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You are on page 1of 80

FOURIER SERIES

Graham S McDonald

A self-contained Tutorial Module for learning

the technique of Fourier series analysis

G Table of contents

G Begin Tutorial

c 2004 g.s.mcdonald@salford.ac.uk

Table of contents

1. Theory

2. Exercises

3. Answers

4. Integrals

5. Useful trig results

6. Alternative notation

7. Tips on using solutions

Full worked solutions

Section 1: Theory 3

1. Theory

G A graph of periodic function f(x) that has period L exhibits the

same pattern every L units along the x-axis, so that f(x +L) = f(x)

for every value of x. If we know what the function looks like over one

complete period, we can thus sketch a graph of the function over a

wider interval of x (that may contain many periods)

f(x)

x

PERIOD =L

Toc

Back

Section 1: Theory 4

G This property of repetition denes a fundamental spatial fre-

quency k =

2

L

that can be used to give a rst approximation to

the periodic pattern f(x):

f(x) c

1

sin(kx +

1

) = a

1

cos(kx) + b

1

sin(kx),

where symbols with subscript 1 are constants that determine the am-

plitude and phase of this rst approximation

G A much better approximation of the periodic pattern f(x) can

be built up by adding an appropriate combination of harmonics to

this fundamental (sine-wave) pattern. For example, adding

c

2

sin(2kx +

2

) = a

2

cos(2kx) + b

2

sin(2kx) (the 2nd harmonic)

c

3

sin(3kx +

3

) = a

3

cos(3kx) + b

3

sin(3kx) (the 3rd harmonic)

Here, symbols with subscripts are constants that determine the am-

plitude and phase of each harmonic contribution

Toc

Back

Section 1: Theory 5

One can even approximate a square-wave pattern with a suitable sum

that involves a fundamental sine-wave plus a combination of harmon-

ics of this fundamental frequency. This sum is called a Fourier series

Fundamental +5 harmonics

Fundamental +20 harmonics

x

PERIOD =L

Fundamental

Fundamental +2 harmonics

Toc

Back

Section 1: Theory 6

G In this Tutorial, we consider working out Fourier series for func-

tions f(x) with period L = 2. Their fundamental frequency is then

k =

2

L

= 1, and their Fourier series representations involve terms like

a

1

cos x , b

1

sinx

a

2

cos 2x , b

2

sin2x

a

3

cos 3x , b

3

sin3x

We also include a constant term a

0

/2 in the Fourier series. This

allows us to represent functions that are, for example, entirely above

the xaxis. With a sucient number of harmonics included, our ap-

proximate series can exactly represent a given function f(x)

f(x) = a

0

/2 + a

1

cos x + a

2

cos 2x + a

3

cos 3x + ...

+ b

1

sinx + b

2

sin2x + b

3

sin3x + ...

Toc

Back

Section 1: Theory 7

A more compact way of writing the Fourier series of a function f(x),

with period 2, uses the variable subscript n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

f(x) =

a

0

2

+

n=1

[a

n

cos nx + b

n

sinnx]

G We need to work out the Fourier coecients (a

0

, a

n

and b

n

) for

given functions f(x). This process is broken down into three steps

STEP ONE

a

0

=

1

_

2

f(x) dx

STEP TWO

a

n

=

1

_

2

f(x) cos nx dx

STEP THREE

b

n

=

1

_

2

f(x) sinnx dx

where integrations are over a single interval in x of L = 2

Toc

Back

Section 1: Theory 8

G Finally, specifying a particular value of x = x

1

in a Fourier series,

gives a series of constants that should equal f(x

1

). However, if f(x)

is discontinuous at this value of x, then the series converges to a value

that is half-way between the two possible function values

f(x)

x

Fourier series

converges to

half-way point

"Vertical jump"/discontinuity

in the function represented

Toc

Back

Section 2: Exercises 9

2. Exercises

Click on Exercise links for full worked solutions (7 exercises in total).

Exercise 1.

Let f(x) be a function of period 2 such that

f(x) =

_

1, < x < 0

0, 0 < x < .

a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 2 < x < 2

b) Show that the Fourier series for f(x) in the interval < x < is

1

2

2

_

sinx +

1

3

sin3x +

1

5

sin5x + ...

_

c) By giving an appropriate value to x, show that

4

= 1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+ . . .

G Theory G Answers G Integrals G Trig G Notation

Toc

Back

Section 2: Exercises 10

Exercise 2.

Let f(x) be a function of period 2 such that

f(x) =

_

0, < x < 0

x, 0 < x < .

a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 3 < x < 3

b) Show that the Fourier series for f(x) in the interval < x < is

4

2

_

cos x +

1

3

2

cos 3x +

1

5

2

cos 5x + ...

_

+

_

sinx

1

2

sin2x +

1

3

sin3x ...

_

c) By giving appropriate values to x, show that

(i)

4

= 1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+. . . and (ii)

2

8

= 1 +

1

3

2

+

1

5

2

+

1

7

2

+. . .

G Theory G Answers G Integrals G Trig G Notation

Toc

Back

Section 2: Exercises 11

Exercise 3.

Let f(x) be a function of period 2 such that

f(x) =

_

x, 0 < x <

, < x < 2 .

a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 2 < x < 2

b) Show that the Fourier series for f(x) in the interval 0 < x < 2 is

3

4

2

_

cos x +

1

3

2

cos 3x +

1

5

2

cos 5x + . . .

_

_

sinx +

1

2

sin2x +

1

3

sin3x + . . .

_

c) By giving appropriate values to x, show that

(i)

4

= 1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+. . . and (ii)

2

8

= 1 +

1

3

2

+

1

5

2

+

1

7

2

+. . .

G Theory G Answers G Integrals G Trig G Notation

Toc

Back

Section 2: Exercises 12

Exercise 4.

Let f(x) be a function of period 2 such that

f(x) =

x

2

over the interval 0 < x < 2.

a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 0 < x < 4

b) Show that the Fourier series for f(x) in the interval 0 < x < 2 is

2

_

sinx +

1

2

sin2x +

1

3

sin3x + . . .

_

c) By giving an appropriate value to x, show that

4

= 1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+

1

9

. . .

G Theory G Answers G Integrals G Trig G Notation

Toc

Back

Section 2: Exercises 13

Exercise 5.

Let f(x) be a function of period 2 such that

f(x) =

_

x, 0 < x <

0, < x < 2

a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 2 < x < 2

b) Show that the Fourier series for f(x) in the interval 0 < x < 2 is

4

+

2

_

cos x +

1

3

2

cos 3x +

1

5

2

cos 5x + . . .

_

+ sinx +

1

2

sin2x +

1

3

sin3x +

1

4

sin4x + . . .

c) By giving an appropriate value to x, show that

2

8

= 1 +

1

3

2

+

1

5

2

+ . . .

G Theory G Answers G Integrals G Trig G Notation

Toc

Back

Section 2: Exercises 14

Exercise 6.

Let f(x) be a function of period 2 such that

f(x) = x in the range < x < .

a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 3 < x < 3

b) Show that the Fourier series for f(x) in the interval < x < is

2

_

sinx

1

2

sin2x +

1

3

sin3x . . .

_

c) By giving an appropriate value to x, show that

4

= 1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+ . . .

G Theory G Answers G Integrals G Trig G Notation

Toc

Back

Section 2: Exercises 15

Exercise 7.

Let f(x) be a function of period 2 such that

f(x) = x

2

over the interval < x < .

a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 3 < x < 3

b) Show that the Fourier series for f(x) in the interval < x < is

2

3

4

_

cos x

1

2

2

cos 2x +

1

3

2

cos 3x . . .

_

c) By giving an appropriate value to x, show that

2

6

= 1 +

1

2

2

+

1

3

2

+

1

4

2

+ . . .

G Theory G Answers G Integrals G Trig G Notation

Toc

Back

Section 3: Answers 16

3. Answers

The sketches asked for in part (a) of each exercise are given within

the full worked solutions click on the Exercise links to see these

solutions

The answers below are suggested values of x to get the series of

constants quoted in part (c) of each exercise

1. x =

2

,

2. (i) x =

2

, (ii) x = 0,

3. (i) x =

2

, (ii) x = 0,

4. x =

2

,

5. x = 0,

6. x =

2

,

7. x = .

Toc

Back

Section 4: Integrals 17

4. Integrals

Formula for integration by parts:

_

b

a

u

dv

dx

dx = [uv]

b

a

_

b

a

du

dx

v dx

f (x)

_

f(x)dx f (x)

_

f(x)dx

x

n x

n+1

n+1

(n = 1) [g (x)]

n

g

(x)

[g(x)]

n+1

n+1

(n = 1)

1

x

ln|x|

g

(x)

g(x)

ln|g (x)|

e

x

e

x

a

x a

x

ln a

(a > 0)

sinx cos x sinhx coshx

cos x sinx coshx sinhx

tanx ln|cos x| tanhx lncoshx

cosec x ln

tan

x

2

cosechx ln

tanh

x

2

1

e

x

sec

2

x tanx sech

2

x tanhx

cot x ln|sinx| cothx ln|sinhx|

sin

2

x

x

2

sin 2x

4

sinh

2

x

sinh 2x

4

x

2

cos

2

x

x

2

+

sin 2x

4

cosh

2

x

sinh 2x

4

+

x

2

Toc

Back

Section 4: Integrals 18

f (x)

_

f (x) dx f (x)

_

f (x) dx

1

a

2

+x

2

1

a

tan

1 x

a

1

a

2

x

2

1

2a

ln

a+x

ax

(0<|x| <a)

(a > 0)

1

x

2

a

2

1

2a

ln

xa

x+a

1

a

2

x

2

sin

1 x

a

1

a

2

+x

2

ln

x+

a

2

+x

2

a

(a > 0)

(a < x < a)

1

x

2

a

2

ln

x+

x

2

a

2

a

(x>a>0)

a

2

x

2

a

2

2

_

sin

1

_

x

a

_

a

2

+x

2

a

2

2

_

sinh

1

_

x

a

_

+

x

a

2

+x

2

a

2

_

+

x

a

2

x

2

a

2

_

x

2

a

2

a

2

2

_

cosh

1

_

x

a

_

+

x

x

2

a

2

a

2

_

Toc

Back

Section 5: Useful trig results 19

5. Useful trig results

When calculating the Fourier coecients a

n

and b

n

, for which n =

1, 2, 3, . . . , the following trig. results are useful. Each of these results,

which are also true for n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . , can be deduced from

the graph of sinx or that of cos x

G sinn = 0

1

0

1

2

3

3 2

sin(x)

x

G cos n = (1)

n

1

0

1

2

3

3 2

cos(x)

x

Toc

Back

Section 5: Useful trig results 20

1

0

1

2

3

3 2

sin(x)

x

1

0

1

2

3

3 2

cos(x)

x

Gsinn

2

=

_

_

_

0 , n even

1 , n = 1, 5, 9, ...

1 , n = 3, 7, 11, ...

Gcos n

2

=

_

_

_

0 , n odd

1 , n = 0, 4, 8, ...

1 , n = 2, 6, 10, ...

Areas cancel when

when integrating

over whole periods

G

_

2

sinnxdx = 0

G

_

2

cos nxdx = 0

+ +

1

0

1

2 3 3 2

sin(x)

x

+

Toc

Back

Section 6: Alternative notation 21

6. Alternative notation

G For a waveform f(x) with period L =

2

k

f(x) =

a

0

2

+

n=1

[a

n

cos nkx + b

n

sinnkx]

The corresponding Fourier coecients are

STEP ONE

a

0

=

2

L

_

L

f(x) dx

STEP TWO

a

n

=

2

L

_

L

f(x) cos nkx dx

STEP THREE

b

n

=

2

L

_

L

f(x) sinnkx dx

and integrations are over a single interval in x of L

Toc

Back

Section 6: Alternative notation 22

G For a waveform f(x) with period 2L =

2

k

, we have that

k =

2

2L

=

L

and nkx =

nx

L

f(x) =

a

0

2

+

n=1

_

a

n

cos

nx

L

+ b

n

sin

nx

L

_

The corresponding Fourier coecients are

STEP ONE

a

0

=

1

L

_

2L

f(x) dx

STEP TWO

a

n

=

1

L

_

2L

f(x) cos

nx

L

dx

STEP THREE

b

n

=

1

L

_

2L

f(x) sin

nx

L

dx

and integrations are over a single interval in x of 2L

Toc

Back

Section 6: Alternative notation 23

G For a waveform f(t) with period T =

2

f(t) =

a

0

2

+

n=1

[a

n

cos nt + b

n

sinnt]

The corresponding Fourier coecients are

STEP ONE

a

0

=

2

T

_

T

f(t) dt

STEP TWO

a

n

=

2

T

_

T

f(t) cos nt dt

STEP THREE

b

n

=

2

T

_

T

f(t) sinnt dt

and integrations are over a single interval in t of T

Toc

Back

Section 7: Tips on using solutions 24

7. Tips on using solutions

G When looking at the THEORY, ANSWERS, INTEGRALS, TRIG

or NOTATION pages, use the Back button (at the bottom of the

page) to return to the exercises

G Use the solutions intelligently. For example, they can help you get

started on an exercise, or they can allow you to check whether your

intermediate results are correct

G Try to make less use of the full solutions as you work your way

through the Tutorial

Toc

Back

Solutions to exercises 25

Full worked solutions

Exercise 1.

f(x) =

_

1, < x < 0

0, 0 < x < , and has period 2

a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 2 < x < 2

0

1

2 2

f(x)

x

Toc

Back

Solutions to exercises 26

b) Fourier series representation of f(x)

STEP ONE

a

0

=

1

f(x)dx =

1

_

0

f(x)dx +

1

_

0

f(x)dx

=

1

_

0

1 dx +

1

_

0

0 dx

=

1

_

0

dx

=

1

[x]

0

=

1

(0 ())

=

1

()

i.e. a

0

= 1 .

Toc

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Solutions to exercises 27

STEP TWO

a

n

=

1

1

_

0

1

_

0

f(x) cos nxdx

=

1

_

0

1 cos nxdx +

1

_

0

0 cos nxdx

=

1

_

0

cos nx dx

=

1

_

sinnx

n

_

0

=

1

n

[sinnx]

0

=

1

n

(sin0 sin(n))

=

1

n

(0 + sinn)

i.e. a

n

=

1

n

(0 + 0) = 0.

Toc

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Solutions to exercises 28

STEP THREE

b

n

=

1

f(x) sinnx dx

=

1

_

0

f(x) sinnx dx +

1

_

0

f(x) sinnx dx

=

1

_

0

1 sinnx dx +

1

_

0

0 sinnx dx

i.e. b

n

=

1

_

0

sinnx dx =

1

_

cos nx

n

_

0

=

1

n

[cos nx]

0

=

1

n

(cos 0 cos(n))

=

1

n

(1 cos n) =

1

n

(1 (1)

n

) , see Trig

i.e. b

n

=

_

0 , n even

2

n

, n odd

, since (1)

n

=

_

1 , n even

1 , n odd

Toc

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Solutions to exercises 29

We now have that

f(x) =

a

0

2

+

n=1

[a

n

cos nx + b

n

sinnx]

with the three steps giving

a

0

= 1, a

n

= 0 , and b

n

=

_

0 , n even

2

n

, n odd

It may be helpful to construct a table of values of b

n

n 1 2 3 4 5

b

n

2

0

2

_

1

3

_

0

2

_

1

5

_

Substituting our results now gives the required series

f(x) =

1

2

2

_

sinx +

1

3

sin3x +

1

5

sin5x + . . .

_

Toc

Back

Solutions to exercises 30

c) Pick an appropriate value of x, to show that

4

= 1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+ . . .

Comparing this series with

f(x) =

1

2

2

_

sinx +

1

3

sin3x +

1

5

sin5x + . . .

_

,

we need to introduce a minus sign in front of the constants

1

3

,

1

7

,. . .

So we need sinx = 1, sin3x = 1, sin 5x = 1, sin7x = 1, etc

The rst condition of sinx = 1 suggests trying x =

2

.

This choice gives sin

2

+

1

3

sin3

2

+

1

5

sin5

2

+

1

7

sin7

2

i.e. 1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

Looking at the graph of f(x), we also have that f(

2

) = 0.

Toc

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Solutions to exercises 31

Picking x =

2

thus gives

0 =

1

2

2

_

sin

2

+

1

3

sin

3

2

+

1

5

sin

5

2

+

1

7

sin

7

2

+ . . .

_

i.e. 0 =

1

2

2

_

1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+ . . .

_

A little manipulation then gives a series representation of

4

2

_

1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+ . . .

_

=

1

2

1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+ . . . =

4

.

Return to Exercise 1

Toc

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Solutions to exercises 32

Exercise 2.

f(x) =

_

0, < x < 0

x, 0 < x < , and has period 2

a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 3 < x < 3

2 3

3 2

f(x)

x

Toc

Back

Solutions to exercises 33

b) Fourier series representation of f(x)

STEP ONE

a

0

=

1

f(x)dx =

1

_

0

f(x)dx +

1

_

0

f(x)dx

=

1

_

0

0 dx +

1

_

0

xdx

=

1

_

x

2

2

_

0

=

1

2

2

0

_

i.e. a

0

=

2

.

Toc

Back

Solutions to exercises 34

STEP TWO

a

n

=

1

1

_

0

1

_

0

f(x) cos nxdx

=

1

_

0

0 cos nxdx +

1

_

0

xcos nxdx

i.e. a

n

=

1

_

0

xcos nx dx =

1

__

x

sinnx

n

_

_

0

sinnx

n

dx

_

(using integration by parts)

i.e. a

n

=

1

__

sinn

n

0

_

1

n

_

cos nx

n

_

0

_

=

1

_

( 0 0) +

1

n

2

[cos nx]

0

_

=

1

n

2

{cos n cos 0} =

1

n

2

{(1)

n

1}

i.e. a

n

=

_

0 , n even

2

n

2

, n odd

, see Trig.

Toc

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Solutions to exercises 35

STEP THREE

b

n

=

1

f(x) sinnxdx =

1

_

0

f(x) sinnxdx +

1

_

0

f(x) sinnxdx

=

1

_

0

0 sinnxdx +

1

_

0

xsinnxdx

i.e. b

n

=

1

_

0

xsinnxdx =

1

_

_

x

_

cos nx

n

__

_

0

_

cos nx

n

_

dx

_

(using integration by parts)

=

1

1

n

[xcos nx]

0

+

1

n

_

0

cos nxdx

_

=

1

1

n

( cos n 0) +

1

n

_

sinnx

n

_

0

_

=

1

n

(1)

n

+

1

n

2

(0 0), see Trig

=

1

n

(1)

n

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Solutions to exercises 36

i.e. b

n

=

_

1

n

, n even

+

1

n

, n odd

We now have

f(x) =

a

0

2

+

n=1

[a

n

cos nx + b

n

sinnx]

where a

0

=

2

, a

n

=

_

0 , n even

2

n

2

, n odd

, b

n

=

_

1

n

, n even

1

n

, n odd

Constructing a table of values gives

n 1 2 3 4 5

a

n

2

0

2

1

3

2

0

2

1

5

2

b

n

1

1

2

1

3

1

4

1

5

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Solutions to exercises 37

This table of coecients gives

f(x) =

1

2

_

2

_

+

_

_

cos x + 0 cos 2x

+

_

1

3

2

_

cos 3x + 0 cos 4x

+

_

1

5

2

_

cos 5x + ...

+ sinx

1

2

sin2x +

1

3

sin3x ...

i.e. f(x) =

4

2

_

cos x +

1

3

2

cos 3x +

1

5

2

cos 5x + ...

_

+

_

sinx

1

2

sin2x +

1

3

sin3x ...

_

and we have found the required series!

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Solutions to exercises 38

c) Pick an appropriate value of x, to show that

(i)

4

= 1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+ ...

Comparing this series with

f(x) =

4

2

_

cos x +

1

3

2

cos 3x +

1

5

2

cos 5x + ...

_

+

_

sinx

1

2

sin2x +

1

3

sin3x ...

_

,

the required series of constants does not involve terms like

1

3

2

,

1

5

2

,

1

7

2

, ....

So we need to pick a value of x that sets the cos nx terms to zero.

The Trig section shows that cos n

2

= 0 when n is odd, and note also

that cos nx terms in the Fourier series all have odd n

i.e. cos x = cos 3x = cos 5x = ... = 0 when x =

2

,

i.e. cos

2

= cos 3

2

= cos 5

2

= ... = 0

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Solutions to exercises 39

Setting x =

2

in the series for f(x) gives

f

_

2

_

=

4

2

_

cos

2

+

1

3

2

cos

3

2

+

1

5

2

cos

5

2

+ ...

_

+

_

sin

2

1

2

sin

2

2

+

1

3

sin

3

2

1

4

sin

4

2

+

1

5

sin

5

2

...

_

=

4

2

[0 + 0 + 0 + ...]

+

_

_

1

1

2

sin

..

=0

+

1

3

(1)

1

4

sin2

. .

=0

+

1

5

(1) ...

_

_

The graph of f(x) shows that f

_

2

_

=

2

, so that

2

=

4

+ 1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+ ...

i.e.

4

= 1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+ ...

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Solutions to exercises 40

Pick an appropriate value of x, to show that

(ii)

2

8

= 1 +

1

3

2

+

1

5

2

+

1

7

2

+ ...

Compare this series with

f(x) =

4

2

_

cos x +

1

3

2

cos 3x +

1

5

2

cos 5x + ...

_

+

_

sinx

1

2

sin2x +

1

3

sin3x ...

_

.

This time, we want to use the coecients of the cos nx terms, and

the same choice of x needs to set the sinnx terms to zero

Picking x = 0 gives

sinx = sin2x = sin3x = 0 and cos x = cos 3x = cos 5x = 1

Note also that the graph of f(x) gives f(x) = 0 when x = 0

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Solutions to exercises 41

So, picking x = 0 gives

0 =

4

2

_

cos 0 +

1

3

2

cos 0 +

1

5

2

cos 0 +

1

7

2

cos 0 + ...

_

+sin0

sin0

2

+

sin0

3

...

i.e. 0 =

4

2

_

1 +

1

3

2

+

1

5

2

+

1

7

2

+ ...

_

+ 0 0 + 0 ...

We then nd that

2

_

1 +

1

3

2

+

1

5

2

+

1

7

2

+ ...

_

=

4

and 1 +

1

3

2

+

1

5

2

+

1

7

2

+ ... =

2

8

.

Return to Exercise 2

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Solutions to exercises 42

Exercise 3.

f(x) =

_

x, 0 < x <

, < x < 2, and has period 2

a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 2 < x < 2

0

2 2

f(x)

x

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Solutions to exercises 43

b) Fourier series representation of f(x)

STEP ONE

a

0

=

1

_

2

0

f(x)dx =

1

_

0

f(x)dx +

1

_

2

f(x)dx

=

1

_

0

xdx +

1

_

2

dx

=

1

_

x

2

2

_

0

+

_

x

_

2

=

1

2

2

0

_

+

_

2

_

=

2

+

i.e. a

0

=

3

2

.

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Solutions to exercises 44

STEP TWO

a

n

=

1

_

2

0

f(x) cos nxdx

=

1

_

0

xcos nxdx +

1

_

2

cos nxdx

=

1

_

_

x

sinnx

n

_

_

0

sinnx

n

dx

_

. .

using integration by parts

+

_

sinnx

n

_

2

=

1

_

1

n

_

sinn 0 sinn0

_

_

cos nx

n

2

_

0

_

+

1

n

(sinn2 sinn)

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Solutions to exercises 45

i.e. a

n

=

1

_

1

n

_

0 0

_

+

_

cos n

n

2

cos 0

n

2

_

_

+

1

n

_

0 0

_

=

1

n

2

=

1

n

2

_

(1)

n

1

_

,

i.e. a

n

=

_

2

n

2

, n odd

0 , n even.

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Solutions to exercises 46

STEP THREE

b

n

=

1

_

2

0

f(x) sinnxdx

=

1

_

0

xsinnxdx +

1

_

2

sinnxdx

=

1

_

_

x

_

cos nx

n

__

_

0

_

cos nx

n

_

dx

_

. .

using integration by parts

+

_

cos nx

n

_

2

=

1

_

_

cos n

n

+ 0

_

+

_

sinnx

n

2

_

0

_

1

n

(cos 2n cos n)

=

1

_

(1)

n

n

+

_

sinn sin0

n

2

_

_

1

n

_

1 (1)

n

_

=

1

n

(1)

n

+ 0

1

n

_

1 (1)

n

_

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Solutions to exercises 47

i.e. b

n

=

1

n

(1)

n

1

n

+

1

n

(1)

n

i.e. b

n

=

1

n

.

We now have

f(x) =

a

0

2

+

n=1

[a

n

cos nx + b

n

sinnx]

where a

0

=

3

2

, a

n

=

_

0 , n even

2

n

2

, n odd

, b

n

=

1

n

Constructing a table of values gives

n 1 2 3 4 5

a

n

2

0

2

_

1

3

2

_

0

2

_

1

5

2

_

b

n

1

1

2

1

3

1

4

1

5

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Solutions to exercises 48

This table of coecients gives

f(x) =

1

2

_

3

2

_

+

_

_ _

cos x + 0 cos 2x +

1

3

2

cos 3x + . . .

_

+

_

1

_ _

sinx +

1

2

sin2x +

1

3

sin3x + . . .

_

i.e. f(x) =

3

4

2

_

cos x +

1

3

2

cos 3x +

1

5

2

cos 5x + . . .

_

_

sinx +

1

2

sin2x +

1

3

sin3x + . . .

_

and we have found the required series.

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Solutions to exercises 49

c) Pick an appropriate value of x, to show that

(i)

4

= 1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+ . . .

Compare this series with

f(x) =

3

4

2

_

cos x +

1

3

2

cos 3x +

1

5

2

cos 5x + . . .

_

_

sinx +

1

2

sin2x +

1

3

sin3x + . . .

_

Here, we want to set the cos nx terms to zero (since their coecients

are 1,

1

3

2

,

1

5

2

, . . .). Since cos n

2

= 0 when n is odd, we will try setting

x =

2

in the series. Note also that f(

2

) =

2

This gives

2

=

3

4

2

_

cos

2

+

1

3

2

cos 3

2

+

1

5

2

cos 5

2

+ . . .

_

sin

2

+

1

2

sin2

2

+

1

3

sin3

2

+

1

4

sin4

2

+

1

5

sin5

2

+ . . .

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Solutions to exercises 50

and

2

=

3

4

2

[0 + 0 + 0 + . . .]

_

(1) +

1

2

(0) +

1

3

(1) +

1

4

(0) +

1

5

(1) + . . .

then

2

=

3

4

_

1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+ . . .

_

1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+ . . . =

3

4

2

1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+ . . . =

4

, as required.

To show that

(ii)

2

8

= 1 +

1

3

2

+

1

5

2

+

1

7

2

+ . . . ,

We want zero sinnx terms and to use the coecients of cos nx

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Solutions to exercises 51

Setting x = 0 eliminates the sinnx terms from the series, and also

gives

cos x+

1

3

2

cos 3x+

1

5

2

cos 5x+

1

7

2

cos 7x+. . . = 1+

1

3

2

+

1

5

2

+

1

7

2

+. . .

(i.e. the desired series).

The graph of f(x) shows a discontinuity (a vertical jump) at x = 0

The Fourier series converges to a value that is half-way between the

two values of f(x) around this discontinuity. That is the series will

converge to

2

at x = 0

i.e.

2

=

3

4

2

_

cos 0 +

1

3

2

cos 0 +

1

5

2

cos 0 +

1

7

2

cos 0 + . . .

_

_

sin0 +

1

2

sin0 +

1

3

sin0 + . . .

_

and

2

=

3

4

2

_

1 +

1

3

2

+

1

5

2

+

1

7

2

+ . . .

_

[0 + 0 + 0 + . . .]

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Solutions to exercises 52

Finally, this gives

4

=

2

_

1 +

1

3

2

+

1

5

2

+

1

7

2

+ . . .

_

and

2

8

= 1 +

1

3

2

+

1

5

2

+

1

7

2

+ . . .

Return to Exercise 3

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Solutions to exercises 53

Exercise 4.

f(x) =

x

2

, over the interval 0 < x < 2 and has period 2

a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 0 < x < 4

3 4 0 2

f(x)

x

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Solutions to exercises 54

b) Fourier series representation of f(x)

STEP ONE

a

0

=

1

_

2

0

f(x) dx

=

1

_

2

0

x

2

dx

=

1

_

x

2

4

_

2

0

=

1

_

(2)

2

4

0

_

i.e. a

0

= .

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Solutions to exercises 55

STEP TWO

a

n

=

1

_

2

0

f(x) cos nxdx

=

1

_

2

0

x

2

cos nxdx

=

1

2

_

_

x

sinnx

n

_

2

0

1

n

_

2

0

sinnxdx

_

. .

using integration by parts

=

1

2

_

_

2

sinn2

n

0

sinn 0

n

_

1

n

0

_

=

1

2

_

(0 0)

1

n

0

_

, see Trig

i.e. a

n

= 0.

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Solutions to exercises 56

STEP THREE

b

n

=

1

_

2

0

f(x) sinnxdx =

1

_

2

0

_

x

2

_

sinnxdx

=

1

2

_

2

0

xsinnxdx

=

1

2

_

_

x

_

cos nx

n

__

2

0

_

2

0

_

cos nx

n

_

dx

_

. .

using integration by parts

=

1

2

_

1

n

(2 cos n2 + 0) +

1

n

0

_

, see Trig

=

2

2n

cos(n2)

=

1

n

cos(2n)

i.e. b

n

=

1

n

, since 2n is even (see Trig)

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Solutions to exercises 57

We now have

f(x) =

a

0

2

+

n=1

[a

n

cos nx + b

n

sinnx]

where a

0

= , a

n

= 0, b

n

=

1

n

These Fourier coecients give

f(x) =

2

+

n=1

_

0

1

n

sinnx

_

i.e. f(x) =

2

_

sinx +

1

2

sin2x +

1

3

sin3x + . . .

_

.

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Solutions to exercises 58

c) Pick an appropriate value of x, to show that

4

= 1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+

1

9

. . .

Setting x =

2

gives f(x) =

4

and

4

=

2

_

1 + 0

1

3

+ 0 +

1

5

+ 0 . . .

_

4

=

2

_

1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+

1

9

. . .

_

_

1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+

1

9

. . .

_

=

4

i.e. 1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+

1

9

. . . =

4

.

Return to Exercise 4

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Solutions to exercises 59

Exercise 5.

f(x) =

_

x , 0 < x <

0 , < x < 2, and has period 2

a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 2 < x < 2

0

2 2

f(x)

x

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Solutions to exercises 60

b) Fourier series representation of f(x)

STEP ONE

a

0

=

1

_

2

0

f(x) dx

=

1

_

0

( x) dx +

1

_

2

0 dx

=

1

_

x

1

2

x

2

_

0

+ 0

=

1

2

2

0

_

i.e. a

0

=

2

.

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Solutions to exercises 61

STEP TWO

a

n

=

1

_

2

0

f(x) cos nxdx

=

1

_

0

( x) cos nxdx +

1

_

2

0 dx

i.e. a

n

=

1

__

( x)

sinnx

n

_

_

0

(1)

sinnx

n

dx

_

. .

using integration by parts

+0

=

1

_

(0 0) +

_

0

sinnx

n

dx

_

, see Trig

=

1

n

_

cos nx

n

_

0

=

1

n

2

(cos n cos 0)

i.e. a

n

=

1

n

2

((1)

n

1) , see Trig

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Solutions to exercises 62

i.e. a

n

=

_

_

_

0 , n even

2

n

2

, n odd

STEP THREE

b

n

=

1

_

2

0

f(x) sinnxdx

=

1

_

0

( x) sinnxdx +

_

2

0 dx

=

1

_

_

( x)

_

cos nx

n

__

_

0

(1)

_

cos nx

n

_

dx

_

+ 0

=

1

_

_

0

_

n

__

1

n

0

_

, see Trig

i.e. b

n

=

1

n

.

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Solutions to exercises 63

In summary, a

0

=

2

and a table of other Fourier cocients is

n 1 2 3 4 5

a

n

=

2

n

2

(when n is odd)

2

0

2

1

3

2

0

2

1

5

2

b

n

=

1

n

1

1

2

1

3

1

4

1

5

f(x) =

a

0

2

+

n=1

[a

n

cos nx + b

n

sinnx]

=

4

+

2

cos x +

2

1

3

2

cos 3x +

2

1

5

2

cos 5x + . . .

+ sinx +

1

2

sin2x +

1

3

sin3x +

1

4

sin4x + . . .

i.e. f(x) =

4

+

2

_

cos x +

1

3

2

cos 3x +

1

5

2

cos 5x + . . .

_

+ sinx +

1

2

sin2x +

1

3

sin3x +

1

4

sin4x + . . .

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Solutions to exercises 64

c) To show that

2

8

= 1 +

1

3

2

+

1

5

2

+ . . . ,

note that, as x 0 , the series converges to the half-way value of

2

,

and then

2

=

4

+

2

_

cos 0 +

1

3

2

cos 0 +

1

5

2

cos 0 + . . .

_

+ sin0 +

1

2

sin0 +

1

3

sin0 + . . .

2

=

4

+

2

_

1 +

1

3

2

+

1

5

2

+ . . .

_

+ 0

4

=

2

_

1 +

1

3

2

+

1

5

2

+ . . .

_

giving

2

8

= 1 +

1

3

2

+

1

5

2

+ . . .

Return to Exercise 5

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Solutions to exercises 65

Exercise 6.

f(x) = x, over the interval < x < and has period 2

a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 3 < x < 3

2

3

3 2

f(x)

x

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Solutions to exercises 66

b) Fourier series representation of f(x)

STEP ONE

a

0

=

1

f(x) dx

=

1

xdx

=

1

_

x

2

2

_

=

1

2

2

2

2

_

i.e. a

0

= 0.

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Solutions to exercises 67

STEP TWO

a

n

=

1

=

1

xcos nxdx

=

1

_

_

x

sinnx

n

_

_

sinnx

n

_

dx

_

. .

using integration by parts

i.e. a

n

=

1

_

1

n

( sinn () sin(n))

1

n

_

sinnxdx

_

=

1

_

1

n

(0 0)

1

n

0

_

,

since sinn = 0 and

_

2

sinnxdx = 0,

i.e. a

n

= 0.

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Solutions to exercises 68

STEP THREE

b

n

=

1

f(x) sinnxdx

=

1

xsinnxdx

=

1

_

_

xcos nx

n

_

_

cos nx

n

_

dx

_

=

1

1

n

[xcos nx]

+

1

n

_

cos nxdx

_

=

1

1

n

( cos n () cos(n)) +

1

n

0

_

=

n

(cos n + cos n)

=

1

n

(2 cos n)

i.e. b

n

=

2

n

(1)

n

.

Toc

Back

Solutions to exercises 69

We thus have

f(x) =

a

0

2

+

n=1

_

a

n

cos nx + b

n

sinnx

_

with a

0

= 0, a

n

= 0, b

n

=

2

n

(1)

n

and

n 1 2 3

b

n

2 1

2

3

Therefore

f(x) = b

1

sinx + b

2

sin2x + b

3

sin3x + . . .

i.e. f(x) = 2

_

sinx

1

2

sin2x +

1

3

sin3x . . .

_

and we have found the required Fourier series.

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Solutions to exercises 70

c) Pick an appropriate value of x, to show that

4

= 1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+ . . .

Setting x =

2

gives f(x) =

2

and

2

= 2

_

sin

2

1

2

sin

2

2

+

1

3

sin

3

2

1

4

sin

4

2

+

1

5

sin

5

2

. . .

_

This gives

2

= 2

_

1 + 0 +

1

3

(1) 0 +

1

5

(1) 0 +

1

7

(1) + . . .

_

2

= 2

_

1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+ . . .

_

i.e.

4

= 1

1

3

+

1

5

1

7

+ . . .

Return to Exercise 6

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Solutions to exercises 71

Exercise 7.

f(x) = x

2

, over the interval < x < and has period 2

a) Sketch a graph of f(x) in the interval 3 < x < 3

0

2

2 3

3 2

f(x)

x

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Solutions to exercises 72

b) Fourier series representation of f(x)

STEP ONE

a

0

=

1

f(x)dx =

1

x

2

dx

=

1

_

x

3

3

_

=

1

3

3

_

3

3

__

=

1

_

2

3

3

_

i.e. a

0

=

2

2

3

.

Toc

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Solutions to exercises 73

STEP TWO

a

n

=

1

=

1

x

2

cos nxdx

=

1

_

_

x

2

sinnx

n

_

2x

_

sinnx

n

_

dx

_

. .

using integration by parts

=

1

_

1

n

_

2

sinn

2

sin(n)

_

2

n

_

xsinnxdx

_

=

1

_

1

n

(0 0)

2

n

_

xsinnxdx

_

, see Trig

=

2

n

_

xsinnxdx

Toc

Back

Solutions to exercises 74

i.e. a

n

=

2

n

_

_

x

_

cos nx

n

__

_

cos nx

n

_

dx

_

. .

using integration by parts again

=

2

n

_

1

n

[xcos nx]

+

1

n

_

cos nxdx

_

=

2

n

_

1

n

_

cos n () cos(n)

_

+

1

n

0

_

=

2

n

_

1

n

_

(1)

n

+ (1)

n

_

_

=

2

n

_

2

n

(1)

n

_

Toc

Back

Solutions to exercises 75

i.e. a

n

=

2

n

_

2

n

(1)

n

_

=

+4

n

2

(1)

n

=

4

n

2

(1)

n

i.e. a

n

=

_

4

n

2

, n even

4

n

2

, n odd.

Toc

Back

Solutions to exercises 76

STEP THREE

b

n

=

1

f(x) sinnxdx =

1

x

2

sinnxdx

=

1

_

_

x

2

_

cos nx

n

__

2x

_

cos nx

n

_

dx

_

. .

using integration by parts

=

1

1

n

_

x

2

cos nx

+

2

n

_

xcos nxdx

_

=

1

1

n

_

2

cos n

2

cos(n)

_

+

2

n

_

xcos nxdx

_

=

1

1

n

_

2

cos n

2

cos(n)

_

. .

=0

+

2

n

_

xcos nxdx

_

=

2

n

_

xcos nxdx

Toc

Back

Solutions to exercises 77

i.e. b

n

=

2

n

_

_

x

sinnx

n

_

sinnx

n

dx

_

. .

using integration by parts

=

2

n

_

1

n

( sinn () sin(n))

1

n

_

sinnxdx

_

=

2

n

_

1

n

(0 + 0)

1

n

_

sinnxdx

_

=

2

n

2

_

sinnxdx

i.e. b

n

= 0.

Toc

Back

Solutions to exercises 78

f(x) =

a

0

2

+

n=1

[a

n

cos nx + b

n

sinnx]

where a

0

=

2

2

3

, a

n

=

_

4

n

2

, n even

4

n

2

, n odd

, b

n

= 0

n 1 2 3 4

a

n

4(1) 4

_

1

2

2

_

4

_

1

3

2

_

4

_

1

4

2

_

i.e. f(x) =

1

2

_

2

2

3

_

4

_

cos x

1

2

2

cos 2x +

1

3

2

cos 3x

1

4

2

cos 4x. . .

_

+ [0 + 0 + 0 + . . .]

i.e. f(x) =

2

3

4

_

cos x

1

2

2

cos 2x +

1

3

2

cos 3x

1

4

2

cos 4x + . . .

_

.

Toc

Back

Solutions to exercises 79

c) To show that

2

6

= 1 +

1

2

2

+

1

3

2

+

1

4

2

+ . . . ,

use the fact that cos n =

_

1 , n even

1 , n odd

i.e. cos x

1

2

2

cos 2x +

1

3

2

cos 3x

1

4

2

cos 4x +. . . with x =

gives cos

1

2

2

cos 2 +

1

3

2

cos 3

1

4

2

cos 4 +. . .

i.e. (1)

1

2

2

(1) +

1

3

2

(1)

1

4

2

(1) +. . .

i.e. 1

1

2

2

1

3

2

1

4

2

+. . .

= 1

_

1 +

1

2

2

+

1

3

2

+

1

4

2

+ . . .

_

. .

(the desired series)

Toc

Back

Solutions to exercises 80

The graph of f(x) gives that f() =

2

and the series converges to

this value.

Setting x = in the Fourier series thus gives

2

=

2

3

4

_

cos

1

2

2

cos 2 +

1

3

2

cos 3

1

4

2

cos 4 + . . .

_

2

=

2

3

4

_

1

1

2

2

1

3

2

1

4

2

. . .

_

2

=

2

3

+ 4

_

1 +

1

2

2

+

1

3

2

+

1

4

2

+ . . .

_

2

2

3

= 4

_

1 +

1

2

2

+

1

3

2

+

1

4

2

+ . . .

_

i.e.

2

6

= 1 +

1

2

2

+

1

3

2

+

1

4

2

+ . . .

Return to Exercise 7

Toc

Back

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