnh trong na chu k:

4 A 2 vmax = T t 360 T

* Gc qut c v thi gian di chuyn

= ) 2

* Qung ng ln/nh nht trong t

smax = 2 A sin(

smin = 4 A sin 2 (

) 4

* Thi gian vt c vn tc/tc ln hn

cos(

v )= 2 vmax

cos(

speed )= 4 speedmax

* Qung ng di chuyn c T -> 4A; T/2 -> 2A * Thi gian di chuyn 0 - A/2: T/12; A/2 - A: T/6 0 - A2/2: T/8; A2/2 - A: T/8 0 - A3/2: T/6; A3/2 - A: T/12 2. CON LC L XO * Tn s gc ca CLLX

k m l0 =

T = 2 mg g = 2 k

m k

* bin dng ban u

* bin dng

l = l0 + x
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CNG THC LP 12

* Lc ko v * Lc n hi

Fkv = kx Fdh = k | l0 + x | Fdh max = k ( l0 + A)

* Lc n hi ln nht

* Lc n hi nh nht

Fdh min = k | l0 A | lVTCB = lmax + lmin 2

* Chiu di l xo v tr cn bng

* Bin con lc

A=

lmax lmin 2

* L xo ghp song song

k// = k1 + k2 1 1 1 = 2+ 2 2 T T1 T2 1 1 1 = + k// k1 k2 T 2 = T12 + T22 k1l1 = k2 l2

* L xo ghp ni tip

* Ghp hai vt nng m = m1 + m2

T 2 = T12 + T22
* L xo b ct

k1 l2 = k2 l1
* iu kin vt m khng trt trn vt M

kA g (m + M )
: h s ma st gia m v M k: cng ca l xo (N/m)

3. CON LC N * Tn s gc, chu k con lc n

g l s = l

T = 2 v = l '

l g

* Lin h gia n v di v n v gc

v = 2 gl (cos cos 0 )
2

* Tc cc i

v0 = l 0 T12 l1 = T22 l2

* Lin h chu k v chiu di dy

* Lc cng dy

T = mg(3cos 2 cos 0 )

CNG THC LP 12

* Lc cng dy ln nht

Tmax = mg(3 2 cos 0 ) T = mg cos 0 Fkv = mg sin T22 = 1 + t T12


: h s n di (K-1) t: bin thin nhit

* Lc cng dy nh nht * Lc ko v * Thay i nhit

* Thay i cao

T2 R + h = T1 R
R: bn knh tri t

* Chu tc dng ca lc ngoi

T22 g = T12 g ' g' = g a


* Lc in

g ' = g2 + a2
a: gia tc ngoi (m/s2)

a=

qE m T2 ) T1

E: cng in trng (V/m)

* Chnh lch thi gian ca ng h

t = t .(1

t: thi gian xem xt T1: chu k ng t > 0: ng h chy nhanh

* Chu k con lc b vng inh

T = (

l1 l + 2) g g

4. NNG LNG CON LC * ng nng con lc

Wd =
* Th nng con lc l xo

1 2 mv 2 1 2 kx 2 1 m 2l 2 2 2

Wt =
* Th nng con lc n

Wt = mgl (1 cos ) =
* C nng tng qut

W = Wt + Wd 1 1 m 2 A 2 = kA 2 2 2

* C nng con lc l xo

W=

CNG THC LP 12

* C nng con lc n

W=

1 2 m 2l 2 0 2

* Lin h li v nng lng

Wt x 1 cos = ( )2 = ( )2 = W A 0 1 cos 0 Wd v 2 =( ) W vmax

* Lin h vn tc v nng lng

5. DAO NG TT DN - CNG HNG * Bin con lc gim sau N chu k

A =

4 NFc 4 N mg = k k

* S dao ng thc hin cho n khi tt hn

N=

A kA kA = = A 4 F 4 mg kA 2 kA 2 = 2 F 2 mg T= s v

* Qung ng i c cho n lc tt hn

s=

* Chu k ngoi lc xe chy trn rnh

6. TNG HP DAO NG * Cng pha A = A1 + A2 = Amax * Ngc qua A = |A1 - A2| = Amin * Vung pha
2 A = A12 + A2

* Cng bin

A = 2 A1 cos(
* Bin tng qut

) 2

2 A 2 = A12 + A2 + 2 A1 A2 cos

* Pha tng hp

tan =

A1 sin 1 + A2 sin 2 A1 cos1 + A2 cos 2

7. CON LC TRNG PHNG * S ln con lc gp nhau cho n khi gp li

N1T1 = N 2T2

CNG THC LP 12

CHNG 2. SNG C HC
1. SNG C HC TNG QUT * Bc sng ca sng c hc

v f 2 d

* lch pha gia 2 im trn phng truyn

* Phng trnh lan truyn sng

t x u = A cos(2 ( )) T
* Tc lan truyn sng

v=

FT

: khi lng trn mt n v chiu di dy FT: lc cng dy

2. GIAO THOA SNG * Bc giao thoa

k=

d L

* Bc giao thoa ca hai bin b rng giao thoa L

k=
* Phng trnh giao thoa

u = 2 A cos

(d2 d1 ) (d2 d1 ) cos( t )

3. SNG DNG * S b sng dng

k=

2l

* Bc sng di nht trn dy 2 u c nh

= 2l

* Bc sng di nht trn dy 1 u c nh

= 4l

* Bin mt im trong b /4 - 2a; /12 - a /8 - a2/2; /6 - a3/2 4. SNG M * Cng m

I=
* T s cng m

P 4 R 2

2 I1 R2 = 2 I 2 R1

* Mc cng m

L = log(
* Trung im

I ) I0

LA LB = log(

IA ) IB

dM =

dA + dB 2

dM =

dA dB 2
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CNG THC LP 12

CHNG 3. DNG IN XOAY CHIU


1. I CNG IN XOAY CHIU * Gi tr hiu dng

I=

I0 2 i= UR R

U=

U0 2

* Cng tc thi

i uL + =1 I0 U0 L
* in p tc thi * Cm khng * Dung khng

i uC + =1 I0 U0C

u = u R + u L + uC

Z L = L = 2 fL ZC = 1 1 = C 2 fC
2 2

* Tng tr

Z = R 2 + ( Z L Z C ) = ( R + r )2 + ( Z L Z C )
* in p ton mch
2 U = UR + (U L U C ) 2

* lch pha

tan =

Z L ZC U L UC = R UR

* Cng dng in hiu dng

U U R U L UC = = = Z R Z L ZC R : Z L : ZC = U R :U L :UC I=
* H s cng sut

cos =
* Cng sut in

R UR = Z U U2 cos 2 R

P = UI cos = RI 2 =

P = ( R + r )I 2
* Cng hng in: I max, P max

Z L = ZC Z = R U L = UC U = U R 1 1 = 0 = f = f0 = LC 2 LC cos = 1 P = UI 0 f0 Z C = = f ZL
u, i cng pha

* u1 vung pha vi u2

tan 1 tan 2 = 1 ZC = 2 Z L

* iu kin URL khng ph thuc vo R


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CNG THC LP 12

* iu kin URC khng ph thuc vo R

Z L = 2 ZC

2. KHI R THAY I * P max khi ch c R

R = Z L ZC Pmax U2 = 2R cos = 2 2

* P max khi c R, r

R + r = Z L ZC Pmax = U2 2( R + r )
2

cos =

2 2

* PR max khi c R, r

R=

( Z L ZC )
U2 R1 + R2
2 0

+r

Pmax

U2 = 2( R + r )
2

* R = R1; R = R2 cho cng P

P=

R1 R2 = ( Z L ZC ) Pmax U2 = ) 2 R1 R2

( R = R1 R2

3. KHI L THAY I * P, I, UC max: cng hng

L=
* UL max
2 R2 + Z C ZL = ; ZC

1 C 2
uRC v u vung pha

U L max =

2 U R2 + Z C 2 = U2 +U2 L +UR R 2 (U 2 L max U CU L max U = 0 )

* URL max

ZL = U RL max

2 ZC + Z C + 4 R2 2 2 RU = 2 2 4R + ZC ZC

* L = L1; L = L2 cho cng P

ZC = Z L0 =

Z L1 + Z L2 2

* L = L1; L = L2 cho cng UL

1 1 2Z + = 2 C2 Z L1 Z L2 R + Z C 1 1 1 1 2 L1 L2 (UL max) = ( + ) L = Z L 2 Z L1 Z L2 L1 + L2
4. KHI C THAY I

CNG THC LP 12

* P, I, UL max: cng hng

C=
* UC max

1 L 2
uLR v u vung pha

R2 + Z 2 L ZC = ; ZL U C max =

U R2 + Z 2 L 2 = U2 +UC +U2 R R 2 2 (U C max U LU C max U = 0 )


2 ZL + Z 2 L + 4R 2 2 RU = 2 4R + Z2 L ZL

* URC max

ZC = U RC max

* C = C1; C = C2 cho cng P

Z L = Z C0 =

ZC1 + ZC2 2

* C = C1; C = C2 cho cng UC

1 1 2Z + = 2 L 2 ZC1 ZC2 R + Z L 1 1 1 1 C + C2 (UC max) = ( + )C = 1 ZC 2 ZC1 ZC2 2


5. KHI , f THAY I * P, I max: cng hng

=
* UL max

1 LC 2 LU R 4 LC R 2C 2

=
C
* UC max

1 L R C 2
2

U L max =

1 L R2 L C 2

U C max =

2CU R 4 LC R 2C 2

* = 1; = 2 cho cng P

1 2 = 0 =
* = 1; = 2 cho cng UL

1 LC

1 1 C 2 R2 + 2 = LC 12 2 2
* = 1; = 2 cho cng UC

1 1 L2 + 2= L R2 12 2 R 2
6. MY BIN P

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CNG THC LP 12

* My l tng

U1 N1 I 2 = = U 2 N 2 I1
* My khng l tng

H=

Ptt RI 2 = 2 Ptp U1 I1
H: hiu sut my bin p

7. TRUYN TI IN NNG I XA * in tr dy

R=
* Cng sut hao ph

l S
: in tr sut (m)

RP 2 P = 2 U cos 2
* Hiu sut truyn ti

H = 100%
* gim th

P P

U = I.R 8. MY PHT IN XOAY CHIU * Tn s dng in

f=

np 60
n: s cp cc p: s vng quay/pht

* T thng cc i gi qua khung dy

0 = NBS

N: s vng B: cm ng t (T) S: din tch khung dy (m2)

* Sut in ng cc i sinh ra

E0 = 0
2

* H thc c lp gia t thng v sut in ng

E + =1 0 E0
* Mch mc hnh sao

Id = I p U d = 3U p P = 3U p I p cos
* Mch mc hnh tam gic

I d = 3I p Ud = U p P = 3U d I d cos

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CNG THC LP 12

CHNG 4. DAO NG IN T
1. DAO NG IN T * Tn s dao ng

1 LC

f=

1 2 LC C L

* Cng dng in cc i

I 0 = Q0 = U 0 q = Cu

* Cng thc c lp vi thi gian

i u + =1 I0 U0
* Nng lng in t trng

i q + =1 I0 Q0

1 2 Li 2 1 1 1 q2 WC = Cu 2 = qu = 2 2 2C W = WL + WC WL =
* Nng lng hao ph
2 I0 P = RI = R 2 2

2. SNG IN T

* Bc sng in t

= 2 c LC
* Ghp t

C// = C1 + C2 1 1 1 = + Cnt C1 C2 C
: gc quay c

* T xoay

* Lin h gia bc sng v t

1 C = 1 C2 2
* Ghp cun dy

Lnt = L1 + L2 1 1 1 = + L// L1 L2 1 L = 1 L2 2
2

* Lin h gia bc sng v L

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CNG THC LP 12

CHNG 5. SNG NH SNG


1. TN SC, KHC X NH SNG * Lin h gia chit sut v bc sng

1 n2 = (f khng i) 2 n1
n1 sin i = n2 sin r n1i = n2 r r = rdo rtim

* nh lut khc x nh sng

* Cng thc lng knh

A = r1 + r2 D = i1 + i2 A D = Dtim Ddo D +A A i = i ' = min r = r' = 2 2 1 1 1 = (n 1)( + ) f R1 R2

* Cng thc thu knh

2. GIAO THOA NH SNG * Hiu quang l

r =
* Khong vn giao thoa

xa D

i=
* Bc giao thoa

D a

k=

x r = i i n eD a

* Mi trng trong sut chit sut n

in =

* t bn mng trn ng i nh sng

x0 = ( n 1) x0 =

* Dch chuyn ngun sng ln xung

D d D1

D1: khong cch t ngun n 2 khe d: di ca ngun sng x0: di ca h vn/VSTT

* B rng quang ph

x1 = x1d x1t h = x1d x2 t k11 = k2 2

* Quang ph chng ln * Vn sng trng nhau

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CNG THC LP 12

CHNG 6. LNG T NH SNG


1. HIN TNG QUANG IN * Nng lng ca photon

= hf =
* Cng thot

hc 1,9875.10 25 = A= hc 0 1 2 mv0 max 2

* ng nng ban u cc i ca electron

Wd0 max =
* Cng thc quang in

= A + Wd0 max
e U h = Wd0 max

* Hiu in th hm/in th cc i * Cng dng quang in

I=

ne .e t n p . t ne np

* Cng sut bc x chiu ti

P=
* Hiu sut quang in

H=

* ng nng electron p vo anot

WdA Wd0 max = eU AK R= mv eB

* Bn knh electron bay trong t trng u

B: cm ng t (T) m: khi lng electron

* ng nng electron p vo i catot (ng tia X)

Wd = Q +

2. QUANG PH HIDRO * Nng lng electron mc n

En =

13,6 (eV ) n2 hc mn

* Bc sng bc x khi chuyn di

Em En = hfmn = 1 1 1 = + 31 32 21
* Bn knh mc nng lng

r = n 2 r0
* Vn tc electron mc n

v=

9.10 9 e2 r.n

* Nng lng ion ho t mc n: En

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CNG THC LP 12

CHNG 7. VT L HT NHN
1. TNG QUT V HT NHN * ht khi

m = Zm p + ( A Z )mn m X

* Nng lng lin kt/Nng lng phn r

W = m.c 2 = m.931( MeV )


* Nng lng lin kt ring

w =
* S mol

W A

n=
2. PHNG X * Hng s phng x

N m = NA A

=
* Lng cn li

ln 2 0,693 = T T

N = N 0 2 t /T = N 0 e T m = m0 2 t /T = m0 e T n = n0 2 t /T = n0 e T H = H 0 2 t /T = H 0 e T
* S ht sinh ra

N = N 0 (1 2 t /T )
* T s ht mi v c sau thi gian t

= 2 t /T 1

* Khi lng cht mi

mY =
* phng x

AY m0 (1 2 t /T ) AX H = N
1 Ci = 3,7.1010 Bq 1 Bq = 1 phn r/s

* Tc phn r/chiu x

t =

N H
N: s phn r

3. PHN NG HT NHN * Bo ton s khi/in tch

At = As Zt = Z s

* Nng lng to ra/thu vo * ng nng - ng lng

W = ( mt ms ) c 2 = ( ms mt ) c 2 = Ws Wt p = mv = 2 mK pt = ps

* ng lng trong phng x

pY = p

Y: ht nhn con 15

CNG THC LP 12

PH LC MT S CNG THC THNG GP KHC


* Mi quan h gia 2 i lng cng pha, ngc pha

x1 x = 2 x01 x02
* Mi quan h gia 2 i lng cng pha, ngc pha

x1 x2 + =1 x01 x02
x1,x2: cc gi tr tc thi x01,x02: cc gi tr cc i

* Cng thc log, m

x a x b = x a +b ( x a )b = x ab eln x = x

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