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Deviation is distance from the mean X= = X- = 0 Finish later X- X

Population variance = the mean squared deviation

Sum of Squares = SS = the sum of the squared deviation scores

Degrees of freedom df =n-1

Z-score for a sample

X X 5 4 3 2 1 X = Cumulative frequency & % f 1 2 3 3 1 fX 5 8 9 6 1 29

cf 0 0 0 0 0

c% #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! 0%

N=

Cohen's d

Ch7

Standard error

Z-score sample means

6 Z-score -

binomial distribution p (A ) = p and p (B ) = q

Sample size n= = M= SS=

19 30 31.9 220.5

Scores

Step one: state the hypothesis and set alpha level Ho = x H 1 x = critical region = Step two: locate the critical region df = n -1 Step 3: calculate the test statistic a. calculate sample variance 18 = .05 = .01 2.042 = .001

t critical values 2 tails 1 tail 1.96 2.58 3.3 1.65 2.33 ?

12.25 b. compute estimated standard error

0.8 calculte sample t statistic

2.37 Step 4: make a decision about H 0 and state a conclusion

Measurin effect size: cohen's d

Measure % of variance

Construct confidence interval + -

18

12.25

0.80

2.366

0.54

0.24

+ 33.80

26.30

H 0: 1 = 2 or 1 - 2 = 0 H1 n= Step 1. is it 1 or 2 tails Step 2. = Step 3. df Step 4. t critical Sample A Sample B M SS n= n-1 0 t - statistic -1 0 Confidence interval t critical values 2 tails 1 tail Ho = x H 1 x = critical region = = .05 = .01 2.447 = .001 1.96 2.58 3.3 1.65 2.33 ? r^2 F-max -1 Cohen's d Estimated standard error

Pooled variance

n= Sum of Squares X X
2

4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 ss=

Include T for two sample sizes Estimated standard error

Pooled variance

Confidence interval

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0! + hand hand

Do by hand

#DIV/0!

Hypothesis test and effect size Step 1: State the hypothesis and select alpha H0:D = 0 H1:D 0 Step 2: locate the critical region df = T critical Step 3: calculate the t Sample variance SMD = 1 2 3 4 5 M S^2 SS n

treatment 1 treatment 2 Difference D 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

Use sample mean and hypothesized pop. Mean a nd standard error to compute t stat t= d r^2

Magnitud Evaluation of e of d Effect Size Small effect (mean difference around 0.2 standard deviation) Medium effect (mean difference around 0.5 standard deviation) Large effect (mean difference around 0.8 standard deviation)

Percentage of Variance Explained, r2

d = 0.2

Small r = 0.01 effect


2

d = 0.5

r 2 = 0.09

Medium effect

d = 0.8

Large r = 0.25 effect


2

Difference score = D=X 2 -X 1 Null hypothesis = H 0 : D = 0 T statistic

Estimated standard error

Cohen's D

r2

Confidence interval Sample variance

II

III H0: H1: df= N= G= X 2 = n= k= 2 0 0 -3 Source Between Within Total = HSD= 3

Make a decision about H

n= M= T= SS=

n= M= T= SS=

n= M= T= SS=

df between = k-1 df within =N-k df total = N-1

2 -3 -1

#DIV/0! SS within = SSinside each treatment

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

0.00

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

Make a decision about H0 and state a conclusion SS df #DIV/0! 0 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! MS 2 #DIV/0! F = -3 0.00 -1

#DIV/0!

Analysis of variance Notes Sample A Sample B Sample C Sample D N= G= X 2 = n= k= T= SS = Step 1: State the H 0 = 1 = 2 = 3 H1 = Atleast one of the treatment means is different Step 2: Locate the critical region : Obtain values for df between and df within add probability for type 1 error add how to write the findings Source SS Between #DIV/0! Within 0 Total #DIV/0!

df between = k-1 df within =N-k

= =
=

-1 0

Critical region Step 3: perform the analylis a. Perform the analysis of SS

=
#DIV/0! SS within = SSinside each treatment

= =

#DIV/0! b. perform the analysis of df df total = N-1

-1

dfbetween = dfwithin = c. calculate the MS values

= =

-1 0

=
#DIV/0!

=
#DIV/0! d. Compute the F-ratio

=
Make a decision about H0 and state a conclusion Source Between Within Total SS 0 0 0 df 0 0 0 Size effect ANOVA MS 0 F= 0

#DIV/0!

=
Tukey's HSD Test

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

for type 1 error te the findings df MS -1 #DIV/0! F = 0 #DIV/0! -1

#DIV/0!

Factor B

n= M= T= SS= Factor a

12

n= M= T= SS=

12

T ROW1 =

T ROW2 = n= M= T= SS= T COL1 = Stage 1 640 12 n= M= T= SS= T COL2 = 12

df total = N-1

47

SS within = SSinside each treatment

dfwithin = df each treatment

36

enter yourself

0 or

dfbetween = number of cells - 1

nter yourself

SS between + SS within = SS total

dfbetween + dfwithin = dftotal

39

Stage 2 0

df A = number of rows -1

add yourself

df B = number of columns -1

add yourself

SS AxB = SSbetween-SSA-SSB

df AxB =df between -df A -df B

0.00

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0! Measuring effect size 0.00

0.00

0.00

N= G= X =
2

48 0 640

2 for factor A = for factor B = for factor AxB =


2 2

0.00 0.00 0.00

Source Between Factor A Factor B AxB Within Total

SS 0 0 0 0 0 640

df 3 1 1 1 36 47

MS 0 0 0 0.00 1 1 1

F 36 #DIV/0! 36 #DIV/0! 36 #DIV/0!

Factor B

n= M= T= SS= Factor a

n= M= T= SS=

n= M= T= SS=

T ROW1 =

T ROW2 = n= M= T= SS= T COL1 = Stage 1 0 ignore 8 n= M= T= SS= T COL2 = 8 n= M= T= SS= T COL3 = 8

df total = N-1

47

SS within = SSinside each treatment

dfwithin = df each treatment

42

0 or

dfbetween = number of cells - 1

nter yourself

SS between + SS within = SS total

dfbetween + dfwithin = dftotal

47

Stage 2 0

df A = number of rows -1

add yourself

df B = number of columns -1

add yourself

SS AxB = SSbetween-SSA-SSB

df AxB =df between -df A -df B

0.00

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0! Measuring effect size #DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

N= G= X =
2

48 0

2 for factor A = for factor B = for factor AxB =


2 2

#DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!

Source Between Factor A Factor B AxB Within Total

SS 0 0 0 0 0 0

df 5 1 2 2 42 47

MS 0 0 0 0.00 1 2 2

F 42 #DIV/0! 42 #DIV/0! 42 #DIV/0!

n= 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 X 4 12 0 8 10 14 10 6 0 X 16 144 0 64 100 196 100 36 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 656 X2 8


2

8 Y 3 11 6 6 7 12 10 9 0 Y 9 121 36 36 49 144 100 81 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 576 Y2 8


2

64 X MX=

64 Y MY=

XY 12 132 0 48 70 168 100 54 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 584 XY

=X + 8 16 4 12 14 18 14 10 4 0 0 0 0 0 0

Y- -5 -5 2 -6 -7 -6 -4 -1 -4 0 0 0 0 0 0

(Y-) 25 25 4 36 49 36 16 1 16 0 0 0 0 0 0

Sum of the products of the deviation 72 SS X

144 SS Y 64 Pearson correlation 0.75 r 2= Sample Do I really need these?

0.5625

Population

Does rsquared go here?

Partial correlation

Y
14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Regression 0.5

=X +

Standard error of estimate 2.160247 predicted variability 36 Unpredicted variability 28 F-Ratios! 36.00

4.67

7.71

Source regression residual total

SS 36 28 64

df 1 6 7

MS 36.00 4.67

F 7.71

16

Factor B

T ROW1 = n= M= T= SS= Factor a 11 n= M= T= SS= 11 n= M= T= SS= 11

T ROW2 = n= M= T= SS= T COL1 = 11 n= M= T= SS= T COL2 = 11 n= M= T= SS= T COL3 = 11

N= G= X =
2

66 0

2 for factor A = for factor B = for factor AxB =


2 2

0.00 0.00 0.00

Source Between Factor A Factor B AxB Within Total

SS

df

MS

Goodness of fit
n= C= df= 120 3 2 Observed frequencies B C 54 38 28 0.333333 0.333333 0.333333 Expected frequancies 40 40 40 A

Expected frequency 40 Chi-square 5 88.6

48.6

14

Chi-square for independence


n= 150 c= 3 r= 2 df= 2 Expected frequency 1 2 Percentages A 26 9 35 23% A 23.33 11.67 35 Observed frequencies B C 24 22 11 18 35 40 23% 27% Expected frequencies B C 23.33 26.67 11.67 13.33 35 40

1 2 4 3.62 3.42 3 0.97 2

0.16

0.15

0.08

E 0 0 0.333333 0.333333 40 40

D 28 12 40 27% D 26.67 13.33 40

100 50

100 50