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AJC 2013 ANS (a) 2NaOH(aq) + HO2CCH2CO2H(aq) Na+O2CCH2CO2Na+(aq) + 2H2O(l) 1 correct state symbol given (b) Intended [FA

A 2] Given that [malonic acid] = 1.00 mol dm-3, and the proportion of solutions are 20 cm3 FA 1 and 40 cm3 aqueous NaOH, minimum [NaOH] in FA 2 to ensure complete reaction of malonic acid = 1 mol dm-3 n(NaOH) required to prepare 250 cm3 of FA 2 = 1 0.25 = 0.250 mol mass of NaOH required = 0.25 (23.0 + 16.0 + 1.0) = 10.0 g Therefore, about 11 g of solid anhydrous NaOH (more than 10 g) is used in the preparation of standard solution. Preparation of FA 2 1. Weigh accurately about 11.0 g of solid anhydrous NaOH in a preweighed weighing bottle. 2. Dissolve this solid in a (100 cm3) beaker with 30.0 cm3 of deionized water. 3. Reweigh the empty weighing bottle with residue. 4. Transfer the solution quantitatively with washings into a 250 cm3 graduated flask and make up to the mark dropwise with deionised water. 5. Shake the solution to obtain a homogeneous solution and label it FA 2. Experimental Set-up

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Experimental procedure 6. Using a 25 cm3 measuring cylinder, transfer 20.0 cm3 of FA 1 into a styrofoam cup. Place a 0.2oC diviion thermometer in the solution and record the initial temperature of FA 1. 7. Using a 50 measuring cylinder, measure out 40.0 cm3 of FA 2. Place a 0.2oC division thermometer in the solution and record the initial temperature of FA 2. 8. Quickly transfer the 40 cm3 of FA 2 into the styrofoam cup containing FA 1. Cover the cup with a lid. 9. Stir the mixture and observe the maximum temperature rise on the thermometer. 10. Record the maximum temperature reached. 11. Repeat experiment until temperature rise is consistent to 0.2 oC.

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Appropriate concentration of FA 2 determined with calculations shown.

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NaOH solution should be more concentrated than FA 1 (1 mol dm3) to ensure complete neutralisation of malonic acid. Use of weighing balance without TARE function (OR reweighing done) Determine the mass of anhydrous NaOH that was successfully transferred from the weighing bottle to prepare the standard solution. Use of volumetric flask to prepare standard solution of FA 2 Appropriate mass of NaOH used for 100 cm3 or 250 cm3 volumetric flask. Correct drawing of setup with appropriate choice of apparatus for the experiment for insulation. Styrofoam cup with lid and thermometer, (retort stand) Show measurement of volumes of solutions and initial temperatures of both solutions before mixing. Correct procedures in determining the maximum temperature reached.

(20xa) + ( 40xb) o C (20 + 40) (20xa) + ( 40xb) o Temperature change = c C (20 + 40) (20a) + ( 40b) ] J Heat change = 60 4.2 [c 60 Amount of water formed = 2(0.02 1) = 0.04 mol Enthalpy change of neutralisation (20a) + ( 40b) = 60 4.2 [c ] / 0.04 60 = 105[60c (20a + 40b)] J mol1
Weighted average of initial temperature =

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Hr = 2 Hsoln(NaOH) + 2 Hneut = (2)(44.51) + (2)(0.105)[60c (20a + 40b)] = 89.02 0.21[60c (20a + 40b)] [1]: correct cycle / application of Hess Law [1]: correct H expression in terms of a, b and c (d) solid anhydrous sodium hydroxide is highly corrosive and gloves should be worn. [1]