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Cement

Reported by: Marvida, Angelica F. Mendoza, Allen Dale A. Submitted to: Arch. Sylvester D. Seo

Cement Reported by: Angelica F. Marvida and Allen Dale A. Mendoza BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1/ 10:00-11:00 AM

History/ Origin of Cement


3000 BCEgyptian Pyramids The Egyptians were using early forms of concrete over 5000 years ago to build pyramids. They mixed mud and straw to form bricks and used gypsum and lime to make mortars.
Cement Reported by: Angelica F. Marvida and Allen Dale A. Mendoza BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1/ 10:00-11:00 AM

History/ Origin of Cement


300 BC - 476 ADRoman Architecture The ancient Romans used a material that is remarkably close to modern cement to build many of their architectural marvels, such as the Colosseum, and the Pantheon. The Romans also used animal products in their cement as an early form of admixtures.

Cement Reported by: Angelica F. Marvida and Allen Dale A. Mendoza BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1/ 10:00-11:00 AM

History/ Origin of Cement


1824Portland Cement Invented
Joseph Aspdin of England is credited with the invention of Portland cement. He named his cement Portland, after a rock quarry that produced very strong stone. A ship carrying barrels of Aspdin's cement sank off the Isle of Sheppey in Kent, England, and the barrels of set cement, minus the wooden staves, were later incorporated into a pub in Sheerness and are still there now.
Cement Reported by: Angelica F. Marvida and Allen Dale A. Mendoza BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1/ 10:00-11:00 AM

History/ Origin of Cement


1836Cement Testing
The first test of tensile and compressive strength took place in Germany.

Cement Reported by: Angelica F. Marvida and Allen Dale A. Mendoza BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1/ 10:00-11:00 AM

History/ Origin of Cement


1845 Isaac Johnson
A few years later, in 1845, Isaac Johnson made the first modern Portland Cement by firing a mixture of chalk and clay at much higher temperatures, similar to those used today. At these temperatures (1400C1500C), clinkering occurs and minerals form which are very reactive and more strongly cementitious. While Johnson used the same materials to make Portland cement as we use now, three important developments in the manufacturing process lead to modern Portland cement:
- Development of rotary kiln - Addition of gypsum to control setting - Use of ball mills to grind clinker and raw materials
Cement Reported by: Angelica F. Marvida and Allen Dale A. Mendoza BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1/ 10:00-11:00 AM

Portland cement
The type of cement used in almost all concrete since 1824. The original inventor, Joseph Aspdin, was a British bricklayer and named his new invention Portland because its color reminded him of the color of the natural limestone on the Isle of Portland which is a peninsula in the English Channel. All Portland cements are hydraulic cement (hydraulic calcium silicates). Hydraulic cement is actually the generic term in the construction industry. It refers to any cement that will set and harden after it is combined with water.
Cement Reported by: Angelica F. Marvida and Allen Dale A. Mendoza BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1/ 10:00-11:00 AM

Types of Cement
Type I
General purpose cements where the special properties of other types are not required. It is commonly used for general construction especially when making precast and precastprestressed concrete that is not to be in contact with soils or ground water. Its uses include pavements and sidewalks, reinforced concrete buildings, bridges, railway structures, tanks, reservoirs, culverts, sewers, water pipes and masonry units.
Cement Reported by: Angelica F. Marvida and Allen Dale A. Mendoza BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1/ 10:00-11:00 AM

Types of Cement
Type II
Intended to have moderate sulfate resistance with or without moderate heat of hydration. This type is for general construction that is exposed to moderate sulfate attack and is meant for use when concrete is in contact with soils and ground water Can be used in structures of considerable mass, such as large piers, heavy abutments, and heavy retaining walls. Its use will reduce temperature rise, an important quality when the concrete is placed in warm weather.
Cement Reported by: Angelica F. Marvida and Allen Dale A. Mendoza BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1/ 10:00-11:00 AM

Types of Cement
Type III
This cement is similar to Type I, but ground finer. Has relatively high early strength. This gives the concrete using this type of cement a three day compressive strength equal to the seven day compressive strength of types I and II. Its seven day compressive strength is almost equal to types I and II 28 day compressive strengths. The only downside is that the six month strength of type III is the same or slightly less than that of types I and II. Therefore the long-term strength is sacrificed a little.

It may also be used in emergency construction and repairs


and construction of machine bases and gate installations.

Cement Reported by: Angelica F. Marvida and Allen Dale A. Mendoza BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1/ 10:00-11:00 AM

Types of Cement
Type IV
Generally known for its low heat of hydration. This causes the heat given off by the hydration reaction to develop at a slower rate. As a consequence, the strength of the concrete develops slowly. After one or two years the strength is higher than the other types after full curing. This cement is used for very large concrete structures, such as dams, which have a low surface to volume ratio.
Cement Reported by: Angelica F. Marvida and Allen Dale A. Mendoza BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1/ 10:00-11:00 AM

Types of Cement
Type V
Used where severe sulfate resistance is important.
Extensive cracking Expansion Loss of bond between the cement paste and aggregate Alteration of paste composition, with monosulfate phase converting to ettringite and, in later stages, gypsum formation. The necessary additional calcium is provided by the calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate in the cement paste

Cement Reported by: Angelica F. Marvida and Allen Dale A. Mendoza BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1/ 10:00-11:00 AM