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Friday, June 25, 2010

Architecture of the Near East Near East Architecture: Mesopotamian Mesopotamian Domestic Dwelling - Made up of mud brick - Has tomb inside - Protection from heat Architecture

Construction System Arctuated Materials Reeds, rushes Timber is imported Copper, tin, lead, gold, silver imported Only material readily available was clay and soil Bricks made of mud and copped straw, sundried or kiln-dried Due to lack of stone, no columns were used Usually flat Some domes Burnt brick for facing or for load bearing walls White wash was common (colored only ziggurats) Oriented with four corners towards cardinal points Arranged around large and small courts

Columns Roof and ceiling Wall Orientation

Near East Architecture: Assyrian Architecture Materials Stone and timber are available

Columns Openings
Ornamentation

Due to scarcity of stone, no columns were used Entrance gateway with monster motifs
Colossal winged bulls guarding chief portals Polychrome glazed bricks in blue, white, yellow, green bricks Decorative continuous stone used in interiors murals

Building Types

Temples Built with or without ziggurat Ziggurat usually of seven stages Palaces Palaces of Nebudchadnezzar Palace of Sargon

Near-East Architecture: Persian Architecture


Materials Stone and timber are available Due to scarcity, stone was used mostly for fire temples and palace platforms, door and window surround and ornate sculptures Persians introduced the use of columns Columns were slender and graceful Rooms could be large when necessary, with square instead of rectangular proportions

Columns

Roof and ceiling

Flat timber roofs rather than vaults

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Wall

Double mud-brick walls for stability

Orientation Corners toward cardinal points Building Types Dwellings Entrance at end rather than on the long sides Columned halls Portico - colonnaded space forming an entrance or vestibule with a roof supported on one side by columns Palaces Palace platform at persepolis

Architecture of Ancient Egypt Egyptian Architecture Background


General 3200 BC to 1 AD One of the most ancient Unified under a centralized omnipotent authority of the pharaoh (king) Architects, engineers, theoligians, masons, sculptors, painters, laborers, peasants, prisoners Weaving, glass-making, pottery, metal, jewelry and furniture Astronomy, mathematics, philosophy and music Agriculture, writing and construction Literature and history written on papyrus and stone tablets

Pharaohs Gods dwelling on earth Society

Religion

Cult of many gods representing nature: sun, moon, stars, animals Gods needed a presence and dwelling on earth to be effective Afterlife: mortuary

Architecture
Construction system Columnal and trabeated (seen in pyramids, tombs and temples)

Materials

Stone Abundant in variety and quantity For monuments and religious buildings Soft stone: limestone, sandstone, alabaster Hard stone: granite, quartite, basatt Imported metals and timber mud bricks; for houses, palaces, indigenous date palm logs, leaves, reeds, rushes Types 1. Square pillar 2. Polygonal column 3. Palm-type column 4. Bud and bell column 5. Foliated capital column 6. Hathor-headed column 7. Osiris pollars Capitals 1. Lotus, papyrus, palm 2. Bundle of stems-shaft
Flat roofs sufficed for cover and exclude heat

Columns

Roof and ceiling

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Wall

Batter wall - diminishing in width towards the top For stability Thickness: 9 to 24m at temples Unbroken massive walls, uninterrupted space for hieroglyphics No windows Skylights, roof slits, clerestories Hieroglyphics: pictorial representation of religion, history and daily life Ornaments painted on walls Solar disc and vulture with spread wings Scarab, symbol of resurrection Papyrus, lotus and palm symbolizing fertility Grapes symbolize eternity

Openings

Some Ornaments - Quadruple spiral - Continuous coil spiral - Lotus and papyrus - Rope and paterae ornament - Grape ornament - Rope and feather ornament

Building Types
Mastabas First type of Egyptian tomb From small and inconspicuous to huge and imposing Rectangular flat-topped funerary mound, with battered side, lowering a burial chamber below ground

Two doors: - One for ritual - Second false door for spirits Parts: 1. Funerary chapel 2. Serdab - offering room with stelae (stone with name of deceased inscribed) - contains statue of deceased and offering table Pyramid Complexes Buildings: Offering chapel (north or east side) Mortuary chapel Raised and enclosed causeway leading to west Valley building for embalment and internment sites Pyramids Massive funerary structure of stone or brick Square plan and four sloping triangular sides meeting at the apex Types: 1. Step 2. Bent 3. True

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Examples: Step pyramid of Zoser, Saqqara - World's first large-scale monument in stone - Changed no less than five times - Invented by Imhotep (first architect) - Was the form of royal tomb for 3rd dynasty Bent Pyramid at Seneferu Pyramids at Gizeh - Finest true pyramids - Built 4th dynasty - Equilateral sides face cardinal points Pyramids of Cleops (Khufu) Pyramids of Chephren (Khafra or Khafre) Pyramids of Mykerines (Menkaura) Rock-cut or rockhewn tombs Built along hillside For nobility, not royalty

Pylons Temples

Monumental gateway to the temple consisting of slanting walls flanking the entrance portal Where early kings can penetrate Types: 1. Mortuary temples - Worship/in honor of pharaohs - Developed from the offering chapels of mastabas 2. Cult temples - Worship/ in honor of pharaohs - Parts: a. Entrance pylon b. Large outer court open to the sky ( hypaethral court) c. Hypostyle hall d. Sanctuary surrounded by passage e. Chapels/ chambers used in connection with the temple service Example: Great temple of Abu-simbel - Example of rock-cut temple - By Rameses II - Entrance forecourt leads to imposing pylon 36m wide and 32m high - Four rock-cut colossal statues of Rameses sitting over 20m high Upright stone square in plan, with an electrum-capped pyramidion on top Usually come in pairs fronting temple entrances Height of nine or ten times the diameter at the base Four sides feature hieroglyphics
Made of crude brick One or two storey high Flat or vaulted ceilings Roof deck with parapet and loggia (gallery behind open arcade or colonnade) Columns, beams and doors, window made of timber Central hall or living room with high ceiling and clerestory Three parts: 1. Reception suite on north side 2. Service quarters 3. Private quarters

Obelisks

Dwellings

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Fortresses

Mostly found on west bound of Nile or on islands Close communications with other fortresses Example: Fortress of Buhen - Headquarters and largest fortress - Main wall: 4.8m thick and 11m high - Projecting rectangular towers for reinforcement

Egyptian Domestic Houses (Pre-historic) Peasant's houses Farmers, tomb builders and soldiers Lived in cramped villages in the vicinity of the tomb area or the fields Infront: walled-in courtyard where animals like goats and cattle were kept Sundried brick or clay daubed reed shelter one room, one door, no windows family slept in one room together with the cattle
Worker's village 1. Amama Worker's Village - For workers who built different tombs for the nobles in Achet-Aten - Whole village was surrounded by a wall 2. Nobleman's Villa

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Friday, June 25, 2010

Architecture of the Near East Near East Architecture: Mesopotamian Mesopotamian Domestic Dwelling - Made up of mud brick - Has tomb inside - Protection from heat Architecture

Construction System Arctuated Materials Reeds, rushes Timber is imported Copper, tin, lead, gold, silver imported Only material readily available was clay and soil Bricks made of mud and copped straw, sundried or kiln-dried Due to lack of stone, no columns were used Usually flat Some domes Burnt brick for facing or for load bearing walls White wash was common (colored only ziggurats) Oriented with four corners towards cardinal points Arranged around large and small courts

Columns Roof and ceiling Wall Orientation

Near East Architecture: Assyrian Architecture Materials Stone and timber are available

Columns Openings
Ornamentation

Due to scarcity of stone, no columns were used Entrance gateway with monster motifs
Colossal winged bulls guarding chief portals Polychrome glazed bricks in blue, white, yellow, green bricks Decorative continuous stone used in interiors murals

Building Types

Temples Built with or without ziggurat Ziggurat usually of seven stages Palaces Palaces of Nebudchadnezzar Palace of Sargon

Near-East Architecture: Persian Architecture


Materials Stone and timber are available Due to scarcity, stone was used mostly for fire temples and palace platforms, door and window surround and ornate sculptures Persians introduced the use of columns Columns were slender and graceful Rooms could be large when necessary, with square instead of rectangular proportions

Columns

Roof and ceiling

Flat timber roofs rather than vaults

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Wall

Double mud-brick walls for stability

Orientation Corners toward cardinal points Building Types Dwellings Entrance at end rather than on the long sides Columned halls Portico - colonnaded space forming an entrance or vestibule with a roof supported on one side by columns Palaces Palace platform at persepolis

Architecture of Ancient Egypt Egyptian Architecture Background


General 3200 BC to 1 AD One of the most ancient Unified under a centralized omnipotent authority of the pharaoh (king) Architects, engineers, theoligians, masons, sculptors, painters, laborers, peasants, prisoners Weaving, glass-making, pottery, metal, jewelry and furniture Astronomy, mathematics, philosophy and music Agriculture, writing and construction Literature and history written on papyrus and stone tablets

Pharaohs Gods dwelling on earth Society

Religion

Cult of many gods representing nature: sun, moon, stars, animals Gods needed a presence and dwelling on earth to be effective Afterlife: mortuary

Architecture
Construction system Columnal and trabeated (seen in pyramids, tombs and temples)

Materials

Stone Abundant in variety and quantity For monuments and religious buildings Soft stone: limestone, sandstone, alabaster Hard stone: granite, quartite, basatt Imported metals and timber mud bricks; for houses, palaces, indigenous date palm logs, leaves, reeds, rushes Types 1. Square pillar 2. Polygonal column 3. Palm-type column 4. Bud and bell column 5. Foliated capital column 6. Hathor-headed column 7. Osiris pollars Capitals 1. Lotus, papyrus, palm 2. Bundle of stems-shaft
Flat roofs sufficed for cover and exclude heat

Columns

Roof and ceiling

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Wall

Batter wall - diminishing in width towards the top For stability Thickness: 9 to 24m at temples Unbroken massive walls, uninterrupted space for hieroglyphics No windows Skylights, roof slits, clerestories Hieroglyphics: pictorial representation of religion, history and daily life Ornaments painted on walls Solar disc and vulture with spread wings Scarab, symbol of resurrection Papyrus, lotus and palm symbolizing fertility Grapes symbolize eternity

Openings

Some Ornaments - Quadruple spiral - Continuous coil spiral - Lotus and papyrus - Rope and paterae ornament - Grape ornament - Rope and feather ornament

Building Types
Mastabas First type of Egyptian tomb From small and inconspicuous to huge and imposing Rectangular flat-topped funerary mound, with battered side, lowering a burial chamber below ground

Two doors: - One for ritual - Second false door for spirits Parts: 1. Funerary chapel 2. Serdab - offering room with stelae (stone with name of deceased inscribed) - contains statue of deceased and offering table Pyramid Complexes Buildings: Offering chapel (north or east side) Mortuary chapel Raised and enclosed causeway leading to west Valley building for embalment and internment sites Pyramids Massive funerary structure of stone or brick Square plan and four sloping triangular sides meeting at the apex Types: 1. Step 2. Bent 3. True

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Examples: Step pyramid of Zoser, Saqqara - World's first large-scale monument in stone - Changed no less than five times - Invented by Imhotep (first architect) - Was the form of royal tomb for 3rd dynasty Bent Pyramid at Seneferu Pyramids at Gizeh - Finest true pyramids - Built 4th dynasty - Equilateral sides face cardinal points Pyramids of Cleops (Khufu) Pyramids of Chephren (Khafra or Khafre) Pyramids of Mykerines (Menkaura) Rock-cut or rockhewn tombs Built along hillside For nobility, not royalty

Pylons Temples

Monumental gateway to the temple consisting of slanting walls flanking the entrance portal Where early kings can penetrate Types: 1. Mortuary temples - Worship/in honor of pharaohs - Developed from the offering chapels of mastabas 2. Cult temples - Worship/ in honor of pharaohs - Parts: a. Entrance pylon b. Large outer court open to the sky ( hypaethral court) c. Hypostyle hall d. Sanctuary surrounded by passage e. Chapels/ chambers used in connection with the temple service Example: Great temple of Abu-simbel - Example of rock-cut temple - By Rameses II - Entrance forecourt leads to imposing pylon 36m wide and 32m high - Four rock-cut colossal statues of Rameses sitting over 20m high Upright stone square in plan, with an electrum-capped pyramidion on top Usually come in pairs fronting temple entrances Height of nine or ten times the diameter at the base Four sides feature hieroglyphics
Made of crude brick One or two storey high Flat or vaulted ceilings Roof deck with parapet and loggia (gallery behind open arcade or colonnade) Columns, beams and doors, window made of timber Central hall or living room with high ceiling and clerestory Three parts: 1. Reception suite on north side 2. Service quarters 3. Private quarters

Obelisks

Dwellings

Unit Exam II Page 9

Fortresses

Mostly found on west bound of Nile or on islands Close communications with other fortresses Example: Fortress of Buhen - Headquarters and largest fortress - Main wall: 4.8m thick and 11m high - Projecting rectangular towers for reinforcement

Egyptian Domestic Houses (Pre-historic) Peasant's houses Farmers, tomb builders and soldiers Lived in cramped villages in the vicinity of the tomb area or the fields Infront: walled-in courtyard where animals like goats and cattle were kept Sundried brick or clay daubed reed shelter one room, one door, no windows family slept in one room together with the cattle
Worker's village 1. Amama Worker's Village - For workers who built different tombs for the nobles in Achet-Aten - Whole village was surrounded by a wall 2. Nobleman's Villa

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Friday, July 09, 2010

Roman Civilization Arts and Sciences Earliest people around Rome: Etruscans - Bronze tools and weapons Poetry Horace (Odes) - Road building and the arch Virgil (Aeneid) Roman society: Ovid - Class division: upper ( patricians) and lower ( plebeians) Prose Cicero (Orations) - Slaves Drama Plautus - Struggle between classes Terence (comedies) Culture borrowed heavily from the Etruscans and the Greeks Government of Roman Republic History Livy (History of Rome) Senate Made up of patricians who passed laws Plutarch (Lives of the and controlled the Republic Romans)

Assembly

Representatives of the plebeians assisted the Senate

Science Pliny the Elder (Natural History)

Consuls (2) Highest executive officials

- Later ruled by Emperors Etruscan Earliest use of concrete - Pozzolana - Hydrated lime, aggregates and volcanic sand - Poured in between two walls of stone and brick Widespread use of true radiating arch Built city walls and sewage system Architectural Elements Classical Orders Tuscan Order Simplified version of Doric order 7 diameters high Base, unfluted shaft, simple capital, plain entablature Settlement Design Centuriae - Squares of 728 meters meant to be divided into 100 lots Used in conquering and settling areas Forum, basilica and temple were then sited

Vault

Barrel Vault Formed by a series of arches

Cross or Formed by intersecting two Groin Vault barrel vaults


Composite Order Combines volutes of Ionic with acanthus leaves of Corinthian Unfluted shaft

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Arch

Building Types Aqueduct


Basilica Temple

Water supply system used to channel water from far-off source to Roman cities
Meeting place for Roman citizens Exchange for merchants and court of justice

Therma

Public bath Major building type for socialization Activities included exercise and swimming Spaces
Tepidarium Warm water area

Walls

Frigidarium Opus Incertum Small stones, loose pattern Calidarium

Cold water area Hot water area

Laconicum or Steam room Sudatorium Apodyterium Changing room

Unctuarium or Alipterion Palaestra Opus Quadratum Rectangular blocks, with or without mortar joints Theater

Oil room Exercise area

Hypocaust - heating system

Similar to ancient Greek theatron Used for theatrical performances Orchestra Open semi-circular area
Auditorium Seating area

Opus Reticulatum

Net-like effect, with fine joints running diagonally

Ampitheater Used for spectator sports Circular theater Has underground chambers for equipment, gladiators, animals, etc. Circus For horse and chariot races Equestrian shows Staged battles Performances of trained animals, jugglers and acrobats
Types 1. Coemeteria - Columbaria - Loculi 2. Pyramidal tombs 3. Temple-shaped tombs 4. Sculptured memorials

Tombs

Dome Hemispherical vault resting on a circular base wall

Palaces Arches Types 1. Those forming part of protective wall circuit 2. Ornamental portals to forums, marketplaces, other large enclosures 3. Arches built at intersections of main columnaded streets

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Dwellings Domus Single detached residential structure

1 Fauces
2 Tabernae

Entrance passage
Shops

3 Atrium 4 Impluvium
5 Tablinium 6 Hortus

Hall Rainwater basin


Passage room Garden

7 Triclinium 8 Alae
9 Cubiculum

Dining room Side rooms


Bedroom

Atrium

An apartment in a Roman house Forming an entrance hall or court The roof open to the sky in the center A quadrangular opening in the atrium towards which the roof sloped so as to throw rain water into a shallow cistern ( impluvium) in the floor A porch or vestibule in front of the door of the house

Compluvium Prothyrum

Tablinum Fauces Triclinium


Cubiculum Oecus Culina

A study, contained family records and family statues situated at the end of the atrium farthest from the main entrance The passageway from the street to the atrium A dining room with couches on three sides
A bedroom Sometimes used in a less specific sense to denote other rooms Main room Successor of the megaron Kitchen

Insulae Apartment house for plebeians Ground floor was used by tabernas (single room shops) Upper floors sometimes had running water, lavatories and toilets

Villa
Patrician country house

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Friday, July 16, 2010

Pre-Columbian Region

Mesoamerica

Includes the present countries of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica Among the important civilizations to develop in the region were the Olmec, Zapotec, Maya and Aztec
Includes the present countries of Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Paraguay, Bolvia and Argentina Among the important civilizations to develop in the region were teh Chavin, Moche and Incas

Central Andes

Peripheral Area Includes the present countries in the Carribean Area and Amazonian Basin Mesoamerica Cultural Background System of government, scientific knowledge and artistic forms Hieroglyphic writing systems, advanced studies of astronomy, and a highly complex and accurate calendar Religious beliefs and practices shared throughout the region featured common deities, ancestor worship, and human sacrifice Architectural features included large, terraced temple platforms and ball courts where teams competed at games of religious significance Villages Small communities containing about a dozen houses made of wattle and daub (interwoven sticks and twigs covered with clay) With outdoor cooking sheds, work areas and storage pits

Villages of chiefs Greater in size and importance than other settlements Possibly housing more than 1000 residents Became centers of political and economic activity Religious centers Had more elaborate ceremonial sites such as temple mounds and sacred enclosures than other villages Five Major Stages
Paleo-Indian (before 8000 BC) Nomadic hunter-gatherer groups Ancestors had migrated from Asia

Archaic (8000 - 2000BC) Pre-classical or Formative (2000BC - 200AD) Classic or Florescent (2000 AD - 900 AD)

Permanent villages agriculture as principal means of subsistence Chiefdoms and small kingdoms Intense farming Populations were divided into commoners and an elite class Development of complex empires Ruled by priests Peaceful times but powerful armies were present (warlike societies) Conquest and extensive trading
Frequent wars due to increased population and technological development Spanish armies conquered in early 1500s

Post-classic (900 AD - 1521)

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Major Civilizations

Olmec

The "mother culture" Built large centers in the jungles of Veracruz and Tabasco near the Gulf of Mexico where political and religious ceremonies were held Among the most notable monuments are colossal heads carved from basalt, weighing 25 metric tons or more, that depict Olmec rulers Other monuments include altars made of stone The Olmec and other societies of the period developed a calendar, an astronomical system and a primitive writing system City-states with a common culture Artistic forms, scientific knowledge, and monumental architecture Enormous temple platforms, spacious plazas built to reflect the power/authority of the Maya rulers Built large ceremonial complexes, giant stone pyramids topped with temples Also constructed palaces, large plazas, astronomical observatories, ball courts for the sacred ball games played throughout Mesoamerica Founded in the highlands of Central Mexico Became the most powerful civilization in Central Mexico A sacred site, filled with religious murals and sculptures Had central market place "Ciudadela" Elite class lived in luxurious walled compounds Became one of the largest cities in the world, with an estimated population of 125 000 Centered around the street of the Street of the Dead , a broad avenue that formed the city's main north-south axis Along the Street of the Dead were the temples known as the Pyramid of the Sun and the Pyramid of the Moon, along with about 75 other temples
Built the first city of the Americas Built on the flattened top of a mountain in the center of the valley of Oaxaca which became the Zapotec capital Urban centers included Monte Alban, Mitla, etc. Elite class lived in or near the main plaza Commoners lived on residential terraces that surrounded the plaza on the slopes of the mountain War was an important element of the Zapotec economy and political system and was commemorated in Monte Alban's art and architecture An arrowhead-shaped building located in the city's main plaza contained more than 40 carved inscriptions that commemorated the conquest of other societies

Maya

Teotihuacan

Zapotec

Toltec

Formed a vast trade network that extended from what is now the southwestern United States to lower Central America Militaristic people, capital in Tula Their influence in art and architecture was evident throughout Mesoamerica, art and sculpture inspired fear Established a state that was smaller and more secular than Teotihuacan and other Classic-period civilizations
Also known as Mexica (where the name Mexico was derived) Built the last and most powerful empire in Mesoamerica Built an elaborate capital, Tenochtitlan, which was one of the largest cities in the world at the time Tenochtitlan , the center of the empire, was a huge city of temples, palaces, "chinampas" Language, legends and art forms continue to influence present-day Mexican culture (produced Codices)

Aztec

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Central Andes Cultural Background Advanced acoustic understanding Built with white granite and black limestone Knowledge in metallurgy, soldering and temperature control Early techniques in use of beautiful, artistic gold Melting of metal had been discovered and was used as a solder Domesticated animals (llamas) and cultivated potatoes, quinoa (grain-like crop, seeds) and developed irrigation system Religion: feline theme, few deities Main deity is characterized by long fangs and long hair made out of snakes. This is the god that is believed to be responsible for balancing opposing forces Themes of the deities are present in the ceramics, metal work, textiles and architectural sculptures
Four Major Stages

Pre-Ceramic (2500 BC - 1200 BC) Pre-Classic (1200 - 200 BC) Classic (200 BC - 1000 AD) Post-Classic (1000 AD - 1529 AD) Major Civilizations

Monumental ceremonial mounds Stylized geometric motifs Residential complexes of clay and stone Metalworking developed Fine pottery Rectilinear stella

Las Haldas El Paraido Chavin Paracas

Ceremonial administrative site, sculptural realism and Moche narrative drawing, auster urban complexes, fine textile work Nazca Development of highland cities Inca Chimu

Chavin Developed in the Northern Andean highlands The most well-known archaeological ruin of the Chavin era is Chavin de Huantar Advanced acoustic understanding. During the rainy season water would rush through the canals creating a roaring sound. This would make the temple appear to be roaring like a jaguar. Built with white granite and black limestone

Moche Developed in the Northern Peru The most wekk-known archaeological ruin of the Moche era are the Huaca del Sol and Huaca de Luna Colorful murals with complex iconography Built with adobe brick
Inca Developed in the Southern Peru Code of Laws/ advanced system of government The most well-known archaeological ruin of the Inca empire is Machu Picchu Monumental architecture, complex engineering. Stone temples without using mortars. Extensive road system: two main roads the length of the country. Royal Road went through highlands (3 250 miles) Coastal Road (2 520 miles)

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Summary Architectural Character Much pre-Columbian art and architecture is involved with astronomy, which helped the Native Americans determine appropriate times for panting and times for harvesting Two types of urban design were developed: 1. The ceremonial center 2. The true cities Both ceremonial complexes and true cities served as centers for religion, government and commerce The earliest pre-Columbian buildings were constructed from wood, bundled reeds, fiber matting or thatch, and other perishable materials Stone or adobe (sun-dried mud) Use of post-and-lintel or trabeated (horizontal-beam, archless) system, the corbeled, or false arch, "talud-tablero" or slope and panel style Stone rather than metal tools were used, and human labor (built on earth platforms) Some pyramids more akin to the ziggurats of Mesopotamia The pre-Columbian pyramid was once regarded as different from its Egyptian counterpart because it was intended not as a burial structure but as the residence of a deity Pyramids were also used for military defense In order to make them more monumental or reflect favorably on the current ruler, many Mesoamerican pyramids were periodically rebuilt over a pre -existing structure Many pyramids have nine basic stages, as nine was a sacred number for the Amerindians Some feature four flights of stairs, in perfect symmetry, sweep up the four sides of the pyramid Others feature the steps in an arrangement of a series of shallow flights of stairs Most pre-Columbian temples had layers of brightly colored plaster and in some cases murals were painted on this background of burned limestone

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Friday, July 23, 2010

Early Christian Architecture Highly-influenced by Roman art and architecture Merely adaptive, not really a distinct architecture in itself Roof and Ceiling Simple timber roof trusses Vaulted or domed Ornamentation Fine sculptures and mosaics worked into new basilicas Mosaic in interiors Paid little regard to external architectural effect Basilican Churches Roman basilicas as models Usually erected over the burial place of the saint to whom it was dedicated Unlike Greek and Roman temples which were created to shelter the gods, the purpose of the Christian church was to shelter worshippers Parts

Choir

Aisle

Nave

Atrium

Ambulatory

Atrium Or open forecourt surrounded by arcades Narthex Covered area for penitents
Nave Lighted by a clerestory of small windows

Aisles (side) Half-width of nave Altar Under baldachino


Apse (sanctuary) Lined with marble slabs Bema Raised stage for clergy

Choir Enclosed by cancelli or low screen walls Ambo Pulpit on either side of choir from which the gospel is read

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Baptisteries Large separate building from church, sometimes adjoined atrium Used only for sacrament of baptism, on festivals of Easter, Pentecost and Epiphany Occasionally used old Roman circular temples and tombs, enlarged by surrounding it with a single-storey aisle enclosed by an outer wall supporting a lower roof Tombs Christians objected to cremation, insisted on burial on consecrated ground Monumental tombs as expression of faith in immortality Usually domed and enriched with lavish mosaic decorations Byzantine Architecture Dome Prevailing motif of Byzantine architecture First buildings constructed were churches Byzantine is still official style for Orthodox church Columns Roman Ionic, Corinthian, Composite used Derived new cubiform capital, shaped to form a transition from square abacus to circular shaft topped with a dosseret block Construction System Fusion of domical construction with classical columnar style Semi-circular arches rest directly on columns, with capitals able to support springing of arches Domes of various types placed over square compartments using pendentives or over octagonal openings using squinches

Pendentive
Types of Domes

Squinch

Simple
Compound

Pendentives and domes are of the same sphere


Done of separate sphere, rises independently over sphere of pendentives Dome raised on high drum pierced with windows

Special designs Melon dome Serrated dome Onion dome

Compound

Simple

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Examples 1. S. Sophia, Constantinople Known as the Hagia Sophia or 'divine wisdom' Built by Justinian Designed by Anthemius or Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus Most significant church in the Byzantine Empire Central space: 32.6m square Dome on top: 32.6m in diameter and 54.8m above ground 2. Cathedral of St. Basil, Moscow 3. Basilica di San Marco, Venice Central dome: 12.8m in diameter Dome over each arm of church cross

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