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function evalValues = standardPSO(fhd, functionNumber, DIM, evalsPerDIM) evalValues = zeros(1,11); nextEval = 1; evalPoints = [0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.

4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0]; numEvals = 0; % PSO parameters -- D. Bratton and J. Kennedy, "Defining a standard for part icle swarm optimization," IEEE SIS, 2007, pp. 120 127. popsize = 50; w = 0.72984; c1 = 2.05 * w; c2 = 2.05 * w; % % Search space parameters range = 5; %BBOB2009 range = 100; %CEC2013 xmin = -range * ones(1,DIM); xmax = range * ones(1,DIM); vmin = -range * ones(1,DIM); vmax = range * ones(1,DIM); % Random initial positions x = 2 * range * rand(popsize,DIM) - range; % zero for initial velocity -- A. Engelbrecht, "Particle Swarm Optimization: Velocity Initialization," IEEE CEC, 2012, pp. 70-77. v = zeros(popsize,DIM); % initialize personal best positions as initial positions pbest = x; pbestCosts = feval(fhd, x', functionNumber); numEvals = numEvals + popsize; % update lbest [lbest] = update_lbest(pbestCosts, x, popsize); maxevals = DIM * evalsPerDIM; maxgenerations = floor(maxevals/popsize); for generation = 2 : maxgenerations % Update velocity v = w*v + c1*rand(popsize,DIM).*(pbest-x) + c2*rand(popsize,DIM).*(lbest -x); % Clamp veloctiy oneForViolation = v < repmat(vmin,popsize,1); v = (1-oneForViolation).*v + oneForViolation.*repmat(vmin,popsize,1); oneForViolation = v > repmat(vmax,popsize,1); v = (1-oneForViolation).*v + oneForViolation.*repmat(vmax,popsize,1); % Update position x = x + v; % Reflect-Z for particles out of bounds -- S. Helwig, J. Branke, and S. Mostaghim, "Experimental Analysis of Bound Handling Techniques in Particle Swarm Optimization," IEEE TEC: 17(2), 2013, pp. 259-271 % reflect lower bound relectionAmount = repmat(xmin,popsize,1) - x; oneForNeedReflection = relectionAmount > zeros(popsize,DIM); relectionAmount = (1-oneForNeedReflection).*zeros(popsize,DIM) + oneForN eedReflection.*relectionAmount;

% clampfirst x = (1-oneForNeedReflection).*x + oneForNeedReflection.*repmat(xmin,pops ize,1); % then reflect x = x + relectionAmount; % set velocity for reflected particles to zero v = (1-oneForNeedReflection).*v + oneForNeedReflection.*zeros(popsize,DI M); % reflect upper bound relectionAmount = repmat(xmax,popsize,1) - x; oneForNeedReflection = relectionAmount < zeros(popsize,DIM); relectionAmount = (1-oneForNeedReflection).*zeros(popsize,DIM) + oneForN eedReflection.*relectionAmount; % clampfirst x = (1-oneForNeedReflection).*x + oneForNeedReflection.*repmat(xmax,pops ize,1); % then reflect x = x + relectionAmount; % set velocity for reflected particles to zero v = (1-oneForNeedReflection).*v + oneForNeedReflection.*zeros(popsize,DI M); % Update pbest, lbest, and gbest newCosts = feval(fhd, x', functionNumber); numEvals = numEvals + popsize; for index = 1:popsize if newCosts(index) < pbestCosts(index) pbest(index,:) = x(index,:); pbestCosts(index) = newCosts(index); end end [lbest] = update_lbest(pbestCosts, x, popsize); gbestCost = min(pbestCosts); if numEvals >= evalPoints(nextEval) * maxevals evalValues(1, nextEval) = gbestCost; nextEval = nextEval + 1; end end evalValues(1, 11) = gbestCost; end % Function to update lbest function [lbest] = update_lbest(costX, x, popsize) %particle 1 is neighbours with particle n=popsize sm(1, 1)= costX(1, popsize); sm(1, 2:3)= costX(1, 1:2); [cost, index] = min(sm); if index==1 lbest(1, :) = x(popsize, :); else lbest(1, :) = x(index-1, :); end for i = 2:popsize-1

sm(1, 1:3)= costX(1, i-1:i+1); [cost, index] = min(sm); lbest(i, :) = x(i+index-2, :); end % particle n=popsize is neighbours with particle 1 sm(1, 1:2)= costX(1, popsize-1:popsize); sm(1, 3)= costX(1, 1); [cost, index] = min(sm); if index==3 lbest(popsize, :) = x(1, :); else lbest(popsize, :) = x(popsize-2+index, :); end end