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11

H tn:

VT L 11
L thuyt, bi tp t lun, trc nghim
Chng 1
in tch - in trng
*
*
*
*
*

- in tch
- nh lut Coulomb
- in trng
- Hiu in th
- T in

TPHCM, 22/08/2013

Chng 1. in tch - in trng

BI 1. IN TCH - THUYT ELECTRON


- in tch l g? Vt nh th no c gi l mang in?
- Tng tc in l g? Ti sao cc vt c th mang in?
- Lm cch no nhim in cho mt vt?

I. VT MANG IN - IN TCH
- Mt vt mang in (nhim in) l mt vt c kh nng ht c nhng vt nh nh khc v c
th tng tc vi cc vt mang in khc.
- C 2 loi in m vt c th mang: DNG V M
Cng du y nhau ; Tri du ht nhau
- Lng in mt vt cha trong n c gi l IN TCH.
- Mt vt mang in cng cn c gi l in tch.
K hiu: q,

coulomb:
C: :

Q. n v: coulomb (C)

mC = 10-3 C ::
nC = 10-9 C : :

C = 10-6 C
pC = 10-12 C

II.THUYT ELECTRON
- Mt vt bnh thng trung ho v in c ngha l s in tch dng bng s in tch m.
. in tch m ca vt (nguyn t) l electron (qe = -1,6.10-19 C)
. in tch dng ca vt (nguyn t) l proton (qp = 1,6.10-19 C)
- Trong hai loi in tch, ht no d b ht hoc tch ra hn?

- Th suy ngh: ion Ca2+, ion Cl-, ht nhn He mang in tch bao nhiu?
:.............................................................................................................................................................
- Th suy ngh: mt in tch 3,2.10-10 C d hoc thiu bao nhiu electron?
:.............................................................................................................................................................

III.CC CCH LM NHIM IN MT VT


Nguyn liu

C xt
Tip xc

Kt qu

Hai vt trung ho hoc


nhim in

2 vt tri du
ln bng nhau

t nht 1 vt nhim
in

2 vt nhim in
ging nhau

t nht 1 vt nhim

1 vt nhim in
trn tng phn

Hng ng in

Gc Ring Trn Bn:

Qu trnh

Vt l 11

BI 2. NH LUT BO TON IN TCH


NH LUT COULOMB
- in tch c c bo ton nh ng lng, nng lng? Trong iu kin no?
- Khi no xut hin lc Coulomb l g? Cc c im ca vect lc Coulomb?

I. NH LUT BO TON IN TCH


- Lp bng so snh in tch cc vt trong mi qu trnh nhim in.
C xt
Tip xc
Hng ng

q1
0
0
0

q2
0
2
-1

q1 + q2
0
2
-1

q1
-1
1
0

q2
1
1
-1

q1 + q2
0
2
-1

nh lut bo ton in tch: Trong mt h c lp v in, tng i s cc in tch


c bo ton.
q1 + q2 = q1 + q2
- Cn nh: Khi a hai qu cu kim loi ging nhau tch in q1, q2 chm nhau

q1' = q2' =

q1 + q2
2

II.NH LUT COULOMB


- Cc in tch tng tc vi nhau bng mt lc --> Lc tnh in (Lc Coulomb)
- Lc Coulomb xut hin khi hai in tch c t gn nhau.

nh lut Coulomb: lc tng tc gia hai in tch im c phng nm trn


mt ng thng ni hai in tch im, c chiu l chiu ca lc ht nu hai in
tch im khc du v y nu hai in tch im cng du, c ln t l thun
vi tch cc in tch v t l nghch vi bnh phng khong cch gia chng.
im t
Phng

Trn 2 in tch
Ni tm 2 in tch
Theo quy lut tng tc in cng y, tri ht

Chiu

FC
ln

q1q2
F=k 2
r
: hng s in mi (kk = ck = 1)
k = 9x109 (Nm2/C2)

4:

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Chng 1. in tch - in trng<

BI 3. IN TRNG - CNG IN TRNG


- in trng l g?
- ng sc in l g? Cc tnh cht ca ng sc in?
- ngha ca cng in trng?

I. IN TRNG
- in trng l mi trng vt cht c bit tn ti xung quanh in tch.
- in trng c trng cho in tch v phng din tc dng lc. Ni cch khc, bt k in tch no
khc nm trong in trng u chu tc dng lc.
- ng sc in: l nhng ng tng tng m t in trng
- Tnh cht ng sc in:
* L nhng ng thng hoc cong.
* Khng bao gi ct nhau.
* Lun hng ra khi in tch dng, hng vo in tch m (ra dng vo m)
* Cng dy cng mnh, cng tha cng yu.

II.CNG IN TRNG
- Cng in trng l i lng c trng cho in trng v phng din tc dng lc ti mt im.
- Khi ni n cng in trng, phi ni r: CT do IN TCH q0 gy ra ti IM M.
- Ti im M c cng EM, khi t in tch q vo th q s chu tc dng ca lc F.
K hiu: E. n v: V/m.
- Cng in trng l mt i lng vect.

EM

im t

Ti im ang xt

Phng

Ni in tch vi im ang xt

Chiu

ln

E=k

q
r2

q: in tch gy ra in trng

F = q0 E
q0: in tch chu tc dng ca trng

III.IN TRNG U
- in trng u l in trng m cng ti mi im u nh nhau (hng v ln)
- ng sc ca in trng u l cc ng thng song song v cch u nhau, lun hng t bn
dng sang bn m.

Gc Ring Trn Bn:

Vt l 11

BI 4. CNG CA IN TRNG - HIU IN TH


- Cng ca in trng c xc nh nh th no?
- Hiu in th l g? ngha ca n l g?

I. CNG CA IN TRNG
- Mt in tch t trong in trng s chu tc dng ca lc in trng FE. Cng lc , nu
in tch di chuyn, ta ni lc in trng thc hin cng A.
- Cng thc tnh cng ca lc in trng

AMN = qEd MN

dMN: hnh chiu ca MN trn phng ca vect cng in trng

- Cng ca in trng khng ph thuc vo dng ng i m ch ph thuc vo v tr im u


v im cui.
--> Lc in trng l mt lc th.

II.TH NNG - IN TH - HIU IN TH


- in trng l mt trng th --> mt in tch t trong in trng s c th nng. Th nng
ca in tch ti im M c gi tr bng cng in trng thc hin khi dch chuyn in tch t
im M ra xa v cng. Khi gc th nng c chn xa v cng.

WtM = AM
- IN TH l i lng c trng cho kh nng thc hin cng ca in trng ti mt im. K
hiu: VM (V). Gc in th thng chn xa v cng.

VM = WtM/q
- HIU IN TH l i lng th hin s chnh lch in th gia hai im trong in trng.
K hiu: U. n v: volt

(V).

UMN = VM - VN

U MN = d MN E
dMN = MN: hnh chiu ca MN trn ng sc in E

- Cng thc tnh cng ca in trng theo hiu in th

AMN = qU MN
A > 0: cng pht ng
A < 0: cng cn

VD: in tch q > 0 chuyn ng t in th cao n in th thp --> cng pht ng


- 1 V/m l cng ca mt in trng u m trong hiu in th gia hai im cch nhau 1
m trn phng ca in trng l 1 V.
6:

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Chng 1. in tch - in trng<

BI 5. T IN
- T in l thit b g? i lng no c trng cho t in?
- T in dng lm g?

I. T IN L G?
- T in l thit b c s dng lu gi in.
- Cu to ca t in phng n gin gm:
* 2 bn kim loi t song song
* Mt mi trng in mi t gia hai bn
- Hot ng ca t in: di tc dng ca hiu in
th U, bn ni vi cc in th cao (cc +) tch in +Q, v bn cn li tch in -Q. Khi ta ni t tch
in Q.
- Hiu in th cng cao, in tch trn t cng tng. Mt t in ch c th c cha (tch) in n mt
gii hn ng vi Qmax v Ugh. Nu U > Ugh --> t b thng, Q = 0, t nh mt dy dn bnh thng.
- i lng c trng cho kh nng tch in ca t l IN DUNG. T c in dung cng ln th cng tch
nhiu in cng hiu in th. Ngi ta phn bit t in bng in dung ca n.
K hiu: C. n v: farad

(F).

Q = CU
- in dung ca t in ch ph thuc vo cu to ca t. i vi t in phng n gin, in dung c
tnh theo cng thc

C=

S
4 kd
S: din tch phn i din ca hai bn (m2)
d: khong cch gia hai bn (m)
: hng s in mi ca in mi gia hai bn

II.NNG LNG T IN
- T in c kh nng phng in, sinh ra cng --> t in c mang nng lng.
- V gia t in l mt in trng nn ta c th ni nng lng t in l nng lng ca in trng

1
1 Q2 1
2
W = CU =
= QU
2
2 C 2
III.GHP T IN

Gc Ring Trn Bn:

Ghp t song song

Ghp t ni tip

U = U1 = U 2
Q = Q1 + Q2
C// = C1 + C2

U = U1 + U 2
Q = Q1 = Q2
1
1
1
CC
=
+
Cnt = 1 2
Cnt C1 C2
C1 + C2

Vt l 11

STT

8:

Cu hi

Lm th no nhn bit mt vt c nhim in hay khng?

C my cch lm nhim in mt vt? K tn.

Nu ni dung ca thuyt electron.

Pht biu nh lut bo ton in tch.

C mt thanh kim loi. Lm sao bit thanh ny c nhim in hay khng v nhim in g?

Pht biu nh lut Coulomb.

Lc Coulomb xut hin lc no?

Nu cc c im ca vect lc Coulomb.

in trng l g?

10

ng sc in l g?

11

Nu tnh cht ca ng sc in.

12

ngha ca cng in trng.

13

K hiu, n v ca cng in trng.

14

Nu cc c im ca vect cng in trng.

15

Nu cng thc lin h gia cng in trng v lc in trng.

16

Mt in tch dng b lc in trng ko i t tri sang phi, vy cng in trng hng


nh th no?

17

Nu tnh cht cng ca lc in.

18

in th l g?

19

Hiu in th l g? ngha.

20

T in l g?

21

Ngi ta tch in cho t in bng cch no?

22

Ngi ta phng in cho t in bng cch no?

23

in dung l g?

24

Nu v d chng t t in c mang nng lng.

25

Khi no t b thng?

26

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Chng 1. in tch - in trng<

C1

IN TCH - LC COULOMB

TL1

1 C hai qu cu kim loi ging nhau c tch in q1 = 1 nC v q2 = -5 nC. Xc nh in tch ca hai


qu cu lc sau nu
a. a hai qu cu chm nhau.
b. chm tay (c ni t) vo q1 ri a hai qu cu chm nhau.
c. chm tay (khng ni t) vo q2 ri a hai qu cu chm nhau.
2 Hai qu cu kim loi ging nhau c tch in ln lt l q1 v q2. Bit q1 - q2 = 10-10 C. Cho hai qu
cu chm nh vo nhau th thy in tch ca mi qu cu lc sau l 2.10-10 C. Xc nh in tch q1, q2.
3 Hai qu cu kim loi ging nhau c tch in ging nhau l q. Chm nh tay (khng ni t) vo mt
qu cu ri a hai qu cu chm vo nhau. Khi in tch ca hai qu cu l 3 C. Hi in tch q l
bao nhiu?
4 Hai qu cu kim loi ging nhau c tch in ln lt l q1 = 4.10-10 C v q2 = -8.10-10 C.
a. S electron tha hoc thiu trn mi in tch l bao nhiu?
b. a hai qu cu chm vo nhau ri tch ra, in tch lc sau ca chng l bao nhiu? c bao
nhiu electron chuyn qua li gia cc qu cu?
5 Xc nh vect lc Coulomb tc dng gia hai in tch
a. q1 = -3 nC v q2 = -6 nC c t cch nhau 4 mm trong chn khng.
b. q1 = 1,1 pC v q2 = -0,4 pC c t cch nhau 2 mm trong mi trng c hng s in mi l 2,2.
6 Gia hai in tch q1 = -4 nC v q2 = 2 nC t trong chn khng, ngi ta o c lc tng tc in
c ln l 1,8.10-4 N. Xc nh khong cch gia hai in tch.
7 Mt in tch im q = -4 nC c t ti im A trong chn khng. Khi t mt in tch im Q ti
im B cch A 2 mm th ngi ta thy Q b ko v pha q bng mt lc 0,018 N. Xc nh du ca Q v
gi tr ca Q l bao nhiu?
8 Trong tinh th mui n, khong cch gia hai ion Na+ v Cl- l 2,51 (1 = 10-10 m). Xem cc lc
tng tc khc l khng ng k. Xc nh lc Coulomb gia hai ion ny.
9 Hai qu cu kim loi ging nhau tch in q1 = 4 pC v q2 = -2.10-3 nC. a hai qu cu ny chm nhau
ri tch chng ra cch nhau 1 cm. Hy xc nh vect lc in tc dng ln mi qu cu.
10 Hai qu cu kim loi ging nhau c tch in tri du ln lt l q1 v q2. Bit q1 > 0 v q1 + q2 > 0.
t hai qu cu ti hai im A, B cch nhau 1 mm th thy lc in tc dng ln chng l 4,32.10-3 N.
Sau cho chng chm nh vo nhau ri a v li v tr c, lc in by gi c gi tr l 9.10-5 N. Xc
nh gi tr q1, q2.
11 Hai in tch im q1 = -2 nC v q2 = 3 nC c t ti hai im A v B nm cch nhau 4 cm trong chn
khng. Ti im D l trung im ca AB, ngi ta t mt in tch im q3 = 1 nC. Xc nh ln lc
tng hp tc dng ln q3.
12 Cho 3 im A, B, D nm thng hng. Ngi ta o c AB = 10 cm, BD = 4 cm, AD = 14 cm. Ln lt
t 3 in tch im q1 = q2 = 2q3 = 7.10-10 C vo cc im A, B, D. Xc nh ln lc tng hp tc
dng ln in tch t ti A.
13 Hai in tch im q1 = -2q2 = 5 nC c t ti hai im A v B nm cch nhau 10 cm trong chn
khng. Ti im D cch A 6 cm, cch B 8 cm, ngi ta t mt in tch q3 = -2 nC. Xc nh vect lc
in tng hp tc dng ln q3.
14 Cho tam gic u ABC cnh 6 mm nm trong chn khng. Ti 3 nh ca tam gic ngi ta t 3 in
tch ging nhau l q = -2 pC. Xc nh lc in tng hp ti in tch t ti nh A ca tam gic.
15 Mt h hai in tch q1 = -8 nC v q2 c t ti 2 im A, B cch nhau 10 cm trong chn khng. Ti
im D nm cch A 6 cm, cch B 8 cm, ngi ta t mt in tch q3 = -5 nC th thy lc in tc dng
ln q3 l mt vect c phng song song vi AB.
a. V hnh v xc nh du ca q2.
b. Tnh gi tr ca q2.
16 Ngi ta t hai in tch q1 = 3 nC v q2 = 6 nC ln lt ti hai im A, B cch nhau 10 cm. Mt in
tch khc q3 = -2 nC c t ti im D chu tc dng ca lc in do q1 v q2 gy ra. Bit rng lc F13
vung gc vi lc F23 v ln F13 = 3.F23.
a. Xc nh khong cch AD, BD.
b. Tnh lc tng hp tc dng ln q3.
Gc Ring Trn Bn:

Vt l 11

17 Hai in tch im q1 = q2 = -5 nC c t ti hai im A, B cch nhau 8 cm trong chn khng. Ti


im D cch u A, B 5 cm, ngi ta t mt in tch im q3 = -4 nC. Xc nh vect lc in tng
hp tc dng ti D.
18 Hai in tch im q1 = -3 nC v q2 = -2 nC c t ti hai im A v B nm cch nhau 2 cm trong
chn khng. Ti im D nm cch A 6 cm, cch B 4 cm, ngi ta t mt in tch im q3. Lc tng
hp tc dng ln q3 c ln 1,875.10-5 N. Xc nh ln q3.
19 Cho 3 im A, B, D nm thng hng. Ngi ta o c AB = 10 cm, BD = 5 cm, AD = 15 cm. Ln lt
t 2 in tch im q1 = q2 = -5.10-10 C vo cc im A, B. Ti D, t mt in tch im q3 sao cho lc
in tng hp tc dng vo q1 bng 0. Xc nh gi tr q3.
20 Hai in tch im ging nhau q1 = - q2 = 4 pC c t ti hai im A, B nm cch nhau 3 cm trong
chn khng. Khi t mt in tch im q3 ti im D th q3 nm cn bng. Xc nh v tr im D.
21 Hai qu cu kim loi c kch thc khng ng k c tch in ln lt l q1 = -5.10-9 C v q2. t 2
qu cu ny cch nhau 5 cm. Ti v tr cch q1 8 cm, cch q2 3 cm, ngi ta t thm mt qu cu na
tch in q3. Khi , lc tng hp tc dng ln q2 = 0. Xc nh gi tr q3.
22 Ngi ta treo hai in tch im q1 = 4 pC v q2 = -2 pC bng 2 si dy nh, khng co gin. Ban u khi
hai u dy t cch nhau 3 cm, ngi ta thy dy treo b lch v pha nhau. Sau , ngi ta mt
in tch im q3 = 1 pC li gn 2 in tch ny th thy dy treo q2 khng b lch na. Tm v tr t q3.
23 Mt qu cu kim loi c tch in q1 = -5 nC v c treo trn mt si dy nh, khng co gin. Khi
a mt qu cu kim loi khc mang in q2 = 3 nC li gn, cch q1 3 mm th ngi ta thy dy treo b
lch mt gc 30 so vi phng thng ng. Hi qu cu ny khi lng bao nhiu? Cho g = 10 m/s2.
24 Hai qu cu kim loi ging nhau c treo bng hai si dy nh, khng c gin c ni nhau mt
u. Sau khi treo, hai dy lch nhau mt gc 30 v cch nhau 3 cm. Bit mi qu cu nng 1 mg. Hy
xc nh in tch ca mi qu cu. Cho g = 10 m/s2.
25 Mt qu cu kim loi tch in q1 = 0,5 nC c s dng nh mt in nghim bng cch treo ln mt
dy nh, khng co gin. Khi a mt qu cu kim loi khc li gn 1 mm th ngi ta thy qu cu in
nghim b y ra xa v dy treo lch mt gc 1 so vi phng thng ng. Bit khi lng ca qu
cu in nghim l 0,5 g. Xc nh in tch ca qu cu cn li. Cho g = 10 m/s2.
26 Hai qu cu kim loi ging nhau c tch in ln lt l q1 v q2. Bit q1.q2 = -18.10-18 C2 v q1 > 0.
Cho hai qu cu chm nh vo nhau th thy in tch ca mi qu cu lc sau l 1,5 nC. Xc nh in
tch q1, q2.
27 Mt qu cu bng kim loi c tch in 6.10-10 C. a n chm vo mt qu cu bng kim loi khc
ging ht ri a hai qu cu cch nhau 4 mm trong chn khng. Chm nh tay (khng ni t) vo
mt qu cu th lc tng tc gia hai qu cu lc ny l bao nhiu?
28 Mt in tch im q c t ti im A trong du ho (hng s in mi l 2,2). Khi t mt in tch
im q = 10 pC ti im B cch A 0,2 mm th ngi ta thy q b ko ra xa khi q bng mt lc 2.10-4 N.
Xc nh nh gi tr ca q.
29 Mt ht ion Cl- c t im A nm trong mi trng c hng s in mi l 103. Mt in tch im
q c ln 4.10-10 C c t ti B th thy q b ko v pha q0 bng mt lc F = 4.10-13 N. Xc nh
du ca q v v tr im B.
30 Hai qu cu kim loi c tch in ging nhau l q. t chng cch nhau 0,2 cm trong chn khng th
thy lc tc dng ln chng l 0,05625 N. Xc nh in tch cu mi qu cu.
31 Hai hn bi nh bng kim loi c kch thc ging nhau mang cc in tch q1 = 3.10-6 C v q2 = 7.10-6
C. Ngi ta cho chng tip xc vi nhau ri tch chng ra v t chng cch nhau 6 cm trong mt ci
khay cha y nc nguyn cht c hng s in mi l 81. Tnh lc in tng tc gia chng.
32 Mt in tch im q1 = -4 C c t ti im A trong mi trng c hng s in mi l 2,2. Mt in
tch im khc c in tch q2 = -1,1q1 c t ti B cch A 2 cm. Hy v hnh vect lc in tc dng
ln in tch q2 v tnh ln lc ny.
33 Hai qu cu kim loi ging nhau c tch in ln lt l q1 v q2. Bit q1 > q2 > 0. t hai qu cu ti
hai im A, B cch nhau 2 mm th thy lc in tc dng ln chng l 0,054 N.
a. Tnh tch q1.q2.
b. Sau cho chng chm nh vo nhau ri a v li v tr c. Lc tng tc gia chng by gi l
0,05625 N. Xc nh gi tr q1, q2.
34 Hai qu cu tch in tri du nhng c ln bng nhau c t cch nhau 4 cm. Lc tng tc
gia hai qu cu ny l 2,25.10-7 N. V hnh lc tc dng v xc nh in tch ca mi qu cu.
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Chng 1. in tch - in trng<

35 Hai qu cu kim loi c tch in ging nhau l q v t cch nhau 3 cm trong chn khng. Dng tay
chm nh vo mt qu cu (khng ni t). Lc in tng tc gia hai qu cu lc ny l 8.10-3 N.
Xc nh in tch q.
36 Hai in tch im q1 v q2 tri du (q2 < 0 < q1, |q1| > |q2|) c t cch nhau 9 mm trong chn khng.
Lc tnh in gia hai in tch l 16.10-9 N. a hai in tch chm vo nhau ri a v v tr c, lc
tnh in gia chng by gi l 9.10-9 N. Hi hai in tch ban u c gi tr bao nhiu?
37 Hai qu cu kim loi ging nhau c tch in cng du ln lt l q1 v q2. t hai qu cu ti hai
im A, B cch nhau 2 mm th thy lc in tc dng ln chng l 0,072 N. Sau cho chng chm
nh vo nhau ri a v li v tr c, lc in by gi c gi tr l 0,081 N. Xc nh gi tr q1, q2.
38 t hai in tch im q1 v q2 ti hai im A, B cch nhau 3 cm trong mi trng c hng s in mi
l 2.105. Xc nh lc in tc dng ln mt in tch im q3 = 0,4 nC nm cch q1 5 cm v cch q2 2
cm. Bit rng q1 d 3,125.109 electron cn q2 thiu 2,5.109 electron.
39 Cho 3 im A, B, D nm thng hng theo th t trn. Bit rng AB = 10 cm, BD = 2 cm. Ln lt t 3
in tch im ging nhau c gi tr q = -2.10-3 C. Xc nh lc in tng hp tc dng vo in tch
im t A.
40 Hai in tch im q1 = 3 C v q2 = 4 C c t ti hai im A v B nm cch nhau 10 mm trong
chn khng. Ti im D cch A 4 cm, cch B 6 cm, ngi ta c mt in tch im q3 = 2.10-10 C.
Xc nh ln lc tng hp tc dng ln q3.
41 Hai in tch im ging nhau q1 = q2 = 4 pC c t ti hai im A, B nm cch nhau 3 cm trong chn
khng. Khi t mt in tch im q3 = -5 pC ti im D th lc in tng hp tc dng ln q3 l bao
nhiu? Cho AD = 5 cm, BD = 2 cm.
42 Mt tam gic ABC vung ti A c cnh AB = 5 mm, BC = 13 mm. Ln lt t vo 3 nh A, B, C ba in
tch q1 = q2 = q3 = q. Lc in tng hp tc dng ln in tch q1 t ti A l 0,0288 N. Xc nh gi tr
in tch q.
43 Mt h hai in tch q1 v q2 = 0,5 C c t ti 2 im A, B cch nhau 13 cm trong chn khng. Ti
im D nm cch A 5 cm, cch B 12 cm, ngi ta t mt in tch q3 = - q2 th thy lc in tc dng
ln q3 l mt vect c phng vung gc vi AB. V hnh v xc nh du ca q1 v ln ca q1.
44 Mt h 3 in tch im q1, q2, q3 c t ln lt ti 3 im A, B, C thng hng. Bit B l trung im
AC. Xc nh t s q1/q2 in tch q3 nm cn bng.
45 2 ion Na+ v ion O2- t ti 2 im A v B cch nhau 3 m. Ngi ta phi t thm mt in tch q =
4.10-15 C ti mt im C th thy q cn bng. Tm v tr im C.
46 Cho ba im A, B, C nm thng hng theo th t trn (AB = 2 mm, AC = 6 mm) trong khng kh. t hai
in tch im q1 = -3.10-10 C v q2 = 4.10-10 C ln lt ti hai im A, B. Hi phi t mt in tch q3 c
du v ln nh th no vo v tr C q2 cn bng?
47 Cho h gm hai in tch im m q1 v q2 t trong khng kh, trong q1 = 2q2. Hai in tch cch
nhau 9 mm. Hi phi t mt in tch q0 u trong h ny m q0 vn cn bng?
48 Hai in tch im q1 = 2 pC v q2 = -8 pC c t ti hai im A, B nm cch nhau 6 mm trong chn
khng. Khi t mt in tch im q3 ti im D th lc in tng hp tc dng ln q3 = 2 nC bng 0.
a. Xc nh v tr im D.
b. Xc nh lc in tng hp tc dng ln q1 lc .
49 Treo 2 qu cu kim loi tch in bng nhau ln 2 si dy rt di ging nhau gn chung mt u.
Khong cch ca chng lc ny l 5 cm. Dng tay chm nh vo mt qu cu. Sau , khong cch
ca hai qu cu l bao nhiu? Cho g = 10 m/s2.
50 Hai qu cu nh ging nhau bng kim loi, c khi lng 5 g, c treo vo cng mt im O bng hai
si ch khng dn, di 10 cm. Hai qu cu tip xc vi nhau. Tch in cho mt qu cu th thy hai qu
cu y nhau cho n khi dy treo hp vi nhau mt gc 600. Tnh in tch truyn cho qu cu.
Cho g = 10 m/s2.
51 Hai qu cu nh ging nhau bng kim loi, c tch in ln lt l q1 v q2, c treo vo cng mt
im O bng hai si ch khng dn, di bng nhau th thy hai si dy hp vi nhau mt gc 600. Cho
hai qu cu tip xc th thy gc ca hai si dy tng ln thnh 900. Tnh t s q1/q2 Cho g = 10 m/s2.
52 Mt qu cu kim loi tch in q1 = 4.10-10 C nng 0,2 g c treo bng mt si dy nh, khng co gin.
Khi a mt in tch q2 = -2.10-4 C nm di v cch q1 1 mm th lc cng dy s l bao nhiu? Cho
g = 10 m/s2.
Gc Ring Trn Bn:

11

Vt l 11

C1

CNG IN TRNG

TL2

1 Mt in tch im q = 9.10-10 C c t ti im A trong chn khng. Xc nh vect cng in


trng ti im B nm cch A 2 cm.
2 Mt in tch im q c t ti im A trong mi trng c hng s in mi l 103. Vect cng
in trng ti im B nm cch A 2 cm c chiu hng v pha A v ln 3000 V/m. Du v ln
in tch q l bao nhiu?
3 Mt in tch im q c ln 3 pC c t ti im A trong chn khng. Ti im B, ngi ta o
c cng in trng l 4000 V/m. Xc nh khong cch AB.
4 Mt in tch im q c t ti im A trong chn khng. Ti im B, ngi ta o c cng
in trng ti l 4000 V/m. Ti im C, ngi ta o c cng in trng ti l 2000 V/m.
Bit A, B, C thng hng.
a. Xc nh t s AB/AC.
b. Xc nh ln cng in trng ti im M l trung im ca BC.
5 Hai in tch im q1 = - 0,2 pC v q2 = 0,5 pC c t ti 2 im A, B cch nhau 3 cm trong khng
kh. Xc nh cng in trng tng hp ti im D nm trung im ca AB. T xc nh lc
in tc dng ln in tch im q0 = 0,6 pC t ti D.
6 Mt h 2 in tch im q1 v q2 c ln ln lt l - 2.10-10 C v - 9.10-10 C c t ti 2 im A, B
trong chn khng cch nhau 10 cm. Xc nh vect cng in trng tng hp ti im D nm
cch A 8 cm, cch B 6 cm.
7 Mt h 2 ion Na+ v Cl- c t ti 2 im A, B trong chn khng cch nhau 4 cm. Xc nh vect
cng in trng tng hp ti im D nm cch u AB 4 cm.
8 Mt h 2 in tch im q1 v q2 tri du v c ln bng nhau c t ti 2 im A, B trong chn
khng cch nhau 6 cm. Ti im D nm cch u A, B mt on 5 cm, ngi ta o c cng in
trng c ln 5000 V/m. Hy xc nh ln in tch q1 v q2.
9 Mt h 2 in tch im q1 v q2 c ln ln lt l - 2,5.10-10 C v - 1,6.10-10 C c t ti 2 im A,
B trong chn khng cch nhau 9 cm. Xc nh v tr im D m ti cng in trng bng 0.
10 Cho h hai in tch im q1 = +q v q2 = -4q cch nhau r = 10 cm t trong chn khng. Xc nh v tr
ca im m ti cng in trng gy ra bi h in tch bng khng.
11 Mt in tch im q0 = - 4.10-10 C c t ti im A trong chn khng.
a. Xc nh vect cng in trng ti mt im B nm cch A 4 cm.
b. T suy ra vect lc in tc dng ln mt in tch q = 2.10-10 C t ti B.
12 Mt in tch im q = 2.10-10 C c ti im A trong khng kh. Mt in tch im th q0 = -5.10-10 C
c t ti im B v chu tc dng ca mt lc in l 9.10-6 N. Hy xc nh cng in trng
ti im B do in tch im q gy ra v tm khong cch AB.
13 t mt in tch q = 2.10-8 C ti im A trong chn khng th thy lc in tc dng ln n l 4,5.10-4
N.
a. Xc nh cng in trng ti .
b. Cng in trng ny do mt in tch q nm cch 2 mm gy ra. q c ln bao nhiu?
14 Cng in trng ti mt im A c ln 5500 V/m, nm ngang hng sang tri. t mt in
tch q = -4 nC vo , xc nh vect lc in tc dng ln q.
15 Trong mt in trng u, ngi ta thy mt in tch q = -2,3 C b ko i theo hng t tri sang
phi bng mt lc c ln 0,23 N. Xc nh chiu v ln ca vect cng in trng.
16 Hai bn kim loi c tch in tri du. t hai bn ny song song thng ng, bn dng bn phi.
a mt in tch q = 2.10-10 C vo gia hai bn.
a. V vect lc tc dng ln in tch ny.
b. Bit cng in trng gia hai bn l 4000 V/m. Xc nh ln lc in tc dng ln in tch.
17 Mt in trng u c to ra gia hai bn kim loi tch in tri du t nm ngang song song.
Ngi ta t vo trong in trng mt ht bi tch in 5 nC th thy ht bi ny nm cn bng.
a. Xc nh du ca mi bn kim loi.
b. Bit khi lng ca ht bi l 5 mg. Xc nh cng in trng gia hai bn ny.
18 Xc nh ln cng in trng ti mt im nm cch ion Na+ mt on 0,2 m trong chn
khng.

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Chng 1. in tch - in trng<

19 Trong chn khng ti mt im B nm cch A 1,5 cm, ngi ta o c mt cng in trng


hng t B v A v c ln 6000 V/m. Hi ti A c in tch g, ln bao nhiu?
20 Mt in tch im q = 2,4.10-10 C c t ti im A trong chn khng. Ti im B, ngi ta o c
cng in trng l 45100 V/m. Sau , nhng ton b h ny vo mi trng c hng s in
mi l 2,2.
a. Cng in trng ti B by gi l bao nhiu?
b. cng in trng vn nh c, ta phi thay in tch q bng in tch q l bao nhiu?
21 Ti im A v B cch nhau 10 cm trong khng gian, ngi ta o c cng in trng ngc
chiu c ln ln lt l 20000 V/m v 40000 V/m. Xc nh cng in trng ti im C nm
trung im AB.
22 Ti im A v B cch nhau 5 cm trong khng gian, ngi ta o c cng in trng cng chiu
c ln ln lt l 5000 V/m v 3000 V/m. Xc nh cng in trng ti im C nm trung
im AB.
23 Hai in tch im q1 = -6 nC v q2 = 3 nC c t ti hai im A, B cch nhau 4 mm trong mi trng
c hng s in mi l 2. Xc nh cng in trng tng hp ti im D l trung im ca A, B.
24 2 in tch q1, q2 c t ti hai nh B, C ca mt tam gic ABC vung ti A (AB = 4 cm, BC = 5 cm).
Xc nh cng in trng ti im A. Cho q1 = 6,4 pC, q2 = -2,7 pC.
25 Ngi ta t 2 in tch im ging nhau q1 = q2 = -4.10-8 C ti hai im A, B cch nhau 5 cm. Xc nh
cng in trng tng hp ti im D cch A 10 cm, cch B 5 cm.
26 Ti 2 nh ca mt tam gic u cnh 2 mm, ngi ta t hai in tch q1, q2 c cng ln bng
4.10-10 C nhng tri du. Cng in trng o c ti nh cn li l bao nhiu?
27 Hai in tch im q1 = -0,5 pC v q2 = 1,8 pC c t ti 2 im A, B nm cch nhau 2 mm. Ti im
D nm cch A 1,6 mm, cch B 3,6 mm, cng in trng c chiu v ln nh th no?
28 Ti 2 nh ca mt tam gic u, ngi ta t hai in tch q1, q2 ging nhau v cng bng -2.10-10 C.
Cng in trng o c ti nh cn li l 20003 V/m. Xc nh cnh ca tam gic ny v din
tch ca n.
29 t hai in tch q1 = -10-10 C v q2 > 0 ti hai im A, B cch nhau 4 mm. Ti im D cch A 6 mm,
cch B 2 mm, ngi ta o c cng in trng c ln l 875000 V/m. Xc nh ln ca
q 2.
30 Xc nh cng in trng ti im M nm cch u hai u on thng AB 5 cm. Bit rng ti A,
B c hai in tch ging nhau l -2 nC v AB = 8 cm.
31 Cho ba im A, B, C nm thng hng theo th t trn. Ln lt t vo hai im A, B hai in tch q1 v
q2 = 1 pC th thy cng in trng ti C b trit tiu.
a. C th kt lun c g v du ca q1?
b. Nu bit B l trung im ca AC th gi tr ca q1 l bao nhiu?
32 a mt in tch im q vo mt in trng u c ln 2000 V/m hng t trn xung di th
thy q chu tc dng ca mt lc hng ln trn c ln 3.10-5 N. Xc nh gi tr q.
33 Hai bn kim loi tch in tri du c t nm ngang vi bn dng trn ti thnh in trng u
c cng 50000 V/m. Mt ht bi c khi lng 0,1 mg nm l lng gia hai bn ny. Xc nh in
tch ca ht bi ny.
34 Ti im A trong mi trng c hng s in mi l 2,2, ngi ta t mt in tch im q = -2,31 nC.
a. Xc nh cng in trng ti im B nm cch A 1 mm.
b. Ti B, t thm mt in tch im q = 2 nC. Xc nh ln lc in tc dng ln q.
35 Mt qu cu tch in dng c t trong mt in trng u c ln 4500 V/m. Lc in tc
dng ln qu cu c ln 2,7.10-5 N. Hi qu cu ny b thiu bao nhiu electron?
36 Hai bn kim loi tch in tri du c t song song nm ngang. a mt electron vo gia hai bn
th thy electron b ko ln trn bng mt lc 2.10-10 N. Xc nh du ca mi bn kim loi v ln ca
cng in trng gia hai bn. Cho qe = -1,6.10-19 C.
37 Ngi ta t vo gia hai bn kim loi tch in tri du mt qu cu tch in dng th thy qu cu
nm yn.
a. Cho bit hai bn ny c t nh th no?
b. Bit khi lng qu cu ny l 1 g, cng in trng gia hai bn l 3,2.108 V/m. Xc nh s
ht electron b mt trn qu cu ny.
Gc Ring Trn Bn:

13

Vt l 11

38 Mt qu cu tch in dng c khi lng 100 mg c t trong mt in trng u c ln 2.108


V/m. Ngi ta thy qu cu ny nm cn bng.
a. in trng ny c chiu nh th no?
b. ln ca in tch trn qu cu l bao nhiu?
39 Gia hai bn kim loi c tch in tri du t nm ngang song song, ngi ta t mt qu cu kim
loi tch in m th thy qu cu nm cn bng. Bit khi lng v in tch ca qu cu ln lt l
3,2.10-5 kg v 1 pC.
a. Xc nh vect cng in trng gia hai bn.
b. Chm nh tay (khng ni t) vo qu cu, hin tng g xy ra?
40 C hai bn kim loi tch in tri du c t song song. Cng in trng gia hai bn c
ln l 20000 V/m. Mt in tch q = 1 nC c t ti im A nm gia hai bn. Tm cng in
trng tng hp ti im B bit rng AB vung gc vi ng sc in v AB = 2 cm.
41 Ngi ta t hai in tch q1 = -6 nC v q2 = 6 nC ln lt ti hai im A, B cch nhau 8 cm. Ti im
M, ngi ta o c cng in trng E1M vung gc vi E2M v ln E1M = 3.E2M.
a. Xc nh khong cch AM, BM.
b. Tnh cng in trng tng hp ti M.
42 Ngi ta t hai in tch im q1 = 4.10-10 C v q2 ti hai im A, B cch nhau 10 cm. Ti im M nm
cch A 6 cm, cch B 8 cm, ngi ta thy vect cng in trng tng hp c phng vung gc
vi cnh AB. Xc nh gi tr q2.
43 Hai in tch q1 = q2 = q t ti hai im A, B cch nhau 8 cm. Gi M l im nm trn trung trc ca AB
cch trung im O ca AB mt on x. Tm x cng in trng ti M c ln cc i? (4 cm)
44 Mt qu cu tch in q = 6 nC c treo trong mt in trng u c cng 50000 V/m bng mt
si dy nh, khng co gin. Bit qu cu c khi lng 20 mg. Hy xc nh ln lc cng dy trong
hai trng hp:
a. Vect cng in trng hng xung.
b. Vect cng in trng hng ln.
45 Mt qu cu khi lng 0,05 g c treo bng mt si dy nh, khng co gin v t trong mt in
trng u hng t trn xung di, c cng 128000 V/m. Cho qu cu nhim in tch 4 nC.
Xc nh lc cng dy.
46 Mt qu cu khi lng 400 mg c treo bng mt si dy nh, khng co gin v t trong mt in
trng u hng t di ln trn, c cng l 6000 V/m. Phi cho qu cu nhim in bao nhiu
lc cng dy bng 0?
47 Hai bn kim loi tch in tri du c t nm thng ng trong khng gian. Ngi ta treo mt in
tch q = -4.10-9 C, khi lng 0,3 g vo mt si dy ri t vo gia hai bn th thy dy treo b lch mt
gc 45 so vi phng thng ng. Hi lc cng dy v ln cng in trng l bao nhiu?
48 Hai bn kim loi tch in tri du c t nm thng ng trong khng gian (bn dng bn phi) to
thnh in trng u c cng 3.107 V/m. Ngi ta treo mt in tch q = -1,6.10-10 C, khi lng
300 mg vo mt si dy nh, khng co gin ri t vo gia hai bn. Tm lc cng dy v gc lch ca
dy so vi phng thng ng.
49 Hai bn kim loi tch in tri du c t nm thng ng trong khng gian. Ngi ta treo mt in
tch q = -1,6.10-10 C, khi lng 300 mg vo mt si dy ri t vo gia hai bn th thy dy treo b
lch mt gc 10 so vi phng thng ng. Hi lc cng dy v ln cng in trng l bao
nhiu?
50 Mt qu cu tch in dng c t trong in trng u hng t tri qua phi v c treo bng
mt si dy nh, khng co gin. Ban u, dy treo qu cu b lch mt gc 30. Chm nh tay (khng
ni t) vo qu cu.
a. Gc lch ca si dy so vi phng thng ng lc ny l bao nhiu?
b. Xc nh t s lc cng dy trc v sau khi chm tay.

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Chng 1. in tch - in trng<

C1

HIU IN TH - CNG LC IN

TL3

1 Mt tam gic ABC c t vo mt in trng u E. Ngi ta o thy hiu in th UAB = 100 V,


UAC = 300 V. Hy xc nh UBC.
2 Mt hnh vung ABCD c cnh 2 cm c t trong mt in trng u E = 1400 V/m c phng
song song vi AB, chiu i t A n B. Tnh UAB, UBC, UCA
3 Mt tam gic u ABC c cnh 3 cm c t trong mt in trng u E = 10000 V/m c phng
song song song vi AB, chiu i t B n A. Tnh UAB, UBC.
4 Mt tam gic u ABC c cnh 4 cm c t trong mt in trng u E = 5000 V/m c phng
song song vi ng cao AH, chiu i t A n H. Tnh UAB, UBC.
5 Mt hnh vung ABCD c t trong mt in trng u E = 10000 V/m c phng song song vi
AB, chiu i t B n A. Hiu in th gia A v C l 50 V. Hy xc nh din tch ca hnh vung ny.
6 C 3 im A, B, C thng hng theo th t trn, nm trong in trng u E hng t A n C. Ngi
ta o c hiu in th UAB = 100 V, UAC = 200 V. Hi hiu in th gia A v I (trung im BC) l bao
nhiu?
7 Mt tam gic u ABC cnh 2 cm c t trong mt in trng u c phng song song vi AC,
chiu hng t A n C. Ngi ta o c hiu in th gia A v B l 40 V. Hy xc nh ln ca
cng in trng u ny.
8 Cho mt tam gic ABC u cnh 0,2 mm t trong mt in trng u E = 12000 V/m v c chiu
hng t C n B. Hy tnh cng ca in trng khi dch chuyn mt in tch im q = - 3.10-10 C i
dc theo cc ng gp khc AB, ABC, CB.
9 Cho mt ng trn tm O bn knh 3 cm c t trong mt in trng u E = 4000 V/m v c
chiu hng A n B (vi AB l mt ng knh ca ng trn ny). Hy tnh cng ca in trng
thc hin c khi mt electron dch chuyn dc theo ng trn t A v i c 1/4 ng trn.
10 Mt hnh ch nht ABCD (AB = 4 mm, BC = 3 mm) c t trong mt in trng u E = 10000 V/m
c chiu i t A n B. Tnh cng cn thit a mt in tch im q = 10-10 C di chuyn u t B
n D.
11 Mt tam gic u ABC cnh 3 cm t trong mt in trng u E = 4500 V/m c chiu i t B n C.
Tnh cng cn thit a mt in tch im q = - 4.10-12 C di chuyn u t A n C.
12 Trong mt in trng u, dch chuyn mt in tch im q = 2.10-10 C i u t B, dc theo cnh
huyn BC ca mt tam gic vung cn ABC (cnh 2 cm), ngi ta phi thc hin mt cng 4.10-8 J.
Hy xc nh ln ca cng in trng. Bit in trng hng A n B.
13 Cn thc hin mt cng 2.10-10 J c th dch chuyn mt in tch q = - 9.10-12 C i t im A n
im B t trong mt in trng u. Hy xc nh hiu in th gia hai im AB.
14 Cho hai bn kim loi t song song cch nhau 5 mm. Hiu in th gia chng l 200 V. Hy tnh cng
ca in trng a mt in tch im Q = 2.10-12 C i t bn dng sang bn m.
15 Hai bn kim loi tch in tri du c t song song. Hiu in th gia hai bn l 3000 V. Khi ngi
ta a hai bn vo gn nhau, lm khong cch gim i 1/3 th hiu in th gia hai bn l bao nhiu?
16 Mt electron bt u chuyn ng t bn ny n bn kia ca mt in trng u E = 100 V/m di
tc dng ca lc in. Hai bn cch nhau 40 cm. Xc nh vect E v vn tc ca eletron khi p vo
bn kia ca in trng.
17 Mt electron chuyn ng dc theo ng sc ca mt in trng u c cng 364 V/m.
Electron xut pht t im M vi vn tc 3,2.106 m/s theo hng ng sc in. Hi electron i c
on ng bao xa th dng li?
18 Mt electron bay t bn dng n bn m ca mt in trng u E = 1000 V/m vi vn tc u l
20000 m/s. Hai bn cch nhau 1 m.
a. Xc nh cng ca in trng thc hin c.
b. Xc nh vn tc electron p vo bn m.
19 Hai bn kim loi tch in tri du c t nm ngang song song, cch nhau 3 cm. Hiu in th gia
hai bn l 15 V. Mt qu cu khi lng 0,5 mg tch in dng nm l lng gia hai bn.
a. Xc nh du ca mi bn.
b. Xc nh ln in in tch qu cu.

Gc Ring Trn Bn:

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Vt l 11

20 Gia hai bn kim loi t song song nm ngang c tch in tri du nm cch nhau 2 cm, ngi ta
t mt qu cu nh nng 0,5 mg, mang in tch q = -8.10-10 C th thy qu cu ny nm cn bng.
a. V hnh cc lc tc dng ln qu cu v cho bit du ca mi bn.
b. Xc nh cng in trng v hiu in th gia hai bn.
21 C hai bn kim loi tch in tri du c t thng ng song song, cch nhau 4 cm trong khng
gian. Cng in trng gia hai bn l 5000 V/m.
a. Mt qu cu c khi lng 10 mg, tch lng in c ln l 2.10-8 C c treo bng mt si dy
nm gia hai bn. Khi , ngi ta thy dy treo b lch v pha bn dng. Hi du in tch ca
qu cu v gc lch ca dy treo so vi phng thng ng l bao nhiu?
b. Mt tam gic u ABC cnh 3 cm nm gia hai bn ny, cnh BC cng chiu vi ng sc in.
Tnh cng cn thit dch chuyn qu cu trn i u dc theo on ABC.
c. Mt electron bt u ri bn m v bay v pha bn m. Xc nh vn tc electron lc p vo bn
dng.
22 Mt tam gic u ABC cnh 3 cm t trong mt in trng u E = 9000 V/m c chiu i t B n C.
Tnh cng cn thit a mt in tch im q = - 4.10-12 C di chuyn u t A n C.
23 Mt tam gic ABC vung ti C (AB = 5 cm, AC = 4 cm), c t trong mt iu trng u E = 12000
V/m c phng song song vi AC, chiu i t A n C. Tnh UAB, UBC.
24 Mt tam gic u ABC c cnh 3 cm c t trong mt in trng u E = 10000 V/m c phng
song song vi ng cao AH, chiu i t H n A. Tnh UAB, UBC.
25 Cho mt ng trn tm O bn knh 5 cm c t trong mt in trng u E = 10000 V/m v c
chiu hng A n B (vi AB l mt ng knh ca ng trn ny). Hy tnh cng ca in trng
thc hin c khi mt electron dch chuyn dc theo ng trn t A n C (l im trn ng trn,
cch A 6 cm).
26 Mt tam gic u ABC c t vo mt in trng u E c chiu hng t A n B v c ln l
5000 V/m. Hiu in th gia hai im B v C c ln 200 V. Xc nh din tch ca tam gic ny.
27 Hai bn kim loi tch in tri du c t song song. Ko khong cch gia hai bn tng thm 2 mm
th thy hiu in th gia chng tng thm 5%. Xc nh khong cch gia hai bn ny lc ban u.
28 Mt tam gic u ABC cnh 3 cm t trong mt in trng u E = 4500 V/m c chiu i t A n H
(H l trung im ca BC). Tnh cng cn thit a mt in tch im q = - 2 pC di chuyn u t A
n C.
29 Mt khung dy ABCD hnh ch nht c cnh AB = 4 cm, BC = 3 cm, c t trong mt in trng
u E hng l A n C v c ln 2.108 V/m. Hy xc nh cng ca in trng khi mt electron
chy t C n A dc theo dy.
30 a mt proton i u t M n N trong in trng u c cng 4000 V/m, ngi ta phi thc
hin mt cng l 3.10-15 J. Xc nh UMN.
31 Trong mt in trng u, dch chuyn mt in tch im q = 2,5.10-10 C i u t B, dc theo
cnh huyn BC ca mt tam gic vung cn ABC (cnh 2 cm), ngi ta phi thc hin mt cng 2.10-8
J. Hy xc nh ln ca cng in trng. Bit cng in trng hng t C n A.
32 Cho hai bn kim loi tch in tri du t song song cch nhau 2 mm. Mt electron bay ra khi bn m
v p vo bn dng vi vn tc 2.106 m/s. Cng in trng gia hai bn l bao nhiu?
33 Hai bn kim loi tch in tri du c t nm ngang song song, cch nhau 5 cm. Mt qu cu khi
lng 0,5 mg tch in Q = -5 nC nm l lng gia hai bn.
a. Xc nh du ca mi bn.
b. Xc nh hiu in th gia hai bn.
34 Cho hai qu cu kim loi ging ht nhau c in tch ln lt l q1 = 4 nC v q2 = -9 nC nm ti hai
im A, B trong chn khng. Lc tng tc gia hai im tch im ny l 8,1.10-4 N.
a. Xc nh khong cch AB.
b. Tm v tr im D sao cho cng in trng ti bng 0.
c. Cho hai qu cu chm vo nhau ri a v v tr c. t mt qu cu mang in q3 ti im M cch
u A, B 4 cm. Xc nh lc in tng hp tc dng ln q3.
d. *Cho hai qu cu chm vo nhau ri a v v tr c. Tm v tr im N cch u A, B sao cho cng
in trng ti l 562503 V/m.

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Chng 1. in tch - in trng<

C1

T IN

TL4

1 Mt t in khng kh c in dung C = 2000 pF c mc vo hai cc ca ngun in c hiu in th


U = 5000 V. Tnh in tch ca t in.
2 Mt t in khng kh phng c in dung 24 nF c tch trong hiu in th 540 V th c bao nhiu
electron di chuyn n bn m ca t in?
3 Mt t in phng c in dung l 0,2 F c np in bng mt hiu in th U. Sau , ngi ta
thy trn bn m ca t in c 6.1014 ht electron tha. Xc nh hiu in th U.
4 Mt t in phng c khong cch gia hai bn ca hai t in l d = 2 mm. T in cha y cht in
mi c th chu c cng in trng ln nht l 30000 V/m. Hi hiu in th gii hn i vi t
in bng bao nhiu?
5 Mt t in c ghi 200 V - 200 pF. T ny c th tch in ln n 5.10-8 C c khng?
6 Mt t in khi c t di hiu in th 100 V th tch c lng in l 2,5.10-10 C. Hi in dung
ca t l bao nhiu?
7 Mt t in phng 4 pF c cho tch in di mt hiu in th 200 V. Xc nh lng in m t
tch c. Sau g t ra khi hiu in th trn. T phng i mt mt na lng in c trn bn. Hi
lc hiu in th hai u t l bao nhiu?
8 Mt t in phng c tch in di mt hiu in th U. Khi tng hiu in th ln gp i, ngi ta
thy lng in tch c tng thm 10-5 C. Lng in tch ban u l bao nhiu?
9 Mt t in phng c tch in di mt hiu in th U. Khi gim hiu in th i 1/10 gi tr ban
u th in tch trn t gim i 2.10-10 C. Xc nh in tch trn t lc ban u.
10 Mt t in phng c tch in di hin in th U. Sau , ngt t ra v cho t phng ra 1/3 in
tch. Khi hin in th gim 100 V. Hi hiu in th lc ban u l bao nhiu?
11 Mt t in phng c tch in di mt hiu in th 300 V. Khi t phng ra mt lng in tch
tng ng 10-5 C th ngi ta thy hin in th hai u gim i mt na. Hi in dung ca t ny
l bao nhiu?
12 Mt t in phng c tch in di mt hiu in th U. Khi tng hiu in th thm 200 V, ngi ta
thy lng in tch c tng thm 10-5 C. Hi in dung ca t l bao nhiu?
13 Mt t in c tch in bng mt hiu in th 200 V. Sau , gim hiu in th xung cn 150 V
th thy c 5.105 electron chuyn n bn dng ca t in. in dung ca t ny l bao nhiu?
14 Mt t in c C = 20 F c tch in di hiu in th 40 V c nng lng bao nhiu?
15 Mt t in c in dung 2,5 F c t vo mt hiu in th 30 V. Sau , t phng ra ht 1/3 in
tch ang c, vy nng lng ca t lc ny l bao nhiu?
16 B t in trong mt chic n chp nh c in dung 750 F c tch in n hiu in th 330 V.
Xc nh nng lng m n tiu th trong mi ln n lo sng. Mi ln n lo sng t in phng
in trong thi gian 5 ms. Tnh cng sut phng in trung bnh ca t.
17 Mt t in phng 4 pF c cho tch in di mt hiu in th 200 V. Nng lng ca t l bao
nhiu? Sau g t ra khi hiu in th trn. T phng i mt mt na lng in c trn bn. Khi
nng lng ca t cn li bao nhiu?
18 Mt t in c in dung 3 nF c t vo mt hiu in th 50 V. Sau , t phng ra ht 2/3 in
tch ang c trong thi gian 4 ms, vy nng lng ca t lc ny l bao nhiu? Cng sut phng in l
bao nhiu?
19 Mt t in phng c cu to bi hai bn trn bn knh 1 cm, khong cch gia 2 bn l 2 cm,
nhng trong mi trng c hng s in mi l 9. Xc nh in dung ca t in ny.
20 Mt t in phng c in dung C = 5,57 pF, khi nhng vo trong du (hng s in mi 2,1), din tch
mi bn 6 cm2. Xc nh khong cch gia hai bn.
21 Mt t in phng c cu to gm 2 bn tit din 20 mm2, cch nhau 2 cm, gia l dung dch c
hng s in mi l 2. Np in cho t di hiu in th 200 V. Xc nh lng in m t tch c.
22 Mt t in phng c cu to bi hai bn trn c ng knh 3 cm, khong cch gia 2 bn l 3 cm,
c nhng trong mi trng c hng s in mi l 2,5. t t in ny vo mt hiu in th 500 V
ri sau g t in ra, em ra ngoi khng kh. Hi phi t t vo hiu in th l bao nhiu gi
cho in tch hai bn t khng i?
Gc Ring Trn Bn:

17

Vt l 11

23 Mt t in phng c nhng trong mi trng in mi c hng s in mi l 2 th thy in tch


trn t l 3.10-8 C. t t in ny vo hiu in th U ri thay mi trng ny bng mi trng in
mi khc c hng s in mi l 2,5. Khi lng in tch trn t l bao nhiu?
24 Mt t in phng khng kh c tch in di hiu in th U. Khi ko hai bn t ny li gn nhau
thm 1 mm, ngi ta thy in tch trn t tng gp i. Xc nh khong cch gia hai bn t lc ban
u.
25 Mt t in phng khi nhng vo trong du (hng s in mi 2,1) th in dung ca n l 4,2 F. Nu
t t in ny ngoi khng kh th in dung ca n s l bao nhiu? (2 F)
26 Mt t in phng c cu to bi hai bn trn c bn knh 1 cm, khong cch gia 2 bn l 4 cm,
c nhng trong mi trng c hng s in mi l 104. Bit rng t in ny ch c th chu c
cng in trng ti a l 45000 V/m. Hi in tch ti a m t ny cha c l bao nhiu?
(1,25.10-6 C)

27 Mt t in trn xoay c cu to t hai bn trn, mt bn c th xoay c lm thay i gc hp vi


bn kia t 10 n 180. Trong qu trnh xoay bn nh th th in dung ca t thay i t 1 F n 9
F. Xc nh gc xoay bn khi t t di hiu in th 500 V th in tch trn t l 2,5 mC. (90)
28 Mt t in c cu to t hai bn phng hnh ch nht c din tch 12 mm2 t cch nhau 1/3 mm.
Ngi ta nhng t ny ngp mt na trong mi trng c hng s in mi l 2,2, na cn li ngoi
khng kh. Xc nh in dung ca t in ny. (1,6 pF)
29 Mt t in phng c cu to bi hai bn kim loi c din tch 4,5 mm2. Nhng hai bn ny trong mt
dung dch in mi c hng s in mi l 104. Khi np in cho t bng hiu in th 157 V th thy
nng lng ca t l 1,5625.10-6 J. Cho = 3,14. Xc nh khong cch gia hai bn t. (3,14 mm)
30 Mt t phng c ghi (2 nF 100 V)
a. Tnh in tch cc i m t c th tch in ?
b. Bit khong cch gia hai bn t l d = 2 mm. Tnh in trng ln nht m t c th chu c ?
31 Trn mt t phng c ghi : 5 pF 200 V. Bit khong cch gia hai bn t l d = 5 mm. Tch in cho t
vi hiu in th 100 V.
a. Tnh in tch ca t.
b. Nu t vo t mt in trng E = 104 V/m t c hng khng ?
32 T phng c din tch mi bn l S = 100 cm2, khong cch gia hai bn d = 1 mm, gia hai bn l
khng kh. Tm hiu in th ti a c th t vo hai bn t v in tch cc i m t c th tch c.
Bit in trng gii hn i vi khng kh l 3.106 V/m.
33 T phng khng kh C = 10-10 F c tch in n hiu in th U = 100 V ri ngt khi ngun. Tnh
cng cn thc hin tng khong cch hai bn t ln gp i?
34 T in phng gm hai bn t hnh vung cnh a = 20 cm, t cch nhau 1 cm, cht in mi gia hai
bn t l thy tinh c = 6. Hiu in th gia hai bn t l 50 V.
a. Tnh in dung ca t?
b. Tnh in tch m t tch c?
c. Nu t c tch in di hiu in th U th nng lng in trng tch ly trong t l 531.10-9 J.
Tnh in tch trn mi bn t khi ?
35 T in phng khng kh in dung 2 pF c tch in hiu in th 600 V.
a. Tnh in tch Q ca t.
b. Ngt t khi ngun, a hai u t ra xa khong cch tng gp i. Tnh C1, Q1, U1 ca t.
c. Vn ni t vi ngun, a hai bn t ra xa khong cch tng gp i. Tnh C2, Q2, U2 ca t.
36 Mt t in phng khng kh c hai bn cch nhau 1 mm v c in dung 2.10-11 F c mc vo hai
cc ca mt ngun in c hiu in th 50 V. Tnh din tch mi bn t in v in tch ca t in.
Tnh cng in trng gia hai bn.
37 mt t in phng bng nhm c kch thc 4 cm x 5 cm. in mi l dung dch axton c hng s in
mi l 20. khong cch gia hai bn ca t in l 0,3 mm. Tnh in dung ca t in.
38 Mt t in phng khng kh 3,5 pF, c t di mt hiu in th 6,3 V.
a. Tnh cng in trng gia hai bn ca t in.
b. Tnh nng lng ca t in.
39 Mt t in c in dung C1 = 4 F c tch in bng mt hiu in th 200 V. G t ra ri mc song
song vi n mt t in c in dung C2 = 6 F. Hiu in th v in tch trn mi t by gi l bao
nhiu? (80 V; 320 C; 480 C)
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Chng 1. in tch - in trng<

40 Mt t in c in dung C1 = 10 pF, mang in tch q1 = 0,6 nC; t in th hai c in dung C2 = 30


pF, mang in tch q2 = 0,2 nC. Ni hai bn ca hai t in mang in tch khc du vi nhau. Hi hiu
in th trn mi t in sau khi ni bng bao nhiu? (10 V)
41 Mt t in c in dung C1 c tch in bng ngun in khng i hiu in th 320 V. Mc song
song t in vi t in th hai c in dung C2 = 4,5 F cha c tch in th hiu in th ca
b t in l 80 V. Hy tnh C1. (1,5 F)
42 Mt t in phng c cu to gm 2 bn phng tit din 18 mm2, t cch nhau 3,18 cm, gia l
dung dch in mi c hng s in mi l 104. Np in cho t di hiu in th 120 V. Sau , tho
t ra khi hiu in th trn, gn song song thm mt t khc c in dung C2 = 2C1 cha c tch
in. Xc nh in dung tng ng, in tch trn mi t v hiu in th ca b t. (15.10-11 F; 40 V)
43 Hai t in in dung ln lt l 6 F v 9 F u c tch in di hiu in th 50 V. Sau ngt
hai t ra khi hiu in th ri ni bn dng ca t ny vi bn m ca t kia v ngc li. Hy tnh
in tch trn mi t sau khi ni v hiu in th lc sau. (10 V)
44 Hai t in C1 = 8 F v C2 = 2 F cng c tch in di mt hiu in th U. Sau , ngt hai t ra
v ni bn m t ny vi bn dng t kia v ngc li. Sau hiu in th hai u ca b t ny l
72 V. Xc nh lng in tch chuyn qua li gia cc t. (1104 C)
45 C mt t in trong phng th nghim b m nn mt s hiu trn . Ngi ta dng mt t in khc
c in dung bit r l C2 = 0,418 F xc nh t in ny. Ngi np in cho t C2 di hiu in
th 6 V, sau ni song song vi t C1. o li hiu in th ca b t ny th ngi ta thy hiu in
th lc ny l 2 V. Hi in dung ca t cn li l bao nhiu? (0,836 F)
46 Mt t in phng in dung C = 0,12 F c lp in mi dy 0,2 mm c hng s in mi = 5. T
c t di mt hiu in th U = 100 V.
a. Tnh din tch cc bn ca t in, in tch v nng lng ca t.
b. Sau khi c tch in, ngt t khi ngun ri mc vo hai bn ca t in C1 = 0,15 F cha c
tch in. Tnh in tch ca b t in, hiu in th v nng lng ca b t.
47 C 2 t in, t in 1 c in dung C1 = 1 F tch in n ht U1 = 100 V; t in 2 c in dung C2 =
2 F tch in n ht U2 = 200 V
a. Ni cc bn tch in cng du vi nhau. Tnh hiu in th v in tch ca mi t in sau khi ni
v nhit lng to ra sau khi ni cc bn
b. Hi nh phn 1 nhng ch khc ta ni cc bn tri du ca 2 t vi nhau

Gc Ring Trn Bn:

19

Vt l 11

C1
1

TL4

T IN

Mt b t in c mc theo s hnh. C1 =
8 F, C2 = 6 F, C3 = 4 F.
a. Tnh in dung ca b t.
b. Tnh in tch v hiu in th ca mi t khi
mc vo hai cc ca ngun in 40 V.

Mt b gm ba t in ghp song song C1 = C2


= 1/2 C3. Khi c tch in bng ngun c hiu
in th 45 V th in tch ca b t in bng
18.10-4 C. Tnh in dung ca t.

Hai t in c in dung C1 = 2 F, C2 = 3 F
c mc ni tip.
a. Tnh in dung ca b t.
b. Tch in cho b t in bng ngun in c
hiu in th 50 V. Tnh in tch v hiu in
th ca cc t trong b.

Ngi ta ghp 2 t in C1 v C2 = 2 pF ni tip


vi nhau. t b t vo mt hiu in th 200 V
th thy b t tch c in tch 10-9 C. Tm
in dung ca t C1.

Mt b t in c mc theo s C1 nt (C2 //
C3).C1 = 8 F, C2 = 6 F, C3 = 4 F.
a. Tnh in dung ca b t.
b. Tnh in tch v hiu in th ca mi t khi
mc vo hai cc ca ngun in 40 V.

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Chng 1. in tch - in trng<

C1

N TP CHNG I

TL5

1 Hai in tch q1 v q2 t cch nhau d = 30 cm trong khng kh th lc tng tc gia chng l F. Nu


t chng trong du th lc tng tc ny yu i 2,25 ln.Vy cn dch chng li mt khong bao nhiu
lc tng tc gia chng vn l F?
2 Hai in tch im bng nhau, t trong chn khng, cch nhau 10 cm. Lc y gia chng l 9.10-5 N.
a. Xc nh du v ln hai in tch . (10-8 C)
b. lc tng cc gia hai in tch tng 3 ln th phi tng hay gim khong cch gia hai in
tch bao nhiu ln? V sao? Xc nh khong cch gia hai in tch lc . (3 ln; 0,0577 m)
3 Hai in tch c ln bng nhau, t cch nhau 25 cm trong in mi c hng s in mi = 2 th lc
tng tc gia chng l 6,48.10-3 N.
a. Xc nh ln cc in tch. ()
b. Nu a hai in tch ra khng kh v vn gi khong cch th lc tng tc gia chng thay
i nh th no? V sao? (Tng 2 ln)
c. lc tng tc ca hai in tch trong khng kh vn l 6,48.10-3 N th phi t chng cch nhau
bng bao nhiu? (0,3536 m)
4 Hai in tch im c ln bng nhau t trong chn khng, cch nhau mt khong 5 cm, gia chng
xut hin lc y F = 1,6.10-4 N.
a. Hy xc nh ln ca hai in tch im trn?
b. lc tng tc gia chng l 2,5.10-4 N th khong cch gia chng l bao nhiu?
5 Hai in tch im nh nhau t trong chn khng cch nhau mt on 4 cm, lc y tnh in gia
chng l 10-5 N.
a. Tm ln mi in tch.
b. Tm khong cch gia chng lc y tnh in gia chng l 2,5.10-6 N.
6 Hai vt nh t trong khng kh cch nhau mt on 1 m, y nhau mt lc F = 1,8 N. in tch tng
cng ca hai vt l 3.10-5 C. Tm in tch ca mi vt.
7 Hai qu cu nh ging nhau bng kim loi c khi lng 5 g c treo vo cng mt im bng hai si
ch nh khng gin di 10 cm. Hai qu cu tip xc nhau tch in cho mt qu cu th thy hai qu cu
y nhau cho n khi hai dy treo hp vi nhau mt gc 60. Tnh in tch m ta truyn cho cc
qu cu qu cu. Cho g = 10 m/s2.
8 Hai qu cu nh tch in q1 = 1,3.10-9 C, q2 = 6,5.10-9 C t cch nhau mt khong r trong chn khng
th y nhau vi mt nhng lc bng F. Cho hai qu cu y tip xc nhau ri t cch nhau cng mt
khong r trong mt cht in mi th lc y gia chng vn l F.
a. Xc nh hng s in mi ca cht in mi .
b. Bit F = 4,5.10-6 N. Tm khong cch hai in tch.
9 Ba in tch im q1 = -10-7 C, q2 = 5.10-7 C, q3 = 4.10-7 C ln lt t ti A, B, C trong khng kh, AB =
5 cm, AC = 4 cm, BC = 1 cm. Tnh lc tc dng ln mi in tch. (20,25.10-2 N)
10 Ba in tch im q1 = 4.10-8 C, q2 = -4.10-8 C, q3 = 5.10-8 C t trong khng kh ti ba nh ca mt tam
gic u cnh 2 cm. Xc nh vect lc tc dng ln q3. (4,5.10-2 N)
11 Ba in tch im q1 = q2 = q3 = 1,6.10-19 C t trong chn khng ti ba nh ca mt tam gic u cnh
16 cm. Xc nh vect lc tc dng ln q3.
12 Hai in tch q1 = -4.10-8 C, q2 = 4.10-8 C t ti hai im A v B cch nhau mt khong 4 cm trong
khng kh. Xc nh lc tc dng ln in tch q = 2.10-9 C khi:
a. q t ti trung im O ca AB.
b. q t ti M sao cho AM = 4 cm, BM = 8 cm.
13 C hai in tch q1 = +2.10-6 C, q2 = -2.10-6 C, t ti hai im A, B trong chn khng v cch nhau mt
khong 6 cm. Mt in tch q3 = +2.10-6 C, t trn ng trung trc ca AB, cch AB mt khong 4
cm. ln ca lc in do hai in tch q1 v q2 tc dng ln in tch q3 bao nhiu? (F = 17,28 N)
14 Hai in tch q1 = -2.10-8 C, q2 = 1,8.10-8 C t ti A v B trong khng kh, AB = 8 cm. Mt in tch q3
t ti C. Hi:
a. C u q3 cn bng?
b. Du v ln ca q3 q1 v q2 cng cn bng?
15 C hai in tch q1 = 2.10-6 C, q2 = -2.10-6 C, t ti hai im A, B trong chn khng v cch nhau mt
khong 6 cm. Mt in tch q3 = 2.10-6 C, t trn ng trung trc ca AB, cch AB mt khong 4 cm.
ln ca lc in do hai in tch q1 v q2 tc dng ln in tch q3. (17,28 N)
Gc Ring Trn Bn:

21

Vt l 11

16 Hai in tch im cch nhau mt khong r = 3 cm trong chn khng ht nhau bng mt lc F = 6.10-9
N. in tch tng cng ca hai in tch im l Q = 10-9 C. Tnh in ch ca mi in tch im.
17 Cho hai in tch bng +q (q>0) v hai in tch bng q t ti bn nh ca mt hnh vung ABCD
cnh a trong chn khng, nh hnh v. Xc nh lc in tng hp tc dng ln mi in tch ni trn
18 Hai in tch q1, q2 t cch nhau mt khon r = 10 cm th tng tc vi nhau bng lc F trong khng
kh v bng nu t trong du. lc tng tc vn l F th hai in tch phi t cch nhau bao nhiu
trong du?
19 Mt qu cu nh c khi lng m = 1,6 g, tch in q = 2.10-7 C c treo bng mt si dy t mnh.
pha di n cn phi t mt in tch q2 nh th no lc cng dy gim i mt na?
20 Hai qu cu kim loi nh hon ton ging nhau mang in tch q1 = 1,3.10-9 C v q2 = 6.5.10-9 C, t
trong khng kh cch nhau mt khong r th y nhau vi lc F. Chi hai qu cu tip xc nhau, ri t
chung trong mt lp in mi lng, cng cch nhau mt khong r th lc y gia chng cng bng F.
Xc nh hng s in mi.
21 Hai qu cu kim loi ging nhau, mang in tch q1, q2 t cch nhau 20 cm th ht nhau bi mt lc F1
= 5.10-7 N. Ni hai qu cu bng mt dy dn, xong b dy dn i th hai qu cu y nhau vi mt lc
F2 = 4.10-7 N. Tnh q1, q2.
22 Hai in tch im bng nhau t trong chn khng, cch nhau khong r = 4 cm. Lc y tnh in gia
chng l F = -10-5 N
a. Tnh ln mi in tch.
b. Tm khong cch r1 gia chng lc y tnh in l F1 = 2,5.10-6 N.
23 Ngi ta t ba in tch q1 = 8.10-9 C, q2 = q3 = -8.10-9 C ti ba nh ca mt tam gic u ABC cnh a
= 6 cm trong khng kh. Xc nh lc tc dng ln in tch q0 = 6.10-9 C t ti tm O ca tam gic.
24 Khong cch gia mt prton v mt lectron l r = 5.10-9 cm, coi rng prton v lectron l cc in
tch im. Tnh lc tng tc gia chng. (9,216.10-8 N).
25 Hai in tch im bng nhau t trong chn khng cch nhau mt khong r = 2 cm. Lc y gia
chng l F = 1,6.10-4 N. Tnh ln ca hai in tch. (q1 = q2 = 2,67.10-9 C)
26 Hai in tch im bng nhau t trong chn khng cch nhau mt khong r1 = 2 cm. Lc y gia
chng l F1 = 1,6.10-4 N. lc tng tc gia hai in tch bng F2 = 2,5.10-4 N Tnh khong cch
gia hai in tch khi . (r2 = 1,6 cm)
27 Hai in tch im q1 = +3 C v q2 = -3 C, t trong du ( = 2) cch nhau mt khong r = 3 cm. Lc
tng tc gia hai in tch l bao nhiu? (F = 45 N)
28 Hai in tch im bng nhau c t trong nc ( = 81) cch nhau 3 cm. Lc y gia chng bng
0,2.10-5 N. Hai in tch c ln nh th no? (cng du, ln l 4,025.10-3 C)
29 Hai qu cu nh c in tch 10-7 C v 4.10-7 C, tng tc vi nhau mt lc 0,1 N trong chn khng.
Khong cch gia chng l bao nhiu? (r = 6 cm)
30 Ba in tch im q1 = 6.10-9 C, q2 = q3 = -8.10-9 C t trong khng kh ti ba nh A, B, C ca mt tam
gic u cnh a = 6 cm. Xc nh vect lc tc dng ln q0 = 8.10-9 C ti tm ca tam gic. (8,4.10-4 N)
31 Tnh cng in trng do mt in tch im q = 4.10-8 C gy ra ti M cch n 5cm trong mi
trng c hng s in mi l 2? (7,2.104 V/m)
32 Qu cu kim loi, bn knh R = 5 cm c tch in u q = 2.10-6 C, t trong khng kh. Tnh cng
in trng ti im cch mt qu cu mt khong 5 cm? (1,8.106 V/m)
33 Qu cu nh mang in tch q = 10-5 C t trong khng kh.
a. Tnh ln cng in trng ti im M cch tm qu cu 10 cm? (9.106 V/m)
b. Xc nh lc in tc dng ln q = - 10-7 C t ti M? Suy ra lc tc dng ln q? (0,9 N)
34 in trng trong kh quyn gn mt t c cng 200 V/m, hng thng ng t trn xung. Mt
electron trong in trng ny chu tc dng mt lc c cng v hng nh th no? (3,2.10-17 N)
35 Mt in tch q = 8.10-9 C t ti im M trong in trng ca in tch Q chu tc dng ca mt lc F
= 4.10-4 N.
a. Tm cng in trng ti im M? (5.104 V/m)
b. Bit im M cch in tch Q on 10 cm. Tm ln ca ca in tch Q? (5,56.10-8 C)
36 Cho hai in tch q1 = 4.10-10 C, q2 = -4.10-10 C t ti A, B trong khng kh, AB = 2 cm. Xc nh vect
cng in trng ti:
a. H, trung im ca AB? (72.103 V/m)
b. N hp vi A, B thnh tam gic u? (9.103 V/m)
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Chng 1. in tch - in trng<

37 Ti hai im A, B cch nhau 5 cm trong mi trng c hng s in mi l 2, c hai in tch q1 =


16.10-8 C v q2 = - 9.10-8 C. Tnh cng in trng ti C cch A, B mt khong ln lt l:
a. 2 cm v 3 cm? (2,25.106 V/m)
b. 5 cm v 10 cm? (247500 V/m)
c. 4 cm v 3 cm? (636396 V/m)
d. 12 cm v 13 cm?
38 Cho hai in tch q1 = 8.10-8 C, q2 = -8.10-8 C t ti A, B trong khng kh, AB = 6 cm. Xc nh vect
cng in trng ti M nm trn ng trung trc ca AB, cch AB 4cm? (3,5.105 V/m)
39 Hai in tch q1 = 3.10-8 C v q2 = -4.10-8 C c t cch nhau 10 cm trong chn khng. Hy tm cc
im m ti cng in bng 0? (74,6 cm; 64,6 cm)
40 Cho hai in tch q1, q2 t ti A, B trong khng kh, AB = 100 cm. Tm im C ti cng in
trng tng hp bng khng vi: q1 = 36.10-6 C, q2 = 4.10-6 C? (CA = 75 cm; CB = 25 cm)
41 Cho hai in tch q1, q2 t ti A v B trong khng kh, AB = 2 cm. Bit q1 + q2 = 7.10-8 C v im C cch
q1 6 cm, cch q2 8 cm c cng in trng E = 0. Tm q1, q2. (-9.10-8 C; 1,6.10-7 C)
42 Cng in trng ti hai im A, B nm trn cng mt ng sc in do in tch Q t ti O
sinh ra, c ln ln lt l 16.104 V/m v 9.104 V/m. Gi M l trung im ca on AB. Tnh cng
in trng ti M? (EM = 117551 V/m)
43 Hai bn kim loi c tch in tri du v t song song nm ngang. Mt qu cu tch in q = -8.10-8
C, nng 0,08 g c t nm l lng gia hai bn.
a. Hy xc nh chiu ca cng in trng v du ca mi bn.
b. ln cng in trng gia hai bn l bao nhiu?
44 Mt bn kim loi c tch in dng c t nm ngang. t pha trn mt bn kim loi khc
tch in m nm song song v cch bn kim mt khong.
a. V hnh chiu ca cng in trng gia hai bn ny.
b. t vo mt qu cu c khi lng 1,8.10-5 kg th thy qu cu ny nm cn bng. Bit cng
in trng c ln 45000 V/m. Xc nh in tch ca qu cu ny.
45 Ba in tch q ging ht nhau c t c nh ti ba nh ca mt tam gic u c cnh a. Tnh ln
cng in trng ti tm ca tam gic . (E = 0)
46 Hai in tch q1 = q2 = 5.10-16 C, t ti hai nh B v C ca mt tam gic u ABC cnh bng 8 cm
trong khng kh. Tnh cng in trng ti nh A ca tam gic ABC. (E = 1,2178.10-3 V/m)
47 Hai in tch q1 = 5.10-9 C, q2 = -5.10-9 C t ti hai im cch nhau 10 cm trong chn khng. Tnh
ln cng in trng ti im nm trn ng thng i qua hai in tch v cch u hai in tch
. (E = 36000 V/m)
48 Hai in tch q1 = 5.10-9 C, q2 = - 5.10-9 C t ti hai im cch nhau 10 cm trong chn khng. Tnh
ln cng in trng ti im nm trn ng thng i qua hai in tch v cch q1 5 cm, cch q2
15 cm. (E = 16000 V/m)
49 Hai in tch q1 = 5.10-16 C, q2 = -5.10-16 C, t ti hai nh B v C ca mt tam gic u ABC cnh bng
8 cm trong khng kh. Xc nh cng in trng ti nh A ca tam gic ABC. (E = 0,7031.10-3 V/m)
50 Hai in tch q1 = q2 = q >0 t ti A v B trong khng kh. cho bit AB = 2a.
a. Xc nh cng in trng ti im M trn ng trung trc ca AB cch Ab mt on h.
b. nh h EM cc i. Tnh gi tr cc i ny.
51 Hai in tch +q v q (q>0) t ti hai im A v B vi AB = 2a. M l mt im nm trn ng trung
trc ca AB cch AB mt on x.
a. Xc nh vect cng in trng ti M
b. Xc nh x cng in trng ti M cc i, tnh gi tr
52 Mt qu cu nh khi lng m = 0,1 g mang in tch q = 10-8 C c treo bng si dy khng gin v
t vo in trng u c ng sc nm ngang. Khi qu cu cn bng, dy treo hp vi phng
thng ng mt gc. Ly g = 10 m/s2. Tnh ln ca cng in trng v lc cng dy.
53 Mt in tch im q1 = 8.10-8 C t ti im O Trong chn khng.
a. Xc nh cng in trng ti im M cch O mt on 30 cm.
b. Nu t in tch q2 = - q1 ti M th n chu lc tc dng nh th no?
54 Mt tam gic u ABC c t nm trong mt in trng u. Vect cng in trng hng
song song vi AC v c ln 1500 V/m. in th ti im A l 60 V, ti im B l 120 V. Xc nh
chiu ca vect cng in trng v di cnh ca tam gic ny.
Gc Ring Trn Bn:

23

Vt l 11

55 Mt tam gic ABC vung ti A c t trong mt in trng u c ln 5000 V/m v c chiu


cng in trng hng dc theo AB v hng t A n B. Hiu in th gia hai im B v C l
20 V. Bit BC = 5 cm. Xc nh din tch ca tam gic ny.
56 Trong in trng u c ln l 4500 V/m, ta v mt ng trn ng knh 2 cm. Trn ng trn
ny, v mt hnh lc gic u sao cho vect cng in trng song song vi mt cnh bt k. Xc
nh hiu in th gia nhng im ny.
57 in trng s thc hin cng nh th no khi mt in tch q = -10 nC dch chuyn t im c in
th 40 V n im c in th 120 V?
58 Mt electron thc hin hnh trnh i dc theo mt tam gic u ABC cnh 3 cm theo th t A, B, C. Bit
rng tam gic ny nm trong in trng u c cng 1,2.106 V/m v c chiu hng t A n B.
Xc nh cng ca in trng trong tng giai on.
59 Khi mt proton i t M n N trong in trng u, ngi ta thy in trng thc hin mt cng cn
3.10-15 J. Xc nh hiu in th UMN.
60 a mt in tch 10-10 C i u t im A n B l 2 nh ca mt tam gic u ABC cnh 1 mm
nm trong mt in trng u E, ngi ta phi thc hin mt cng l bao nhiu? Bit rng in
trng ny c cng 35000 V/m v c chiu hng t B n C.
61 Mt tam gic u ABC c t trong mt in trng u E c chiu hng t B n C. Bit UAB =
-30 V. Tnh cng cn thit a mt electron i u t B n C.
62 Mt electron chuyn ng trn u trong mt in trng u c chiu song song vi ng knh AB
ca qu o ng trn v hng t A n B. in trng ny c cng 36000 V/m. Tnh cng ca
in trng i vi electron trong qu trnh electron i t A n im chnh gia cung AB v i n B.
Cho AB = 2 cm.
63 Cn tn mt cng 2.10-15 J a mt electron i t im M n im N vi vn tc u. Hi a
mt ht nhn He i u ngc li t N n M th cn tn mt cng l bao nhiu?
64 Hai bn kim loi tch in tri du c t song song. Hiu in th gia hai bn l 3000 V. Khi ngi
ta a hai bn vo gn nhau, lm khong cch gim i 1/3 th hiu in th gia hai bn l bao nhiu?
65 Gia hai bn kim loi t song song nm ngang c tch in tri du nm cch nhau 2 cm, ngi ta
t mt qu cu nh nng 0,5 mg, mang in tch q = -8.10-10 C th thy qu cu ny nm cn bng.
a. V hnh cc lc tc dng ln qu cu v cho bit du ca mi bn.
b. Xc nh cng in trng v hiu in th gia hai bn.
66 Hai bn kim loi tch in tri du c t nm ngang song song, cch nhau 5 cm. Mt qu cu khi
lng 0,5 mg tch in Q = -5 nC nm l lng gia hai bn.
a. Xc nh du ca mi bn.
b. Xc nh hiu in th gia hai bn.
67 Hai bn kim loi tch in tri du c t nm ngang song song, cch nhau 3 cm. Hiu in th gia
hai bn l 15 V. Mt qu cu khi lng 0,5 mg tch in dng nm l lng gia hai bn.
a. Xc nh du ca mi bn.
b. Xc nh ln in in tch qu cu.
68 Cho hai bn kim loi t song song cch nhau 5 mm. Hiu in th gia chng l 200 V. Tnh cng ca
in trng a mt in tch im Q = 2.10-12 C i t bn dng sang bn m.
69 Mt electron bt u chuyn ng t bn ny n bn kia ca mt in trng u E = 2500 V/m di
tc dng ca lc in. Bit rng hai bn cch nhau 10 mm. Xc nh du ca mi bn v vn tc ca
eletron khi p vo bn kia ca in trng.
70 Mt electron chuyn ng dc theo ng sc ca mt in trng u c cng 364 V/m.
Electron i t im M vi vn tc 1,6.105 m/s. Hi electron i c on ng bao xa th dng?
71 Mt electron bay t bn dng n bn m ca mt in trng u E = 1000 V/m vi vn tc u l
26000 m/s. Hai bn cch nhau 0,8 m.
a. Xc nh cng ca in trng thc hin c.
b. Xc nh vn tc electron p vo bn m.
72 Mt electron b bt ra khi bn dng ca mt in trng u vi vn tc 3.105 m/s hng v pha
bn m. Bit rng hiu in th gia hai bn l 10000 V. Electron c th p vo bn m c khng?
73 Hai bn kim loi tch in tri du c t song song. Ko khong cch gia hai bn tng thm 2 mm
th thy hiu in th gia chng tng thm 5%. Xc nh khong cch gia hai bn ny lc ban u.
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Chng 1. in tch - in trng<

74 mt t in 4 nF c th np c nng lng l 5.10-6 J th ngi ta cn dng hiu in th l bao


nhiu? (50 V)
75 Mt t in in dung 2,5 F sau khi c np in n in tch 2.10-10 C th phng ton b in ra
trong 0,5 ms. Xc nh cng sut phng in ca t. (1,6.10-11 W)
76 Mt t in c ghi 200 V, s cn li b m. Bit rng khi ngi ta np in cho t n mc in tch trn
t l 4.10-10 C th t b thng. Xc nh s b m. (2 pF)
77 Ngi ta mun tch in 3.10-8 C nhng ch c t 160 V - 200 pF th c s dng c khng?
78 Mun tng in tch trn t in thm 10-8 C, ngi ta phi nng hiu in th gia hai u t ln 200
V. Xc nh in dung ca t ny. (5.10-11 F)
79 Mt t in c tch in di hiu in th 200 V. Sau ngi ta ngt t ra khi hiu in th v cho
n phng ra 1/10 nng lng m n c. Hi hiu in th by gi trn t l bao nhiu? (189,74 V)
80 Khi ngi ta nng hiu in th ca hai u t ln 1,5 ln th nng lng ca t cng tng thm 10-10 J.
Xc nh nng lng ca t lc ban u. (8.10-11 J)
81 Ngi ta tch in cho mt t in bng mt hiu in th 200 V. Sau t phng ra mt 2 C th ngi
ta thy hiu in th b st xung cn 180 V. Xc nh in dung ca t ny. (10-7 F)
82 Mt t in 1,5 pF ang c np in hiu in th 40 V. Sau , t t ngt phng ra 1/3 lng
in tch ang c trong thi gian 0,5 ms. Xc nh cng sut phng in ca t lc ny. (8.10-7 W)
83 o in dung ca mt t in, ngi ta np in cho t di mt hiu in th 220 V ri ngt ra.
Sau ni t vi mt bng n LED nh c cng sut 1 W th thy n sng ln trong 0,05 s. Xc nh
in dung ca t. (2,07.10-6 F)
84 Mt t in c in dung C1 = 5 F c np in di hiu in th 50 V. Sau , ngi ta mun tch
c lng in gp 1,5 ban u m vn gi nguyn hiu in th. Lc ny, ta cn phi mc mt t
in C2 nh th no? (C2 = 2,5 F mc song song)
85 Hai t in C1 = 4 F v C2 = 6 F c mc ni tip vi nhau. em c b t ny ni vi mt hiu in
th 200 V th hiu in th mi u t l bao nhiu? (120 V; 80 V)
86 Hai t in C1 = 5 F v C2 = 10 F c mc song song vi nhau ri t vo hiu in th U. Khi
nng lng ca c b t l 7,5.10-4 J. Xc nh in tch trn tng t. (50 C; 100 C)
87 Mt h gm 4 t c mc nh trong hnh. Bit rng C1 = 2 nF, C2 = 4 nF, C3 = 8 nF v C4 = 16 nF. t
h ny vo mt hiu in th 150 V. Xc nh nng lng ca mi t.

88 Mt h gm 4 t c mc nh trong hnh. Bit rng C1 = 2 nF, C2 = 4 nF, C3 = 8 nF v C4 = 16 nF. t


h ny vo mt hiu in th U th thy in tch trn C2 l 40 nC. Xc nh gi tr U.

89 Mt t in c np in di mt hiu in th U th tch c nng lng tng ng mt t in


40 F tch c khi np di hiu in th U/2. Xc nh gi tr in dung t u tin.
90 C 3 t in C1 = 3 nF, C2 = 2 nF, C3 = 20 nF c mc theo s : (C1//C2) nt C3. Ni b t in vi hai
cc mt ngun in c hiu in th 30 V.
a. Tnh in dung ca c b, in tch v hiu in th trn cc t in.
b. T in C1 b thng. Tm in tch v hiu in th trn hai t in cn li.
91 Mt t in phng khng kh c in dung 1000 pF v khong cch gia hai bn l 1 mm. Tch in cho
t in di hiu in th 60 V. Tnh in ca t v cng in trng trong t in.
92 Mt git du nm l lng trong in trng ca mt t in phng in dung 4 nF. Khi lng git du
l 10-7 kg, khong cch gia hai bn t in l 1 cm, in tch ca t l 8,8.10-7 C, bn pha trn l bn
dng.
a. Tnh in tch ca git du.
b. Nu i v tr hai bn t th gia tc ca git du l bao nhiu? Cho g = 10 m/s2

Gc Ring Trn Bn:

25

Vt l 11

C1

N TP CHNG I

TL7

1 Hai in tch q1 v q2 t cch nhau d = 30 cm 2 Hai in tch im bng nhau, t trong chn
trong khng kh th lc tng tc gia chng l
khng, cch nhau 10 cm. Lc y gia chng l
F. Nu t chng trong du th lc tng tc ny
9.10-5 N.
yu i 2,25 ln.Vy cn dch chng li mt
a. Xc nh ln hai in tch . (10-8 C)
khong bao nhiu lc tng tc gia chng
b. lc tng cc gia hai in tch tng 3
vn l F?
ln th phi tng hay gim khong cch gia hai
in tch bao nhiu ln? V sao? Xc nh
khong cch gia hai in tch lc . (3 ln;
0,0577 m)

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