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ARCHITECTUREINCONTEXT20022003FallTerm

HLYAYREKL

StevenHoll,Intertwining
Introduction:AlbertoPerezGomez Questions: 1 Whatarethemisconceptionsthathidethepotentialrichnessofourexperience? 2 Howdoestheauthordefinearchitecture,byrelatingittotheideasofMerleauPonty? 3 Howdoestheauthordefinereality? 4 Whatisthereasonofthecrisisinarchitecture? 5 Howcanthiscrisisbeovercome?WhatdoesPerezGomezproposeforthishealing procedureinrelationwiththearchitectureofHoll 6 Howdoestheauthorrelatethelanguagewitharchitecture,withthehelpofMerleau Ponty'sphilosophy,"Phenomenologicalhermeneutics"? 7 HowdoestheauthorexplainHoll'sdoubleawareness? 8 Asasummingupidea,howdoestheauthordefinethearchitectureofStevenHoll? Intertwining: Questions: 1 WhatistheimportanceofarchitectureforStevenHoll? 2 Howdoestheauthorexplainthemetaphorsinperception? 3 Whatdoestheauthormeanbytheword"enmeshing"and"enmeshingexperience" 4 Whatisthedifferencebetweenperspectival,andfluidspace? 5 Howdoestheauthorconsidertime? 6 Whatarethemetaphorsrelatedtogravity? 7 Howdoestheauthorexplainorder,geometryandproportion? 8 In"ideaandlimit",whicharetheideasexplainedinthetext,andhowarethelimitsof theseideasexplained? 9 Whatistherelationofhapticrealmandmateriality? 10 Whatistheimportanceofremainingexperimental? StevenHoll,anchoring Introduction:KennethFrampton Questions: 1 ForKennethFramptonwhatarethecharacteristicsoftheworksofStevenHoll? 2 WhatarethetwofundamentalprinciplesofHoll'sarchitecture? 3 WhyisHollclosetocriticalregionalism? Anchoring: Questions: 1 WhatarethemeansofwordsforStevenHoll? 2 WhyistheconceptanchoringacatalystforthearchitectureofStevenHoll? 3 Howdoestheauthorexplaintherelationofbuildingandsitethroughhistory? 4 Whydoestheauthordefinearchitectureasanextension? 5 Whataretheresultsofthelinkofconceptandform? 6 Whatistheconditionofthemetaphysicalelementsofarchitecturebeforeresuming thedesign? 7 Whathappenswhenthehapticrealmopens? 8 Whenistheopenvocabularyofarchitecturelimited? 9 Whenthepossiblecombinationsoflines,planesandvolumesfloat,whichsystems freezethepossibilities,andhowcanwestillhaveagreatrangeofpossibilities? 10 Whatarethethreedirectionsofarchitecturefortheauthor?Explainbriefly. 11 CanyouwriteashortessayonWittgenstein'swords:Theaspectsofthingsare hiddenbecauseoftheirsimplicityandfamiliarity

ARCHITECTUREINCONTEXT20022003KIYARIYILI HLYAYREKL

StevenHoll,Intertwining Introduction:AlbertoPerezGomez GomezwritestheideasofMauriceMerleauPontywhichisaphilosophy aboutperception,whichisthehumanity'sunderstandingofmeaning.And certainthings,hegemonyoflineartemporality,wherethereisnopresence, thehomogeneityofgeometricspaceetcaremerelypartialtruths, misconceptionsthatoftenhidethepotentialrichnessofourexperience. Thissuggests,indeedthepossibilityofanarchitecturethatmaybecapable ofbothrevealingandconstitutingitselfthroughexperienceasanonidealized notion,withoutneverthelessdenyingitscopresencewithlanguage. Realityisnotreducibletotheconventionalpolesofobjectivityand subjectivity,itisagifttoanondualistic,embodiedconsciousnessthewhole, experiencinghumanbodyasasyntheticreceptor.Meaningaremental associationsandspaceisthereoritisdecontextualizedimages(in cyberspace)andtheyarereality.Thisdualismputsarchitectureintocrisis. (AnalyticanddestructiveattitudeofEisenmannandDerridaagainstthis syntheticattitude) artistsandpoets,bothtraditionalandcontemporary,consistently demonstratethatmeaninganditsparticularsensuousembodimentcannotbe dissociated,that"content"cannotbereducedto"information". ForHoll'sarchitecturethenGomezsaysthat:Thisissuecouldbe summarizedasthecriticalreinterpretationofthe"program".Uponithinges thepossibilitytotransformapassiveobserverintoaparticipant,allowingthe inhabitanttorecognizeapotentialwholenessthroughexperience. Plato'sthirdelementofrealitychorabesidesbeingandbecomingisthe groundofculturethatcan'tbegraspeddirectlybutmakesthemiracleof languagepossiblebyrelatingtheidealbeingtotheconcretebecoming.and thatonlyappearsinworksofhumancreation,asifindreams. Thequestionofhowlanguage,poeticandphilosophical,relatesto architecturalpracticeiscrucial,asitseemstoholdakeyforour understandingofarchitecture'spotentialrelevanceinthelatetwentieth century. FollowingfromMerleauPonty'sinsightinhislatephilosophy, phenomenologicalhermeneuticshasrecognizedtheautonomyofpoetic languagewhiledemonstratingthatitsmeaninghingesuponitscapacityto speakaboutsomething"other"that"grounds"itand"precedes"it,evenifthis "other"isgivenwithlanguage.Thiswouldsuggestthepossibilityofpolitical appropriate,yetmeaningfularchitecture,beyondthemystificationsof 2

egocentricformalismononeextreme,andthebanalitiesofpolitical correctnessontheother,anarchitecturebasedontherecognitionofthe autonomyofitspoeticlanguage,whileacknowledgingthepowerofthe individualimaginationtomakeworksthatspeakaboutsomethingandthus transcendirrelevantselfreferentialgames. ForHollthereisadoubleawareness: 1Theperceptionthatarchitecturematters,thatcultureandarchitectureare inseparableandthattheirdissolutionintothefunctionalpragmatismof spacesforcomputerscreenscanonlybringaboutaloss. 2Anunderstandingthatarchitecturecannotsimplybeidentifiedwitharchaic formsofpowerorinstitutionalpresenceandthusbe"discarded"asa manifestationofthecreativeimagination. Anarchitecturedrivenbyanethicalconcernforthe"other"ratherthanby aestheticfashion,creatingthepossibilityofmeaningindiversity,ratherthan denotingameaning. Holl'sarchitecturedoesnotpretendtoreferbacktoabsoluteoriginsor foundations,andyetisequallyunwillingtoacceptasimplisticrelativismand theexpressionofcultural"difference"asitsonlyoptions,itaspires architectureasanaction,ratherthanastateofbeing,adiscoveryoforderin making,whichisalsoselfmaking,invokingawholeness(andaholliness) thatmaystandforallinourcompressedplanet,andyetremainemphatically beyondtyrannyandanarchy.

Intertwining: Architecturecanshapealivedandsensedintertwiningofspaceandtimeit canchangethewaywelive. Todayarchitecturehasthepowertobebothartisticandhumanistic. Architecture,withitssilentspatialityandtactilemateriality,canreintroduce essential,intrinsicmeaningsandvaluestohumanexperience. Perceptionismetaphorical: Themetaphoresoflightanddarkness,andthepassingoftimethatallowsthe changes, Enmeshing: Architecturesurroundsus.Architecturalsynthesisofchangingbackground, middleground,andforegroundwithallsubjectivequalitiesofmaterialand lightformsthebasisofanintertwiningperception.Ultimately,wecannot separateperceptionintogeometries,activities,andsensations.Compressed, orsometimesexpanded,theinterlockingoflight,material,anddetailcreates overtimea"whole"cinemamergingandyieldingenmeshedexperience. PerspectivalSpace/FluidSpace: Proceedingthroughspaceinthecitywemovewithinanetworkof overlappingperspectivesinmotion.Asthebodyadvances,vistasopenand closedistant,middleandnearviewspalpitate.Theshiftingmovement 3

betweennearandfarobjects,walls,andbuildingmakesanalwayschanging ,visuallytectoniclandscapecalledparallax. Nightlightformsfluidluminousspace.Fluidlighthasdifferentviscosity.This isdifferentindifferentcities.Architectureissometimesaslowviscosityof fluidspaceinmotion. Timeisduration: Whatarethefacetsofarchitecture'srelationshipswiththefourthandfifth dimensionwithinathreedimensionalvocabulary?Timeandperceptionin architectureintertwinewithlightandspaceofarchitecturewithinacertain duration.H.BergsonNottimebutduration. TheGreektimemovedinacircleandwasendless.Westerntimeisan ongoinghistoricaltime.FortheBuddhisttimeisacontinousflux,afluidityof time.AnotherBuddhistconceptdiscribestheunrealityofthepresentinstant whichiscontinouslytransformedintopastandnonbeing. Timewaspositedasthefourthdimensionofarchitecture.Todaywith superstringtheory5,6,7...dimensionsareadmitted. GravityofMassinTension: Thestoneandthefeather. Fullerandweightlessness.ItaloCalvinoandlightness.Theexpressionof massandmaterialsaccordingtogravity,weight,bearing,tensionand buckling,thetheorchestrationofmusicalinstruments. Lightandheavybothexistinphenomenalarchitecture.Heavyandlight musicalinstrumentsandtheircontrastisanelementofmusical composition.B.Bartok. Order,Geometry,Proportion OrderdoesnotimplybeautyL.Kahn Cityorderandnatureorderexistinharmonyandcacophony.Thegeometry ofthecityandnaturecollidetoformatornadoofcentrifugaland/or centripetalforces.Theworkofintertwiningconsidersnewgeometriesand otherorders,mergingspaceandtimeinnewways.Geometricalinfinitiesare constantlysubjectedtofiniteideas. Idea/Limit Architecturetranscendsgeometry.Itisanorganiclinkbetweenconceptand form.Architecture'smeaningliesintheintertwiningofitssite,itsphenomena, itsidea.Architecturemaybeexpressive,yetitalsocarrieslikeavehicle ontologicalandepistemologicalmaps.Formingaconceptdefinesafieldof inquiryaterritoryofresearchforinvestigationthathelpstoformmeaning. Theideaistheforcethatdrivesthedesign.Thefieldofinquirysetsthefocus andthelimitandmostimportantly,theresponsibilityofworkinrigorand depth. Aconceptsdistinctnessandclarityislimitedtoasituationandcanbuild meaningintoasiteandprogram.Theorganizingideaisahiddenthread connectingdisparatepartswithexactintention.Organizingideasare heuristicdevicesthatcantiedisparatearchitecturalelementsintoalarger 4

whole,andyettheymustbefreeandopenenoughforfunctional development.

Materialandthehapticrealm: Theexperienceofmaterialinarchitectureisnotonlyvisualbuttactile,aural, olfactoryitisalloftheseintertwinedwithspaceandourbodilytrajectoryin time.Perhapsnootherrealmmoredirectlyengagesmultiplephenomenaand sensoryexperiencethanthehapticrealm.Thehapticrealmofarchitectureis definedbythesenseoftouch.Whenthematerialityofthedetailsofforming anarchitecturalspacebecomeevidentthehapticrealmopensup.Sensory experienceisintensifiedpsychologicaldimensionengaged. Copiesofnaturalmaterials,alterationsandtransformationsofknown materials,productionsofnewmaterials. Remainingexperimental: InSpinoza'sthought,lifeisnotanidea,amatteroftheorybutawayofbeing. Spinozadidnotbelievebelieveinhopeorevencourage,hebelievedinjoy andvision.G.Deleuze. Architecturemustremainexperimentalandopentonewideasand aspirations.Inthefaceoftremendousconservativeforcesthatconstantly pushittowardsthealreadyproven,alreadybuiltandalreadythought, architecturemustexplorethenotyetfelt. Withintertwiningwebeginanewchapterofanchoringwherethe site/situationisboththesubjectandtheobject,bothexistenceandessence. Anewintensityisanticipatedinacrisscrossingofthetangible(haptic),the thought(ideaforce)andthesite.Hereinliesamysterythatisfamiliarbut unexplained.Theintertwininghasabetweenthatalternatesfromwithinto without. Ourbodymovesthroughandsimultaneously,iscoupledwiththesubstances ofarchitecturalspacethefleshoftheworld(M:MerleauPonty)

StevenHoll,ANCHORING Introduction:KennethFrampton,

Phenomenologicalintensityandapreoccupationwithtactileexperiences havebothbeensalientcharacteristicsofHoll'sworkoverthepastdecade. Heistheonlyamericanarchitectthatisinfluencedbythemainlinesof thoughtofmodernphilosophyfromHussereltoHeideggerandmusicof BartokandSchnberg. Twofundamentalprinciplesunderliehisarchitecture.Thefirstoftheseisthe anchoringofthebuildinginsite,althoughlikeSizahebelievesthatthe architecthasasmuchresponsibilitytochallengethesiteastoharmonize passivelywithitsform.ThesecondisHoll'sneedtointegratetheconceptual levelofhisworkwithaphenomenologicalexperienceofitspresence.While 5

hestrivesforamoreopenarchitecturallanguage,healsosearchesfora closephenomenological/typologicalrelationship,theirconjunctionisposited asananalogueforourexperienceofnature.Hollconstantlyattemptsto establishanonreductivegroundforourlatemodernarchitecture,wherein the"limitedconcept"maybeallowedtounfoldnotonlyinaccordwithitsown internalrulesbutalsowithregardtoitsintrinsicsensuality.Beingcloseto criticalregionalism. Anchoring: Architectureisawordlesssilencewhichismainlycomposedofspace,light andmatter.Althoughtheyfallshortofarchitecturalevidence,wordspresenta premise.Theworkisforcedtocarryoverwhenwordsthemselvescannot. Wordsarearrowspointingtherightdirectionstakentogethertheyforma mapofarchitecturalintentions. SomeofthecatalystthoughtofHoll'sarchitectureare, Anchoring:Architectureisboundtosituation,thesiteofabuildingismore thanamereingredientinitsconception.Itisitsphysicalandmetaphysical foundation. Buildingtranscendsphysicalandfunctionalrequirementsbyfusingwitha place,bygatheringthemeaningofasituation. Abuildinghasonesite.Inthisonesituationitsintentionsarecollected. Buildingandsitehavebeenindependentsincethebeginningofarchitecture. Inthepast,thisconnectionwasmanifestwithoutconsiousintentionthrough theuseoflocalmaterialsandcraft,andbyanassociationofthelandscape witheventsofhistoryandmyth.Todaythelinkbetweensiteandarchitecture mustbefoundinnewways,whicharepartofaconstructivetransformationin modernlife. Architectureisanextensionamodificationestablishingabsolutemeanings relativetoaplace.Evenwhenanewworkisaninvasionofinherent conditions,itsorderattemptstoembodyanaspect,orilluminateaspecific meaningdistinctfromgeneralitiesofabstractspace.Anidealexistsinthe specificanabsoluteintherelative. NunneryinUxmal:Timetransparent,functionunknown L.KahnSalkInstitute:Architectureandnaturearejoinedinametaphysicsof place. IdeaandPhenomena: Theessenceofaworkofarchitectureisanorganiclinkbetweenconceptand form.Piecescannotbesubtractedoraddedwithoutupsettingfundamental properties.Aconcept,whetherarationallyexplicitstatementorasubjective demonstration,establishesanorder,afieldofinquiry,alimitedprinciple. Theintertwiningofideaandphenomenaoccurswhenabuildingisrealized. Beforebeginning,architecture'smetaphysicalskeletonoftimelight,space andmatterremainunordered.Modesofcompositionareopen:line,plane, volumeandproportionawaitactivation.Whenthesite,cultureandprogram aregiven,anorder,anideamaybeformed.Yettheideaisonlyconception. Thenthereisthehapticrealmthatopens,andthenthereisthespatial experienceofparallax,orperspectivewarp,time,spaceandlight. 6

Ifweconsidertheorder(theidea)tobetheouterperceptionandthe phenomena(theexperience)tobetheinnerperception,theninaphysical construction,outerperceptionandinnerperceptionareintertwined.Fromthis positionexperientialphenomenaarethematerialforakindofreasoningthat joinsconceptandsensation.Theobjectiveisunifiedwiththesubjective. Outerperceptionoftheintellectandinnerperceptionofthesensesare synthesizedinanorderingofspace,lightandmaterial,thehopeistounite intellectandfeeling,precisionwithsoul. ProtoelementsofArchitecture(anopenlanguage): Theopenvocabularyofmodernarchitecturemaybeextendedbyany compositionalelement,form,method,orgeometry.Asituationimmidiately setslimits.Achosenorderingconceptandchosenmaterialsbegintheeffort toextractthenatureofthework.priortosite,evenpriortoculture,atangible vocabularyoftheelementsofarchitectureremainsopen. Protoelements:possiblecombinationsoflines,planes,andvolumesinspace remaindisconnected,transhistorical,andtranscultural.Theyfloataboutina zerogroundofformwithoutgravitybutareprecursorsofaconcrete architectonicform. Lines: Planes: Volumes Likeinmusictherearecertainclassicalsystemsbutifweextendarelimitsof thissystemwehaveagreatrangeofpossibilities. IdeologyVS.Idea: Inarchitectureifaparticulartheoryistrue,thenallothertheoriesarefalse. Pluralismontheotherhandleadstoanempiricalarchitecture.Athird direction,istheadoptionofalimitedconcept.Time,culture,programmatic circumstance,andsitearespecificfactorsfromwhichanorganizingideacan beformed.Aspecificconceptmaybedevelopedasapreciseorder, irrespectiveoftheuniversalclaimsofanyparticularideology. Atheoryofarchitecturethatleadstoasystemofthinkingaboutandmaking buildingshas,atitsbase,aseries,aseriesoffixedideasconstitutingan ideology.Theideologyisevidentineachprojectthatisconsistentwiththe generaltheory. Bycontrast,anarchitecturebasedonalimitedconceptbeginswith dissimilarityandvariation.Itilluminatesthesingularityofaspecificsituation. Itcanbecomeanideologybuteverchanging.Itwilldenyhomogeneity. Mysteriousbeginnings,uniquemeaningswithprecision,variationand celebrationoftheasyetunknown Theaspectsofthingsforusarehiddenbecauseoftheirsimplicityand familiarity,Wittgenstein.