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Architecture on Ancient Near East writing systems

Abstract Architectural terms are deployed as hieroglyphs on Ancient Near East writing systems. The hieroglyphs occur on Indus Writing and on many pictorial motifs of Mesopotamian cylinder seals and Ancient Near East artifacts. The glyphs relate in rebus readings to glosses of Meluhha (Mleccha) language words. These glosses have cognates in Indian sprachbund . Many inscriptions of Ancient Near East are thus catalogs of stone

mason/lapidary-smithy work. The scarf is carried as a standard on a Mohenjo-daro seal, together with two other standards: young bull with one-horn and standard device normally shown in front of this young bull. The three standards denote: dhatu, scarf, mineral; knda, young bull, engraver; and sangaa/sangara lathe/portable furnace, fortification. Executive summary Reconstructed facade of the NeoSumerian Great Ziggurat of Ur, near Nasiriyah, Iraq, 4th millennium BCE. Select rebus Meluhha readings of Indus Writing indicate use of architectural terms: knda is engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems, sangatarsu is a stone-cutter, and kolle is a blacksmith. ko, is a store-house,
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kohgra , sangara is a stone fortification, and kole.l is a smithy, temple. That a


smithy should be called a temple holds the clue for early gestalt on dhytmik enquiries which got documented and recorded ca. in the 4th millennium of the Bronze Age. The pair of scarves on Warka vase are read rebus: sangaa pair, rebus:

s g m. frame of a building ; sangara fortification; k

m. the stalk or

stem of a reed, grass, or the like, straw, rebus: k stone; kh blob atop standard rebus: kh metal alloy; dhatu scarf, rebus: dhatu mineral. Thus, the pair of scarved reeds describes a stone fortification (to store) metal alloys, minerals. sangaa is also an allograph, shown as a standard device of a lathe and portable furnace in front of a young bull with one-horn knda, engraver. The standard of two scarved reeds may refer to the temple of a tamkru merchant; hkur smith. A temple could have been a

dhatugarbha, dagoba evidenced as monumental structures of ziggurats in Uruk or as


shown on Sumers Sit-shamshi bronze for morning prayer to the Sun or stupa of Mohenjo-daro. A note on Afghan sangar fortification; sangar-bar stone cutter Glyph: sangaa lathe, portable furnace Rebus: sangar a temporary fortified breastwork of stones. The word was linked to sang stone. The term as understood by the British Army was meant to be a protected sentry post, normally located around the perimeter of a base. Its main function is to provide early warning of enemy/terrorist activity/attack in order to protect forces both within the base and those deployed within sight of the sangar. It is an observation post to collect information. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sangar_(fortification) Sangar from the Western Sahara conflict overlooking the Grart Chwchia, and probably dating from the 1980s. Al Gada, Western Sahara. Pushto language: sang-bar or sang-

tars, s.m. (5th) A stone cutter. Pl. sang barn or tarsn.


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S sangar, s.m. (2nd) A breastwork of stones, etc., erected to close a pass or road; lines, entrenchments. Pl. sangarnah. See P sang, s.m. (9th) A stone, weight. Sing. and Pl. (used in composition). sang-i-aswad, The name of a black stone at Makka. sang dil, adj. Hardhearted, stony-hearted, cruel, obdurate, severe; (Fem.) sang dilah. sang-dil, s.f. (3rd) Hard-heartedness, cruelty. Pl. a. sang-rezah, s.f. (3rd) Gravel, pebble. Pl. ey. sang-rez, s.f. (3rd) Flinging or throwing stones. Pl. a, sang-i-sam, Porphyry. sang-sr, s.m. (6th) Stoning to death. Sing. and Pl. sangsr kawul, verb trans. To stone to death. sang-i-masnah, The stone, the gravel. sang-i-marmar, s.m. (6th) Marble. Sing. and Pl. See P sangn, adj. Weighty, heavy, of stone, stony, solid, thick; (Fem.) sangnah. sangn dil, adj. Hard-hearted; (Fem.) sangn dilah. Smithy, lapidary workshop The store-room or warehouse is denoted by the hieroglyph (Glyph 244) with three platforms to hold stone ware, metalware, weapons, tools, pots and pans. The word for this glyph: ko The name of the Dholavira village is koTDa. Sign 244 and variants could be a representation of a warehouse. See the photos of a number of warehouses in Harappa; and of what is called a "granary room" in Mohenjodaro. These structures compare with the Sign 244. These structural remains have also been interpreted by many archaeologists as a granary.

Slide 11. The so-called "Great Granary" in Mound F at Harappa. Its earliest levels date to 2450 B.C. A similar structure, also about 50 meters long and built on a massive brick or mudbrick platform, was found at Mohenjo-daro. Influenced by European precedents, early archaeologists quickly identified the buildings as granaries. At Harappa, two sets of 6 rooms are aligned on either side of a central passageway. (www.harappa.com) At Mohenjo-daro evidence for wooden sockets in various areas suggests that a large wooden superstructure once covered these buildings. Hence, some call these structures 'great halls'. If so, the structures could be compared with kohgra with three partitions, depicted on Sohgaura copper plate . Evidence for the types of pillars shown on Sohgaura copper plate comesfrom a number of tablets with Indus writing. One reconstruction suggested by this author is that three stone pillars would have been erected on each of the three platforms on either side of the granaryto create a covered area with three platforms to hold the inventory of stoneware and metalware. m1409At m1409Bt Ring-stones stacked on a pillar; the motif is carved in high relief on the reverse side of the inscribed object. The text of the inscription on one side of many tablets, read rebus: ko, storehouse, kohgra + kaa kanka rim of jar (Santali) Rebus: kaa furnace, fire-altar (Santali); khanaka miner karaka scribe (Skt.) karaa business + [mh ] A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl (Marathi) Rebus:

me iron.
On the obverse of the tablets, the image of ringstones or coping stones assembled on a
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pillar (possibly wooden pillar) is depicted. This reads rebus: mehi pillar Rebus: me iron. Polished stone pillars comparable to the image on the tablets have been found in Dholavira: Ring-stones around a pillar with coping stones in a buildingstructure as at Dholavira.

Evidence of Indus writing in bas-relief, on 7 tablets showing architectural members of copingstones assembled on wooden pillars to provide for a building structure to hold a roof.

m0457At

m0457Bt

m0457Et

m0458At

m0458Bt

3227

m0459At

m0459Bt

3225

m0460At 73

m0460Bt

3228

m0461At

m0461Bt

2806 Pict-

m0462At

m0462Bt

3215
5

m0463At

m0463Bt

2813 The following 33 tablets of Indus writing corpora show comparable copingstone assemblages on pillars mounted on a standard device. Obverse of the tablets show a tree on a platform:

h1779A

h1779B

h1780A

h1780B

h1781A

h1781

h1782A

h1783A
6

h1783B

h178

5A

h1785B

h1786A

h1786B

h17

87A

h1787B

h1788A

h1788B

h1

791A

h1791B

h1792A

h1792B

h736At

h736Bt

h737At

h737Bt

h738At

h738Bt

h739At

h739Bt

h191A

h191B

4332

h192A

h192B

5340

h193A

h193B

5332

h194A

h194B

h195A

h195B

m1407At

m1407Bt

m1408At

m1410At

m1410Bt

m1411At

m1411Bt

m1412At

m1412Bt

m1413At

m1413Bt

m1414At

m1414Bt

The following 28 tablets in bas relief also have an identical Indus Writing inscription on the reverse with a one-horned bull shown on the obverse. The first glyph of the inscription is an arched roof atop a pillar with ring-stones.

h252A h253B 5214 h256A

h252B 5219 h255A h256B


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5215 h254A h255B 5213 5208 h257A

h253A h254B

h257B h258B 5218 h261 4315

5216 5217 h260A 5212 h262

h258A h259A h260B 5220h263 5262 h264 h259B

5207, 5208, 5209, 5210, 5212, 5213, 5214,5215, 5216,

5217, 5218,5219, 5220, 5262 h252, h253, h255, h256, h257, h258, h259, h260,h261, h262, h263, h264, h265, h276, h277, h859, h860, h861, h862,h863, h864, h865, h866,h867, h868, 869, 870 One-horned bull. koiyum heifer (G.) [ kiya ] ke, kiya. [Tel.] n. A bullcalf. . k* A young bull. Plumpness, prime. . a pair of bullocks. ke adj. Young. ke-ku. n. A young man.. [ kruke ] kru-ke. [Tel.] n. A bull in its prime. [ kha ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi) [ gda ] gda. [Tel.] n. An ox. A beast. kine, cattle.(Telugu) koiyum (G.) Rebus: ko artisans workshop (Kuwi). sango a lathe (G.); aghai = a pot for holding fire (G.) sangatarsu stone-cutter (Telugu). sang 2 m. a stone (Rm. 199, 143, 1412; YZ. 557). Marathi. [ sagna ] a ( P) Built or made of stone. sang--sr - mengro should, thus, mean stone artisan. The inscription is read rebus: mehi pillar (of) ko, store-house,

kohgra + tagara tabernae montana, tin + sal splinter, workshop +


Fish + scales, aya s fish + scales, Rebus: ayo amu metallic stalks of stone ore +

kha arrow, Rebus: tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware. Thus, the entire
inscription describes the stone mint/workshop for tin metal, of the stone mason who has

a storehouse, metallic nodules of stone ore (to make) tools, pots and pans and metalware. The hieroglyphs on the tablets m0478, m0479 and m0480 describe the work carried out

at a lapidary/smithy workshop. m0478A (Three identical tablets were found: m0478, m0479, m0480). [ mh ] A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl (Marathi) Rebus: me iron. Kneeling adorant holding pot in front of a tree. bahu large pot, furnace, kuhi tree, smelter (for) baran alloy of copper, zinc and tin) Thus, the hieroglyphs on either side of the text refer to the smithy at work on 1. Iron and 2. Alloy of copper, zinc and tin. The text of inscription: 1. dul k ko Workshop for stone and cast metal; 2. kasa bronze; 3. khaa bahu fire-altar, furnace (for baa iron)

gaa four (Santali). kaa fire-altar, furnace (Santali). khaa tools, pots and pans
and metal-ware k 2 a man's length, the stature of a man (as a measure of length) Rebus: k

stone. Ga. (Oll.) kan, (S.) kanu (pl. kankil) stone. dula two, pair Rebus: dul cast (metal). koa one Rebus: ko artisans workshop (Kuwi). Thus, the circumscribed measure of mans stature glyph composition denotes: workshop for stone and cast metal. G. k gs f. comb Bshk. kg comb , Gaw. khg, Sv. khgi, Phal. khygia,

kg f., kga combing -- Rebus: kasa= bronze (Te.) k sri pewterer (Bengali)
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k sr; H. kasr m. maker of brass pots (Or.) bre, brae = an offering of food to a demon; a meal after fasting, a breakfast (Tu.) barada, barda, birada = a vow (G.lex.) Rebus: baran, bharat (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin)(P.B.) S. bahu m. large pot in which grain is parched, Rebus; bhah m. kiln (P.) baa = a kind of iron (G.) bhaa furnace (G.) baa = kiln (Santali); baa = a kind of iron (G.) bhaha -- m.n. gridiron (Pkt.) bahu large cooking fire bah f. distilling furnace; L. bhah m. grainparcher's oven, bhah f. kiln, distillery, aw. bhah; P. bhah m., h f. furnace, bhah m. kiln; S. bhah ke distil (spirits). (CDIAL 9656) kuhi kua, kui, kuha a tree (Kaus.); kua tree (Pkt.); ku tree; kaek tree, oak (Pas;.)(CDIAL 3228). Kuha, kua (Ka.), kudal (Go.) kudar. (Go.) kuhra, kuha, kuaka = a tree (Skt.lex.) ku, kurun: = stump of a tree (Bond.a); khu = id. (Or.) kua, kuha = a tree (Ka.lex.) Rebus: kuhi smelter furnace (Santali) ku f. fireplace (Hindi); krvI f. granary (Wpah.); ku, kuo house, building(Ku.)(CDIAL 3232) kui hut made of boughs (Skt.) gui temple (Telugu) kui, smelting furnace (Mundari.lex.).kuhi, kui (Or.; Sad. Kohi) (1) the smelting furnace of the blacksmith; kuire bica duljako talkena, they were feeding the furnace with ore; (2) the name of kui has been given to the fire which, in lac factories, warms the water bath for softening the lac so that it can be spread into sheets; to make a smelting furnace; kut.hi-o of a smelting furnace, to be made; the smelting furnace of the blacksmith is made of mud, cone-shaped, 2 6 dia. At the base and 1 6 at the top. The hole in the center, into which the mixture of charcoal and iron ore is poured, is about 6 to 7 in dia. At the base it has two holes, a smaller one into which the nozzle of the bellow is inserted, as seen in fig. 1, and a larger one on the opposite side through which the molten iron flows out into a cavity (Mundari) m0478B On this side of the tablet, lid glyph is ligatued to a rim-of-jar glyph.

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kaa kanka rim of jar (Santali) kaa furnace, fire-altar (Santali); khanaka miner karaka scribe (Skt.) karaa business. aren, aaren
cover, lid (Santali); rebus: aduru native metal (Ka.) Thus the composite hieroglyph connotes -- business (of working with) aduru native metal. Other glyphs of the tablet read rebus: kola tiger, jackal (Kon.) Rebus: kol working in iron, blacksmith, alloy of five metals, pacaloha (Tamil) kol furnace, forge (Kuwi) kolami smithy (Te.) erg a = act of clearing jungle (Kui) [Note image showing two men carrying uprooted trees]. Rebus: eraka copper. Glyph oppositon: *mtha opposing, quarrelling with . [mith] Pa. mdhaka -- , aga -m. quarrel, abuse ; L. m h m. accusation, reproach . (CDIAL 10314) mamu. A fight, battle, battle. , .

mdamu-pousu. v. n. To fight a
a cock fight. [ mricu ] mnrinsu. [Tel.] v.

a. To divide, cut, sever;

. (Telugu) Rebus: mht iron; mht icena the iron is

rusty; ispat mht steel, dul mht cast iron; mht khaa iron implements (Santali) me. (Ho.)(Santali.lex.Bodding) meed, med, md iron; enga meed soft iron;

sani meed hard iron; ispt meed steel; dul meed cast iron; i meed rusty iron, also
the iron of which weights are cast; bica meed iron extracted from stone ore; bali meed iron extracted from sand ore (Munda) meed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Munda) bica meed iron extracted from stone ore; bali meed iron extracted from sand ore (Munda) kuire bica duljako talkena, they were feeding the furnace with ore (Santali) samr.obica,

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stones containing gold (Mundari) pasra meed, pasra meed = syn. of koe meed = forged iron, in contrast to dul meed, cast iron (Mundari) This glyptic composition depicting the act of clearing jungle may be a phonetic determinant for the person seated on the tree branch and the glyph of a woman pushing them apart: eraka, hero = a messenger; a spy (G.lex.) heraka = spy (Skt.); er to look at or for (Pkt.); er uk- to play 'peeping tom' (Ko.) Rebus: eraka copper (Ka.) [ klh ] [ klh ] A jackal (Marathi) kul tiger (Santali); klu id. (Te.) klupuli

= Bengal tiger (Te.) Pk. kolhuya -- , kulha m. jackal Rebus: kol furnace, forge (Kuwi) kol alloy of five metals, pacaloha (Tamil) Rebus: kol working in iron, blacksmith (Ta.); kollan- blacksmith (Ta.); kollan blacksmith, artificer (Ma.)(DEDR 2133) kolme = furnace (Ka.) kole.l 'temple, smithy' (Ko.); kolme smithy' (Ka.) kol = pacaloha (five metals); kol metal (Ta.lex.) pacaloha = a metallic alloy containing five metals: copper, brass, tin, lead and iron (Skt.); an alternative list of five metals: gold, silver, copper, tin (lead), and iron (dhtu;Nnrtharatnkara 82; Mangarjas Nighau. 498)(Ka.) kol, kolhe, the koles, an aboriginal tribe if iron smelters speaking a language akin to that of Santals (Santali)

M h face Rebus: m he ingot (Mu.) kolhe tehen me~he~tko mh akata = the Kolhes
have to-day produced pig iron (Santali.lex.) Hieroglyphs read rebus in Meluhha language m0308 seal is a standard of Mohenjo-daro. It is a catalog of lapidary/smith work. Glyph: ta power to resist. (Brahui)(DEDR 3031) Rebus: dhatu mineral (Santali) One-eyed glyph: ka one-eyed; rebus: ka metal (stone ore); bhaa six (hairknots); rebus: bhaa furnace. Slide 90 harappa.com (oneeye glyph) kola tiger. kola woman (Nahali. Assamese). Rehus: kola blacksmith (Ka.); Ko. koll blacksmith (DEDR 2133). pan ar ladder,
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stairs (Bshk.)(CDIAL 7760) Rebus: pasra smithy (Santali) mh forked post Rebus:

me iron. Rebus: meh merchants helper (Gujarati) sal splinter Rebus: sal house,
workshop. ayask fish, arrow Rebs: metal tools, weapons, pots and pons. Mudhif (Toda Mund) Sumerian mudhif structure Sumerian Reed-houses. Clay plaque. Uruk. Sumer. 4000 BCE. Sumerian mudhif faade, with uncut reed fronds and sheep entering, carved into a gypsum trough from Uruk, c. 3200 BCE. British Museum.Two lambs exit a reed structure identifical to the present-day mudhif

on this ceremonial trough from the site of Uruk in southern Iraq. Neither the leaves or plumes have been removed from the reeds which are tied together to form the arch. As a result, the cross-over, feathered reeds create a decorative pattern along the length of the roof, a style most often seen in modern animal shelters built by Midan. Dating to ca. 3000 BCE, the trough documents the extraordinary length of time such arched reed buildings have been in use. (After Fig. 5.b in Expedition, 40(2): 29-39, 1998.)

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Cylinder seal and impressions: cattle herd at the cowshed. White limestone, Mesopotamia, Uruk Period (4100 BC3000 BCE). A 25 (Klq 17) Louvre Cattle Byres c.3200-3000 B.C. Late Uruk-Jemdet Nasr period. Magnesite. Cylinder seal. In the lower field of this seal appear three reed cattle byres. Each byre is surmounted by three reed pillars topped by rings, a motif that has been suggested as symbolizing a male god, perhaps Dumuzi. Within the huts calves or vessels appear alternately; from the sides come calves that drink out of a vessel between them. Above each pair of animals another small calf appears. A herd of enormous cattle moves in the upper field. Cattle and cattle byres in Southern Mesopotamia, c. 3500 BCE. Drawing of an impression from a Uruk period cylinder seal. (After Moorey, PRS, 1999, Ancient materials and industries: the archaeological evidence, Eisenbrauns. I suggest that the pair of reed glyphs with scarfs on the Uruk stone vessel carved in alabaster stone denote: dhatu eruva mineral copper. It is a narrative relief sculpture, dated to c. 3,2003,000 BCE. A thousand Sumerian economic texts were found in Uruk (Warka) which are the most ancient script documents of the world (Werner Ekschmitt). The other two glyphic pairs: goat + eight-petaled flower: milakkhu ara hako copper, large metal ingot (G.) Eight petals (daa) denote 8 parts of copper alloyed with one part
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arsenic, daa to create the brass alloy. are eight (Mu.). Rebus: ara copper. dula pair. Rebus: dul cast (metal). The document reads: dhatu eruva milakkhu dul ara hako

mineral copper smelter copper, cast copper (metal) ingot.


Glyph: reed: Ta. eruvai European bamboo reed. Rebus: eruvai copper (Tamil). Glyph: dhau scarf (WPah.). Rebus: dhatu mineral (Santali). Glyph: ``^flower'':Sa. baha `flower, blossom, to flower'.Mu. tarai-ba(A) `a kind of marsh-flower'. ~ baa(H) ~ baha(N) `flower, blossom, to flower'.Ho ba `flower, blossom, to flower'.Bh. baha `flower, blossom, to flower'. KW

baha|Cf. So. ba'a `to blossom'.@(V021,M111)


Rebus:``^make'':Sa. bai `to make'.Mu. bai `to make'.KW bai @(M100) Glyph: melh, mreka goat; rebus: meh merchants clerk (Pkt.) milakkhu copper (Pali) dhau scarf; rebus: dhatu mineral (Santali) dhtu mineral (Pali) dhtu mineral (Vedic); a mineral, metal (Santali); dhta id. (G.) H. dhn to send out, pour out, cast (metal) (CDIAL 6771). The petals glyphic element may relate to an alloying mineral, arsenic. Representing arsenic in Indian hieroglyphs. Possible allographs: Glyph: petal: part, [daamu] daamu. [Skt.] n. A leaf. . A petal. A

. dala n. leaf, petal MBh. Pa. Pk. dala -- n. leaf, petal , G.

M. da n.(CDIAL 6214). <DaLO>(MP) {N} ``^branch, ^twig''. *Kh.<DaoRa>(D) `dry leaves when fallen', ~<daura>, ~<dauRa> `twig', Sa.<DAr>, Mu.<Dar>, ~<Dara> `big branch of a tree', ~<DauRa> `a twig or small branch with fresh leaves on it', So.<kOnda:ra:-n> `branch', H.<DalA>, B.<DalO>, O.<DaLO>, Pk.<DAlA>. %7811. #7741.(Munda etyma)

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Glyph: Ta. Tu. koi flag; Ka. kui top, flag, banner; gui point, flag, banner (DEDR 2049). Rebus 1: kuikai hut made of leaves, temple; Ko. guy temple; To. kuy Hindu temple; Ka.Te.Pa.Ga. gui house, temple; Go. gui, (Mu.) gui, (S. Ko.) gui temple (DEDR 1655). Rebus 2: ko artisans workshop (Kuwi.G.) kole.l 'temple' (Kota.) Rebus: kole.l 'smithy' (Kota) Ta. eruvai European bamboo reed. Rebus: eruvai copper (Tamil).The Toda mund (Iraqi mudhif) is decorated with bamboo reed. Hence, the hieroglyphic composition denotes a copper smithy or metals workshop. The rebus reading of the pair of reeds in Sumer standard is: Glyph: k 2 section, part in general; a cluster, bundle, multitude (iv. 32). k 1 m. a m. the

stalk or stem of a reed, grass, or the like, straw. In the compound with dan 5 (p. 221a, l. 13) the word is spelt k (Kashmiri). Rebus: khna tools, pots and pans and metalware. [ lkha ] a ( ) Composed of iron; relating to iron.

S.knu m. reed , n f. topmost joint of the reed Sara, reed pen, stalk, straw, porcupine's quill ; L. kn m. stalk of the reed Sara , n f. pen, small spear ; P. knn m. the reed Saccharum munja, reed in a weaver's warp Or. ka, k stalk, arrow ; Bi. k stem of muja grass (used for thatching) ; Bhoj. ka reeds ; H. ka m. reed, bush ( EP.?); G.k m. joint, bough, arrow (CDIAL 3023). kra armed with arrows P., m. archer lex. [ka-- ]H. kanr m. a caste (usu. of arrow -- makers) (CDIAL 3026) L. kanr m. mat -maker H. k er m. a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers . (CDIAL 3024). M. k n. f. straw ,k f. little stick, blade of grass (CDIAL 3017). Vikalpa: B. khg, khg reed for pens , Or. khaga the reed Saccharum spontaneum . Allograph: Pk. khaggi -- rhinoceros .(CDIAL 3786). Rebus: k gar portable brazier (Kashmiri)
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Allograph: maize.

[ kae ] kae. [Tel.] n. A head or ear of millet or . Mth. k stack of stalks of large millet (CDIAL 3026).

Rebus: k stone. Ga. (Oll.) kan, (S.) kanu (pl. kankil) stone (DEDR 1298). Pa. kaa -- m.n. joint of stalk, lump. A rock, stone. kha m. rock lex. [Cf. knta - 2 m. stone lex.]Bshk. kr large stone AO xviii 239.(CDIAL 3018). pasaramu, pasalamu = quadrupeds (Telugu); pasra smithy, forge (Santali) Glyph: [kaa] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) go = the place where cattle are collected at mid-day (Santali); goh (Brj.)(CDIAL 4336). Goha (Skt.); cattle-shed (Or.) ko = a cow-pen; a cattlepen; a byre (G.) or fold for cattle. [ gh ] f C (Dim. Of cattle-shed (Marathi) ) A pen or fold for calves. [ k ] A pen

(Marathi) Allograph: kohaka1 (nt.) a kind of koha, the stronghold over a gateway, used as a store room for various things, a chamber, treasury, granary Vin ii.153, 210; for the purpose of keeping water in it Vin ii.121=142; 220; treasury J i.230; ii.168; -store room J ii.246; kothake pturahosi appeared at the gateway, i. e. arrived at the mansion Vin i.291. (Pali) ku, kuo house, building(Ku.)(CDIAL 3232) ( [ kh ] f

S) A granary, garner, storehouse, warehouse, treasury, factory, bank. The grain and provisions (as of an army); the commissariat
. [ khy ]

(Marathi) supplies. Ex. (

[ kh ] m

S) A large granary, store-room, warehouse, water-reservoir &c. 2 The

stomach. 3 The chamber of a gun, of water-pipes &c. 4 A birds nest. 5 A cattle-shed. 6 The chamber or cell of a hun in which is set down in figures the amount. [ khr ] n A storehouse gen (Marathi)

Rebus: [ kndaa ] n () Setting or infixing of gems.(Marathi) kd to turn in a lathe(B.)

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m0702 Text 2206 showing Sign 39, a glyph which compares with the Sumerian mudhif structure. Text 1330 (appears with Zebu glyph) showing Glyph 39. Pictorial motif: Zebu (Bos indicus) The first glyph of text is comparable to the cattle byre of Southern Mesopotamia dated to c. 3000 BCE. go = the place where cattle are collected at mid-day (Santali); goh (Brj.)(CDIAL 4336). Goha (Skt.); cattle-shed (Or.) ko = a cow-pen; a cattlepen; a byre (G.) pen or fold for cattle. [ gh ] f C (Dim. Of cattle-shed (Marathi) [ k ] A ) A pen or fold for calves. (Marathi)

Architectural glyphs of Indus script: mudhif (reedhouse,Mesopotamia) and a dot, circle glyph of Indus script depicted atop a bull on Urseal 18 (Gadd) Kohaka1 (nt.) a kind of koha, the stronghold over a gateway, used as a store room for various things, a chamber, treasury, granary Vin ii.153, 210; for the purpose of keeping water in it Vin ii.121=142; 220; treasury J i.230; ii.168; -- store room J ii.246; kothake pturahosi appeared at the gateway, i. e. arrived at the mansion Vin i.291.; -udaka k a bath room, bath cabinet Vin i.205 (cp. Bdhghs expln at Vin. Texts ii.57); so also nahna k and pihi k, bath room behind a hermitage J iii.71; DhA ii.19; a gateway, Vin ii.77; usually in cpd. Dvra k door cavity, i. e. room over the gate: ghara satta dvra kohakapaimaita a mansion adorned with seven gateways J i.227=230, 290; VvA 322. Dvra kohakesu sanni pahapenti they spread mats in the gateways VvA 6; esp. with bahi: bahi dvrakohak nikkhmetv leading him out in front of the gateway A iv.206; e thia or nisinna standing or sitting in front of the gateway S i.77; M i.161, 382; A iii.30. bala k. a line of infantry J i.179. kohaka kamma or the occupation connected with a storehouse (or bathroom?) is mentioned as an example of a low occupation at Vin iv.6; Kern, Toev. S. v. someone who sweeps away dirt. (Pali)
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urseal15 Gadd, PBA 18 (1932), p. 13, Pl. III, no. 15; Legrain, MJ (1929), p. 306, pl. XLI, no. 119; found at Ur in the cemetery area, in a ruined grave 9 metres from the surface, together with a pair of gold ear-rings of the double-crescent type and long beads of steatite and carnelian, two of gilt copper, and others of lapis-lazuli, carnelian, and banded sard. The first sign to the left has the form of a flower or perhaps an animal's skin with curly tail; there is a round spot upon the bull's back. There is a round spot upon the bulls back. [ gd ] m A circular brand or mark made by actual cautery (Marathi) [ g ] m

A roundish stone or pebble. 2 A marble (of stone, lac, wood &c.) 2 A marble. 3 A large lifting stone. Used in trials of strength among the Athlet. 4 A stone in temples described at length under 5 fig. A term for a round, fleshy, well-filled body. 6 A or [ gu or

lump of silver: as obtained by melting down lace or fringe. g ] a ( ) Spherical or spheroidal, pebble-form. (Marathi)

Rebus: krvi f. granary (Wpah.); ku, kuo house, building(Ku.)(CDIAL 3232) kh ] f ( (Marathi) The grain and provisions (as of an army); the commissariat supplies. Ex. . [ khy ] [ kh ] m ( S) A granary, garner, storehouse, warehouse, treasury, factory, bank.

S) A large granary,

store-room, warehouse, water-reservoir &c. 2 The stomach. 3 The chamber of a gun, of water-pipes &c. 4 A birds nest. 5 A cattle-shed. 6 The chamber or cell of a hun in which is set down in figures the amount. (Marathi) The continued tradition of building reed huts by Todas is comparable to the mudhifs of ancient Sumer. Even the word used in Toda language is concordant with mudhif. The Toda word is mund.
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[ khr ] n A storehouse gen

Word for Toda mund in Indian sprachbund: Ta. mau hall of assembly, Ko. man Toda mund (i.e. village); burning place for dry funeral; mandm (obl. mandt) meeting. To. mo (obl. mot-) locus of tribal activity, including village with dairy, dairy apart from village, and funeral place; patrilineal clan. Ka. mandu hamlet of the Todas on the Nilagiri. Ko. mand village green.(DEDR 4777). Or. chmui temporary awning, shelter of branches and twigs (CDIAL 5028). WPah.kg. mh m. shed for sheep on high altitudes ; Md. mui chicken -- coop ; maha1 m. hut, cottage, esp. cell of an ascetic MBh., mahik -- f. Da. [See maapa -- ]Pk. maha -- m.n., h -- f. hut ; K. mar m. hut , moru m. dove -- cot, fowl -- house ; S. mahu m. place of residence , mah f. place where an ascetic lives ; L.mah f., mult. mah f. small tomb over ashes of a Hindu ; P. mah m., mah f. monument, tomb ; Ku. ma f. hut , maul f. shed ; N. mar(h)o any temporary erection ; A. mar tuft of grass at either end of ridgepole of a house ; Or. mai hut ; Bi. mara grass hut , (Patna) maruk shed on threshing floor ; Mth. mah hut, house , mahah forest hut ; H. mah, mah, m h m. open hut or shed , mah f. cottage, hut, shed, cell, small temple ; G. mah m. temple , mah, hu f. hut , M. mah m., mah f.; Si. mau -- v hut . -- Rather < maapa -- : Bi. (Patna) maa shed on threshing floor ; Mth. maai hut .(CDIAL 9727). maa6 some sort of framework (?) . [In nau --

ma n. du. the two sets of poles rising from the thwarts or the two bamboo covers of
a boat (?) Br. (as illustrated in BPL p. 42); and in BHSk. and Pa. bdhi -- maa -- n. perh. thatched cover rather than raised platform (BHS ii 402). If so, it may belong to maap -- andmaha -- ] Ku. m m. pl. shed, resthouse (if not < *m h < *mahaka -- s.v. maap -- ). (CDIAL 9737). 9740 maapa m.n. open temporary shed, pavilion Hariv., pik -- f. small pavilion, customs house Kd. 2. maapa -m.n. lex. 3. *mahaka -- .[Variation of with supports supposition of non -- Aryan origin in Wackernagel AiGr ii 2, 212: see EWA ii 557. -- Prob. of same origin as maha -1 and maa -- 6 with which NIA. words largely collide in meaning and form] 1. Pa. maapa -- m. temporary shed for festive occasions ; Pk. maava -- m. temporary erection, booth covered with creepers , vi -- f. small do. ; Phal.

maau m. wooden gallery outside a house ; K. manav m. a kind of house found in


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forest villages ; S. manah m. shed, thatched roof ; Ku. m y, many resthouse ; N.khm au the city of Kathmandu (kh -- < kh -- ); Or. maua raised and shaded pavilion , pa -- maoi pavilion laid over with planks below roof , muoi,ei raised unroofed platform ; Bi. m o roof of betel plantation , m u, ma, malw lean -- to thatch against a wall , maa watcher's shed on ground without platform ; Mth. mab roof of betel plantation , maw open erection in courtyard for festive occasions ; OAw. mava m. wedding canopy ; m w m., w f., maw m.,w f. arbour, temporary erection, pavilion , OMarw.

maavo, mhivo m.; G. m av m. thatched open shed , m v m. booth, m v f.


slightly raised platform before door of a house, customs house, m aviy m. member of bride's party ; M. m av m. pavilion for festivals , m v f. small canopy over an idol ; Si. mau -- va hut , maa open hall SigGr ii 452. 2. Ko. mav open pavilion . 3. H. m h, mh, m h m. temporary shed, arbour (cf. OMarw. mhivo in 1); -- Ku. m m.pl. shed, resthouse (or < maa -6?]S.kcch. mhvo m. booth, canopy .(CDIAL 9740). man f. an exchange, a place where merchants meet to transact business (Gr.M.).(Kashmiri) namda -mo - f. joining up pieces of felt (done by kneading them together; cf. m ). -palav - <-> m. a little ragged bit of a felt quilt. (Kashmiri) Glyph: maka m. frog , mak -- f. RV., kk -- f. Supar., marka -- m. lex. 2. *maukka -- . 3. mara -- m. lex. 4. maa -- 5 m. lex. 5. *marakka -- or *marakka -- . [The many aberrant forms in NIA. are due to taboo (EWA ii 561 with lit.: see also dardur -- ) as well as onom. influences (as, e.g., *marakka-- ~ Gk. ba/traxos). P. Thieme's derivation (ZDMG 93, 135) as MIA. < *mra -- is phonet. unacceptable. -- Orm. mayg frog IIFL i 401] 1. Pa. maka -- m., k -- f. frog , Pk. maka -, a -- , uga -- m., Pah.bhi. m&tildemacrepsilon;, pl. n., bhal. m n. (+ go < gdh -- in mago f. large frog ), kha. mn/a, marm. m, Si. mau --

v, m ni, m i -- y (< mak -- ). 2. Pk. maukka -- m., kiy -- , kaliy -- f.,


. minik m., Ash. muk, Wg. vmek, m k (v -- , -- < pa s.v. p -- ),
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Kt. muk, (Kamdesh) mauk, Pr.mux, muk, m k, Pa.ku. chil. mark,

rk, Gaw. muka, mi, Bshk. m nk (< ma -- or mandr -- AO xviii 244),


Sv. mika, Sh. mk m., K.mi m nukh, dat. dakas m. (see 4), P. meuk,

ak, m uk, ak m., WPah.rudh. mnku, (Joshi) mink m.; Ku. munki -- aulo tadpole
; OMarw. mako m. frog ,mak f. small frog , G. me_ak, me m.,

me_k, me f.; M. mk -- mukh n. frog -- like face .(CDIAL 9746).


Glyph: monu 1 ; m. the trunk or stump of a tree, including the solid part of the root (cf. mon 1) (El. mnd) (cf. kh a-mo, p. 392a, l. 5, and nasta-mo,s.v. nast); a log, a heavy block of wood (Gr.Gr. 37, iv. 1856); a pillar; -- any clumsy lump (Rm. 631), (Kashmiri) The Toda mund, from, Richard Barron, 1837, "View in India, chiefly among the Nilgiri Hills'. Oil on canvas. Barron, Richard (c.1798-1838) Plate 5 from Richard Barron's 'View in India, chiefly among the Neelgherry Hills' , 1837. British Museum.

A Toda temple in Muthunadu Mund near Ooty, India. The hut called mund, of a Toda Tribe of Nilgiris, India. Note the decoration of the front wall, and the very small door.

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Source: Capt. Stephen Ponsonby Peacocke, Todas & Toda Munds (Habitations), 1847. Date: 1835-40. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Peacocke,Todas_%26_Toda_Munds_(Habitations)_-.jpg

Construction of a Toda mund. 2007.

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[http://www.ser.org/files/ppt/Tarun%20Chhabra%20PPT.pdf How Traditional Ecological Knowledge addresses Global Climate change: the perspective of the Todas - the indigenous In any case, it seems certain that the first inhabitants of Eridu and some other Sumerian sites were themselves marsh-dwellers, living in an environemnt comparable to that of the modern Marsh Arabs of Iraq. It is not therefore surprising that the earliest (symbolical) representations of architecture on Sumerian cylinder-seals and releifs depict reed-built structures, resembling in their details the ingeniously designed mudhifs or guest-houses to be seen in the marshland villages today. This being so, it is a little disconcerting to find that the earliest identifiable religious buildings, found in level XVI of the temple sounding at Eridu and elsewhere, were already constructed of sun-dried bricks. Admittedly, in another sounding at Eridu, unmistakable remnants were found of a modest reed structure; but this later proved to have been mo more than an outbuilding of a normal mud-brick house. (Woolley, p.4) Constructing a mudhif using reed bundles. The interior of an Iraqi mudhif. A mudhif, a traditional Marsh Arab guesthouse made entirely out of reeds. The Marsh Arab live a lifestyle that dates back 5,000 years. The Corps of Engineers played an important role in advising the Iraqi Ministry of Water Resources,
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(MOWR) as they restored the Mesopotamian Marshes destroyed by Saddam Hussein after Desert Storm.Source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Digital Visual Library

Aerial view of a Ma'dan ("Marsh Arab") floating village near Nasiriya View from the top of a mudhif. Source: The Marsh

Arabs, Wilfred Thesiger,1964


http://www.laputanlogic.com/articles/2004/01/240001.html See: Life on the edge of the marshes, Expedition, 40(2): 29-39, 1998. UPenn. Model of a boat from Ur. Made of bitumen. UPM B 17706.

Neg. S8-96719.

http://www.penn.museum/documents/publications/expedition/PDFs/40-2/Life.pdf
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Archaeological artifacts Use of polished stone pillars, ring stones assembled on a pillar, socketed stone slab as base for pillars is an unprecedented architectural achievement of the civilization evidenced at Dholavira citadel and sites of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. It is possible that such architectural components formed the superstructure for the warehouse or storage chambers and brick platforms in Harappa. The "granary" of Harappa is found on Mound F. It is a brick structure that was built on a massive brick foundation over 45 meters north-south and 45 meters east-west. Two rows of six rooms that appear to be foundations are arranged along a central passageway that is about 7 meters wide and partly paved with baked bricks. Each room measures 15.2 by 6.1 meters and has three sleeper walls with air space between them. http://brhectorshistoryworld.blogspot.in/2009/06/indus-valley.html

Sign 244 used in script is reminiscent of this building Sign 244 has variants: Harappa, granary? Warehouse. An isometric view (After Vats). Between the citadel mound and the old river bank is a series of brick platforms for two rows of six warehouses, each 16m by 6 m (with a
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combined floor space of about 800 sq. m. To the south of this granary was an area of working floors with rows of circular brick platforms perhaps for threshing grain (wheat and barley chaff were found in the crevices of the floors). Harappa, platform: one view Two other forms of inscription that should be mentioned are (1) impressions stamped (originally)on soft clay used to seal a container (pot, box, room, etc.) and (2) imprints stamped on a ceramic vessel before firing. Very few of the first have been recovered from Harappa, or indeed from any Indus site with the notable exception of Lothal where 93 specimens were retrieved clustered mostly in the area of a structure termed a warehouse by the excavator (see Frenez & Tosi 2005 for a review of this material). From the HARP excavations, only six sealings or tags have been identified (H -1719 through H-1724), all of which were partially hardened through low firing, possibly in a hearth, hot ashes, or rubbish fire. Due to the secondary contexts of the sealings, it is not possible to determine if the hardening was done intentionally as a way to archive a sealing or unintentionally as a part of post-deposition processes. A seventh impression in the form of a sub-conical jar-stopper (H-1725), however, was recovered in completely unbaked condition. Kenoyer, J. Mark & Richard H. Meadow, 2010, Inscribed objects from Harappan excavations 1986-2007 http://harappa.drupalgardens.com/sites/harappa.drupalgardens.com/files/KenoyerMead ow%202010%20Inscribed%20Objects%20from%20Harappa.pdf

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A slotted, socketed stone slab to serve as pillar base. Dholavira


At Khirsara, which was a port town in Khadir island, not far from Dholavira, a massive warehouse was discovered in 2011. [quote]A massive warehouse, measuring 28 metres by 12 metres, excavated had 14 parallel walls, with an average length of 10.8 metres and 1.55 metres breadth. Its superstructure was made of wood and daub. The space between the parallel walls enabled circulation of fresh air to protect the stored goods. Mr. Jitendra Nath said: It must have been multipurpose warehouse for storing goods for export or those that have been imported. Its proximity with river Khari is to support the maritime trading activities of the Khirsarans. A warehouse is a rare type of structure found in a few Harappan sites. It indicates a state of surplus economy. [unquote]

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During excavation, we have discovered a unique warehouse, a factory site, a citadel, seals, antiquities from the Indus Valley settlement at Khirsara, which is fortified and measures roughly about 310 x 230 metres, Nath said. The super structure of warehouse seems to have been made of perishable items like wood or wattle and daub. The space in between the parallel walls might have served as a duct for circulation of fresh air to protect the stored material, he said Khirsara's close proximity with river Khari might certainly have supported the maritime trading activities of its inhabitants, Nath said. The citadel, a fortress overlooking a city or perhaps protecting a town, shows fortification and re-fortification which scholars reason that elite clan might have lived there. The rooms found there show finer structure, he said. The factory site discovered during excavation had several products showing that it was utilised for manufacturing activity. The presence of big furnaces, tandoor, storage jars, small water tanks and discovery of a hoard of gold beads, semi-precious and steatite beads, copper implements, seals, weights, shell objects and debitage indicate that this area (factory site) was once utilised for manufacturing activity, he said. "Amongst prominent antiquities we have found 25-26 pieces of disk type gold beads from the factory site there. The gold beads are of disk type, globular and tubular," Nath said. A variety of seals which include square, rectangular and bar types made of steatite, soap stone and sand stone have been discovered at Khirsara. The bar type seals bear Harappan character only whereas the two rectangular seals represent figurines of unicorn and bison on the obverse, Nath said. April 16, 2012 http://www.dnaindia.com/india/1676569/report-khirsara-in-gujarat-emerges-prominentmature-harappan-site Ringstones were used as supports for wooden poles and timbers for doors, gates, and fake walls made of fabric, wood or woven fronds. Mohenjo-daro. Granary and well.
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Mohenjo-daro. Granary, SD and REM area Built on top of a tapered brick platform, this building had a solid brick foundation that extended for 50 meters east west and 27 meters north south. The foundation was divided into 27 square and rectangular blocks by narrow passageways, two running east west and eight running north south. A section of the northern foundation had hollow sockets for wooden beams used to support a stairway or wooden structure. Later wells and walls are seen in the foreground. Slide 40 http://mohenjodaro.net/indusgranary40.html Mohenjo-daro. Eroded face of granary. The eroding wells and a wall built up against the granary show that much of the area to the north of the granary was filled with debris and later buildings.Slide 41. http://mohenjodaro.net/granarywall41.html HR area, large courtyard (room 70) In some neighborhoods, large courtyards were connected to numerous smaller buildings built at different levels. The pilastered wall on the left supported houses at a higher level. A large corbelled arch drain that was later blocked is seen emerging from a wall in the background. Slide 51 http://mohenjodaro.net/induscourtyard51.html

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The brick foundations of a warehouse (destroyed by fire) at the important trading and industrial town of Lothal in Gujarat. A view of the North gateway. Dholavira. This

structure measured a height of 16 meter and was surrounded by double ramparts on all 4 sides (IAR 1984-1985, 14). North gate. Dholavira. After Bisht 1998-99, 36. (Bisht, R.S., 1988-89, Dholavira and Banawali: two different paradigms of the Harappan urbis forma, Puratattva, 2, 14-37).

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East Gate. Dholavira.

http://www.asi.nic.in/images/exec_dholavira/pages/011.html

East Gate. Dholavira. After ASI Indian Archaeological Review 1991-92, 34 Part of a gateway in Dholavira, the Harappan city that dominated Gujarat. This region provided the interface between the Indus realms and the lands with which the Harappans traded by sea. White limestone ringstone. Slide 97. Numerous ringstones made from white limestone have been recovered from Mohenjo-daro. Sometimes several have been found
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together, but none are in their original position of use. Discoveries of similar ringstones in the gateways at the site of Dholavira (See the Ancient Indus Region Map in Indus 2, Slide 161.) suggest that they may have been used as the base of wooden columns. Small dowel holes are often found on one side. It is possible that several of the ringstones were stacked with a wooden pole running through the center. A miniature version of such a ringstone column made from shell rings has been reported from the site of Dholavira. Banded limestone ringstone, Mohenjodaro. Slide 98. This large ringstone is made of banded yellow and red-brown limestone. Sourcing studies of different varieties of limestone conducted by Randall Law, of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, suggest that this ringstone may have been brought to the Mohenjo-daro from quarries that have been located near the site of Dholavira in Kutch. Harappa phase ringstone in Harappa town. Slide 414. This Harappa phase ringstone was originally found many years ago while local residents were digging a well in Harappa town. After some time it ended up at a house in Harappa town where it
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eventually became buried in the courtyard. It was located by HARP through information supplied by local residents and was given to the Harappa Museum by the Harappa resident who had it in his courtyard. Tepe Yahya. Two sides of Tepe Yahya (weight?) fragment apparently reused as door socket during IVB times. One side depicts palms, and the other has a representation of a humped bull with a scorpion set above its back. See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2011/12/indus-script-hieroglyphs-composite.html Indus script hieroglyphs: composite animal, smithy
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 7, 2013

The Harappan pot of Gold 2nd January 2011, proved to be a golden day for the archaeologists excavating an ancient site in India's Gujarat state. A labourer digging in one of the trenches found two miniature earthen pots. He took them to the site supervisor Mr. S.Nandkumar, who took the pots to Mr. Jitendra Nath, Superintending Archaeologist, Excavation Branch. After examining the contents, Mr. Jitendra Nath, announced excitedly: They are gold beads. One of the pots contained 26 disc-shaped beads, micro beads and a ring, all made in gold, along with some steatite beads. What perhaps was most important, was that this gold was not

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just ordinary gold but it belonged to 4200 year old Harappan era of Indus civilization, 2565 to 2235 BCE. The place, where this excavation was being carried out is known as Gadhwali Wadi' and is located on the south-eastern outskirts of the present day village of Khirsara overlooking river Khari about 85 km Northwest of Bhuj on the Bhuj-Narayan Sarover State Highway. The site is locally known as Gadhwali Wadi' and is located on the south-eastern outskirts of the present village in Nakhatrana Taluka of Kutch District in Indian state of Gujarat. The site of 'Gadhawali Wadi' has been known as a Harappan site ever since 1970's. In fact, 'Indian Archaeology,' a publication published by Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) had reported in its 1976-77 issue some major findings at this site in these words. 7.

Harappan Antiquities, Netra Khirasara, District Kutch- Shre N.M. Ganam

of the western circle of the survey, while reexploring the site, encountered a cubical wight of substantive size, chanks and pottery of the Harappan period besides sprinklers and sprouts of red polished ware of early historical times. The Director of Archaeology, Government of Gujarat, recovered a survey instrument, comparable to the modern prismatic compass from the site called Gadhvali Vadi.
It appears however, that ASI renewed its interest in 'Gadhawali Wadi' after buoyed by tremendous success it achieved in excavations of 'Surkotada' (1970-72) and at 'Dholavira' between 1990 to 2005 and started a major excavation effort in December 2009 and
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continued it for next three years, digging up the site for over four or five months every year with a 100-member ASI team comprising archaeological experts and especially trained labourers. Their efforts were immediately rewarded. Mr. Jitendra Nath; Director of the excavation, recollects what he saw on one fine morning in April 2010: AS I stood on the edge of the trench and looked in, my eyes widened with amazement. In one corner stood a tall, slender jar with four perforations, two on either side, just below the rim. There were three beautifully crafted pots, wedged in the soil and, a few feet away, a big, upturned lid. Also on the trench floor lay a massive conch shell that looked like a bird with outstretched wings, as if it had been shot in flight and had fallen. He was so much astonished that he told Kalyani Vaghela, the young research assistant in archaeology from the Maharaja Sayajirao University, Vadodara, Gujarat: This is an important find. We have got so much of pottery in a small area within the trench. When we extend our excavation more, we will get an idea of why we are getting so many pots and jars in a small area, *His prediction has come true. By December 6, 2012, thirty-nine trenches, each 10 metres by 10 metres in area were dug out. They have yielded a cornucopia of globular pots, sturdy storage jars, painted ware, perforated parts of broken jars, incense burners, dish-on-stand, goblets, beakers, basins, bowls, ladles, and so on. There was pottery everywhere. Besides the pottery they found rectangular seals depicting the unicorn and the bison and the Harappan characters, rectangular bar-type seals with only the letters of the Harappan script alone and circular seals proving that Khirsara site belonged to mature Harappan period.
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Khirsara site is not certainly as big as 'Dholavira.' The structural remains show that it was a fortified settlement consisting of a citadel with residential quarters, a warehouse, an industrial-cum-residential complex, habitation annexes and a potters kiln, revealing a systematic town planning. The ruling elite lived in the citadel complex, which had square and rectangular rooms, verandahs in front, a beautiful staircase leading upstairs, floors paved with multicoloured bricks and a rock-cut well. A five-metre paved lane separated the citadel from the factory. The citadel was deliberately built adjacent to the warehouse so that the rulers could keep a watch on the manufacturing and trading activities. The adjoining warehouse, 28 metres long and 12 metres wide, has a series of 14 massive parallel walls, which are more than 10 metres long and about 1.5 metres wide. All the structures are built of dressed sandstone blocks, set in mud mortar. In Khirsara, settlements have a general fortification wall around the settlement and also separate fortification walls around every complex inside the settlement. The citadel complex, the warehouse, the factory-cum-residential complex, and even the potters kiln have their own protective walls. This is something unique. Khirsara excavations have revealed large number of artifacts and objects of daily use. Besides, discshaped gold beads, micro gold beads and their tubular counterparts, there are a variety of beads made of shell and steatite and of semi-precious stones such as lapis lazuli, agate, carnelian, chert, chalcedony and jasper. About 25,000 steatite beads were found in one trench alone. Shell bangles, shell inlays, copper bangles and rings were also found in plenty. Among copper implements were
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chisels, knives, needles, points, fish hooks, arrow-heads and weights. There were also bone tools, bone points and beads made out of bones. It is clear from the finding of the antiquities, that Khirsara was a major industrial hub in western Kutch. Khirsaras range of painted factory produced an amazing pottery, sturdy storage jars,

globular pots, perforated jars, basins, dishes, bowls, beakers, dish-on-stand and incense burners. The painted pottery with occasional animal motifs, have geometric designs of broad bands, crosses, spirals, loops, arches and zigzags. Another feature is the profusion of miniature pots. Khirsara was located on a trade route from other parts of Gujarat to Sind in present day Pakistan, which is about 100 km away. This means that the Harappans who lived here, were basically traders, manufacturing industrial goods for export to distant lands and to other Harappan sites in the vicinity and farther away. Another special bonus from Khirsara. The findings of rectangular bar-type seals with only the letters of the Harappan script, opens a real possibility of trying to understand the Harappa script to a small extent. 7th August 2013 http://www.akshardhool.com/2013/08/the-harappanpot-of-gold.html A reasonably good resolution photo of the unique stone inscription discovered at Dholavira (and published, perhaps for the first time) is now available. It provides the impetus for a fresh look at the Indus writing system.
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The possible four signs used are tentatively analysed until a clearer picture emerges of the four specific signs used. It appears that the stone might have adorned a fortification wall of a warehouse at Dholavira. We have to await a detailed stratigraphic report; there are, however, indications of what were discovered at the site: metal artifacts, in particular, which could also have been traded by the seafaring meluhhans of Dholavira, who also announced their repertoire on the Dholavira signboard. "The artifacts include a giant hammer, a big chisel and a hand-held mirror, all in bronze; a gold wire, a gold ear stud; gold globules with holes in them for thread to pass through; copper bangles and celts; phallus-like symbols fashioned in stone; stoneware and shell bangles; pottery with floral and animal designs; beads made of agate, faience and carnelian; humped animals made of carnelian; a circular seal; square seals with figures and Indus signs; and pottery with painted motifs of indescribable beauty. Other artifacts unearthed include goblets; a big dish-on-stand; perforated jars; beautiful tumblers made of terracotta; architectural members made of basalt stone; grinding stones; mortars; pestles, and so on."

Seals with the characteristic unicorn figure and other signs. A big bronze hammer. A wire and an ear-stud, both made of gold. Copper objects found at the site included hand-held mirrors, bangles, plates and fish hooks. Dholavira stone inscription with 4 glyphs (June 2010)

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Sign 244

Sign 261 Sign 99

Sign 242 Glyphs: Sign nos. 244, 261, 99, 242 These glyphs occur on other inscriptions: The U sign infixed within Sign 242 (which becomes Sign 243), could be bat.i 'broad-mouthed, rimless metal vessel'; rebus: bat.i 'smelting furnace'. The structural form within which this sign is enclosed may represent a temple: kole.l 'temple, smithy' (Ko.); kolme smithy' (Ka.) Thus, the ligatured Sign 243 may be read as: kolme bat.i = smithy furnace.

kole.l smithy, temple in Kota village (Ko.); kwala.l Kota smithy (To.) (DEDR 2133).

sal splinter; sal workshop (Santali) sal stake, spike, splinter, thorn, difficulty (H.); sa small thin stick; saiyo bar, rod, pricker (G.); o reed (Kho.)(CDIAL 12343). salleha, selleha = splinter (Ka.lex.) cl [K. sl, M. cl.] Furrow in ploughing; . (. 817)
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koa bend (Ko.); Tu. ki corner; ku angle, corner, crook. Nk. kna
corner (DEDR 2054b) Rebus: Bshk. kho embers, Phal. kho ashes, burning coal; L. kho f. alloy, impurity, alloyed, aw. kho forged; P. kho m. base, alloy M.kho alloyed (CDIAL 3931) m0295 Interlocking bodies: ca_li (IL 3872)

Rebus: sal workshop (Santali) Pict-61: Composite motif of three tigers 1386 got.h, got. assembly (Santali) got. = the place where cattle are collected at mid-day (Santali); gos.t.ha (Skt.); kod. = place where artisans work (Kur.); cattle -shed (Or.) kod. = a cow-pen; a cattlepen; a byre (G.lex.) gor.a = a cow-shed; a cattlepsed; gor.a orak = byre (Santali.lex.) got.ho [Skt. kos.t.ha the inner part] a warehouse; an earthen vessel in wich indigo is stored (G.lex.) kot.t.amu = a stable (Te.lex.) Substantive: got.h, got. Place where cattle are assembled (Santali) Vikalpa, rebus: man.d.a_ = warehouse, workshop (Kon.lex.) mad.hi_, mad.hud.i_ a hut, shed, a cottage (G.) man.i jewel of office (Skt.); man.iyam office of the village headman (Ta.); superintendence of temples, palaces, villages (Ma.); man.e.v, man.ye.v the office of monegar (Ko.); man.iya, man.iha, man.eya, man.e superintendence of temples, maths, palaces, custom-houses (Ka.); man.iga_re revenue inspector (Tu.); man.iyamu office or duties of the manager of a temple (Te.)(DEDR 4674). ma_d.a = shrine of a demon (Tu.); ma_d.ia = house (Pkt.); ma_l.a a sort of pavilion (Pali); ma_l.ikai = temple (Ta.)(DEDR 4796).
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https://sites.google.com/site/induswriting/

Kalibangan. Mud-brick salient. After Rao 1991. Plate XI. (Rao, S.R., 1991, Dawn and devolution of the Indus civilization, New Delhi, Aditya Prakashan) Aerial view Dholavira. Reconstruction. Castle or citadel in upper left corner.

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3D reconstruction of the city of Dholavira. Reconstruction adapted from the "Ancient Civilization City-State Virtual Trip" website by the Taisei Corporation of Japan. Computer graphics: Osamu Ishizawa, Yasuyo Iwata and Nobuyuki Matsuda (Taisei Corporation) in collaboration with NHK. Reconstruction adapted from the "Ancient Civilization City-State Virtual Trip" website by the Taisei Corporation of Japan. Computer graphics: Osamu Ishizawa, Yasuyo Iwata and Nobuyuki Matsuda (Taisei Corporation) in collaboration with NHK.) http://www.taisei.co.jp/kodaitoshi/civil_e/civilization.html Another reconstruction shows that the basic system of locks and The city includes the Citadel, the city average and the lower town The city is rectangular and has some hundred hectares There are numerous remains discovered gold, silver, pottery and bones But also jewelry, beads, pottery and seals There are two channels rainwater recovery, Mansar in the north and Manhar in the south The water was collected in 16 major reservoirs Some were carved into the rock, but most were built of stone and two large reservoirs including the edge of the city which measure about 79 meters long, 12 meters wide and 7 meters deep They include steps descending into the basin A large billboard overlooking the city on a rock gypsum was fixed a wooden panel of three meters long comprising ten large letters 37 cm high Once we have decoded the Indo-European writing, well know
44

what message greeted visitors arriving at Dholavira http://earthistheaim2.wordpress.com/2012/07/16/part-4-the-indo-european-chapter-7indo-european-sites/

1. Banawali 15.5 ha. 2. Harappa 150 ha. 3. Kalibangan 13 ha. 4. Mohenjo-daro 200 ha. 5. Dholavira 100ha. 6. Kuntasi 3.3 ha 7. Lothal 5.5 ha. 8. Surkotada 2 ha.
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Indus Valley and early sramana architecture (2600 - 100 BC) The most ancient architectural remains in the subcontinent are the 4500 year-old (2600-1900 BC) ruins of the mature Indus Valley civilisation: their planned cities and monumental buildings (such as the Great Bath at Mohenjodaro) The earliest examples are rock-cut sanctuaries and monasteries built in the 3rd-1st centuries BC, such as the caves of the Ajivika sect at Barabar and Nagarjuni hills near Gaya, and more elaborate examples in the Western Ghats, such as the Buddhist caves at Bhaja and Karla, and the Jain caves in the eastern Ghats at Udayagiri and Khandagiri in Orissa. http://www.kaladarshana.com/essays/essay-brief-history.html

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Mohenjo-daro. Temple and pushkarini. Two views.

47

48

Archaeological artifacts White limestone ringstone. Slide 97. Numerous ringstones made from white limestone have been recovered from Mohenjo-daro. Sometimes several have been found together, but none are in their original position of use. Discoveries of similar ringstones in the
49

gateways at the site of Dholavira (See the Ancient Indus Region Map in Indus 2, Slide 161.) suggest that they may have been used as the base of wooden columns. Small dowel holes are often found on one side. It is possible that several of the ringstones were stacked with a wooden pole running through the center. A miniature version of such a ringstone column made from shell rings has been reported from the site of Dholavira. Banded limestone ringstone, Mohenjodaro. Slide 98. This large ringstone is made of banded yellow and red-brown limestone. Sourcing studies of different varieties of limestone conducted by Randall Law, of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, suggest that this ringstone may have been brought to the Mohenjo-daro from quarries that have been located near the site of Dholavira in Kutch. Harappa phase ringstone in Harappa town. Slide 414. This Harappa phase ringstone was originally found many years ago while local residents were digging a well in Harappa town. After some time it ended up at a house in Harappa town where it eventually became buried in the courtyard. It was located by HARP through information supplied by local residents and was given to the Harappa Museum by the Harappa resident who had it in his courtyard. Tepe Yahya. Two sides of Tepe Yahya (weight?) fragment apparently reused as door socket during IVB times. One side depicts palms, and the other has a representation of a humped bull with a
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scorpion set above its back. Ka. kai, kii, gai chink, hole, opening. Tu. kai, khai, gai hole, opening, window; kaeriyuni to make a cut. Te. gai, gaika hole, orifice, breach, gap, lane (DEDR 1176). kandhi = a lump, a piece (Santali.lex.) Ka. ka eye, small hole, orifice. Ko. ka id. Te. kanu, kannu eye, small hole, orifice, mesh of net, eye in peacock's feather. Kol. kan (pl. kanl) eye, small hole in ground, cave. Ga. (Oll.) kaa (pl. kaul)

hole; (S.) kanu (pl. kankul) eye. Go. (Tr.) kan (pl. kank) id.; (A.) ka (pl. kak) id. Kona ka id. Pe. kaga (pl. -, kaku) id. Man. kan (pl. -ke) id. Kui kanu (pl. kan-ga), (K.)
kanu (pl. kaka) id. Kuwi (F.) kann (pl. kar&nangle;ka), (S.) kannu (pl. kanka), (Su. P. Isr.) kanu (pl. kaka) id. (DEDR 1159a). Pa. kanp- (kant-) to look for, seek. Ga. (Oll.) kanp- (kant-) to search. Ta. k (kp-, ka-) to see, consider, investigate, appear, become visible; n. sight, beauty Te. kanu (allomorph kn-), kncu to see (DEDR 1443) kha circumscribe (M.) Rebus: kha nodule (ore), stone (M.) k stone. Ga. (Oll.)

kan, (S.) kanu (pl. kankil) stone (DEDR 1298). mayponi kan whetstone;
(Ga.)(DEDR 4628). ( road), metal. ) Pebbles or small stones: also stones broken up (as for a

[ kha ] m A small stone, a pebble. 2 A nodule (of lime &c.): ka =

altar, furnace (Santali) f. a blacksmith's smelting furnace (Grierson Kashmiri

f. a kiln (a potter's, a lime-kiln, and brick-kiln, or lex.) pay n-koda -


the like); a furnace (for smelting) ]. kndavika = a baker; kandu = an iron plate or pan for baking cakes etc. (Ka.lex.) ka fire-altar, furnace (Santali) The beginning of chess? Artifacts found in Mohenjo-daro archaeological site. K. goh f., dat. i f. chequer or chess or dice board ; S. gou m. large ball of tobacco ready for hookah , f. small do. ; P. go f. spool on which gold or silver wire is wound, piece on a chequer board ; N. goo piece , goi chess piece ; A. go a fruit, whole piece , globular, solid , gui small ball, seed, kernel ; B. go seed, bean,
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whole ; Or. go whole, undivided , goi small ball, cocoon , goli small round piece of chalk ; Bi. go seed ; Mth. goa numerative particle ; H. go f. piece (at chess &c.) ; G. go m. cloud of smoke , m. kernel of coconut, nosegay , go f. lump of silver, clot of blood , ilm. hard ball of cloth ; M. go m. roundish stone , f. a marble , gou spherical ; Si. guiya lump, ball ; -- prob. also P. go gold or silver lace , H.go m. edging of such ( K. goa m. edging of gold braid , S. goo m. gold or silver lace ); M. go hem of a garment, metal wristlet . Ko. gu silver or gold braid .(CDIAL 4271) Rebus: go f. lump of silver' (G.) Rebus: koe forging (metal)(Mu.)

veh, veh m. courtyard, (Ju.) enclosure containing many houses ; P. veh, be m.


enclosure, courtyard (CDIAL 12130). mund mudhif, hut mehi pillar; monu k stone kha f. Hole, mine, cave (CDIAL 3790). kya = being in a hole (VS. XVI.37); k a hole, depth (RV. i. 106.6) kh a ditch, a trench; kh o khaiyo several pits and ditches (G.) kharun: pit (furnace) (Santali) m. the trunk or stump of a tree (Pali)

ka aperture (Tamil); k hole (Gujarati) (i.e. glyph showing dotted-circle);


ka one eye and these glyphs may have been interpreted as the fish -eyes or eye stones (Akkadian IGI-HA, IGI-KU6) mentioned in Mesopotamian texts. pttu , n. < wide hole (Santali) kole.l smithy; temple ko fortification; treasury Such glosses can be written as hieroglyphs using homonymous words and related semantics in a method of writing which may be called logo-sememic. These hieroglyphs were in use across the Ancient Near East in Elamite, Indus writing systems. They were
52

. 1. Hole, hollow (Tamil) buhi mala a bead with

also deployed on Mesopotamian cylinder seal motifs and narratives on artifacts such as Warka vase, Uruk gypsum trough or Sit-Shamshi bronze. Allographs: Pkt. dula second (CDIAL 6402) ku : . (, 5). 3. [K. ku.] Tusk;

. (. 39, 1). vdha m. hitting


the mark MBh., penetration, hole VarBrS. [vyadh] Pa. vdha -- m. prick, wound ; Pk. vha -- m. boring, hole , P. veh, beh m., H. beh m., G. veh m. karavdha -.(CDIAL 12108) vtitam , n. < vdhita. (. .) 1. Perforating, drilling; . 2. Tube; . vtai , n. < vdha. 1. Drilling, boring; . (Tamil) Vedhin (adj.) [fr. vidh=vyadh] piercing, shooting, hitting (Pali) Rebus: vdi f. raised piece of ground serving as an altar and usu. strewed with kua grass RV., stand, bench MBh., platform for wedding ceremony Kv., vdika<-> m. bench R., k -- f. MBh. [Cf. vd -- m. bunch of kua grass used as broom AV.] Pa. vdi -- , d -- , dik -- f. cornice, ledge, rail ; Pk. vi -- , vi -- f. platform ; A. bei quadrangular frame of greenery forming platform on which ceremonial bathing of bride and bridegroom is performed .(CDIAL 12107). Vedi & Ved (f.) [Vedic vedi sacrificial bench] ledge, cornice, rail Mhvs 32, 5; 35, 2; 36, 52 (psa); 36, 103; Vv 8416 (=vedik VvA 346). -- See on term Dial. ii.210; Mhvs. tsrln220, 296. Vedik (f.) (& vediy) [fr. vedi] cornice, ledge, railing D ii.179; Vin ii.120; J iv.229, 266; Vv 786 (vediy= vedik VvA 304); 8416 (=vedik VvA 340); VvA 275. Velli [dial.?] is a word peculiar to the Jtaka. At one passage it is expld by the Commentary as "vedi" (i. e. rail, cornice), where it is applied to the slender waist of a woman (cp. vilka & vilaggita): J vi.456. At most of the other passages it is expld as "a heap of gold": thus at J v.506
53

(verse: velli -- vilka -- majjh; C.: ettha vell ti rsi vilkamajjh ti vilagga -- majjh uttattaghana -- suvaa -- rsi -- ppabh c' eva tanu -- dgha -- majjh ca"), and vi.269 (verse: kacana -- velli -- viggaha; C.: "suvaa -- rsi -- sassirka -- sarr"). At v.398 in the same passage as vi.269 expld in C. as "kacana -- rpakasadisa -- sarr"). The idea of "golden" is connected with it throughout. (Pali) vdi [Skt.] n. A terrace, a piece of raised ground, a platform. An altar. (Telugu)

mr, mr f. larger hole in ground which serves as a mark in pitching walnuts (for
semantic relation of post -- hole see kpa -- 2) (Kashmiri) m raised bank between irrigated beds (Bihari) Ku. dulo m., li f., dulno m. hole, cavity, animal's den; N. dulo hole, animal's hole (e.g. of a mouse), nka ko dulo nostril, dulko little hole; M. uu n. little hole, ol m.; poss. Ash. dra hole (ksra- duranostril, dum

durk smokehole); Wg. dri, dor g smokehole: but these poss. < DR. Connexion, if any, with P.du(h) f. wolf's den, u f. mousehole (CDIAL 6452) Pali. Medhi (f.) [Vedic meth pillar, post (to bind cattle to); BSk. medhi Divy 244; Prk. mehi Pischel Gr. 221. See for etym. Walde, Lat. Wtb. s. v. meta] pillar, part of a stpa [not in the Canon?]. M. me(h), meh f., meh m. post, forked stake(CDIAL 10317). Glyph forked stake: Medhi (f.) [Vedic meth pillar, post (to bind cattle to); BSk. medhi Divy 244; Prk. mehi Pischel Gr. 221. See for etym. Walde, Lat. Wtb. s. v. meta] pillar, part of a stpa [not in the Canon?].(Pali) monu m. the trunk or stump of a tree, including the solid part of the root (cf. mon 1) (El. mnd) (cf. kh a-mo, p. 392a, l. 5, and nasta-mo, s.v. nast); a log, a heavy block of wood (Gr.Gr. 37, iv. 1856); a pillar (Kashmiri) [ mh ] m A stake, esp. as forked. 2 A dense arrangement of stakes, a palisade, a paling. 3 fig. A supporter or backer. 4 A twist or tangle arising in thread or
54

cord, a curl or snarl. mhvi ] v c C ( ] f (Usually ]m( & mhy ] a ( q. v.)

[ mh ] f (Dim. of

) A small bifurcated stake: also a small [ [ ma [ pales or stakes.

stake, with or without furcation, used as a post to support a cross piece. ) To enclose a place with

m A stake, esp. as bifurcated.

[ mhka

) A dense paling; a palisade or stoccade; any defence of stakes. Stake or post.) A term for a person considered as the pillar, prop, or

support (of a household, army, or other body), the staff or stay. bifurcated. [ mhak ] f bifurcated. (Marathi) . [ ma ] f (Usually q. v.)

[ mha ] f A forked

stake. Used as a post. Hence a short post generally whether forked or not. Pr.

m A stake, esp. as

n (Dim. of

) A small stake or post, esp. as

f. Ved. A column, post. mth m. pillar in threshing floor to

which oxen are fastened, prop for supporting carriage shafts AV., th -- f. Ktyr.com.,mdh -- f. Divyv. 2. mh -- f. PacavBr.com., mh -- , m -- f. BhP.1. Pa. mdhi -- f. post to tie cattle to, pillar, part of a stpa ; Pk. mhi -- m. post on threshing floor , N. meh(e), miho, miyo, B. mei, Or. ma -- di, Bi. mh, mh the post , (SMunger) meh the bullock next the post , Mth. meh, meh the post , (SBhagalpur) mh the bullock next the post , (SETirhut) mhi bi vessel with a projecting base .2. Pk. mhi -- m. post on threshing floor , mhaka<-> small stick ; K. mr, mr f. larger hole in ground which serves as a mark in pitching walnuts (for semantic relation of post -- hole see kpa -- 2); L. meh f. rope tying oxen to each other and to post on threshing floor ; P. mehf., meha m. oxen on threshing floor, crowd ; OA meha, mehra a circular construction, mound ; Or. meh, meri post on threshing floor ; Bi. m raised bank between irrigated beds , (Camparam) mh bullock next the post , Mth. (SETirhut) mh id. ; M. me(h), meh f.,meh m. post, forked stake . (CDIAL 10317) Middha (nt.) [orig. pp. perhaps to Vedic mid (?) to be fat=medh, as DhsA 378 gives "medhat ti middha." -- More likely however connected with Sk. methi (pillar=Lat. meta), cp. Prk. medhi. The meaning is more to the point too, viz. "stiff." (Pali) Glyph: root or stump (of tree): monu m. the trunk or stump of a tree, including the solid part of the root (cf. mon 1) (El. mnd) (cf. kh amo, p. 392a, l. 5, and nasta-mo, s.v. nast); a log, a heavy block of wood (Gr.Gr. 37, iv.
55

1856); a pillar; -- any clumsy lump (Rm. 631), cf.gala-monu, p. 282a, l. 5, or used in the names of various cakes (cf. alapsh -monu, p. 22b, l. 27; ly -monu, p. 543a, l. 48), or in such compounds as kana-monu, p. 448a, l. 11, the root of the ear; murkham nu, a fool-block, an utter fool. m ni-ala m ni-ala ;- trunk, rooting up; hence, utter destruction; cf. ala 4. -pkh dat. -pkas consumed; cooking for a very long time. -zyunu chopped up for firewood. (Kashmiri) Svastik connotes satva, sattu 'zinc, pewter'; endless-knot connotes meed 'iron'. (Rebus: sattiya svastika glyph Rebus: jasta, satva, sattu 'zinc, pewter'; mehao twisted Rebus: mht iron) m. tottering of the m. (sg.

), log-cooking, i.e. cooking on a fire on which a whole chopped log is m. log firewood, a log

svastika pewter (Kannada); sattva zinc (Ka.) jasta = zinc (Hindi) yasada (Jaina Pkt.)
Old Persian Qxida? Zargun " "gold-like? Kashmiri. Grierson lex. zasath or zasuth m. (sg. dat. zastas ), zinc, spelter, pewter (cf. Hind jast). jasti jasti adj. c.g. made of zinc or pewter. jasth m. (sg. dat. jastas ), zinc, spelter; pewter. jastuvu &below; adj. (f. jastv;), made of zinc or pewter. satavu, satuvu, sattu = pewter, zinc (Ka.) dosta = zinc (Santali) jasada, yasada, yasadyaka, yasatva = zinc (Jaina Pali) ruhi-tutiya (Urdu) tuttha (Arthas'a_stra) totamu, tutenag (Te.) oriechalkos (Gk.)

m1225A through breadth.

m1225B.

1311 m1225 cube seal with perforation

Endless-knot motif appears on the following objects: 1. Rojdi. Ax-head or knife of copper, 17.4 cm. long (After Possehl and Raval 1989: 162, fig. 77

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2. Cylinder seal impression. Sumer (ca. 2500 BCE). After Amiet 1980a: pl. 108, no. 1435 3. Early Dynastic seal. Lagash. Early Dynastic seal, depicting an endless knot motif facing the turned face (krem-) of a battling tiger (kol-kamar, smelter-smith); Lagash. [After Amiet, 1980, pl. 83: no. 1099] The endless-knot glyph and the signs may be read as: Alternatives: Substantive: mht iron; mht icena the iron is rusty; ispat mht steel,

dul mht cast iron; mht khaa iron implements


(Santali) me. (Ho.)(Santali.lex.Bodding) meed, med, md iron; enga meed soft iron;

sani meed hard iron; ispt meed steel; dul meed cast iron; i meed rusty iron, also
the iron of which weights are cast; bica meed iron extracted from stone ore; bali meed iron extracted from sand ore (Munda) meed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Munda) bica meed iron extracted from stone ore; bali meed iron extracted from sand ore (Munda) kuire bica duljako talkena, they were feeding the furnace with ore (Santali) samr.obica, stones containing gold (Mundari) pasra meed, pasra meed = syn. of koe meed = forged iron, in contrast to dul meed, cast iron (Mundari) koe forged metal (Santali) ko 'artisan's workshop' (Kuwi) ko = place where artisans work (G.) [ kaa ] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) koil cowhouse, shed, workshop, house; Malt. koa hamlet. / Influenced by Skt. goha-. (DEDR 2059). kam = workshop (Tamil); kam,n. <kha. 1. Room, enclosure; .
57

. 6, 59). 2. Temple; .

(. 14, 10). koe meed = forged iron (Mu.) me iron (Ho.) dul meed, cast iron (Mu.) koe forged metal (Santali) kou-k-kar , n. < +. Braziers who work by beating plates into shape and not by casting; . (W.) Glyph composite (animals) or ligatured glyphs: [Telugu] n. Joining,union, . [ mamu ] mamu.

Glyph oppositon: *mtha opposing, quarrelling with . [mith] Pa. mdhaka -, aga -- m. quarrel, abuse ; L. m h m. accusation, reproach . (CDIAL 10314)

mamu. A fight, battle,


a battle. ,

. a cock fight. . (Telugu)

mdamu-pousu. v. n. To fight
[ mricu ] mnrinsu.

[Tel.] v. a. To divide, cut, sever;

Glyph curl of hair: *mh lock of hair, curl . [Cf. *mha -- 1 s.v. *mia -- ] S. m h f., ho m. braid in a woman's hair , L. meh f.; G. ml, mi m. braid of hair on a girl's forehead(CDIAL 10312) mehi, mih, meh = a plait in a womans hair; a plaited or twisted strand of hair (P.) [ mh ] mea A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl. (Marathi) (CDIAL 10312). [dial., cp. Prk. m ha & miha: Pischel, Prk. Gr. 293. The Dhtm (156) gives a root me (me) in meaning of "koilla," i. e. crookedness. (Pali) Glyph tangled cord: M. meh m. curl, snarl, twist or tangle in cord or thread (CDIAL 10312)

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Glyph spear: dagger. ,

[ memu ] or

memu. [Tel.] n. A spear or

. The rim of a bell-shaped earring, set with ems. ." ." BD. vi. 116.

Glyph: mil markhor (Tor.wali) meho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120)

sangaa pair [A word associated with the pair of storage jars, pair of reed
glyphs, pair of vases glyphs shown on Warka vase. Homonyms: Rebus: dul to cast metal in a mould (Santali) kandi hole, opening (Ka.); kan eye (Ka.); rebus: kandi (pl. -l) necklace, beads (Pa.) Thus, the entire ligatured animal is decoded rebus: me pasra k gar kandil iron smithy, forge, portable furnace, beads. Pa.kandi (pl. -l) necklace, beads. Ga. (P.) kandi (pl. -l) bead, (pl.) necklace; (S.2) kandi bead (DEDR 1215). kandil, kandl = a globe of glass, a lantern (Ka.lex.) Rebus: meha, mehi merchants clerk; (G.) Hem. Des. mehi = Skt. vaik-sahya: a merchants clerk, fr. Skt. mahita praised, great fr. mahto praise, to make great] a schoolmaster; an accountant; a clerk; a writer (G.lex.) Rebus: mdha m. sacrificial oblation RV. Pa. mdha m. sacrifice; Pa. mejjha pure, Pk. mejjha, mijjha (CDIAL 10327). Rebus: me iron (Ho.) meed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Mu.lex.) Rebus reading of the hieroglyph: potti temple-priest (Ma.) < id. n. 1. Praise, applause, commendation; of Malabar; 1.--int. Exclamation of praise; . ptti . (W.) 3. See pi , ,

. (W.) 2. Brahman temple-priest

59

. 13, 92) (Tamil) potR `" Purifier "'N. of one of the 16 officiating priests at a

sacrifice (the assistant of the Brahman (RV. Br. rS. Hariv.) Rebus: Bi. pot jeweller's polishing stone (CDIAL 8403). [The dotted circle may denote a polished bead; hence, Pk. pott -- f. glass (CDIAL 8403).] Sacredness connoted of the trefoil glyph on by the temple-priest explains the occurrence the base for holding a ivalinga. Two bases

decorated with trefoil and a lingam. Smoothed, polished pedestal of dark red stone. National Museum of Pakistan, Karachi. After Mackay 1938: 1,411; II, pl. 107:35; cf. Parpola, 1994, p. 218. Kanduka, kandaka ditch, trench (Tu.); kandakamu id. (Te.); kanda trench made as a fireplace during weddings (Konda); kanda small trench for fireplace (Kui); kandri a pit (Malt)(DEDR 1214) khaa hole, pit. [Cf. *gaa and list s.v. kart1] Pk. Kha f. hole, mine, cave, aga m. one who digs a hole, laya m. hole; Bshk. (Biddulph) kd (= kha?) valley; K. kh m. pit, kh f. small pit, khou m. vulva; S. khaa f. pit; L. kha f. pit, cavern, ravine; P. kha f. pit, ravine, f. hole for a weavers feet ( Ku. Kha, N. kha; H. kha, kha m. pit, low ground, notch; P. kht m. pit, manure, khtt m. grain pit, ludh. Khatt m. ( H. khatt m., khatiy f.); N. kht heap (of stones, wood or corn); B. kht, kht pit, pond; Or. Khta pit, t artificial pond; Bi. Kht hole, gutter, grain pit, notch (on beam and yoke of plough), khatt grain pit, boundary ditch; Mth. Kht, khatt hole, ditch; H. kht m. ditch, well, f. manure, kht m. grain pit; G. khtar n. housebreaking, house sweeping, manure, khtriy n. tool used in housebreaking ( M. khtar f. hole in a wall, khtr m. hole, manure, khtry m. housebreaker); M. kht n.m. manure ( lls d. khatvi to

manure, khter n. muck pit). Un- expl. in L. khv m. excavated pond, kh f.


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digging to clear or excavate a canal (~ S. kht f. id., but khyro m. one employed to measure canal work) and khaa to dig. (CDIAL 3790, 3863) gaa 1 m. ditch lex. [Cf. *gaa1 and list s.v. kart1] Pk. Gaa n. hole; Pa. Gau dike; Kho. (Lor.) g hole, small dry ravine; A. gar high bank; B. ga ditch, hole in a husking machine; Or. Gaa ditch, moat; M. ga f. hole in the game of marbles. 3981 *gaa 1 hole, pit. [G. < *garda? Cf. *ga1 and list s.v. kart1] Pk. Gaa m. hole; Wpah. Bhal. Cur. Ga f., pa. ga, p. Ga river, stream; N. gatir bank of a river; A. gr deep hole; B. g, hollow, pit; Or. Ga hole, cave, gi pond; Mth. Gi piercing; H. g m. hole; G. gar, m. pit, ditch (< *graa < *garda?); Si. Gaaya ditch. Cf. S. gii f. hole in the ground for fire during Muharram. khn: K. gn m. underground room; S. (LM 323) g f. mine, hole for keeping water; L. g m. small embanked field within a field to keep water in; G. g f. mine, cellar; M. g f. cavity containing water on a raised piece of land Wpah.kg. g hole (e.g. after a knot in wood). (CDIAL 3947) 3860 *kha a hollow. [Cf. *khaa and list s.v. kart1] S. kh f. gulf, creek; P. kh level country at the foot of a mountain, f. deep watercourse, creek; Bi. Khr creek, inlet; G. khi , hole. Altern. < *khaa: Gy. Gr. ar f. hole; Ku. kh creek, inlet, khal pit, kh creek, inlet, khahar, al Marw. Kho m. hole; M. kh f. m. hole, f. creek, inlet. The neck-bands hung above the shoulder of the composite animal
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f., m. Kh pit; B. ditch; H. m. hole; hole, creek,

may thus read rebus: trench or fire-pit (i.e. furnace) for smelting/melting the ferrous minerals (to produce m h ingot [glyph: m he face]). The ingot is of an alloy metal with adequate temper to create sharpness as for a dagger. The word denote this characteristic of the metal is: Glyph: phaa cobra's hood; paam n. < phaa. 1. Cobra's hood; . (. 34, 1) [ paamu ] paamu. [Skt.] The hood of a serpent (Telugu) Rebus: patam temper (of metal), sharpness. [ padunu ] or padunu Goodness of metal. The right degree of softness (in boiled areca nut, &c.) . that knife is not properly tempered (Telugu). Glyph: neck-band: ka chain (Prakrit); kaum neck-band, ring ka a chain; a hook; a link (G.); kaum a bracelet, a ring (G.) Rebus: kaiyo [Hem. Des. kaaio = Skt. sthapati a mason] a bricklayer; a mason; kaiyaa, kaiyea a woman of the bricklayer caste; a wife of a bricklayer (G.) Rebus: kh trench, firepit The minerals are described by the hieroglyphic elements connoting five animals: young bull (with pannier), tiger (hind legs), elephant, ram (fore legs), zebu (horns). [ kha ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi) [ gda ] gda. [Tel.] n. An ox. A beast. kine, cattle.(Telugu) koiyum heifer (G.) [ kiya ] ke, kiya. [Tel.] n. A bullcalf. . k* A young bull. Plumpness, prime. . a pair of

bullocks. ke adj. Young. ke-ku. n. A young man.. [ kruke ] kruke. [Tel.] n. A bull in its prime. koiyum (G.) Rebus 2: B. kd to turn in a lathe; Or. kunda lathe, k dib, kud to turn ( Drav. Kur. kud lathe) (CDIAL 3295). Allograph: pannier: k thul, lu m. large bag or parcel (Kashmiri)(CDIAL 3511) Rebus: khi

temple treasury (WPah.); koho warehouse (G.)(CDIAL 3546).

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[ klh ]

[ klh ] A jackal (Marathi) kul tiger (Santali); klu id. (Te.) klupuli

= Bengal tiger (Te.) Pk. kolhuya -- , kulha m. jackal Rebus: kol furnace, forge (Kuwi) kol alloy of five metals, pacaloha (Tamil) ib elephant Rebus ib iron; meha ram me iron; adar zebu, bos indicus Rebus aduru unsmelted metal. padm temper of iron (Tamil) patam n. 1. [K. hada.] Proper consistency; required degree of hardness or softness, quality or fitness; . (. 64).

Sharpness, as of the edge of a knife; . . (Tamil) Glyph: ku (Tamil) ku. (Kannada) Horn; Tusk; .

(. 39, 1). Rebus: ko artisans workshop Allograph: ku a point, the


peak or top of a hill Pa. kaa ring, bracelet ; Pk. kaaya -- m.n. ring , ka -- f. chain ; Gy. wel. ker m. bracelet , gr. kor; Dm. kaa; G. kal , kall n. bracelet, anklet , kal, kall f. ring, armlet . kaka -- m.n. twist of straw Kd., bridle ring Sur., bracelet Klid., Phal. ka bracelet , Sh. kv m., (Lor.) ko, K. karu m.; S. kao m. ring, chain or hasp to fasten door, buttonhole , f. metal ring, anklet ; L. ka m. bracelet, magic circle drawn round person or garden produce to keep off jinni , f. anklet ; P. ka m. bracelet, tyre of wheel , f. ring, manacle ; WPah. bhal. kau n. link of a chain ; Ku. ko bangle ; B. ka lac bracelet worn by women with living husbands , ka metal ring , i ring, bracelet ; Or. ka metal ring, link ; Bi. kar handle of a vessel ; H.ka m. ring, bracelet, anklet , f. metal ring ( Bi. Mth. ka iron ring ); Marw. kao m. bracelet ; G. kao m. large mat , n. circular ring of gold or silver , f. link, hook, chain ; M. ka n., f. metal ring (CDIAL 2629) kahaka m. necklace Kaths., hik -- f. lex. [kah -- ]Pk. kahi -- f., S. P. kah f.; B. k h, ring round the neck (of bird, snake &c.) ; Or. kah necklace , hi one - stringed necklace, horse's halter ; H. kah m. gold necklace ( P. kah m., S. kaho m. necklace ), kah f. small do. , poet. k h m. red and blue ring round
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a parrot's throat ; OM. kh m. necklace . -- Ext. with -- ll -- : S. kahilo m. a kind of necklace for children ; P. kahl f. necklace ; H. kahl, kah m. gold or silver necklace worn as an amulet against evil .WPah.kg. kahi f. hairy ring on neck of some birds .(CDIAL 2681). rebus: kh trench, firepit (G.) Vikalpa: kha f. hole, mine, cave (CDIAL 3790) kanduka, kandaka ditch, trench (Tu.); kandakamu id. (Te.); kanda trench made as a fireplace during weddings (Konda); kanda small trench for fireplace (Kui); kandri a pit (Malt)(DEDR 1214) khaa hole, pit. [Cf. *gaa and list s.v. kart1] Pk. kha f. hole, mine, cave, aga m. one who digs a hole, laya m. hole; Bshk. (Biddulph) "kd" (= kha?) valley; K. kh m. pit, kh f. small pit, khou m. vulva; S. khaa f. pit; L. kha f. pit, cavern, ravine; P. kha f. pit, ravine, f. hole for a weaver's feet ( Ku. kha, N. kha; H. kha, kha m. pit, low ground, notch; Or. kh i edge of a deep pit; M. kha m. rough hole, pit); WPah. kha. kha stream; N. kho pit, bog, khi creek, khal hole (in ground or stone). Altern. < *kha: Gy. gr. xar f. hole; Ku. kh pit; B. kh creek, inlet, khal pit, ditch; H. kh f. creek, inlet, khahar, al m. hole; Marw. kho m. hole; M. kh f. hole, creek, m. hole, f. creek, inlet. 3863 khatra n. hole HPari., pond, spade U. [khan] Pk. khatta n. hole, manure, aya m. one who digs in a field; S. khru m. mine made by burglars, ro m. fissure, pit, gutter made by rain; P. kht m. pit, manure, khtt m. grain pit, ludh. khatt m. ( H. khatt m., khatiy f.); N. kht heap (of stones, wood or corn); B. kht, kht pit, pond; Or. khta pit, t artificial pond; Bi. kht hole, gutter, grain pit, notch (on beam and yoke of plough), khatt grain pit, boundary ditch; Mth. kht, khatt hole, ditch; H. kht m. ditch, well, f. manure, kht m. grain pit; G. khtar n. housebreaking, house sweeping, manure, khtriy n. tool used in housebreaking ( M. khtar f. hole in a wall, khtr m. hole, manure, khtry m. housebreaker); M. khat n.m. manure (deriv. khatvi to manure, khter n. muck pit). Un- expl. in L. khva m. excavated pond, kh f. digging to clear or excavate a canal (~ S. kht f. id., but khyro m. one employed to measure canal work) and khaa to dig. (CDIAL 3790) gaa 1 m. ditch lex. [Cf. *gaa1 and
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list s.v. kart1] Pk. gaa n. hole; Pa. gau dike; Kho. (Lor.) g hole, small dry ravine; A. gar high bank; B. ga ditch, hole in a husking machine; Or. gaa ditch, moat; M. ga f. hole in the game of marbles. 3981 *gaa 1 hole, pit. [G. < *garda ? Cf. *ga1 and list s.v. kart1] Pk. gaa m. hole; WPah. bhal. cur. ga f., pa. ga, p. ga river, stream; N. gatir bank of a river; A. gr deep hole; B. g, hollow, pit; Or. ga hole, cave, gi pond; Mth. gi piercing; H. g m. hole; G. gar, m. pit, ditch (< *graa < *garda?); Si. gaaya ditch. Cf. S. gii f. hole in the ground for fire during Muharram. khn: K. gn m. underground room; S. (LM 323) g f. mine, hole for keeping water; L. g m. small embanked field within a field to keep water in; G. g f. mine, cellar; M. g f. cavity containing water on a raised piece of land WPah.kg. g hole (e.g. after a knot in wood). (CDIAL 3947) 3860 *kha a hollow. [Cf. *khaa and list s.v. kart1] S. kh f. gulf, creek; P. kh level country at the foot of a mountain, f. deep watercourse, creek; Bi. khr creek, inlet; G. khi , f., m. hole. Altern. < *khaa: Gy. gr. xar f. hole; Ku. kh pit; B. kh creek, inlet, khal pit, ditch; H. kh creek, inlet, khahar, al m. hole; Marw. kho m. hole; M. kh f. hole, creek, m. hole, f. creek, inlet. <kana.kana>(A) {ADJ} ``^perforated''. #15890. <kaNa>>: *De.<kana>(GM) `a hole; perforated'. ??hole, to make a hole? #10761. <kaNa-gu-nu> {ADJ} ``^perforated''. |<gu> `?perfect/past', <nu> `adjective'. *De.<kana>(GM) `a hole; perforated'. (Munda) Pk. ka -- full of holes , G. k full of holes , n. hole (CDIAL 3019) Marathi: [ kha ] m A rough hole or pit.

M. kh f. hole, creek , m. hole (CDIAL, no. 3874). Pk. kh -- f. mine ; Gy. as. xani, eur. sp. xan f., boh. xang f., gr. xanng f. well ; K. khn f. mine ; S. khi f. mine, quarry, water in a pit ; L. kh f. mine (CDIAL 3873)
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Rebus: to engrave, write; lapidary: <kana-lekhe>(P) {??} ``??''. |. Cf. <kana->. %16123. #16013. <lekhe->(P),,<leke->(KM) {VTC} ``to ^write''. Cf. <kana-lekhe>. *Kh.<likhae>, H.<lIkhAna>, O.<lekhIba>, B.<lekha>; Kh.<likha>(P), Mu.<lika>. %20701. #20541. Kashmiri: khanun conj. 1 (1 p.p. khonu for 1, see s.v.;

f. kh to dig (K.Pr. 155, 247; L. 459; iv. 59, 746, 994, 143, 1197, 1214, 1373, 1754; Rm. 343, 958, 1147, 1724; H. xii, 6); to engrave (iv. 414, 671, 176; Rm. 1583). khonu-motu ; perf. part. (f. khm) dug (e.g. a field, or a well); ; or (Gr.M.) m har-kan m. a seal-

engraved. m hara-khonu

engraver, a lapidary (El. mohar-kand). -w j *

f. a signet-ring.

DEDR 1170 Ta. kaam iron style for writing on palmyra leaves. Te. gaamu id.*khla2 cavity, hollow . 2. *khlla -- 2. 3. *kha -- . 4. *khra -- 2. [Cf. Par. khur cave IIFL i 265]1. Pa. gul. khl ravine ; P. khol f. cavity, hollow ; WPah. cur. kho stream ; N. kholo small river, valley ; Bi. khol, li trough in which the share lies when fixed in body of plough ; H. khol, la m. cavity, cave ; -- A. kholiba to hollow out , kholni mortice ; Or. khoib to dig . -- X kar -- q.v.2. Pk. kholla -- n. hollow ; L. khol hollow ; Or. khola cave ; G. khol f. hollowness ; M. khol deep .3. Kho. (Lor.) kh cave, hollow under rock ; P. kho f. cavity, hollow ; -- A. khor cavity, hole or < *khra -- 2.4. Gy. arm. xor deep, hollow, depth , eur. xor deep, depth , wel. xor deep ; Sh. (Lor.) kr cave ; L. khor enclosure ; P. khor empty ; N. khor enclosure, trap , ro crack in skin of foot , ri small pocket of leaves ; A. khor cave (or < *kha -- ); B. khor sore in foot -- andmouth disease ; H. khorm. cave , f. cavity , r m. pit, cave ; M. khor m. glen . Addenda: *khla -- 2. 3. kha -- : WPah.kg. khv m. lowest storey of house where cattle are kept (often dug into the hillside) (but cf. P. ku, kgr. kuh f. enclosure for cattle Him.I 35); -- perh. also khv dung, manure . (CDIAL 3943)

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Nindowari-damb01

Nindowari-damb Seal Bull ID 3756 Blacksmith, nodule/ore worker in wood and metal, furnace, casting smithy, mine-worker, scribe guild, granary, iron, bronze [ kha ] f S) [ kha ] f f A squirrel; Rebus: () Pebbles or small stones: also stones broken up (as for a road) (i.e. nodules/ore stones) badhi to ligature, to bandage, to splice, to join by successive rolls of a ligature (Santali) bat bamboo slips (Kur.); bate = thin slips of bamboo (Malt.)(DEDR 3917). Rebus: bahi = worker in wood and metal (Santali) baae = blacksmith (Ash.) bhaa six (G.) bhaa furnace (G.) kolom = cutting, graft; to graft, engraft, prune; kolma hoo = a variety of the paddy plant (Desi)(Santali.) kolom three (Mu.) Rebus: kolami furnace, smithy (Te.) dol likeness; rebus: dul cast (metal)(Mu.) Doubling of harrow spikes thus connotes cast (native metal)

kaa kanka rim of jar (Santali) kaa furnace, fire-altar (Santali); khanaka miner karaka scribe (Skt.) karaa business.
[aka] m ( S) Also m A hook or crook, a curved end gen. (M.) Rebus: [ akh ] m ( H) A community, or the common place of residence or of assembly, of persons engaged in study or some particular pursuit; a college, a disputation-hall, a gymnasium, circus, arena. Hence, A club or clubroom; a stand of
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idlers, loungers, newsmongers, gossips, scamps. 2 An order of men. Ex. .(M.) [ kha ] m A granary. An apartment. ayo fish(Mu.); ayas iron (Skt.)

koa bend (Ko.); Tu. ki corner; ku angle, corner, crook. Nk. kna corner (DEDR
2054b) G. khu f. angle Rebus: kd to turn in a lathe(B.) knda engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems (Marathi) Rebus: khu community, guild (Mu.); kuna consecrated fire-pit. Rebus: [ kha ] f A mass of metal (unwrought or of old metal [khasa] a ( & from ) melted down); an ingot or wedge. Hence

Alloyed--a metal. (Marathi) Bshk. kho embers, Phal. kho ashes, burning coal; L. kho f. alloy, impurity, alloyed, aw. kho forged; P. kho m. base, alloy M.kho alloyed (CDIAL 3931) Allograph: kha leafless tree (Marathi). Thus, a spy on a branch of a leafless tree: heraka spy Rebus: eraka copper. Together, the hieroglyphs of leafless tee + spy on a branch connote eraka kho copper alloy metals.

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Svastika, jasta, sattiya as an architectural term and as denoting zinc mineral Drummer hieroglyph is shown on Mohenjo-daro seal m0312.

m0312 Persons vaulting over a water-buffalo. m1406B 102: Drummer and people vaulting over? An adorant?

2827

Pict-

People vaulting over a buffalo hieroglhyph is shown on two other seals. Steatite stamp seal with a water-buffalo and leapers. Seal: Mohenjo-daro, Harappan, ca. 2600 1900 BCE. National Museum, New Delhi, 147.

Glyphs: ollu. To fall, to roll over Rebus: dol(u)cu to make a hole. h large stone. The message of the hieroglyphs is thus: large ring-stone.

h182A bas-relief

h182B

4306 Tablet in

har609 terracotta tablet, bas-relief h182a Pict-107: Drummer and a tiger. h182b Five svastika signs alternating right- and left-handed. The glyph svastika reads rebus: svastika A palace of particular form. A mansion or temple of a particular form with a terrace in front. A mansion or temple of a partic. Form VarBrS (Monier-Williams, p. 1283). Glyph: count of 5: m = five (Santali) Rebus: ma = warehouse, workshop (Kon.lex.) maom a raised platform or scaffold (Santali). Ko. man Toda mund (i.e.
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village); mandm (obl. mandt-) meeting. To. mo (obl. mot-) locus of tribal activity, including village with dairy, dairy apart from village, patrilineal clan. Ka. mandu hamlet of the Todas on the Nilagiri.

kol tiger Rebus: kol working in iron, blacksmith (Tamil). hla m. large drum Rebus: h large stone.
Text of inscription read rebus: G.kar n. pl. wristlets, bangles; S. kar f. wrist (CDIAL 2779). Rebus: khr blacksmith (Kashmiri) dula pair Rebus: dul cast (meta). dul

to cast in a mould; dul mht, dul mee, dul; koe mee forged iron (Santali)

kanka Rim of jar (Santali); karaka rim of jar(Skt.) Rebus: karaka scribe (Telugu); gaaka id. (Skt.) (Santali) Thus, the text message reads: kanka scribe blacksmith
casting metal. ' The Svastika (house) is auspicious, if it has the terrace on the east side, and one continual terrace along the west side, at the ends whereof begin two other terraces going from west to east, while between the extremities of the latter lies a fourth terrace.' From Manasara, Chapter IX (Acharya, Prasanna Kumar, 1946, An encyclopaedia of

Hindu architecture, Manasara Series, Vol. VII, OUP, p.46) In connexion with the
description of a Svastika (shaped) house, the text reads : Prishtie tu dirgha-koshthah syat purva-koshtham tatha bhavet I Bahya(-e) bahya(-e) sala-dvayam netram yuktam tu karkari-yutam (ibid., p.104). Manasara, Chapter IX details the positioning of four gates for a village: Svastikagram chatur-dikshu dvaram tesharh prakalpayet I Evam chashta-maha-dvaram dikshu dikshu dvayam tatah Mrige chaivantarikshe va bhringaraja-bhrise tatha I Seshe vapi cha roge va chaditau chodite'pi va I Evam etad upa-dvaram kuryat tatra vichakshanah I
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Maha-dvaram tu sarvesham langalakara-sannibham I Kapata-dvaya-samyuktam dvaranam tat prithak prithak I (Manasara, Ch. IX, pp. 355-361). A pavilion with three faces is called svastika: Dvi-vaktrah dandakah proktarh tri-vaktrah svastikah tatha I (Manasara, xxxiv, 552.) This may explain the presence of two polished pillars in Dholavira dividing the pavilion immediately after the gateway entrance into three faces or three parts. The two 'sthambs' or pillars, in the pavilion of Dholavira. The main through-way in the citadel was segregated in three sections, marked by means of 2 polished pillars thus making it a svastika pavilion with three faces -- tri-vaktrah svastikah -, as described in Manasara. Thus, together, the set of 5 svastika glyphs connote a warehouse with a terrace or raised platform in front. Ring-stone as an architectural member to hold a pillar was found at Dholavira. The archaeological evidence of rinstones from Mohenjodaro, Harappa and Tepe Yahya are also shown.

71

h1971 Harappa. Plano convex molded tablet discovered in 1996 excavations by HARP. Three tablets with identical glyphic compositions on both sides: h1970, h1971 and h1972. Obverse: Seated figure or deity with reed house or shrine at one side. Crocodile + person kicking & spearing buffalo. Rebus reading of obverse side of tablet: kola woman (Nahali) kol tiger Rebus:

kol working in iron, blacksmith (Tamil). eraka nave of wheel


Rebus: eraka copper. Ibha elephant Rebus: ib iron ibbo merchant. Pk. ka -- blind of one eye, blind; Ash. k a, f. blind, Kt. K (CDIAL 3019) Rebus: ka tools, pots and pans and metalware. Reverse side: Set 1 tablet: The hieroglyphs denote a smithy/forge stone-working, mint, working & trading in iron and copper. kar, crocodile Rebus: khr

blacksmith (Kashmiri) + kolsa, kicking Rebus: kolimi


smithy/forge. k 2 32). k 1 m. a section, part in general; a cluster, bundle, multitude (iv. m. the stalk or stem of a reed, grass, or the like, straw. In the [ kae

compound with dan 5 (p. 221a, l. 13) the word is spelt k. (Kashmiri) ] kae. [Tel.] n. A head or ear of millet or maize.

. Rebus: k stone. Ga.

(Oll.) kan, (S.) kanu (pl. kankil) stone (DEDR 1298). kamaha penance (Pkt.) Rebus: kampaam coiner, mint (Tamil) There are other tablets of the same site discovered in 1930 excavations, with a different set of hieroglyphs on reverse side. Referred as Set 2 tabet: crocodile + person seated on branch of tree + tiger looking back and up + rhinoceros + tiger in procession. Reverse side: Set 2 tablet: The hieroglyphs denote a copper turner artisan (making) tools, pots and pans and metal-ware. heraka spy Rebus: eraka
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copper. kha leafless tree (Marathi) Rebus: kdr turner (Bengali) kar, crocodile khr blacksmith (Kashmiri) kol tiger Rebus: kol working in iron, blacksmith (Tamil) kammara turned back Rebus: kamar artisan. Rhinoceros: ga4 m. rhinoceros lex., aka -- m. lex. 2. *ga- yaa -- [Prob. of same non - Aryan origin as khag --1: cf. gatsha -- m. lex. as a Sanskritized form Mu. PMWS 138]1. Pa. gaaka -- m., Pk. gaaya -- m., A. g r, Or. ga. 2. K. go m., S. geo m. (lw. with g -- ), P. ga m., f., N. gao, H. ga m., G. g m., f., M. g m. WPah.kg. ge mirg m. rhinoceros , Md. gen H. (CDIAL 4000). [M. kmgam.] Rhinoceros; pans and metal-ware. Impression of a cylinder seal. Kalibangan. Glosses from Indian sprachbund: Glyph: hol a drum beaten on one end by a stick and on the other by the hand (Santali); hol drum (Nahali); dhol (Kurku) hla m. large drum Rudray. 2. *hlla -- . [Only OAw. definitely attests -- l -- ] 1. Gy. pal. daul drum , Pa. l ( Par. uhl IIFL iii 3, 65), Kho. (Lor.) dol, K. l m., kash. hl, L. P. Ku. N. A. B. hol, OAw. hora m., H. hol m. -- Ext. -- kk -- : L. holk f. small drum , Ku. holko, H. holak f. 2. Pk. holla -- m., Or. hola, Mth. Bhoj. Aw. lakh. Marw. G. M. hol m. S.kcch. holk f. small drum ; Pah.kg. hl m. large drum , hlki f. small drum , hlk m. drum ; -WPah.kg. hllu drummer . (CDIAL 5608). [ lu ] lu. [Tel.] n. A drum.
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k-mirukam , n. . (Tamil) Rebus: ka tools, pots and

ollu. [Tel.] v. n. To fall, to roll over. , . [ olucu ] or olusu. [Tel.] v. n. To tumble head over heels as dancing girls do (Telugu) Mth. Bhoj. Aw. lakh. Marw. G. M. hol m. *hlayati makes fall (CDIAL 5608). *dulati swings . 2. *dulyati. [dul] 1. Pk. ula shakes ; -- altern. < 2: K. ulun to roll (CDIAL 6453). <Dula> {VT} ``to ^roll (something)''. *De.<Dul->(GM) `to lie down; to turn oneself over', <Dul-i.Dul-i>(G) `rolling', <Dul-> `to roll'. @V0501. #6521. <Dulei> {VI} ``to ^roll, to ^sway''. *De.<Dulai->(GM) `to lay down a child; to turn back, to wallow, roll down'. @V0502,V0646. #6530.(Munda etyma)

Ta. to (top-, to-) to perforate, bore with an instrument; tokal perforating;


toku excavation, pit; toal hole; toai hole, perforation, pit, anything tubular, fault, defect;toai (-pp-, -tt-) to perforate, bore; n. hole; tuai (-pp-, -tt-) to make a hole, bore, drill, punch, pierce as with an arrow; n. hole, orifice, aperture, perforation, hollow as of a tube, bamboo, gateway, passage, flaw in a diamond; tuavai hole; t (tp-, t-) to perforate, bore through, dig out, scoop; n. hole; toi hole. Ma. toa hole, cavity; tuahole, bored hole; tuayuka to be perforated; tuekka to perforate, pierce, bore. Ko. toy- (toc-) to pierce; toy hole in pen-post; to hole, vagina; tei(g) hole in wall between two houses (for handing through fire, etc.). To. ty gate-post of pen with holes for bars; ty- (tc-) to make hole in stone or tree. Ka. toe hole, bored hole; toe hollow, hole, cavity, deficit, debt; oe hollow, cavity; ou, tou state of being hollow, void, or empty within; toli hole, socket. Tu. toluv hole; tolpuni, dopuni to prick; tou hole; empty; ou, ou, to void, hollow. Te. toli, tolika hole; tol(u)cu to bore, perforate, hollow, dig, scoop, carve; doi hole; (K.) dol(u)cu to make a hole; olla hollow, concave. Go. (Tr.) tulln to be bored, pierced; caus. tulhuttn; (Mu.) tullih- to scrape out or bore out the pulp of a gourd (Voc. 1762); (A. Y.) oo pit (ASu. ho); (Tr.) hhur hole in a tree (Voc. 1611); (Tr.) the hole-entrance to the nest of the

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bee called mas-phuk (Voc. 1536). Kui doa a pitted surface, pitted sore. ? Cf. 3532 Ta. to-yiram. (DEDR 3528). WPah.kg. (kc.) h m. stone, kg. h m. big stone or boulder, hu small id. Him.I 87. Ku. dalo large stone ; Ku. dall, dl large rocks and stones, debris and sand .L. ilh (pl. h) f. boulder , (CDIAL 5536). Vikalpa: maao to occupy a new house, to take up ones residence; mahwa,

maua, mawa a temporary shed or booth erected on the occasion of a marriage; maom a raised platform or scaffold; m om a platform, used to keep straw on, or
from which to watch crops (Santali) mandar the headman of a village; mawari the Marwari caste of hindus Ko. man Toda mund (i.e. village); burning place for dry funeral; mandm (obl. mandt-) meeting. To. mo (obl. mot-) locus of tribal activity, including village with dairy, dairy apart from village, and funeral place; patrilineal clan.

Ka. mandu hamlet of the Todas on the Nilagiri. Ko. mand village green; Ta. mau hall
of assembly, golden hall of Chidambaram, court of justice, arbitration court, cow-stall, herd of cows, raised platform under a tree for village meetings, center of a garden, junction of four roads or streets (DEDR 4777). Person throwing a spear at a buffalo and placing one foot on the head of the buffalo. 2279 seal impression, Mohenjo-daro (DK 8165); after Mackay 1938: pl.88, no.279 kole.l = smithy, temple in Kota village (Kota) ; To. kwalal Kota smithy (Toda); kolsa = to kick the foot forward, the foot to come into contact with anything when walking or running; kolsa pasirkedan = I kicked it over (Santali.lex.) kola = killing, e.g. ukola = woman-slaying (Te.) Tu. kol murder (DEDR 2132). Rebus:
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Ko. koll blacksmith; Kuwi (F.) kolhali to forge; Ta. kol working in iron,
blacksmith; kolla blacksmith. Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer. (DEDR 2133). Text 2279 Glyph: full stretch of ones arms: k 2 m. a man's

length, the stature of a man (as a measure of length) (Rm. 632, zangan kaun k, to stretch oneself the whole length of one's body. So K. 119)(Kashmiri). Rebus: k stone. Ga. (Oll.) kan, (S.) kanu (pl. kankil) stone (DEDR 1298). mayponi kan whetstone; (Ga.)(DEDR 4628). A rock, stone. kha m. rock lex. [Cf. knta -- 2 m. stone lex.]Bshk. kr large stone AO xviii 239.(CDIAL 3018). [ aaskahina ] as hard as iron; extremely hard (Bengali) kha m. rock lex. [Cf. knta -- 2 m. stone lex.] Bshk. kr large stone AO xviii 239. kau , n. < gaa. 1. Clod, lump; . (. . 99.) 2. Wen; . 3. Bead or something like a pendant in an ornament for the neck; . (S.I.I. ii, 429).

Marathi: [ kha ] m A rough hole or pit. M. kh f. hole, creek , m. hole (CDIAL, no. 3874). Pa.kandi (pl. l) necklace, beads. Ga. (P.) kandi (pl. l) bead, (pl.) necklace; (S.2) kandi bead (DEDR 1215). Kandil, kandl = a globe of glass, a lantern (Ka.lex.)

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Mohenjodaro seal. bre, brae = an offering of food to a demon; a meal after fasting, a breakfast (Tu.) barada, barda, birada = a vow (G.lex.) Rebus: baran, bharat (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin)(P.B.) Glyph (seven women): bahul = Pleiades (Skt.) baga = name of a certain godess (Te.) baga ,bagae, vagal (Ka.); baka , bagal , vaga (Te.) Rebus 1: bagalo = an Arabian merchant vessel (G.) bagala = an Arab boat of a particular description (Ka.); bagal (M.); bagarige, bagarage = a kind of vessel (Kannada) Reebus 2: bangala = kumpai = an:gra aka = a chafing dish a portable stove a goldsmiths portable furnace (Telugu) cf. bangaru bangaramu = gold (Te.) Rebus 3: bhgaiyo = a bazaar shopkeeper (G.lex) baka (Ka.); bala = a shopkeeper with contemptuous implications (M.)(Ka.lex.) bakl = [Ar. bakkl, a greengrocer fr. bakc, vegetable] a petty shopkeeper; bnia (so called in contempt); baklu = fresh vegetables (Gujarati)

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kd, k bunch of twigs (Skt.lex.) kd (also written as k in manuscripts) occurs in the Atharvaveda (AV 5.19.12) and Kauika Stra (Bloomsfields ed.n, xliv. Cf. Bloomsfield, American Journal of Philology, 11, 355; 12,416; Roth, Festgruss an Bohtlingk, 98) denotes it as a twig. This is identified as that of Badar, the jujube tied to the body of the dead to efface their traces. (See Vedic Index, I, p. 177). Rebus 1: kuila, katthl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) [cf. ra-ka, brass (Skt.) (CDIAL 3230) Rebus 2: kuhi smelting furnace (Santali) koe forged (metal) (Santali)

a man's length, the stature of a man (as a measure of length); rebus: k

stone; Ga. (Oll.) kan , (S.) kanu (pl. kankil) stone.

loa = a species of fig tree, ficus glomerata, the fruit of ficus glomerata (Santali) Rebus:
lo iron (Assamese, Bengali); loa iron (Gypsy). rebus: loh metal (Skt.) Rebus: lo copper. bahu large pot Rebus: furnace. Thus, together, the composite hieroglyph reads rebus: lo bahu copper furnace. See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2013/06/ancient-near-east-bronze-agelegacy_6.html Ancient Near East bronze-age legacy: Processions depicted on Narmer palette, Indus writing denote artisan guilds

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