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1106

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Catalyst 8500
Configuration and
Guidelines
Session 1106

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Catalyst Systems Confidential

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Agenda

Catalyst 8500
Hardware
• Components and Options
• Architectural Overview
• Packet Flows
• Deployment Options

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Agenda

Software
• Feature Sets
• CPU Software Interaction
CPU bound traffic
Control plane vs. data plane access-lists
• IDBs, BVIs, VLAN Interfaces, QOS
• Miscellaneous Tips
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Agenda

Catalyst 8500
Hardware
• Components and Options
• Architectural Overview
• A “Day in the Life of a Packet”
• Deployment Options

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Catalyst 8510

Power Power
Supply 1 Supply 2

Interface Slot 1

F
A
Interface Slot 2
N

T Switch Route Processor


R
A
Y Interface Slot 3

Interface Slot 4

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Catalyst 8540

Interface Slot 0
Interface Slot 1
F Interface Slot 2
Interface Slot 3
A Primary Route Processor Slot 4
N Primary Route Processor Slot 5
Redundant Switch Processor Slot 6
Primary Route Processor Slot 7
T Redundant Switch Processor Slot 8
Interface Slot 9
R Interface Slot 10
A Interface Slot 11
Interface Slot 12
Y
Power Supply 1 Power Supply 2

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Catalyst 85xx Components

• Chassis
• Power supply
• CPU / switch card options
• Memory
• Interface modules

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Catalyst 8500 Chassis

• Catalyst 8510—five slots


• Catalyst 8540—thirteen slots
• Catalyst 8510 SRP -> slot 13 / C5500
• 8510 interface modules -> slot 9–12
• Same footprint as catalyst 5000/5500

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Catalyst 85xx Power Supply

• Single AC, DC
• Dual AC, DC (load-sharing and
redundant)
• No mixed AC and DC on
same chassis
• 8510—same P/S as catalyst
5000/5505 and LS1010
• 8540—20 amp service
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Catalyst 85xx SRP,RP CPU

• 8510 CPU—RSP-2 based


R4600 RISC processor at 100 MHz
Software path to CPU
• 8540 CPU—RSP-4 based
R5000 RISC processor at 200 MHz
Hardware path to CPU
• Both CPUs support console, AUX,
Ethernet for out of band management
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Catalyst 85xx Memory

• DRAM fixed: 64MB 8510, 256MB 8540


• Flash: 4MB
• Flash memory card: 8, 16, 20MB, and
Flash disk
• Two PCMCIA slots
• DRAM used for local storage and
routing table, Flash primarily used for
image storage
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Catalyst 85xx Interface Modules

L3 LAN Interfaces
Catalyst 8510
• 8 port 10/100 TX
• 8 port 100 FX—SC
• 1 port GE with GBIC
Catalyst 8540
• 16 port 10/100 TX
• 16 port 100 FX—MTRJ NOTE:
need adapter cables!
• 2 port GE with GBIC
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Catalyst 85xx Interface Modules

ATM
• 16-port OC-3c line card MMF with
mini-MT connectors
• 4-port OC-12c line card SMF-IR and
MMF with SC connectors
• 1-port OC-48c line card SMF with
SC connectors
• OC-3c MMF/SMF
3 x MMF + 1 x SMF
UTP-5
SMF LR
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Catalyst 85xx Interface Modules

ATM
• OC-12c MMF/SMF
SMF LR
• DS3 ATM Coaxial
• E3 ATM Coaxial
• T1/E1 ATM TP—RJ-48 and coaxial for E1
• T1/E1 CES

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Agenda

Catalyst 8500
Hardware
• Components and Options
• Architectural Overview
• Packet Flows
• Deployment Options

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Catalyst 8500 Layer 3
High-Level Overview
Switch Route Central Switching
Processor Table
00-0e1-00-00-00-00 2/3

Line Card 10 / 40 Gbps Shared Line Card


Switching SSii Memory Fabric SSii
Switching
Table Table

Line Card Line Card


Switching SSii SSii Switching
Table Table

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Catalyst 8500 ATM


High-Level Overview
Route
Processor IISP
PNNI

10 / 40 Gbps Shared
Line Card Memory Fabric Line Card

Line Card Line Card


SVC/PVC

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Catalyst 8500 Route Processor

Master FIB Routing Table


Table
R4x00

Adjacency
Table
Route Processor

Catalyst 8500 Ports

• RP processes all control traffic: RIP, OSPF, (E)IGRP, PIM, PNNI,


IISP, layer 2 VLAN and spanning tree information
• Computes routing table and populates FIB table; downloads FIB
to line cards
• Creates ATM SVCs and PVCs
• Connects to all ports for management information
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Shared Memory

1.25 (8510) /
2.5 (8540) Gbps
Half Duplex per Slot

10/40 Gbps Shared


Memory Fabric

1.25/ 2.5 Gbps to Slot 0 1.25/ 2.5 Gbps to Slot 3

1.25/ 2.5 Gbps to Slot 1 1.25/ 2.5 Gbps to Slot 4, 7

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Line Cards support FIB-Based
Switching

Forwarding
Route Processor/ Information Base Network 146.125.3.64
00-0e1-00-00-00-00 2/3
Frame Packet Frame Packet

Network 132.86.39.0
2 3
1
Adjacency Table
Routing 00-0e1-00-00-00-00 2/3

Table Line Cards

1 Forwarding Information Base (FIB) computed based on


routing table contents
2 Each FIB entry has one entry in Adjacency Table (AT)

3 Both FIB and AT synchronized to line cards


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FIB and Adjacency Tables

• FIB contains the next hop for a route,


populated by routing updates
• AT contains Mac address for adjacent
routers and hosts
• AT maps layer 2 to layer 3 addresses
• AT is populated by ARP(IP),GNS (IPX),
neighbors gleaned from routing updates
(IP and IPX)
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Agenda

Catalyst 8500
Hardware
• Components and Options
• Architectural Overview
• Packet Flows
• Deployment Options

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Catalyst 8500 Packet Flow: Layer 3

FIB Table Routing


A3 Fast E-net 0/1
B
C1
B
Fast E-net 3/6
Fast
ï
E-net 5/8 Table
ï
ï

R4600
Adjacency Table
MAC Address Output Interface
3215.2511.AFFC Ethernet 1/1
0001.2345.6789 Serial 1/1
3005.6798.AA05 Serial 1/2

Switch Route Processor

10/40 Gbps Shared


Slave FIB Adjacency Memory Fabric Slave FIB Adjacency
Table Table Queue-0 Table Table

CEF ASIC Queue-1 CEF ASIC


Queue-2
Catalyst 8510 Line Card Catalyst 8500 Line Card
Queue-3

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Catalyst 8500 ATM Cell Flow

Route
Processor IISP
PNNI
OAM

10 / 40 Gbps Shared
Line Card Memory Fabric Line Card

Line Card SVC/PVC Line Card

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Agenda

Catalyst 8500
Hardware
• Components and Options
• Architectural Overview
• Packet Flows
• Deployment Options

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Catalyst 8500
Deployment Options

• Campus Switch Router (CSR)


• Multi-Service Switch Router (MSR)
• Deployment options based on CPU,
Switch Card assemblies and
Cisco IOS software image
• MSR Interworking via
ATM Route Module (ARM)
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L3 Interface Module
Memory Options
Master FIB
Routing Table
Table
R4x00 FIB/ Adjacency
Adjacency Tables Can Be
Table 16K or 64K
Switch Route Processor Addresses

10 / 40 Gbps Shared
Slave FIB Adjacency Slave FIB Adjacency
Table Table Memory Fabric Table Table

CEF ASIC CEF ASIC

Catalyst 8500 Line Card Catalyst 8500 Line Card

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FIB/Adjacency Table Sizing

• Usable range is 14K or 62K due to


table overhead
• IP efficiency ranges from 50% to 67%
64K line card = 31,000 to 41,540 max IP routes
16K line card = 7,000 to 9,380 max IP routes

• IPX and Bridging entries are 100% efficient


• 256K route cards are in development and
will be 100% efficient
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Agenda

Software
• Feature Sets
• CPU Software Interaction
CPU bound traffic
Control plane vs. data plane access-lists
• IDBs, EtherChannel, BVIs, VLAN
Interfaces, QOS
• Miscellaneous Tips
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Catalyst 8500 Feature Sets

Layer 3
• IP routing (12.0) is the default image
Includes all IP routing protocols except
interdomain routing
• IPX, AppleTalk feature license
• Interdomain feature license
• DECnet, VINES (future)
ATM
• IISP, PNNI
• HPNNI
• TAG
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Agenda

Software
• Feature Sets
• CPU Software Interaction
CPU bound traffic
Control plane vs. data plane access-lists
• IDBs, EtherChannel, BVIs, VLAN
Interfaces, QOS
• Miscellaneous Tips
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CPU Traffic

• For IP, packets are sent to the RP in the


following situations
Packets matching the router’s own IP address
No route found on the line card and “ICMP
unreachable” is enabled
Packets with TTL = 0 after TTL decrement
Packets with options
Packets in/out on the same i/f and ICMP
redirect is on
ARP packets
Certain multicast/broadcast packets
(e.g. OSFP route updates)
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CPU Traffic

• For IPX, packets are sent to the RP in


the following situations
Packets matching the router’s own
IPX address
Packets with TTL > 16 after TTL increment
GNS packets
Certain broadcast packets
(e.g. RIP/EIGRP/SAP route updates)

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CPU Traffic

• For ATM, cells are sent to the RP in


the following situations
Cells matching the router’s own
ATM address
Signaling and control traffic
( IISP, PNNI )
OAM cells
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Network Sizing Guidelines

8510
EIGRP— <= 16 neighbours (2K routes)
OSPF— <=16 neighbours (2K routes)

8540
EIGRP— <= 48 neighbours (2K routes)
OSPF— <= 48 neighbours (2K routes)

Network design considerations:


• Continue to use IPX SAP / route filtering
• Use passive interfaces whenever possible

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Access-lists

• Control plane ACLs


Any packet sent to CPU can be filtered today
i.e. deny / permit IP routes, IPX SAP filtering
• Data plane ACLs
Packets that traverse the shared memory fabric
without CPU intervention
• ACL daughter card—provides data plane ACLs
Standard / extended IP access lists in hardware
Standard IPX access lists—no source node
L3 data switching continues at wirespeed
Required for each interface module card implementing
data plane ACLs
Consider changing many input ACLs to 1 or 2 output ACL
FE/GE channel, BVIs not supported phase 1
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Agenda

Software
• Feature Sets
• CPU Software Interaction
CPU bound traffic
Control plane Vs. data plane access-lists
• IDBs, EtherChannel, BVIs, VLAN
Interfaces, QOS
• Miscellaneous tips
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Interfaces and IDB

• Interface Descriptor Block (IDB)


Cisco IOS software data structure
Stores configuration and status
of all interfaces
• Hardware IDB
• Software IDB
• 300 software IDBs per chassis
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IDB Allocation

• Each physical interface


consumes an IDB
• Sub-interfaces
One software IDB per sub-interface
• Example: Gigabit 802.1Q interface
with 10 sub-interfaces = 11 IDBs
• 10/100 ISL interface with 20
sub-interfaces also = 21 IDBs
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Agenda

Software
• Feature Sets
• CPU Software Interaction
CPU bound traffic
Control plane Vs. data plane access-lists
• IDBs, EtherChannel, VLAN
Interfaces, QOS
• Miscellaneous Tips
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FastEther /Gig Channel

• Can have 2 or 4 interfaces in the channel


• Each port consumes an IDB
• Ports within channel can be on different
interface modules and be non-contiguous
• Encapsulations: Native, ISL, 802.1Q
• Routed interface: load sharing per
IP address
• Bridge group: load sharing per
Mac address
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Agenda

Software
• Feature Sets
• CPU Software Interaction
CPU bound traffic
Control plane vs. data plane access-lists
• IDBs, EtherChannel, BVIs, VLAN
Interfaces, QOS
• Miscellaneous Tips
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Bridge Group = Multiport VLAN

Catalyst 8500

Bridge-Group 1 Bridge-Group 2

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Bridge Group = VLAN

• 85xx supports 64 Bridge Groups


(VLANS) per chassis
• Maximum of 32 ports in a single
Bridge Group today
• Each Bridge Group has its own
Bridge MIB and runs a separate
Spanning Tree
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Multiport VLANs and Bridged


Virtual Interfaces (BVI)

C7500 / C8500 Model

Bridge Bridge
Group 1 Group 2

Bridge Group = VLAN


BVI Interface

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Bridge Virtual Interfaces

• To route between Bridge Groups,


BVIs are created and Integrated
Routing and Bridging is used (IRB)
• 85xx supports 64 BVIs per chassis

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Agenda

Software
• Feature Sets
• CPU Software Iinteraction
CPU bound traffic
Control plane Vs. data plane access-lists
• IDBs, EtherChannel, BVIs, VLAN
interfaces, QOS
• Miscellaneous Tips
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VLAN Trunking

Routed Interface

Subinterfaces

• Routing occurs between each


subinterface (VLAN)
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VLAN Trunking with


Bridge Groups
Routed Interface

Bridged Interface
Subinterfaces

Bridge Group
BVI (IRB) Interface

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VLAN Trunking

• VLAN trunk encapsulations:


ISL or 802.1Q on an interface by
interface basis
• Mixed configurations possible in
chassis but not in same VLAN
• Trunks may or may not be part of a
Bridge Group
• Routing occurs between VLANs
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Agenda

Software
• Feature Sets
• CPU Software Interaction
CPU bound traffic
Control plane Vs. data plane access-lists
• IDBs, BVIs, EtherChannel, VLAN
Interfaces, QOS
• Miscellaneous Tips
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Quality of Service
Queue 0 - HH
Queue 1 - HL
Queue 2 - LH
Line Card Queue 3 - LL Line Card
Si Si

FastE 0/0 FastE 4/0

Shared Memory Fabric

192.34.75.90 192.34.75.80 172.20.24.124


IP Prec=HH IP Prec=LH

• Multiple queues per port


• Fabric stores packet in appropriate queue based on
lowest 2 bits of IP precedence field
• Pointer table informs output port of packets stored in
each of four queues
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Calculating Weight Assignments

• User-defined weights
per queue on outbound
Queue 0
port determine how Weight set = 8
53 Mbps
much bandwidth
granted Queue 1
Weight set = 4
27 Mbps
• BW = Weight /
Queue 2
( Ó Weights Q0:3 ) Weight set = 2
13 Mbps

53 =(8/(8+4+2+1)) x 100 Queue 3


Weight set = 1
• Scheduler enforces 7 Mbps
Link = 100 Mbps
weights
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Agenda

Software
• Feature Sets
• CPU Software interaction
CPU bound traffic
Control plane Vs. data plane access-lists
• IDBs, BVIs, VLAN Interfaces, QOS
• Miscellaneous Tips
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Additional Software Features

• RMON—first four groups


• SPAN (port mirroring)
TX, RX, both
Up to 10 sources
• UDP turbo flooding
• Mac address filtering
See http://www.cisco.com/warp/customer/729/c8500/msr/859_pb.htm

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Some Helpful Commands

• ip classless—packets destined for


unknown subnets from directly connected
networks will follow default route
• default route-populated on all line cards
• no ip domain-lookup—disables DNS
lookup on router, so config typos will not
be treated as host names and sent for DNS
lookup
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Some Commands Not to Use

• CEF tuning parameters (consult TAC)


• Access-list commands without
daughter card
• NetFlow accounting

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Summary

• Numerous options for line cards and deployment


options depending upon network design
• Catalyst 8510 and 8540 CPU capabilities should
be considered when sizing network designs
• Number of routes in the network determine the
platform and line card(s) of choice
• CPU utilization does not effect routing capacity
of the line cards
• Good network design practices still apply!
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Thank you !

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Please Complete Your
Evaluation Form
Session 1106

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Alphabet Soup
ACL —Access Lists
AUX — Auxiliary Port
BVI—Bridged Virtual Interface
CEF—Cisco Express Forwarding
FIB— Forwarding Information Database
GNS—Get Nearest Server
IDB—Interface Descriptor Block
MMF— Multimode Fiber
SRP—Switch Route Processor
SMF— Single Mode Fiber
SMF— IR —Single Mode Fiber— Intermediate Reach
SMF— LR —Single Mode Fiber— Long Reach
SP—Switch Processor
SPAN— Switched Port Analyzer
PIM— Protocol Independent Multicast
P/S— Power Supply
RP—Route Processor
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