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HYDRAULICS 2.05.01 2.05.02 2.05.03 2.05.04 2.05.05 2.05.06 2.05.07 2.05.08 2.05.09 2.05.10 2.06.01 2.06.02 2.06.03 2.06.04 2.07.01 2.07.02 2.08.01 2.08.02 2.09.01 2.09.02 2.09.03 2.09.04 Circulating System & Fluid Flow Drilling Circulating System Hydraulic Horsepower Volumetric-Rate & Pumps Continuity of Flow Fluid Velocity Types of Flow, Turbulent & Laminar Fluid Flow Pressure Loss Pressure Drop Factors Annular Flow & Pressure Drop Rheology - Study of Fluid Flow Terms Rheology - general terms and definitions Rheology - Fluid Flow Calculation Models Rheology - Fluid Flow Classifications Bit - Mechanical Energy Bit - Hydraulic Energy Rule of Thumb to Optimize Hydraulics Rule of Thumb to Optimize Hydraulics Hydraulic & Related Formula Summary Hydraulic & Related Formula Summary Hydraulic & Related Formula Summary Hydraulic & Related Formula Summary

2.01.01 2.01.02 2.02.01 2.02.02 2.02.03 2.02.04 2.02.05 2.02.06 2.02.07 2.02.08 2.03.01 2.03.02 2.03.03 2.03.04 2.03.05 2.03.06 2.03.07 2.03.08 2.03.09 2.03.10 2.03.11 2.03.12 2.04.01 2.04.02 2.04.03 2.04.04 2.04.05 2.04.06

Introduction, Circulating System Hydraulics Introduction, Study of Hydraulics Hydraulic General Terms and Definitions Matter and Types of Matter Mass, Inertia, Density Specific Gravity Common Oilfield Volumes Area of shapes Weight Force & Pressure Hydrostatic Fluids Hydrostatic Fluid Illustrations Single Liquid. Seeks own level Multiple Liquid. Seeks own level Hydrostatic Pressure Hydrostatic Pressure in Oilfield Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient Buoyancy & Archimedes Principle Buoyed Weight Buoyancy Factor Buoyancy Calculation Example. Hydrostatic Fluid Formulas. Hydraulic Power Transmission Pressure & Force Hydraulic Cylinders Work Hydraulic Power, horsepower Basic Hydraulic Pump

E X I T

DD Hydraulics 2.01.01

Introduction

DD Hydraulics 2.01.02

Introduction

Stand Pipe

Rotary hose

PUMP

HOPPER

Hydraulics Hydraulicsmay maybe bedivided dividedinto intotwo twocategories: categories: Hydrostatic applies to liquids Hydrostatic applies to liquidsat atrest rest Hydrodynamic Hydrodynamic applies appliesto toliquids liquidsin inmotion motion

M UD E RV SE RE

PI T

SHALE SHAKER

Note. Note. Some laws of hydraulics also apply to gases under certain Some laws of hydraulics also apply to gases under certain conditions, but unless specifically stated,only liquids conditions, but unless specifically stated,only liquids will be used or considered. Note also, the term fluid will be used or considered. Note also, the term fluid will apply to liquids only specifically noted. will apply to liquids only- - unless unless specifically noted. CASED HOLE

OPEN HOLE

The circulating system is a large hydraulic system with the fluid serving multiple purposes, including the work of making hole, supporting hole walls, carrying cuttings from the hole, lubricating the drill string, etc.

T PI

Drilling an oil or gas well involves extensive use of hydraulics in making and maintaining the hole, as well as, in the operation of some rig and down hole equipment. Sometimes only one fluid category is applicable to an operation, but in many circumstances principles of both types are in play at the same time. Many compromises must be made during the course of drilling a well between the ideal hydraulic parameters used and what is possible. It is necessary to understand each type of hydraulics, individually and the effect that one has on the other one.

DD Hydraulics 2.02.01

Matter Mass Inertia Density Specific Gravity Area Volume Weight Force Pressure Work Power

Material Substance that occupies space and has weight Property of matter that is a measure of its inertia. To remain at rest or in a straight line motion unless acted upon by a force. Weight per unit volume or weight-density is the common use. ( Lbs/Gal., etc.) Ratio or density of a substance to density of a standard substance such as water. Measure of a surface equal to unit squares. ( sq.inches, sq. feet, etc ) Measure of amount of space an object occupies. ( Cu.Foot, Cu.Inch, Gallon, Barrel, etc.) Measure of the downward force of object as a result of gravitational force and objects mass. Push or pull exerted on object to change its position or direction of movement. Amount of force exerted on substance per area over which force is applied. Measure of force through a distance. the time rate of doing work. ( Horsepower ) ( 33000 Ft - Lbs / Min. )

Matter: Any material substance that occupies space and has weight. It can be grouped as solids (rigid), or fluids (flow) with fluids being either a liquid or a gas.

Solids:

.

Liquids:

having a definite volume with no shape of its own, assuming that of its container. Volume is affected only slightly by changes in temperature or pressure.

Gases

having neither volume nor shape of its own, assuming that of its container. Gases are highly compressible with their volume dependant on temperature and pressure. Fluids.Liquids and gases are both fluids in that they have no shape of their own, constantly deforming with any application of force unless confined. However, fluids in this presentation will refer to a liquid only unless specifically noted as one of of the more common terms in the oilfield is drilling fluids which refers to drilling mud, a liquid.

DD Hydraulics 2.02.03

DD Hydraulics 2.02.04

Mass is the property of matter that is a measure of its inertia. Inertia is the property of matter by which it remains at rest or in a straight line motion unless acted upon by an outside force. A stationary object will remain stationary unless acted upon by an outside force

R Resistance Air E A I R S I S T A N C E

Specific Gravity .. is the relative density of a substance compared to the density of a standard substance. The most commonly used substance as a standard is water at the temperature of its maximum density, 39.20 F. Specific SpecificGravity Gravity Weight of Substance Weight of Substanceper perUnit UnitVolume Volume Weight of Water per Unit Weight of Water per UnitVolume Volume

Gravity

A thrown ball will travel in a straight line were it not for the external forces of air friction and gravity.

COMMON DENSITIES

RELATIVE DENSITY

Density is technically Mass per Unit Volume but is commonly used as Weight per Unit Volume. The term density will refer to weight-density or weight per unit volume unless specifically noted. Weight-Density Weight-Density Density Density ==Weight Weight / /Unit UnitVolume Volume

Because the weight of a liquid is expressed in terms of its volume, it is necessary to be familiar with and to be able to calculate volume.

DD Hydraulics 2.02.05

DD Hydraulics 2.02.06

Volume is the amount of space an object occupies. It is measured and calculated in cubic units such as cubic feet, cubic inches, cubic centimeters, etc. Volume may also be expressed as gallons, barrels, or other standards. Columns

12 cubic inches

Units of measurements include square centimeters, square feet, square inches, etc. with square inches being among the most common, particularly when dealing with pressures. Calculations require that the unit of measurement be consistent in the equation and in the solution.

Barrel 42 gal

Cubic Foot 1 gal 12 x 12 x 12 Volume Conversions Cubic Feet Barrel Gallon

Cubic Inches Gallons Barrels Cubic Feet

12

Square Area ( Rectangle) Square Units = Length x Width 6 x 6 = 36 square inches Square Area ( Triangle ) Square Units = ( Base x Height ) / 2 ( 6 x 6 ) / 2 = 18 sq. inches

7.48052 42 1

0.17811 1 0.02381

1 5.61458 0.13368

Square Area ( Circle ) Square Units = Diameter 2 x ( / 4 ) 6 2 x ( 3.14 / 4 ) = 28.3 sq. inches Square Area ( Ring ) Sq. Units = ( DIA. 2 - dia. 2 ) x ( / 4 )

Volumes must have consistent units of measurement in both calculations and solutions.

DD Hydraulics 2.02.07

DD Hydraulics 2.02.08

Weight... is the measure of the downward force of an object as a result of gravitational force and the objects mass. The weight of an object may vary due to variations in the earths gravitational field or by its distance from the main body of the earth. Objects weigh more at sea level than far above it. This variation in weight is normally very small and will be ignored unless otherwise noted. While weight is used to measure individual objects, it is also used in hydraulics, with weight referring to a liquid as its density or weight per unit volume.

Force is a push or pull that is exerted on an object in order to change its position or the direction of its movement. This includes starting, stopping, changein speed, and direction of movement. Force is expressed in same terms as weight, such as grams, tons, dynes, etc. with pounds being the most common in the oilfield. Weight is a force which is directed downward, but force is not limited to any direction. Pressure is the amount of force exerted on an object or substance per area over which force is applied. Pressure may be expressed in various ways, such as newtons per square meter, dynes per square centimeter, etc. Most common measurement in the oilfield is Pounds per Square Inch ( PSI )

The weight of an object can be measured and identified as belonging to that single object. This is true mainly in relation to solid objects. The unit measured is that unique object. Unit Wt.

A 500 lb. force exerted on a 25 square inch surface equals a pressure of 20 PSI. Pressure of 20 PSI exerted on 25 square inches equals a 500 lb. force applied to the surface.

F O R C E

F O R C E

Wt / Gal

As liquid volumes may vary, a liquids weight or density refers to it as weight per a specified unit volume. This is also true of a gas and may be true of a solid if it noted as weight-density.

Pressure Pressure==Force Force/ /Area Area Pressure Pressure( (PSI PSI) )==Force Force( (Lbs. Lbs.) )/ /Area Area( (sq.in. sq.in.) )

It is necessary to maintain consistency when referring to weight-densities of liquids as well as in calculations. Use the weight per the same unit volume in all.

Force Force==Pressure PressurexxArea Area Force Force( (Lbs.) Lbs.)==Pressure Pressure( (PSI PSI) )xxArea Area( (sq.in. sq.in.) )

DD Hydraulics 2.03.02

Hydrostatic Fluid : is a fluid at rest which having no shape of its own assumes the shape of its container.

Liquids Flow

Gravity

Liquids at rest, exert perpendicular forces on surfaces they touch as they cannot support tangential forces without flowing. Liquids are attracted by gravitational pull with each layer of liquid exerting its weight on the layers beneath it. Liquids are relatively incompressable making their density a constant. Liquids are only slightly affected by temperature changes.

A liquid assumes the shape of its container at lowest portion of the container equal to the liquids volume.

Gravitys constant pull downward on liquids creates pressure within the liquid called hydrostatic pressure.

Pressure in a fluid at rest: Exists at every point within the liquid. Is proportional to the depth below the suface Is the same at all points at the same level within a single liquid. Is of the same magnitude at any point regardless of the surface orientation that it touches. Exerts a force which is everywhere perpendicular to the surface that it touches. The well bore drilling fluids are subject to these same properties of a liquid. Each layer of liquid exerts its weight on those below Pressure is proportional to the depth in a liquid At any level pressure is the same in single liquid

DD Hydraulics 2.03.04

Liquids seek their own level. Single Liquid As a liquid is pulled downward by gravity, filling its container, the liquids surface is on a flat horizontal plane parallel to the earths surface. The pressure at any point in the liquid is the same as all other points at the same depth and will always equalize despite the number of compartments in a container or its size, shape or orientation. In a single liquid, equal pressures at the same depth provide equal support for the liquid producing equal vertical heights of the liquid.

Liquids seek their own level. Two Liquids Liquids of two different densities in a container such as a u-tube equalize pressures from the point of separation and downward. Two distinct column heights result from the heavier liquid forcing the lighter upward until the pressure has been equalized at and below the point of separation.

U- Tube

Unequal Hydrostatic Pressures

Point of Separation

Vertical depth

LIGHT MUD

Liquids having different densities and that do not mix together will each seek their own level with the heavier of the liquids settling to the bottom of the container while the lighter liquid rises to the top. Hydrostatic pressure with more than one liquid requires that each be calculated separately. The pressure to any point in the lower liquid will the sum of its calculation plus the total pressure of the liquids above. Hydrostatic Pressures are additive. Calculate each separately and add.

L I G H T E R M U D

Heavy Mud

HEAVY MUD

In the oilfield, a common occurrence of the u-tube effect happens when cuttings weight-up the mud in the annulus. This denser mud having a greater hydrostatic pressure than the mud in the I.D. of the drill string seeks to balance the pressures by forcing the mud back up through the inside diameter of the drill string. This is seen during the make-up of connections when no float exists in the drill string or it does not work properly.

Hydrostatic Pressure is the pressure exerted by a column of fluid due to its own height and weight. Hydrostatic pressure in a fluid means the downward force per unit area equal to the weight of the column as defined by the area of the column and the fluids weight per unit volume. In the oilfield, hydrostatic pressure is measured in pounds per square inch ( PSI ). It equals the weight ( Lbs/Gal or PPG ) multiplied by the volume ( gallons ) of a column defined as 1 square inch in area and 1 foot ( 12 inches ) in depth which is then multiplied by the number of feet of the fluid column. A numerical constant of 0.05195, is frequently used in calculating pressures, which defines the number of gallons found in a column that is one foot tall with a cross-sectional area of 1 square inch. The 12 cubic inches in the column are divided by 231 cubic inches in a gallon to find the number of gallons in the one foot column in the format most commonly used. Pounds per Square Inch.

Hydrostatic Pressure in Oilfield Hydrostatic pressure controls and promotes stability in the well bore, preventing cave-in and collapse. It is the primary means of well control used to prevent formation fluid flow into the well bore ( kicks ). It must be at least equal to the highest pressurized permeable zone of the well bore and yet not be excessive, as high pressures could lead to the break down of formations. Although the pressure is generated downward by the fluids weight, the pressure reacts perpendicular to the sides of the hole, providing support to them.

HYDROSTATIC HYDROSTATICPRESSURE PRESSURE H.P. H.P.( (PSI PSI) )==0.05195 0.05195xxMud MudWeight Weight xxDepth Depth ==0.05195 Lbs/Gal Vertical 0.05195xx Lbs/Galxx VerticalFt Ft

VERTICAL DEPTH

Note: Hydrostatic Pressures are based upon vertical heights of the fluid column only, irregardless of angle or shape of the column. In regards to wells, true vertical depth to point of interest, not measured depth, determines hydrostatic pressures.

DD Hydraulics 2.03.08

Pressure Gradient is pressure change per foot of vertical depth in pounds per square inch (psi) due to hydraulic pressure.

Buoyancy is the power of a fluid to exert an upward force on a body placed in it. An object in a fluid is acted upon by hydrostatic pressures of the fluid on all its surfaces. Side pressures are balanced by pressures of opposing side. As the pressures are proportional to depth, upper and lower surfaces experience pressure differential with the bottom being greater than the top, generating a net upward force. Archimedes Principle states that a body, either wholly or partly submerged in a fluid experiences an upward force which is equal to the weight of the fluid being displaced. A solid which has less density than a fluid will float, sinking down to the point that: Volume of fluid displaced equals the total weight of the object. Hydrostatic pressure on the bottom surfaces of an object continually increase as the object sinks until it is sufficient to balance the total weight of the object.

Pressure PressureGradient Gradient PG = 0.05195 xxMud PG = 0.05195 MudWt. Wt.(Lbs/ (Lbs/Gal Gal) )

Pressure Gradient is simply a convenient number for calculations relating to hydrostatic pressures. It combines two of the three factors used to calculate hydrostatic pressure: 0.05195 is a constant representing the number gallons equal to a column one foot tall and having an area of one square inch. It is 12 cubic inches divided by 231 cubic inches in a gallon. weight-density of a gallon of mud. By establishing the pressure gradient, pressure at any point is found simply by multiplication of it by the current footage of interest. Examples: Find Pressure Gradient: water at 8.33 lbs per gallon Then: PG = 8.33 x 0.05195 = 0.433 psi / foot Find Hydrostatic Pressure: 9 lb/gal mud at 6000 feet. Then: PG = 0.05195 x 9 = .46755 psi / foot And: HP = 0.46755 x 6000 = 2805 psi Find Mud Weight: 3000 psi needed at 5000 feet. Then: PG = 3000 psi / 5000 feet = .600 psi/ft and: MW = .600 PG / 0.5195 = 11.55 lbs/gal

Net Pressure

Either of the two methods used to calculate buoyant forces are acceptable. They are the same principle stated differently and produce equal results. Use one best suited to data available.

DD Hydraulics 2.03.10

Buoyed Weight is less than Air Weight A solid having more density than a fluid will sink into the fluid with its submerged weight then being less than its air weight by an amount equal to the: weight of fluid displaced. total pressure differential between that exerted on the bottom and AIR WT top surfaces of the object.

Buoyancy Factor is a ratio of an objects density to a fluids density. The factor when multiplied by the weight per unit volume of an object solves for the buoyed weight of the object in a fluid of a certain density ( weight per unit volume ).

BUOY WT

Buoyancy Factor ( Object Density - Fluid Density ) / Object Density Buoyed Weight : Buoyancy Factor Object Weight x Object Buoyancy Factor

In drilling, the buoyancy factor is frequently used to predetermine the size and number of bottom hole assembly components to use in order to have the buoyed weight needed to do the job. Because the geometry and dimensions of some tools can be complex, it can be difficult to calculate the buoyancy effect of pressure differences. The use of the displacement or buoyancy factors may easier as the tool weight is often known or can easily be determined by calculation or rig equipment. Often the major variable is drilling fluid density.

Net Pressure

Buoyed Weight : Displacement Method Object. Wt. - ( Object Volume x Fluid Density )

Note: units of measurements must be consistent within formulas. Convert to common units as needed.

DD Hydraulics 2.03.12

Buoyancy Example 10 x 10 x 5 steel bar. Steel at 65.5 Lbs/Gal. Fluid at 9.0 Lbs./Gal. End Area (s) = 10 x 10 = 100 in2 Volume = 100 in2 x ( 5 x 12 ) = 6000 in3 Volume = 6000 / 231 = 25.97 gal Air Wt. = 25.97 gal x 65.5 lbs = 1701 lbs Using Displacement Eq.Fluid Wt. ( Vol) = 25.97gal x 9 lbs/gal = 234 lbs Buoyed Wt. = 1701 lbs - 234 lbs = 1467 lbs Using Buoyancy Factor: Buoyancy Factor = ( 65.5 - 9 ) / 65.5 = 0.863 Buoyed Weight = 0.863 x 1701 lbs = 1468 lbs Using Pressure Differential ( 1000 ft depth ) H.Press @ 1000 = 0.052 x 9 x 1000 = 467.55 psi H.Press @ 1005 = 0.052 x 9 x 1005 = 469.89 psi Force ( down ) = 100 sq.in. x 467.55 = 46755 lbs Force ( up ) = 100 sq.in. x 46989 = 46989 lbs. Total Diff. = 46989 - 46755 = 234 lbs Buoyed Wt. = 1701 lbs - 234 lbs = 1467 lbs. Object: Densities:

Summary of formulas: Hydrostatic Fluids Density ( Weight-Density) = Weight / Unit Volume Specific Gravity = Wt of Substance per Unit Vol. Wt of Water per Unit Vol. Volume ( Cubic Units ) = Area x Length Circle Area = Diameter 2 x .7854 Ring Area = ( Dia2 - dia 2 ) x .7854 Pressure ( PSI ) = Force ( Lbs) / Area ( Sq.In.) Force ( Lbs.) = Pressure ( PSI ) x Area ( sq.in. ) Hydrostatic Pressure 0.05195 x Fluid (Lbs/Gal ) x Depth (Ft) Pressure Gradient = 0.05195 x Mud Wt. (Lbs/ Gal ) Buoyed Weight : Displacement Method Object. Wt. - ( Object Volume x Fluid Density ) Buoyancy Factor ( Object Density - Fluid Density ) / Object Density

DD Hydraulics 2.04.01

DD Hydraulics 2.04.02

Pascals Law: If an external pressure is applied to a confined fluid, the pressure will be increased at every point in the fluid by the amount of external pressure. This is the basic principle upon which hydraulic power transmission systems are based. Pressure at any point in a fluid at rest is the same in all directions. Pressure applied to a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished throughout the fluid.

Force exerted on a confined fluid results in a pressure increase which is equal to the amount of force applied divided by the area over which this force was applied.

Pressure Pressure( (PSI PSI) )==Force Force( (Lbs. Lbs.) )/ /Area Area( (sq.in. sq.in.) )

A pressure increase in a confined fluid is distributed equally throughout the fluid and against all sides of container. Force applied on any surface such as a piston is equal to the pressure applied multiplied by the area of the piston.

Force applied to a solid block is transmitted in a straight line through block. Force to confined liquid is transmitted: - in all directions - equally distributed - undiminished

Force Force( (Lbs.) Lbs.)==Pressure Pressure( (PSI PSI) )xxArea Area( (sq.in. sq.in.) ) F O R C E

S O L I D

F O R C E

L I Q U I D

Force is directly related to pressure and pressure to force by the areas over which they act. This can be seen in hydraulic cylinders which are a common application of hydraulic power transmission systems. Single Cylinder

FORCE FORCE FLUID 10 LBS 10 LBS

A 10 pound force exerted on a 10 square inch piston area of a confined fluid transmits a 1 PSI pressure to all surfaces of the confining container. The pressure transmitted is in addition to any existing pressures such as hydrostatic. Since these pressures were in a state of equilibrium, they can be ignored when considering these pressure transmissions.

Input force equals output force if piston areas are the same. The force divided by the input piston area creates a pressure which multiplied by the identical area of the output piston creates a force which equals the input force.

DD Hydraulics 2.04.03

DD Hydraulics 2/04.04

Force of an Output hydraulic cylinder is proportional to area of its piston to the area of the Input piston. Force(out) == Force(in) xx (( Area(out) // Area(in) )) Force(out) Force(in) Area(out) Area(in)

Work is the occurrence of a force moved through a distance. It is equal to the product of the force multiplied by the distance through which the force was applied. Common units are Pounds and Feet. Force Mechanical Work Work = Ft-Lbs Pounds x Feet

x Distance

Work

A 10 lb. force exerted on the 10 sq.in. of cylinder 1 transmits a pressure of 1 psi through-out the fluid, on all container sides. The 20 sq.in. piston area of Cylinder 2 then has a total upward force of 20 lbs.

Work == Force xx Distance Work Force Distance Given that the piston of cylinder 1 travels downward, forcing fluid into cylinder 2 and raising its piston, the travel of piston 2 would be one-half that of piston 1 since the area of piston 1 is one-half piston 2. Travel of an output hydraulic cylinder is proportional to area of the input piston to area of its output piston. Length(out) = Length(in) x ( Area(in) / Area(out) ) Length(out) = Length(in) x ( Area(in) / Area(out) ) Stroke Speed of an output cylinder is proportional to area of input piston to area of its output piston. Work (Inch-Lbs) = Force (Lbs) x Travel (inch) Work (Inch-Lbs) = Force (Lbs) x Travel (inch) Hydraulic Work a r e Distance a p i s t o n

Force ( psi )

Work

Work (( Foot-Lbs )) == Force (( Lbs ) )/ / Travel (( Feet )) Work Foot-Lbs Force Lbs Travel Feet Speed(out) = Speed(in) x ( Area(in) / Area(out) ) Speed(out) = Speed(in) x ( Area(in) / Area(out) ) Note: Work ( Foot-Lbs ) = Work ( Inch-Lbs ) / 12

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Hydraulic power systems are used to do work. Discounting losses from friction, the work which is input equals the work which is output. It is only adapted to meet the needs of a job to be done. Hydraulic Cylinders : Input and Output Work In = Force Distance

Energy: is used to do work or use power. The law of Conservation of Energy states that Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be transformed. Not all energy is used to perform work, some is expended, when doing work, to overcome the effects of friction. This energy is not lost, but changed to heat energy. Hydraulic pumps are used to convert electrical or other types of energy to hydraulic energy. Types of energy used in a basic hydraulic system include:

Electrical Hydraulic Kinetic Potential Heat to operate pump motor produced by the pump produced when hydraulic fluid moves a piston. produced when the piston has raised an object. produced by friction in pump,pipe, & fluid

HYDRAULIC POWER SYSTEM

FLUID RESERVOIR

Power : is the rate of doing work. It is defined as an amount of work ( foot-pounds ) done in a given time. Power = Work ( Ft./Lbs. ) Work ( Ft./Lbs. ) Time ( minutes or seconds ) Time ( minutes or seconds )

Common power unit of measurement is Horse Power Horsepower = 33000 Ft-Lbs 33000 Ft-Lbs= 11 minute minute 550 Ft-Lbs 550 Ft-Lbs 11 second second

The basic principles involved in transmitting power are readily seen using hydraulic cylinders as both in input and output, but not all power is input in this manner and not all work is done in this manner.

Hydraulic pumps are used to create pressure increases used to do work. Basuc hydraulic systems are a closed piping circuit in which a fluid under controlled pressure is used to do work. Hydraulic pumps impart energy or power to the fluid which is transmitted to the work site where the work is done. The fluid is then returned to the pump to be energized again.

RETURN LINE

PUMP

FILTER PRESS REG PRESSURE REGULATOR ACCUMULATOR

CHECK VALVES

AIR

FLUID

7

HAND

PUMP

PRESSURE SIDE

DD Hydraulics 2.05.01

DD Hydraulics 2.05.02

Rotary hose

The hydraulic system used to drill a well is called a circulation system. It, like the basic hydraulic power system, circulates a fluid under controlled pressure to do work. Circulating hydraulic systems have fluids which flow which are called hydrodynamic fluids. While hydrostatic fluids can be described by relatively simple concepts of density and pressure, hydrodynamic fluids require new and more complex properties be considered. Hydrodynamics... is the study or application of properties of liquids in motion. A liquid having no shape of its own, assumes that of its container as it cannot support a tangential force without loosing its shape or deforming. The continuous deformation of a liquid is known as Flow . The flow of a liquid always takes place in a conductor. A conductor is can be any shape or size, even a flat surface with the atmosphere serving as the sides and top. Flow conductors are often cylindrical shaped ( pipes ). Hydraulic Power is the power required to cause a fluid to flow; the product of flow rate and pressure drop. In drilling, two major conductors of flow are the drill string and annulus. Wells are often two to 4 miles deep, the pressures required to maintain the high flow rates required are substantial and together with the pressure used at the bit could be a limiting factor on flow rates. Additionally, the fluids or mud used are tailored to do different tasks associated with drilling the hole. These fluid characteristics impact fluid flow properties. It is essential that hydrostatic and hydrodynamic properties of fluid be understood as well as the impact that the mud properties may have.

PUMP

HOPPER

M UD

RE SE RV

PI T

Major purposes of the fluid and its flow are: transmit hydraulic horsepower to the bit to clean it and the bottom of hole. cool and lubricate bit & drill string transport cuttings produced out of hole. support hole walls & prevent formation fluids from entering well bore.

OPEN HOLE

A circulating system imparts energy or power to a fluid, transports it to the work site, does the work, and returns it to be energized again. Basic elements include geometry of the piping, fluid properties and flow rate with each of these influencing the total pressures realized.

CASED HOLE

PI T

SHALE SHAKER

DD Hydraulics 2.05.03

The circulating system has no pressure control valve as exists in a simple hydraulic system. This, along with the multiple duties the circulation system must perform, requires the complete hydraulic system and all of its elements be preplanned. Often, compromises between conflicting requirements must be done. Hydraulic Power is the power required to cause a fluid to flow; the product of flow rate and pressure drop. The product of low flow rate and high pressure may equal the product of high flow rate and low pressure. Hydraulic Horse Power is a measure of the energy delivered to the fluid being pumped. Hydraulic Horse Power Hydraulic Horse Power Pressure Drop ( psi ) x Flow Rate ( gpm ) Pressure Drop ( psi ) x Flow Rate ( gpm ) 1714 1714 Hydraulic Horse Power = Mechanical Horse Power. For Pressure in Lbs per Sq.In. and flow is in GPM. Then 231 cubic inches of a gallon divided by 12 equals 19.25 feet and 33,000 ft-lbs divided by the 19.25 feet equals the numerical constant 1714. Engine Horsepower required equals the Hydraulic Horsepower divided by pump efficiency. Note - newer pumps are usually 95 to 97% efficient.

Volumetric-Rate. Volume of liquid in units per a unit time as barrels per minute, gallons per minute, etc. The volumetric-rate output of a pump is found by the volume per stroke multiplied by the number of strokes per unit time at which pump is operated. Triplex: single acting with three cylinders NO RODOD FLUID

P I S T O N

OD

P I S T O N

F ID

L U I D

F ID

L U I D

FLUID

Volume Triplex (( Bbl // stroke )) Volume Triplex Bbl stroke 2 // 12353 )) xx Stroke Length (inch) 33 (( ID ID2 12353 Stroke Length (inch) Volume Duplex (( Bbl /stroke )) Volume Duplex Bbl /stroke 2 2 // 12353 )) -22 (( OD // 12353 )) )) xx Stroke Length (inch) (( 44 (( ID ID2 12353 OD2 12353 Stroke Length (inch) Constant: 12353 = 1cu.in. / ( / ( 4 x 9702 cu.in.) ) Actual output per stroke of pump is found by multiplying above result by pump efficiency. Hydraulic Pumps are limited to a maximum volume and pressure. The maximums not only vary by manufacturer and type of pump but on the size of pump liners or cylinders used and stroke length.

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Continuity of Flow. As liquids do not readily compress, volumetricrate input into a conductor equals volumetric-rate which is output. It is not affected by changes in inside area of the conductor. Volume-Rate in = Volume-Rate out

Fluid Flow Velocity through a conductor is distance traveled by a fluid within a defined time. It is usually stated as feet per minute or feet per second. The speed of a flowing fluid is dependant on volume (GPM ) and area in square inches at a cross-section of the conductor. Fluid Flow Velocity ( Feet per Minute ) Fluid Flow Velocity ( Feet per Minute ) ( 24.51 x GPM ) / Diameter2 2 ( 24.51 x GPM ) / Diameter

Flow can be imagined as a cylinder having an area equal to crosssectional area of pipe and a distance of such length that would result in a volume equal to that which which is referenced.

Cross-section

SPEED Volume

Fluid Flow Velocity ( Feet per Second ) Fluid Flow Velocity ( Feet per Second ) ( ( 24.51 x GPM ) / Diameter2 ) / 60 ( ( 24.51 x GPM ) / Diameter2 ) / 60 Numerical constant 24.51 is derived from 231 cubic inches in a gallon equal to a cylinder of 1 square inch in area by 19.25 ( 231 / 12) feet long. Then the velocity ( ft / min ) would equal : 19.25 ft x GPM / .7854 x Diameter2 or 24.51 x GPM/Diameter 2 In hydraulic formulas related to drilling in the oilfield, it is common practice to express velocities of fluids related to the annulus in feet per minute. Fluid velocities related to the inside diameter of the drill string and to the bit are expressed in feet per second.

Cross-section

SPEED

Volume

Given that equal volumes per unit time flows through the pipes, it can be seen that the cross-sectional area influences the following: Volume per a given length in proportion to Area. Fluid Velocity per a given unit of time in inverse proportion to Area. Volumetric-Rate of Flow = Velocity ( ft/min ) x Area Volumetric-Rate of Flow = Velocity ( ft/min ) x Area Velocity (( ftft /min )) == Volumetric-Rate // Area Velocity /min Volumetric-Rate Area

DD Hydraulics 2.05.08

Fluid Flow: When external forces (pump) acting on a fluid are great enough to overcome viscous forces, fluid flows. The velocity of fluid particles at conduit wall is zero, increasing with distance from wall.

PLUG FLOW

Plug Flow: occurs only at very slow rate where a thin layer of fluid slips at conduit wall with rest flowing as a unit. This flow regime to be given no further consideration. Not Considered.

Circulating pressure loss in a hydraulic system is energy or pressure required to force a liquid through a system to overcome the effects of friction of the fluid itself and friction of the fluid and the structure of the container. In a circulation system, not only is pressure required to do the work intended, but pressure is also required in getting the hydraulic fluid to the work site and returned to the starting point. The pressure that is required to move the fluid through the system is referred to as pressure drop or pressure loss as it is not available to do work. Circulating Pressure Loss:

P S I

Laminar Flow: can be viewed as relatively smooth, straight streamlines of flow having concentric layers of fluid beginning with a zero velocity at the conduit wall, with layers progressively faster, reaching maximum speed at the center. This flow pattern requires less energy.

LOW VISCOSITY HIGH VISCOSITY

Effects of Friction

5 4 3 2 1 0

The Velocity Differential between layers are greatest at wall and least in center. Low viscosity fluids have greater differentials than do the higher viscosity fluids.

Flow Direction

Pipe with inserted glass tubes shows pressure losses as fluid flows. Pressure which is no longer available for additional flow or to do work.

CHAOTIC FLOW

Turbulent Flow is the fast, chaotic flow of fluid particles, moving in random loops except at wall of conduit where velocity is zero. Streamlines are irregular patterns with a flat profile. Maintaining the fast flow rate requires more energy versus the straighter streamlines of laminar flow.

While flow in the drill string is generally considered to be turbulent, annular flow may be turbulent or laminar. It is necessary to verify the flow pattern and to then use the formula applicable to the type. Each flow type has a different formulas to calculate the applicable pressure drop. Laminar flow uses less energy than does Turbulent flow.

In drilling, two major conductors of flow are the drill string and annulus. These have a large impact on flow rates and resulting pressures which may limit the flow rate. Wells are frequently 2 to 4 miles deep, and may reach 6 or more miles. Pressures required to generate fluid flow to the bit and back to surface are substantial and of prime importance. A well designed hydraulics program is one in which less than 50% of available hydraulic horse power is used for flow with 50% or more used by the bit in making hole.

DD Hydraulics 2.05.10

Factors of Pressure Drop Fluid: Density and Viscosity Volume: Volumetric-Rate Dimensions: Length and ID I.D. Pressure Loss ( turbulent flow) I.D. Pressure Loss ( turbulent flow) x MW 0.82 x GPM 1.82 x L 0.0000765 PV 0.18 0.0000765 PV 0.18 x MW 0.82 x GPM 1.82 x L

4.82 ID ID 4.82

ID

Annular pressure drop does not typically affect the total system pressure to the same degree as do the drill string internal diameters, especially in the large, upper sections of the hole. However, as the hole becomes deeper and the annular space becomes smaller, its impact is larger. The pressure drop in the annulus is added to the hydrostatic pressure of the hole and as such plays a significant role in the open hole where it is exposed to the formation. Too little or to much pressure against the formation(s) can result in problems. Annular flow may be either turbulent or laminar depending on the velocity of the fluid flow. To calculate the annular pressure drop, the critical velocity must first be calculated. If critical velocity is below 2,000 the flow is laminar. If it is 2,000 or above the flow is turbulent. Annular Critical Velocity Annular Critical Velocity PV 2 9.3{ DH - DP } 2 2 YP M ) 0.5 1.08PV ++ 1.08( 0.5 1.08PV 1.08( PV 2 9.3{ D H DP } YP M ) M ( D H - DP ) M (D - D )

H P

Analysis of the formula for turbulent flow in a conduit shows a complex relationship between components. The analysis below illustrates the degree that changes to a factor could result in. ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE DROP - PROPORTIONAL FACTORS Plastic Mud Length Gallons Viscosity Weight Feet per Min. 0.18 0.82 1 = 1.00 1 = 1.00 1 = 1.00 1 1.82 = 1.00 1 2 0.82 = 1.77 2 1 = 2.00 2 1.82 = 3.53 2 0.18 = 1.13 3 0.82 = 2.46 3 1 = 3.00 3 1.82 = 7.39 3 0.18 = 1.22 ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE DROP - INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL FACTORS

DECREASE IN I.D. DECREASE IN I.D. DECREASE IN I.D.

Annular Pressure Loss (( Laminar Flow )) Annular Pressure Loss Laminar Flow L YP } 225 { D ({ H - DP } ) + ({ L VAS PV } ID 4.82 ( { L YP } 225 { DH - DP } ) + ({ L VAS PV } ID 4.82 (( 1500 {{ D H - DP } ) 1500 D - D })

H P

Chart shows varying degrees of net change to pressure drop by changes in a component. Doubling Mud Weight increases PSI by 1.77 times. Doubling GPM increases PSI by 3.53 times. Increasing ID by 20% decreases PSI by 2.41 times.

Annular Pressure Loss ( turbulent flow) Annular Pressure Loss ( turbulent flow) PV 0.18 M 0.82 G 1.82 L ) ( .0000765 ( .0000765 PV 0.18 M 0.82 G 1.82 L ) 3 1.82 ({ DH - DP }} {{ D )) H + DP } 1.82 3 D ({ DH D P H + DP }

DD Hydraulics 2.06.01

DD Hydraulics 2.06.02

Flow type of a liquid is affected by the cohesive internal attraction of the fluid to itself and the adhesive external attraction of the fluid to the conduit wall. Flow may be viewed as a series of parallel fluid layers. The first layer is held in place by fluids adhesive attraction to the conduit wall. The second layer rides on this fluid layer, gaining some velocity as it is retarded only by the fluids internal attraction. Each subsequent layer gains additional velocity as it rides on the previous layer which already has a Faster Velocity velocity of its own. This builds, Zero Velocity Fluid reaching its peak in the center.

Conduit Wall

Rheology is the study of the flow of fluids. Viscosity is descriptive of drilling mud in motion. The appearance (apparent viscosity) of high viscose mud is referred to as thick and low viscose mud called thin. Viscosity relates shear stress to shear rate or a resistance to flow. Plastic Viscosity is a measure of internal resistance to fluid flow. It is related to the type, amount, and size of solids present in the mud. It is an expression relating shear stress to shear rate or a resistance to flow. Shear Stress is the result from forces that tend to cause particles of fluid to slide relative to other particles in a direction parallel to the plane of plane of contact. It is the resistance or frictional drag to the sliding movement of two parallel fluid layer. Shear Rate is the force per unit of time or the velocity of fluid particles relative to their distance or separation. It is the difference in the velocities between two layers divided by the distance between them . Yield Point is a measure of the resistance to initial flow or stress required to start fluid movement which is caused by electrical forces on or near surfaces of the solid particles. Gel Strength is a measure of the same electrical forces on solid particles in mud considered by yield point, except it is measured at rest. A static mud solidifies or gels by arranging solid particles in a manner to best satisfy theses forces of attraction and repulsion. Gel strength indicates the strength of these forces

A bead of water on a window pane illustrates the cohesive internal attraction of a fluid within and to the fluid itself. The thin track of water on the glass as the bead of water slides down illustrates that a very thin layer of fluid at zero velocity exists at the fluids point of contact with a conductor surface due to the adhesive attraction of the fluid to a conduit surface. Window Pane

Bead of water

DD Hydraulics 2.06.03

DD Hydraulics 2.06.04

Fluid Flow Models are attempts to mathematically define behavior of fluids as they flow. Bingham Plastic Model - a finite stress must be applied to initiate flow. At greater stresses, the flow will be newtonian. Pressure losses are calculated using plastic viscosity (PV) and Yield Point (YP). This is a good model for clay muds having a high solids content. Power Law Model - Flow is initiated immediately as stress is applied. This is a good model for polymer muds having a low solids content. Pressure losses are calculated using a viscosity (k) and a flow-behavior index ( N).

Fluid Classifications Newtonian Fluids - Shear Stress is directly proportional to shear rate. ( water, oil, ) Non-Newtonian Fluids - Shear Stresses are not directly proportional to shear rates.

Pseudo Plastic Fluids - the rate at which the viscous forces increase respective to shear rate decreases with the increasing shear rate. In other words, viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate ( drilling fluids ). Dilatent Fluids - the rate at which the viscous forces increase with shear rate increases with increased shear rate. In other words, viscosity increases with increasing shear rate. ( ink, blood)

a Bingh

shear stress yield point

m Pla

Dilatent

shear stress

ton New ian

ew

a ni to

Pseudo-Plastic

DD Hydraulics 2.07.01

DD Hydraulics 2.07.02

Bits use both Mechanical and Hydraulic Energy in drilling the well bore. Bits are tailored to the formation characteristics. In general, the softer the rock to be drilled the larger the teeth. Bits are built to be rotated while weight is applied to supply the mechanical energy required.

Bit Hydraulic Energy Hydraulic Energy is required to allow the bit to effectively drill by cleaning the bit and the hole bottom. As fluid is forced through the bit nozzles, its kinetic energy is greatly increased through high jet velocities having a high impact force. Hydraulic Horsepower at bit is measure of energy expended at bit. Impact Force is a measure of the force which the drilling fluid impinges upon the bore hole below the bit. Adequate jet velocity cleans the bit. A balled up bit acts as a cushion preventing effective drilling. There must be room between the bits teeth for new formation. Adequate fluid jet velocity and fluid volume cleans drilled chips from hole bottom. Re-drilling of chips is not efficient and generates added, unnecessary solids in the mud

Higher Hydrostatic Pressure

TOOTH

CHIP

Adequate Jet Velocity and Impact Force releases differentially stuck chips. Chips can be held down when solids filtered from the mud seal cracks around them and where the hydrostatic pressure is greater than the formation pressure.

Chip Weight on Bit controls Chip Size & Quantity RPM controls Fracture Rate.

Lower Formation Pressure

Jet Velocity and its Impact Force may drill some soft formations by its own hydraulic energy.

DD Hydraulics 2.08.01

Factors to consider when planning hydraulics are: Geology of well - Formations, pressures, Hole problems, etc. Pumps - Volume & Pressure capabilities, limitations, etc. Drill String Geometry. ID, OD, Length, Strength, etc. Bit - Size, Type, Nozzles, Hydraulic Horsepower. Mud - Type, Weight, Properties. Supply & availability. Annulus: Pressure Loss, Flow Rate for cutting removal Tool Needs - MWD, etc. Flow and Pressure requirements. Drilling Rates - Expected and/or desired ROP. Pressures with expected flow rates, hole sizes, and depths. Bit Pressure drop, Drill String Pressure Drop, Annular Pressure Drop, Bottom Hole Hydrostatic Pressure, etc. Rule of Thumb Guidelines for Optimal Hydraulics: Flow Rate: 30 to 60 GPM per inch of bit diameter. Maximize in soft formations, fast drilling, high angle holes for hole cleaning. Restrict only to the degree that hole wash out is a problem. Limit in slow drilling to rate needed. Limit in small and / or deep holes to reduce, annular friction, ECD, and potential for lost circulation, differential sticking, and hole instability. Flow Rate too low - Inadequate hole cleaning. Hole could load with cuttings. - Bit may ball. Flow Rate too high: - Increases Annular Friction, Bottom Hole Pressure, & ECD - Erodes soft, unconsolidated formations. Fast drilling & light mud weights need more flow. ( 50+ gpm/bit diameter ). Slow drilling needs less flow. Do not slow below minimum. High angle holes need higher flow to clean.

Rule of Thumb Guidelines for Optimal Hydraulics: Maintain 2.5 to 5 bit hydraulic horsepower per square inch of bit diameter. ( HHP/ Inch2 ) Bit hydraulic horsepower is based on ROP & Hole Size. Large Bits require more HHP / Inch2 Fast ROP requires maximum HHP / Inch2, even over normal maximum of 5. Some rigs do not have pumps or horsepower to provide the needed hydraulic horsepower. Do not use excessive pressure, costing unnecessary fuel and pump wear. Maintain Bit Jet Velocity between 350 to 450 feet per second. ( ft./sec.) Do not attempt to operate below 250 ft/sec. Jet velocity influences penetration rates, hole cleaning, & chip holddown. Impact force, the force exerted on the formation to assist in hole clearing is the product of mud weight and jet velocity and is directly proportional to jet velocity. to improve penetration rates in a small hole of 9-1/2 or less consider running 2 larger jets rather than 3 of the same total flow area. Larger jets are less likely to plug. asymmetrical jets of differing sizes may improve penetration rates versus 2 jets. for long bit run which would force a lowering of the jet velocity, consider 3 jets with a diverting ball dropped in lower section to maintain the jet velocity. Bit Pressure Drop to be 50 % to 65 % of the total system pressure drop. Calculate total system losses and adjust if pressure drops through drill string and annulus exceed 50%. Do not adjust volume below 30 GPM/Inch of bit diameter. Consider drill string changes, nozzle adjustments, etc.

DD Hydraulics 2.09.01

NOMENCLATURE

CD CW DH DP G JV L M NZ NA PXX = Chip Diameter, inch = Chip Weight, ppg = Diameter of Hole, inch = Diameter of Pipe, inch = Gallons Per Minute ( gpm ) = Jet Velocity ( fps ) = Length in feet = Mud Weight (ppg ) = Nozzle Size ( 32nds of inch ) = Nozzle Area ( square inch ) = Pressure Loss ( psi ) PV VAS VAM YP f n p Re U = Plastic Viscosity, cps = Velocity, Annular Fluid ( fps ) = Velocity, Annular Fluid ( fpm ) = Yield Point (lbs / 100 ft.) = fanning friction factor = Consistency index = Numerical Constant, 3.14159 = Reynolds Number, dimensionless = Viscosity, apparent, effective, cps PAN PSI GPM FPS FPM PPG = Pressure Drop, Annulus ( psi ) = Pressure, Pounds per Square Inch = Gallons per Minute = Feet per Second = Feet per Minute = Pounds per Gallon

Nozzle Pressure Loss ( psi ) Nozzle Volume ( gpm ) Nozzle Total Flow Area ( sq.in. ) Nozzle Area ( per size ) (sq.in. ) Nozzle Size ( 32nds inch ) Jet Velocity of Nozzles ( fps ) Impact Force of Nozzles ( psi ) ( psi ) Bit Hydraulic Horse Power, Total Bit Hydraulic Horse Power, per Sq.In. Drill String Bore Pressure Loss ( psi ) Turbulent flow ( sii ) Turbulent flow ( security ) Turbulent flow ( fanning ) PID = ( 0.0000765 PV 0.18 M 0.82 G 1.82 L ) ID 4.82 PID = ( 0.000061 M G 1.86 L) ID 4.86 PID = ( f M V ID (F/S) 2 L ) 25.8 DP PNZ = ( M G 2 ) ( 10858 NA 2 ) = ( { P NZ 10858 NA 2 } M ) 0.5 GNZ NA = ( { M G 2 } { 10858 PNZ } ) 0.5 NA = ( N Z 32) 2 ( 4) = 32 (N A { .7854 Qty } ) 0.5 NZ JV (F/S) = ( 0.32 G ) N A IF = JV 0.0173 G ( P NZ M ) 0.5 IF = 0.000516 JV G M BHHP (TOTAL) = PNZ G 1713.6 BHHP / sq. in = BHHP ( BIT OD 0.7854 )

DD Hydraulics 2.09.02

Annulus Flow Annular Flow Velocity ( fpm ) Annular Flow Velocity ( fps) Annular Critical Velocity ( fps ) Optimum Annular Velocity (fpm ) Optimum Annular Flow ( gpm) Optimum Annular Flow ( gpm) Annulus Pressure Loss ( psi ) Turbulent Flow ( sii ) Turbulent Flow ( security ) Turbulent Flow ( fanning ) Newtonian Laminar Flow ( hagan ) Plastic Laminar Flow ( beck, etc ) Bottom Hole Pressure Bottom Hole Hydrostatic Pressure ( psi ) B. H. Circulating Pressure ( psi ) Equivalent Circulating Density ( ppg ) ( ppg ) Hole Cleaning Rock Chip Slip Velocity Lam. - Spherical Chips ( Stokes ) Lam. - Flat Chips ( Pigott ) Turb. - Spherical Chips ( Rittinger ) Turb. - Flat Chips ( Pigott ) Slip Velocity ( ft / Min ) Note: use 21 as cutting density and 0.25 as cutting diameter if unknown V C = ( 8310 CD 2 { CW - M }) ( PV + ( 399 YP { DH - DP }) VA ) V C = ( 3226 CD 2 { CW - M } ) ( PV + ( 399 YP { DH - DP }) V A ) V C = 159 ( ( CD { CW - M } M ) 0.5 ) V C = 60.6 ( ( CD { CW - M } M ) 0.5 ) VS = V C - V A BHP = ( 0.5195 M L ) BHCP = BHP + PAN ECD = BHCP ( 0.52 L ) ECD = (PAN { 0.052 L } ) + Mud Weight PAN PAN PAN PAN PAN = ( .0000765 PV 0.18 M 0.82 G 1.82 L ) ({ DH - DP } 3 { DH + DP } 1.82 ) = 0.00000014327 M L VA 2 ( DH - DP ) = ( f M VAn (F/S) 2 L ) 25.8 ( DH - DP ) Note: V = Apparent Viscosity (cps) = V L Va ( 1500 {DH - DP } ) = ( { L YP } 225 { DH - DP } ) + ({ L Va PV } ( 1500 { DH - DP } ) VAM = ( 24.51 G ) ( DH 2 - DP 2 ) VAS = ( { 24.51 60 } G ) ( DH 2 - DP 2 ) VCA = 1.08PV + 1.08( PV 2 9.3{ DH - DP } 2 YP M ) 0.5 M ( DH - DP ) VOA = 11800 ( M DH ) Opt Flow ( Annulus ) = 482 ( DH 2 - DP 2 ) ( DH M ) Opt Flow ( Open hole) = ( 265 DH + 10 DH 2 ) M

DD Hydraulics 2.09.03

HYDOSTATIC FLUID FORMULAS WEIGHT DENSITY = Weight / Unit Volume SPECIFIC GRAVITY = Weight of Substance per Unit Volume / Weight of Water per Unit Volume HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE. ( PSI ) = 0.05195 x Mud Weight x Depth PRESSURE GRADIENT = 0.05195 x Mud Wt. (Lbs/ Gal ) BUOYANCY FACTOR OF A FLUID = ( Object Density - Fluid Density ) / Object Density Buoyed Weight = Object Weight x Object Buoyancy Factor POWER TRANSMISSION FORMULAS PRESSURE ( PSI ) = FORCE ( LBS ) / AREA ( SQUARE INCH ) FORCE ( LBS ) = PRESSURE ( PSI ) x AREA ( SQUARE INCH ) FORCE ( OUTPUT ) = FORCE ( IN ) x ( AREA (OUT ) / AREA ( IN ) LENGTH ( OUTPUT) = LENGTH ( IN ) x (AREA ( IN ) / AREA (OUT ) ) SPEED ( OUTPUT ) = SPEED ( IN ) x (AREA ( IN ) / AREA (OUT ) ) WORK = FORCE x DISTANCE WORK (INCH-LBS) = FORCE ( LBS ) x Travel ( INCH ) WORK (FOOT-LBS) = FORCE ( LBS ) x Travel ( FEET ) POWER = WORK(FTLBS) / TIME(MINUTES OR SECONDS) HORSEPOWER = 3300 FTLBS / 1 MINUTE OR 550 FTLBS / 1 SECOND HYDRAULIC HORSEPOWER = PRESSURE DROP (PSI) x FLOW RATE (GPM) CIRCULATION RELATED FORMULAS TRIPLEX PUMP (BBLS/STK) = 3 ( ID2 / 12353 ) x STROKE LENGTH (IN.) DUPLEX PUMP(BBLS/STK) = 4 ( ID2 / 12353 ) - 2 ( OD2 / 12353 ) ) x S.L.) VOLUMETRIC-RATE OF FLOW = VELOCITY ( FPM ) x AREA VELOCITY (FT/MIN) = VOLUMETRIC-RATE / AREA FLUID FLOW VELOCITY (FT/MIN) = ( 24.51 x GPM ) / DIAMETER2 FLUID FLOW VELOCITY (FT/MIN) = ( 24.51 x GPM ) / ( DIAMETER2 x 60 ) Volume Conversions Cubic Feet Barrel Gallon

Cubic Inches Gallons Barrels Cubic Feet

COMMON DENSITIES

RELATIVE DENSITY LBS PER CU.FT. LBS PER GALLON GRAMS / CU. CM

7.48052 42 1

0.17811 1 0.02381

1 5.61458 0.13368

DD Hydraulics 2.09.04

Effective Viscosity A. Viscosity Definition B. Bingham Plastic C. Shear Stress, Power Law Fluids D. Effective Viscosity , Power Law E. Annular Shear Rate F. Consistency Index G. Power Law Index New Press. (Change: GPM or MW ) Hook Load OverPull Maximum Neutral Point (STRAIGHT HOLE) Buoyancy Factor ( GALLONS ) BUOYED WEIGHT Natural Frequency Excitation Frequency Excitation Frequency Frequency w/ Shock Mechanical Horsepower Created

k = 511( YP + PV ) / 511n n = 3.32 log 10 ( YP + 2PV ) / ( YP + PV ) P2 = P1 x ( M2 / M1 ) x ( G2 / G1 ) 2 x P1 HL = ( ( Pipe Wt/Ft x Feet ) + ( Collar Wt/Ft x Feet ) ) x Buoyancy Factor OP = ( Yield Strength of Pipe - Hook Load ) NP = Bit Weight / ( Weight/Foot * Buoyancy Factor ) BF = ( 65.5 - M ) / 65.5 ( 65.5 lbs = steel in gallons ) BW = AIR WEIGHT x BOUNCY FACTOR FN = 4212 / Drill Collar Length (ft) FE = RPM / 20 Ncrit = FN x 20 FNS = P x ( shock spring rate (k) / Total Wt. DCs (w) ) 0.5 HrsPwr(Mech) = Torque x RPM/ 5252

DD Hydraulics 2.09.04

Expansion of Steel: Temperature Changes C = Coefficient of Expansion for steel = 0.0000828 per foot, per degree Fo L = Length in feet T = Change in temperature, Fo

ET = C x L x T

Maximum Tensile Loading w/ Collapse Pressure Applied Y = Minimum Yield Strength of Pipe ( PSI ) A = Cross-sectional area of Pipe Body P = Collapse Pressure on the Pipe ( PSI ) C = Collapse Rating w/ no load ( tables ) L= Y x A x (( 1-.75 x (P/C)2 ) 0.5 - ( .5 x (P/C) )

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