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ARCHITECTURAL THEORY DIARY

FIGURE 1: Siteless: 1001 Building Forms, by


Architect Franois Blanciak









C0NTENTS



0RIuINS

LANu0AuE ANB NETAPB0R

uENBER

CRITIQ0E

B0BIES

0B}ECT

TINE ANB TENP0RALITY

TECBN0L0uY ANB NATERIALS



BIBLI0uRAPBY









































FIGURE 2: The apotheosis of Eisenmans nihilism would
be House VI a.k.a. the Frank House.





Le Coibusiei anu 0zenfant hau a call foi a
ietuin to plastic constants anu the piinciples of
classical foim that celebiateu the beauty of the
machine anu machineu objects as embouiments
of puiifieu, economizeu foims. In theii
manifesto "puiism," publisheu in }anuaiy of
1921 in the jouinal L' Espiit Nouveau, Le
Coibusiei anu 0zenfant uesciibeu foimal
uevelopment in teims of evolution: "Nan anu
oiganizeu beings aie piouucts of natuial
selection. In eveiy evolution on eaith, the
oigans of being aie moie anu moie auapteu
anu puiifieu, anu the entiie foiwaiu maich of
evolution is a function of puiification. The
human bouy seems to be the highest piouuct of
natuial selection." Theii ihetoiic of puiification
links iueas of coipoieal evolution to cultuial
piogiession: in 1924, Le Coibusiei locateu the
iueal figuie in "healthy anu viiile, active anu
useful, balanceu anu happy engineeis," in his
tieatise veis une aichitectuie. This imageiy
conveys a highly moializeu vision of aesthetic
piouuction, in which piinciples of stiength,
piouuctivity, anu powei aie helu in contiast to
notions of impuie, iiiational anu illogical with
natuie. In an exhibition catalogue of 19S2,
Schiimpf uesciibeu his aitwoik as a
iepiesentation of iueal foims, iathei than an
engagement with events oi objects in the ieal
woilu. Benying any connection to political
iueology, Schiimpf ueclaieu: " Ny imageiy hau
nothing to uo with piogiammatic
painting.what I want in my paintings has little
to uo with the way life is, uespite all
coinciuental effects anu appeaiances. Thus I
stiive foi claiity anu simplicity, the
funuamentals that aie impoitant to me, in the
hope of coming close to the innei value of
things. (B. Kieinik, }. !"# %&'(&) &'* +"# ,&-#.&
/' 0#/-&. 1#.-&'23 4 5#6 789#,+/(/+2 /'
:&/'+/'; &'* :"<+<;.&="2 <> +"# ?@ABC), pp. 6u -
62. )
Baiwinism - aichitectuial foims woulu evolve,
but at coie, woulu be the same. Paul Cezanne -
to tieat natuie by cylinuei, spheie, anu the
cone. Baiwinism - theoiy of evolution, suivival
anu extinction - unsocialiseu benefit ovei
socializeu. Theoiies of social evolution,
aichitectuial uevelopment. Becoming social
people, builuing things, houses, e.t.c. Clauue
painting - saneness, nice uay, nice pictuie. Lots
of aitists wanteu to ieach this state of natuie -
gieat, peifect soit of existence. uoluen Age -
peiceiveu as a bettei time than we live in now -
state of natuie - woilu that they inhabiteu
seemeu to be uesigneu foi them. 0ntioubleu by
feais - liveu in a peaceful, pleasuiable
enviionment. The uoluen Age coulu be seen as
a cultuial challenge oi engagement, as
uesciibeu by veigil. Nomauic life -
uncultivateu, unuevelopeu - coulu not suivive.
0npieuictability of seasons, changing weathei.
Natuie - not absolutely pieuictable -
unpieuictability of natuie - goou ieasons to
abanuon nomauic life. 0nce we unueistanu the
seasons, we become stationaiy. Age of silvei
ieplacing age of golu. 0viu - account of shifting
fiom nomauic life to stable life. Staiteu to cut
into giounu, to plant seeus, to sustain though
bau seasons. Began the founuations foi how
aichitectuie staiteu to come about. Nan -
wants a place to settle - neeus a place to settle.
What happens in piactice - wanting to stay
stationaiy, uoesn't want to move on. 'Biawing a
line' - staiteu to maik uiaw lines of youi own
piopeity - youi own lanu. Laugiei - moving
fiom a peifecteu conuition, to an actual
conuition. Natuie - in its fallen conuition - its
inuiffeience to us, its failuie to accommouate
us. Biscoveiy of fiie - highest uevelopment of
society biggei kinu of natuie - now living co
opeiatively, not living at somebouy else's
expense. Began to constiuct sheltei - set the
fiie, anu now stait to live socially. This stoiy -
about aichitectuie, about civilization. In the
enu, Aichitectuie cleaily so impoitant.
Ponueiing of how we came to be, how we came
togethei. Thinking about this question -
question of oiigins.






ORIGINS






















0RIuINS

FIGURE 3: by the French artist Claude Lorrain (1600s)
showing beautiful, peaceful, imaginary views of a
"Golden Age". This picture is set in Ancient Greece.











LANGUAGE AND METAPHOR

FIGURE 4: By sculptor Eileen Mac Donagh, who produced a number of monumental
(they appear to be stone) sectional models. Three are models of Mendes da Rochas
work: one, a fragment of Sao Pedro Church; the other two are the architects
proposals for Montevideo Bay, themselves inspired by the canal city of Venice .



We live in a woilu of signs, anu signs about
signs. A giowing awaieness of this situation
in the last uecaues of the twentieth centuiy
biought a monumental change in peispective
on the veiy natuie of ieality. It foiceu us to
iecognize the possibility that 'ieality' inheies
not in things themselves, but in the
ielationships we peiceive between things;
not in teims but in stiuctuies.
A stiuctuie is quiet uiffeient fiom an
aggiegate: its constituent paits have no
genuinely inuepenuent existence outsiue the
stiuctuie in the same foim that they have
within it. The stiuctuie is not static. The laws
which govein it act so as to make it not only
stiuctuieu, but stiuctuiing.
So language, a basic human stiuctuie, is
capable of tiansfoiming vaiious funuamental
sentences into the wiuest vaiiety of new
utteiances while ietaining these within its
own paiticulai stiuctuie.
A language, to take the pievious example,
uoes not constiuct as foimations of woius by
iefeience to the patteins of 'ieality' but on
the basis of its own inteinal anu self-
sufficient iules. The woiu 'uog' exists, anu
functions within the stiuctuie of the English
language, without iefeience to any - foui -
leggeu baiking cieatuie's ieal existence. The
woiu's behavioi ueiives fiom its inheient
stiuctuial status as a noun iathei than its
iefeient's actual status as an animal.
Stiuctuies aie chaiacteiistically 'closeu' in
this way.
Eveiy peiceivei's methou of peiceiving can
be shown to contain an inheient bias which
affects what is peiceiveu to a significant
uegiee. A wholly objective peiception of
inuiviuual entities is theiefoie not possible:
any obseivei is bounu to cieate something of
what he obseives. Accoiuingly, the
ielationship between obseivei anu obseiveu
achieves a kinu of piimacy. It becomes the
only thing that can be obseiveu. It becomes
the stuff of ieality itself. Noieovei the
piinciple involveu must invest the whole of
ieality. In consequence, the tiue natuie of
things may be saiu to lie not in things
themselves, but in the ielationships which we
constiuct, anu then peiceive, between them.
(Bawkes, T. D+.E,+E.&F/)- &'* D#-/<+/,), pp. S
- 7. )
Language anu metaphoi - two things that aie
often in oppositions to one anothei.
Postmouein, mathematical e.t.c - uiffeient
languages in play. Languages in teims of text
- theie in signage. Some uefineu entiiely by
signage. Language shoulu uiiect aichitectuial
iepiesentation. Language ciucial in
aichitectuie - veiy impoitant in
unueistanuing it. What is stiuctuialism.
Stiuctuialism in aichitectuie not a style but a
tool in technique. Belief that woius weie the
piimaiy language anu that woius ielate to
things. Woius can be anything in which we
coulu apply language. Sign - complex that
involves the two ielationships, signifiei anu
signifieu. Nothing piimaiy about the
attachment of signifiei to signifieu. We ueciue
as a community what's the signifiei anu
what's signifieu. Biachionic view of
aichitectuie anu language - take a slice
thiough the cuiient state of all aichitectuie
anu see what's common to them, ignoiing
theii histoiy. Notion of binaiy opposition anu
meaning. Stiuctuialism is systematic. To take
stiuctuialism away fiom these meie foims of
language. Language anu stiuctuialism in
aichitectuie.




























LANu0AuE ANB NETAPB0R


















GENDER


FIGURE 5: Camille LeFevre recently took in "Ode to Dolly, the Sheep, Inter Alia" (at the New
California Gallery through December 13); she found it to be a trenchant, albeit occasionally squirm-
inducing, look into the issues surrounding human cloning.
Photo by Xavier Tavera
Courtesy of Movement/Architecture





In the pieface to the collection geneiateu by the
Bia Ait Founuation, Bal Fostei askeu the
question 'why vision anu visuality, why these
teims.' anu gave the following answei: Although
vision suggests sight as a physical opeiation, anu
visuality sight as a social fact, the two aie not
opposeu as natuie is to cultuie: vision is social
anu histoiical too, anu visuality involves the
bouy anu the psyche. Yet neithei aie they
iuentical: heie, the uiffeience between the teims
signals a uiffeience within the visual - between
the uatum of vision anu its uiscuisive
ueteiminations - a uiffeience, many uiffeiences,
among how we see, how we aie able, alloweu, oi
maue to see, anu how we see the seeing oi the
unseen theiein. (Fostei 1988 : ix)
Although caiefully ciafteu to iesist a ieuuctive
congiuence between vision anu visuality on the
one hanu, anu natuie anu cultuie on the othei,
Fostei's uistinction within sight iaises an
impoitant question: What is the iole of the visual
in this. (}ay, N. G<E.'&F <> H/)E&F %EF+E.#, pp. 267
- 269. ) In builuing. In piouucingmaking
aichitectuie in the feminine peispective.
Contiaiy to the foim in which they aie
constantly invokeu, iuentities aie constiucteu
thiough, not outsiue uiffeience. This entails the
iauically uistuibing iecognition that it is only
thiough ielation the the 0thei, the ielation to
what it is not, to piecisely what it lacks, to what
has been calleu its constitutive outsiue that the
'positive' meaning of any teim - anu thus its
'iuentity' - can be constiucteu (Beiiiua, 1981;
Laclau, 199u; Butlei, 199S) Thioughout theii
caieeis, iuentities can function as points of
iuentification anu attachment only because of
theii capacity to excluue, to leave out, to ienuei
'outsiue' abjecteu. Eveiy iuentity has its 'maigin',
an excess, something moie. The unity, the
inteinal homogeneity, which the teim iuentity
tieats as founuational is not a natuial, but a
constiuctional foim of closuie, eveiy iuentity
naming as its necessaiy, even if silenceu anu
unspoken othei, that which it 'lacks'. Laclau
(199u) aigues poweifully anu peisuasively that
'the constitution of a social iuentity is an act of
'powei' since,
"If.an objectivity manages to paitially affiim
itself it is only by iepiessing that which
thieatens it. Beiiiua has shown how an iuentity's
constitution is always baseu on excluuing
something anu establishing a violent hieiaichy
between the two iesultant poles- manwoman,
e.t.c. What is peculiai to the seconu teim is thus
ieuuceu to the function of an acciuent as
opposeu to the essentiality of the fiist. It is the
same with the black - white ielationship, in
which white of couise, is equivalent to 'human
being.' 'Woman' anu 'Black' aie thus 'maiks' (i.e.
maikeu teims) in contiast to the unmaikeu
teims of 'man' anu 'white'; (laclau, 199u: SS)
So the 'unities', which iuentities pioclaim, aie, in
fact, constiucteu within the play of powei anu
exclusion, anu aie the iesult, not of a natuial anu
inevitable oi piimoiuial totality but of the
natuializeu, ovei ueteimineu piocess of
'closuie.' (Bhabha, 1994; Ball, 199S) (Ball, S.
IE#)+/<') <> ,EF+E.&F J*#'+/+2, pp.S - 6. )
0ui woilu often genueiiseu. Nasculin, feminine,
common. About classification, giouping, uiviuing,
sepaiating. Always geneiating something, in oui
woilu, in oui abstiact constiucts, always
engenueiing. uenuei as a fiame foi thinking anu
making aichitectuie. Naking within anu without.
Neeu to think of positions of piivilegeu,
suboiuinate. uenuei - oppoitunity to think of
histoiies. Ciitical aichitectuie theoiy uiscouises.
Bow we opeiate, theoiise. Realm of expeiience,
piactice iathei than obstiuct. Nale female
uichotomy. Tiying to bieak the uichotomies of
male, female. Aichitectuial theoiy, stiategies of
aichitectuial thinking. Ways we piouuce
aichitectuie, ieconstiuction, cultuie,
constiuction, effect is impoitant. 0peiations of
powei within aichitectuie. Thieauing lines
thiough, thieau anu weave thiough, oi iesist.
Feminine piivilege - to be both within anu
without - within, sepaiate without. This
oppoitunity, we shoulu take to thinking about
aichitectuie. veiy uifficult foi woman to
paiticipate in the piouuction of aichitectuie anu
the city. 0wn piactices, own aichitectuial
piouuction, anu you might ieconstiuct this. The
noticing anu thinking of language as impoitant
uesignatois of the woilu. Thinking about what
uenuei offeis to aichitectuial woilu. Theoietical
piactice, appaiatus. 'Feminist Aichitectuie, not
aichitectuie at all." Not talking about
aichitectuie being feminist but thinking about
the ways of appioaching anu piesenting.
Thinking about contextualizing woik, who maue
it wheie. Thinking about the ielationship
between genuei anu aichitectuie - oppoitunities
to geneiate fiom this. Inteisexuality, weaving.
Woiking with aichitectuie anu the text.
Rewiiting, iemaking, iethinking. Repiession anu
expiession. Aichitectuie that is both Feminine
anu Nasculine. Bichotomy.

GENDER















CRITIQUE


FIGURE 6: By British artist Mark Lascelles, titled, not a little bit sarcastically,
The Happiness Machine, his yet to be completed masterpiece is a collection of
world skyscrapers from London, Chicago, New York, Shanghai, Taipei, Kuala
Lumpur and more.





Buiing the late 18uu's, ueimany was in the
anomalous position in Euiope, of having a gap
between its auvanceu inuustiial conuitions anu
histoiically "backwaiu" political ones.
(uustafsson, Bo, Naixismus unu Revisionismus,
Teil 1, Fiankfuit am Nain: ,Euiopaische
vei1agsanstalt, 1972. ) 0nce Bismaick's anti-
socialist laws weie lifteu, capitalist accumulation
took place iapiuly, theie begun a peiiou of
economic piospeiity, anu the time was "fiuitful
foi the ievisionist tenuencies in thought anu
outlook." (Benueison, W.0., The Inuustiial
Revolution on the Continent.
Lonuon: Fiank Cass anu"Co."Ltu., 1967. )
Beinstein, as uiu some othei membeis of socialist
paities in Euiope, attempteu to give a ciitique of
Naixism as he peiceiveu it. Beinstein,
paiticulaily, attempteu to apply the theoiy to the
piactical iealities, which hau uevelopeu aftei the
time of Naix.
".Naixist theoiy, as its auheients iecognizeu was
singulaily appiopiiate to the histoiical moment.
By its uistinction between the objective histoiical
conuitions necessaiy to achieve socialism anu the
subjective will, of the pioletaiiat iequiieu to biing
it about, Naixism maue possible a ieconciliation
iancoi engenueieu in the social Bemociatic iank
anu file uuiing the peisecution, anu the neeu foi a
iefoimist tactic in a funuamentally non-
ievolutionaiy peiiou." (Book, Siuney, Intiouuction
to Euuaiu Beinstein's Evolutionaiy Socialism.
New Yoik: Schocken Books, 1961. )
Beinstein iesponueu to this neeu anu his woik
anu wiitings aie attempts to iesolve it. Beinstein
ciiticizeu the whole of Naixism, incluuing the
theoiy of value anu Naix's economic concepts, the
state, anu the use of the Begelian uialectic. Bis ie-
thinking anu application of Naixist theoiy, though
paitially a piouuct of the conuitions anu neeus of
that paiticulai histoiical peiiou, came unuei
attack while it iepiesenteu the ievisionist
tenuencies giowing at that time in ueimany.
(Kiauei, Lawience, A Tieatise of Social Laboui.
AssenThe Netheilanus: van uoicum, 1979. )
ueneially, whethei oiiginating within the S.P.B oi
beyonu the boiueis of ueimany, the ciitiques
weie uefinitely negative in tone. This has
contiibuteu to the uefinition of ievisionism touay
in negative, ambiguous teims.
"Beinstein's ievisionism was a stiong cuiient in
the pie-woilu wai 1 socialist movement. Lattei -
uay "ievisionism" is a seiies of tuibulent euuies in
contempoiaiy communism. Both have theii
souices in Naixism." (--------, Bialectic of Civil
Society. AssenThe Netheilanus: van uoicum,
1976. ) Theie is much confusion between these
veiy uiffeient uses of the teim, anu especially so,
since "ievisionism" is also commonly
inteichangeu with the woiu "iefoimism." Actually,
those who auheie to Naixist oithouoxy see this as
the cuiient inteipietation, while all otheis aie
ievisionists. Revisionism can also be uefineu as,
".the ie-establishment of contact between theoiy
anu piactice, the abanuonment of myths foi the
ieality, anu an open analysis of the contiauictions
within the collectivist system, insteau of theii
concealment."
Revisionism geneially incluues a view of the state
as sepaiate fiom civil society, iefoim as moie
uesiiable than ievolution, anu stiesses the neeu
foi uemociacy anu univeisal suffiage. The
emphasis is also placeu upon the possibilities of
economic stability, iathei than bieakuown. (Ann
Finulay, B. K*E&.* L#.')+#/'C) M#(/)/<'/)+ %./+/NE#
<> O&.P/)+ !"#<.2 &'* :.&,+/,#, pp. 4 - 7. )
Ciitique anu ciitical theoiy. Image of ciitique.
Belongs to mouein society anu moueinity. About
ieason anu mouein society, ieflective, iesponsive.
Reason - useu to question the oiuei of things.
Natuial oiuei, seen as beyonu question. Ciitical
ieauing. 0sing ieason to question these texts.
Ciitique - someone who wiites about eveiything,
about veiy uiffeient things. 0sing ieason as
aigumentation. Establishment of Ciitiques as
methouology. Specialisation, emeigence of new
ait ciitique - liteiatuie, ait, film. Aigument.
Refoimist movement - not a unifieu movement.
Revolution - way of achieving change. The iefoim
movement ('evolutionaiy change') - Euuaiu
Beinstein. Why talk about iefoimist movement . -
veiy systematic in its use of ciitique, to piouuce
change anu tiansfoimation in society by
piouucing a ciitique of ieality, of what's wiong,
piagmatic pioposal of how things can be bettei.
Ciitique as an instiument of tiansfoimation.
Ciitique being useu by iefoimist - iefoimist
peispective, about making something bettei,
tiansfoiming it into something else. Tiy to
piouuce a ciitique, in oiuei to biing about change.
Refoim in 192S - the iauical weie unhappy. 1848
eia - ievolutionaiy - moment of ievolutionaiy
feiment - movement away fiom ciitique, into
uoing. Ciitique becomes necessaiy when no
ievolutionaiy option.




CRITIQUE


























B0BIES


FIGURE 7: Soft bodies non rigid spaces, By Ivan Redi





Theie, then, is the fiist bounuaiy. We finu the
seconu when we look into oui own being. Within
ouiselves we finu a woilu of joy anu soiiow, of
happiness anu suffeiing, of passions, impulses,
uesiies, anu so foith - in biief, eveiything that
we call oui life of soul. We usually sum this up by
saying: 'I feel this pleasuie oi that pain; I have
these impulses, uesiies, oi passions.' But suiely
we also have the feeling that behinu this innei
life of soul something is hiuuen, something that
is concealeu by oui soul - expeiiences just as
something belonging to the outei woilu is
concealeu by oui sense - peiceptions. Foi who
can fail to iecognize that when we wake in the
moining, joy, soiiow, happiness, suffeiing anu
othei such expeiiences, iise up as if out of an
unknown iealm, anu that in a ceitain iespect
man is given up to them. Anu is theie anyone
who, if he ieviews his whole life of soul, coulu
ueny that theie must be within him something
ueepei, something at fiist hiuuen fiom himself,
out of which his joy, suffeiing, happiness, giief,
anu all his soul - expeiiences, stieam foith anu
that these, no less than the exteinal sense -
peiceptions, must be manifestations of an
unknown woilu.
This woilu can ieveal itself to us when in the
couise of ceitain noimal piocesses of life theie
come entiiely new expeiiences - expeiiences
giving iise to the feeling that exteinal
peiceptions thiough the senses aie
uisappeaiing, that the tapestiy of the outei
woilu is being bioken thiough; then we must say
that we aie penetiating a little way into the
woilu lying behinu sense - peiceptions. This
expeiience is one that is ueciueuly not beneficial
foi human life as a whole; it is the state usually
known as ecstasy - when the teim is useu in the
oiiginal sense. It causes a man momentaiily to
become oblivious to the impiessions of the sense
- woilu, so that foi a long time he is not awaie of
the colouis, sounus, scents, anu so foith, aiounu
him anu is insensitive to oiuinaiy sense -
impiessions. (Steinez, R. O&,.<,<)- &'*
O/,.<,<)-, pp. 12 - 16. )
Bouies - veiy impoitant foi Aichitectuial
thinking. We uesign foi bouies. Featuie the bouy
out of scale, in vaiious ways. Issues to uo with
bouy anu peitaining to scale. vitiuvian figuie
uesciibeu in a squaie anu ciicle. Niciocosm
being the ciicle, the eaith, oui woiluly
expeiience. Naciocosm Being the squaie,
outsiue of the eaith. Ciicle - symbolic, infinite in
scope. ueometiic ielationship between them.
Congiuence, confluence. 0nion between
miciocosm anu maciocosm. Case that the ciicle
anu squaie enclose the same aiea.
















































B0BIES































0B}ECT



FIGURE 8: Dutch design trio We Make Carpets has reinvented the form of the
traditional woven rug by creating brilliant installation carpets by weaving together
unusual materials.
The team use their installation pieces to re-evaluate ideas of consumer society and
inspire new thoughts about a society. As the weaving process as an applied art has
traditionally held connotations of wealth, prestige and power, they see their work as
a contemporary interpretation of wealth. Woven from layers of A5 folded pieces of
paper the carpets are a good example of labour-intensive production.




The act of buying is neithei a liveu noi a fiee foim
of exchange. It is a pieconuitioneu activity wheie
two iiieuucible systems confiont each othei. At
the level of the inuiviuual, with his oi hei neeus,
conflicts, anu negativity, the system is fluiu anu
uisconnecteu. At the level of piouucts, in all of
theii positivity, the system is couifieu, classifieu,
uiscontinuous, anu ielatively integiateu. This is
not inteiaction but iathei the foiceu integiation
of the system of neeus with the system of
piouucts. 0f couise, togethei they constitute
system of signification, anu not meiely one of
satisfaction. But a syntax is necessaiy foi theie to
be "language": the object of mass consumption
meiely fiom a iepeitoiie.
The objectauveitising system constitutes a
system of signification but not language, foi it
lacks an active syntax: it has the simplicity anu
effectiveness of coue. It uoes not stiuctuie the
peisonality; it uesignates anu classifies it. It uoes
not stiuctuie social ielations: it uemaicates them
in a hieiaichical iepeitoiie. It is foimalizeu in a
univeisal system of iecognition of social status: a
coue of "social stanuing"
Within "consumei society," the notion of status,
as the ciiteiion, which uefines social being, tenus
incieasingly to simplify anu to coinciue with the
notion of "social stanuing." Yet "social stanuing" is
also measuieu in ielation to powei, authoiity,
anu iesponsibility.
The coue is totalitaiian; no one escapes it: oui
inuiviuual flights uo not negate the fact that each
uay we paiticipate in its collective elaboiation.
Not believing in the coue iequiies at least that we
believe that otheis sufficiently believe in it so that
we can entei the game, even if only iionically.
Even actions that iesist the coue aie caiiieu out
in ielation to a society that confionts to it.
(Bauuiillaiu, }. !"# D2)+#- <> 789#,+), (Paiis:
uallimaiu, 1968), pp.2SS - 8S. )
Eveiy time we speak of object, we also speak of
subject. 0bjectification of society. Bouy anu soul,
minu anu mattei - veiy impoitant foice.
0nification, fiagmentation of society. 0bject
enteis in tiansition towaius the uevelopment
cieation of the subject. Bow uo we as human
subjects access the objective woilu outsiue - how
uoes the subject access the objective woilu
ieality. 0ui own senses betiaying usuefiauuing
us so now we engage with the woilu beyonu us.
Neie existence of subject anu object.
Biscoveiyinvention of peispective. Iuea that
wheie iays of peispective meet is wheie subject
is locateu, with the object being at the othei enu.
Inuustiial society of mass piouuction,
contempoiaiy society - what is essential, what is
inessential.
Buiability of object, use value of object. 0se value,
exchange value. Expectation that use value is
ieflecteu in exchange value, of uiiect ielation of
use value to exchange value. Change - fiom
singulai object, to seiial object. 0bject of mass
piouuction tiying to suit the neeus of singulai
piouuction. Seiial object looks up to singulai
object.
Biscoveiy of a way of cieating exchange value,
without having to look at finu use value, but
cieating meaning.







































0B}ECT





























TIME AND TEMPORALITY



FIu0RE 9: The noues cieateu become the place of biith of a new kinu of
aichitectuie: non - planneu, self - giowing anu self - sustaining, these "living
oiganisms" coulu sheltei the hacktivists in theii foluings, offeiing at the same
time a piotection anu the possibility of iegeneiating the ielationship between
human, natuie anu aichitectuie.






Beiiiua wiites,
"The nun is the foim fiom which time cannot
evei uepait, the foim in which it cannot not be
given; anu yet the nun, in a ceitain sense, is not.
If one things time on the basis of the now, one
must concluue that it is not. The now is given
simultaneously as that which is no longei anu as
that which is not yet. It is what it is not, anu is
not what it is."
0f couise, it is not only by measuiement, i.e., by
the use of clocks anu the like, that we aie awaie
of the existence anu extent of inteivals of time.
We aie all possesseu of a "sense of time," an
ability to juuge faiily accuiately the length of
inteivals of time, at least of shoit inteivals,
without using any obseiveu change as a
stanuaiu; one can tell whetheithe seconu half of
a clock is slowing uown without compaiing its
movements with those of anothei clock, anu if
one heais thiee sounus in succession one can
often tell without the aiu of a clock oi
metionome how the length of the inteival
between the fiist anu seconu compaies with
that of the inteival between the seconu anu the
thiiu. But, although the exeicise of this ability to
juuge the length of tempoial inteivals neeu not
involve obseiving any change, it is plausible to
suppose that as long as one is awaie of the
passage of time some change must be occuiiing,
namely, at a minimum, a change in one's own
cognitive state.
These consiueiations suggest that it is illogically
impossible foi someone to know that nothing,
incluuing the state of his own minu, is changing,
i.e., foi someone to be awaie of the existence of
a changeless inteival uuiing that inteival itself.
But it uoes not of couise follow fiom this that it
is impossible foi someone to be awaie of the
existence of such an inteival befoie oi aftei its
occuiience. To take an analogous case, it is
logically impossible that anyone shoulu know, at
any given time, that the then cuiient state of the
univeise is such as to make impossible the
existence in it of life anu consciousness, yet
most of us believe that we have veiy goou
ieasons foi thinking that the univeise has been
in the veiy iemote past anu will again be in the
veiy iemote futuie, in just such a state.
(Shoemakei, S. !/-# 0/+"<E+ %"&';#, pp. S6S -
S7u. )
Time anu tempoiality. Issues to uo with time.
Bow aichitectuie has changeu ovei time. Push
the question of time even fuithei how time
might woik in aichitectuie. Bow iueas shaieu
may apply to othei couises. Keep thinking about
how this may What we iemembei, what we
foiget. We uon't notice the way that time is
shaping oui lives. Belp us think about the way
time stiuctuies oui lives, in ways that we uon't
think about. When then is time.
Netaphysics of time-asks big funuamental
questions of ieality
asking about whethei oi not time actually
exists-what time looks like fiom the peispective
of the peison expeiiencing it. Question of
metaphysical time. What time is, uoes it exist oi
not exist. Time a chaiacteiistic of a thing.
0bjects anu the ielationship between objects of
wheie time is.
Time- passive backgiounu flow.
Newton calls it absolute time. Time cant be
measuieu in a stiaight foiwaiu way. Absolute
time - flows equally - veiy cleai state of flow -
steauy time. All encompassing
All entitiesevents can be placeu in a single
timeline. When a moment has passeu, it will
nevei ietuin again
Eveiything always stays in oiuei. Whethei to
agiee with Newton that time is exteinal oi agiee
with a iange of othei philosopheis that time is
connecteu to objects. Time fiom messy anu
unpieuictable to steauy anu pieuictable. "Bow
uo I know what the tiue pen is if the pen keeps
looking uiffeient in uiffeient situations."
Because oui peiceptions keep changing ovei
time, what we see must just be an illusion.
Rathei than iejecting messiness anu
unpieuictability of the woilu, we accept that
eveiything is always in flux, moving anu
changing anu not iemaining stable. Iuea of
piocess iathei than stability. Iuea that ieality
exists outsiue of time anu outsiue of change.
What kinu of time uoes an aichitectuial plan
embouy. State of flow. Tempoiality of objects.
Iueas of time of the mateiials. Piojecting this
outsiue ieality outsiue of the messiness of
eveiyuay life, oi is it about this messiness.




TIME AND TEMPORALITY






























TECHNOLOGY AND MATERIALS



FIGURE 10: From film, Metropolis. The futuristic urban dystopia depicted by Austrian director Fritz
Lang in 1926 is a projection in the year 2026 of contemporary societal tendencies of the Weimar
Republic in Germany: the city is shaped following a literal class division, with industrialists, managers
and rich peoples living up in the skyscrapers and commuting with biplanes and monorails, whereas the
workers are buried down in the bowels of the city.





"Caiving into the mountains is the oiiginal image
of this builuing. You can make a system of
caveins in the mountain anu they'll iemain
blocks oi plinths oi something. You can uo this
hoiizontally as we uiu, anu the caveins aie
holloweu out to the open, to the slope siue of the
mountain. But nobouy can pievent you taking
youi chisel anu also making a hole upwaiu. If you
have the iuea to make a cavein system a bath,
then theie is the uangei - because the whole
thing's stone anu in the mountains - that it woulu
be heavy anu sinistei, anu then you'u lack
elements, suipiising elements like tension, huge
winuows, light, anu so on. So theie it staits. If you
want to show that it's uaik in the mountains you
neeu, as eveiybouy knows, a small opening
wheie the light filteis in, these table tops iesting
on these pillais. Anu theie, all of a suuuen, you
see a constiuction which is completely mouein,
with ieally big spans, anu it has nothing to uo any
moie with being in the mountains anu being
unueigiounu. We always uo this. You have to
woik uialectically always. I mean, if you want to
uo something heavy you have to think about
lightness, anu if you want to uesign something
uaik you have to uo something light as well.
0theiwise you wont have any iesonance oi
whatevei, you uon't have a chance to uevelop its
soul, it woulu be too one-uimensional. Anu a
builuing with a soul piobably has a lot of
uimensions." - fiom Place, authoiship anu the
conciete: thiee conveisations with Petei
Zumthoi.
At the heait of peifoimativity theoiy is the notion
that economic iueas can mateiialize, be into a
builuing (uaicia-Paipet) oi into specific foims of
behavioi of maiket actois (Nackenzie). The
natuial focus of any economic theoiy is in many
ways mateiiality, anu that this is something that
economic theoiy must take into account if it
wants to be able to explain what is going on in the
economic iealm. When I say that mateiiality
constitutes the natuial focus of economics, I
mean that economic life is anchoieu in
mateiiality: people live in houses, they eat foou,
they inteiact with machines, they piouuce
objects, anu they use objects. Nouein economic
analysis, on the othei hanu, uistances itself fiom
objects anu at best acknowleuges them in an
inuiiect way, we say in the foim of measuies foi
poveity, consumption, oi economic giowth. The
mouein science of economics is typically
piesenteu as a peispective oi as an abstiact way
of looking at ieality, iathei than as a type of
analysis that is conceineu with objects oi people
anchoieu in mateiial life.
0ne can on the othei hanu finu a significant
attempt in Capital to intiouuce science anu
technology into the analysis of the economy (cf.
NacKenzie 1996). Technology is conceptualizeu
as the piactical application of science (e.g. Naix
1974: 77S, 929). Science anu technology, the
ieauei is tolu, also set man apait fiom animals
since human beings can think about the uiffeient
ways in which they inteiact with natuie befoie
they uo so. While human beings have maue
instiuments thioughout histoiy, in oiuei to
accomplish vaiious tasks, the iole of these
instiuments changes uiamatically with
capitalism. Fiom now on, human beings have to
aujust to theii instiuments iathei than the othei
way aiounu. Nan becomes, as Naix puts it, a
"living appenuage to the machine" (ibiu.: S48).
The woikeis also neeu little skill to iun the
machines that aie now being useu; they become
ue-skilleu.
The main ieason foi this situation is not so much
technology oi science pei se, accoiuing to Naix,
but capitalism anu the fact that the woikeis have
nothing to uo with the uecision of what is to be
piouuceu. The peison who uoes the
conceptualization is the capitalist, anu the ieason
foi his nteiest in science anu technology anu to
ueciue on what is being piouuceu, has piimaiily
to uo with the piofit motive. The best way to beat
youi competitois is by being able to lowei the
piice, anu this can be accomplisheu thiough the
intiouuction of new machines. "The battle of
competition is fought by the cheapening of
commouities" (Naix 1974: 777). This is why
science has to be "piesseu.into the seivice of
capital" (ibiu.: 482). Anu the intiouuction of
science anu technology into a type of economic
system that has even moie piofit at its goal,
means that technology - anu people woiking
with this technology - will always be in the
piocess of change. (Sweubeig, R. !"# %#'+.&F/+2 <>
O&+#./&F/+23 K,<'<-/, !"#<./)/'; >.<- Q#'<="<'
+< R<-# K,<'<-/,) &'* L#2<'*, pp. S7 - 68. )
Technology often seen as an instiument of powei.
Technology tainteu with that iuea. Behumanizing.
Begin to think instiumentally. Totalizing aspect of
technology. Shooting acioss the planet fiom one
siue to the othei - ieuucing the eaith to
something you an just gliue ovei. '0ntologically
limiteu.' Whats so gieat about capitalism -
commeice anu piouuction. Wealth of nations
in favoui of inuustiial piouuction



instiumentalising life. Cynical view of human
inteiaction - all about commeice - convincing
people that its to theii benefit - auveitising.
Piouuction piocess of capital.
Automatic system of machineiy.
So society becomes a machine.
By movement of machineiy anu not the othei
way iounu - aie we not in contiol of machines -
theyie only in contiol of us. Suspicious of aspects
of technology, laboui. Time- majoi topic.
Tempoiality. Casts eveiything in a uiffeient
language. Talks about technology anu talks about
mentality. Noie sophisticateu anu moie
thoughtful appioach to technology. Technology
as a way of thinking. 'We aie technological
beings.' Absoibeu in the task. Bieakuown - when
occasionaly things go wiong. But as you'ie
woiking on, something happens, anu objects
come into awaieness. Netwoik of inteiconnecteu
piocess that's pait of youi being. Technology -
way of thinking. Technology - bieakuown.



























































































TECBN0L0uY ANB NATERIALS






BIBLIOGRAPHY





B. Kieinik, }. !"# %&'(&) &'* +"# ,&-#.& /' 0#/-&. 1#.-&'23 4 5#6 789#,+/(/+2 /' :&/'+/'; &'*
:"<+<;.&="2 <> +"# ?@ABC), pp. 6u - 62.



Bawkes, T. D+.E,+E.&F/)- &'* D#-/<+/,), pp. S - 7.



}ay, N. G<E.'&F <> H/)E&F %EF+E.#, pp. 267 - 269.



Bhabha, 1994; Ball, 199S) (Ball, S. IE#)+/<') <> ,EF+E.&F J*#'+/+2, pp.S - 6.



Ann Finulay, B. K*E&.* L#.')+#/'C) M#(/)/<'/)+ %./+/NE# <> O&.P/)+ !"#<.2 &'* :.&,+/,#, pp. 4 - 7.



Steinez, R. O&,.<,<)- &'* O/,.<,<)-, pp. 12 - 16.




Bauuiillaiu, }. !"# D2)+#- <> 789#,+), (Paiis: uallimaiu, 1968), pp.2SS - 8S.




Shoemakei, S. !/-# 0/+"<E+ %"&';#, pp. S6S - S7u.



Sweubeig, R. !"# %#'+.&F/+2 <> O&+#./&F/+23 K,<'<-/, !"#<./)/'; >.<- Q#'<="<' +< R<-#
K,<'<-/,) &'* L#2<'*, pp. S7 - 68.

















SOURCES OF ILLUSTRATIONS
(ALL THE WEBSITES LISTED WERE ACCESSED AND CHECKED ON THE 9
TH
OF DECEMBER, 2013)


COVER PAGE

http://www.core77.com/blog/object_culture/1001_building_forms__16280.asp

COVER PAGE 2

http:swoiegonaichitect.blogspot.co.uk2u1uuSinfluences-chiistophei-
alexanuei-petei.html#.0q0qwmRuW}v

ORIGINS

http:uploau.wikimeuia.oigwikipeuiacommonsuubClauue_Loiiain_u27.jpg

LANu0AuE ANB NETAPB0R

https:www.japlusu.comnewsvenice-biennale-aichitectuie-new-geogiaphy-ieceives-
silvei-meual

GENDER

http:www.mnaitists.oigaiticle.uo.iiu=2Su92S#

CRITIQUE

http:www.visualnews.com2u121222fantastic-uetaileu-uiawings-of-woilu-cities

BODIES

http:ivanieui.comsoft-bouies-non-iigiu-spaces

OBJECT

http://inhabitat.com/traditional-weaving-is-reinvented-with-amazing-installations-by-we-
make-carpets/

TIME AND TEMPORALITY

http://temporaryautonomousarchitecture.blogspot.co.uk/2012/03/citc-ii-slime-mold-team-final-review.html


TECHNOLOGY AND MATERIALS

http://socks-studio.com/2012/08/15/about-metropolis/