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Archipelagic doctrine: The "Archipelagic Doctrine" goes back to March 7, 1955, when the Philippines government lodged a formal

note with the United Nations, as follows: "All waters around, between and connecting different islands belonging to the Philippine Archipelago, irrespective of their width or dimension, are necessary appurtenances of its land territory, forming an integral part of the national or inland waters, subject to the exclusive so vereignty of the Philippines. What that means is that (according to the Philippines government) the Philippines OWNS all of the seas between the thousands of islands that are Philippine territory. In terms of ownership, it is as if the seas did not exist at all, and that the Philippines is not an archipelago at all, but instead is one huge connected land mass. This is important, because the seas surrounding and connecting the islands of the Philippines are a resource of great wealth for the nation. THE BASELINE METHODS Baselines are reference lines drawn by a coastal or archipelagic State using different methods as discussed below. They are used to measure the breadth of the territorial sea (12nm), contiguous zone (24 nm), EEZ (200nm) and continental shelf (up to 350nm). Also, the waters enclosed by the baselines are called archipelagic waters over which an archipelagic State exercises sovereignty. According to the UNCLOS, there are three methods that can be employed in determining a States baselines, namely: 1. Normal Baseline, according to Art. 5, is the low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal State. 2. Straight Baseline, according to Art. 7, can be employed if ever the coastlines are indented and cut into or there is a fringe of islands along the coast in its immediate vicinity. 3. Archipelagic Baseline, according to Art. 47, is a method of joining the outermost points of the outermost islands and drying reefs of an archipelago provided that within such baselines are included the main island and an area in which the ratio of the area of the water to the area of the land, including atolls, is between 1:1 and 9:1. Of the three methods, the archipelagic baselines method is most applicable and advantageous to an archipelago such as ours. Otherwise, to use either the Normal or Straight baseline methods, which are primarily designed for coastal States, would effectively waive our status as an archipelagic State and lose much of the archipelagic waters as defined above

ARTICLE I The National Territory The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial, and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines.

ARTICLE I The National Territory Section 1. The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all the other territories belonging to the Philippines by historic or legal title, including the territorial sea, the air space, the subsoil, the sea-bed, the insular shelves, and the submarine areas over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, irrespective of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines.

ARTICLE I The National Territory Section 1. The Philippines comprises all the territory ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Paris concluded between the United States and Spain on the tenth day of December, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, the limits which are set forth in Article III of said treaty, together with all the islands embraced in the treaty concluded at Washington between the United States and Spain on the seventh day of November, nineteen hundred, and the treaty concluded between the United States and Great Britain on the second day of January, nineteen hundred and thirty, and all territory over which the present Government of the Philippine Islands exercises jurisdiction.