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Pitroda et al.

, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Research Paper

INNOVATIVE USE OF PAPER INDUSTRY WASTE (HYPO SLUDGE) IN DESIGN MIX CONCRETE
Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda1, Dr. L.B.Zala2, Dr.F.S.Umrigar3 Address for Correspondence Assistant Professor & Research Scholar, Civil Engg Department, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidhyanagar 2 Head & Professor, Civil Engineering Department, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidhyanagar 3 Principal, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidhyanagar Gujarat India ABSTRACT
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To produce low cost concrete by blending various ratios of cement with hypo sludge & to reduce disposal and pollution problems due to hypo sludge it is most essential to develop profitable building materials from hypo sludge. To make good quality paper limited number of times recycled Paper fibres can be used which produces a large amount of solid waste. The innovative use of hypo sludge in concrete formulations as a supplementary cementitious material was tested as an alternative to traditional concrete. The cement has been replaced by waste paper sludge accordingly in the range of 0% (without Hypo sludge), 10%, 20%, 30% & 40% by weight for M-25 and M-40 mix. Concrete mixtures were produced, tested and compared in terms of strength with the conventional concrete. These tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties like compressive strength up to 28 days and split strength for 56 days are taken. As a result, the compressive increased up to 10% addition of hypo sludge and further increased in hypo sludge reduces the strengths gradually. This research work is concerned with experimental investigation on strength of concrete and optimum percentage of the partial replacement by replacing cement via 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% of Hypo Sludge. Keeping all this view, the aim of investigation is the behaviour of concrete while adding of waste with different proportions of Hypo sludge in concrete by using tests like compression strength and split strength. KEYWORDS Compressive Strength, Split Strength, hypo sludge (supplementary cementitious material), hypo sludge Concrete

INTRODUCTION: To save energy and to earn carbon credit is very much essential for the betterment of mankind. To produce 1 tons of Ordinary Portland Cement we use earth resources like limestone, etc & during manufacturing of 1 t of Ordinary Portland Cement an equal amount of carbon-dioxide are released into the atmosphere which is harmful to the environment. Energy plays an important role in era of developing countries like India. By earning carbon credit by using industrial waste (hypo sludge) for Building Materials like cement, the energy & environment can be saved. Concrete is a composite construction material composed of cement, aggregate (generally a coarse aggregate made of gravels or crushed rocks such as limestone, or granite, plus a fine aggregate such as sand), water, and/or admixtures. Concrete is made by mixing: Cement, water, course fine aggregates and admixtures (if required). The objectives are to mix these materials traditionally to make concrete that is easy to: Transport, place, compact, finish and to give a strong and durable product. The proportionate quantity of each material (i.e. cement, water and aggregates) affects the properties of hardened concrete. All the inks, dyes, coatings, pigments, staples and "stickies" (tape, plastic films, etc.) are also washed off the recycled fibres to join the waste solids. The shiny finish on glossy magazine-type paper is produced using a fine kaolin clay coating, which also becomes solid waste during recycling. This hypo sludge consumes a large percentage of local landfill space for each and every year. Worse yet, some of the wastes are land spread on cropland as a disposal technique, raising concerns about trace contaminants building up in soil or running off into area lakes and streams. Some companies burn their sludge in incinerators, contributing to our serious air pollution problems. To reduce disposal and pollution problems emanating from these industrial wastes, it is most
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essential to develop profitable building materials from them. Keeping this in view, investigations were undertaken to produce low cost concrete by blending various ratios of cement with hypo sludge. Paper making generally produces a large amount of solid waste. Paper fibres can be recycled only a limited number of times before they become too short or weak to make high quality paper. It means that the broken, low- quality paper fibres are separated out to become waste sludge. All the inks, dyes, coatings, pigments, staples and stickies (tape, plastic films, etc.) are also washed off the recycled fibres to join the waste solids. The shiny finish on glossy magazine-type paper is produced using a fine kaolin clay coating, which also becomes solid waste during recycling. This paper mill sludge consumes a large percentage of local landfill space for each and every year. Worse yet, some of the wastes are land spread on cropland as a disposal technique, raising concerns about trace contaminants building up in soil or running off into area lakes and streams. Some companies burn their sludge in incinerators, contributing to our serious air pollution problems. To reduce disposal and pollution problems emanating from these industrial wastes, it is most essential to develop profitable building materials from them. DESIGN MIX MATERIALS: a) Supplementary Cementitious Material: Hypo Sludge

Figure 1. Hypo sludge

The hypo sludge is procured from J.K.Papers mill Pvt.Ltd, plant. This plant is located near Songadh in Tappi District in Gujarat State. Hypo sludge contains,

Pitroda et al., International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

low calcium and maximum calcium chloride and minimum amount of silica. Hypo sludge behaves like cement because of silica and magnesium properties. This silica and magnesium improve the setting of the concrete. b) Cement The most common cement used is an Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The Ordinary Portland Cement of 53 grade (Hathi OPC) conforming to IS:8112-1989 is used. Many tests were conducted on cement; some of them are specific gravity, consistency tests, setting time tests, compressive strengths, etc.

Table 2 Properties of Fine Aggregate, Course Aggregate

Figure 2. HATHI Cement (OPC 53 grade) Table 1.Properties of HATHI Cement (OPC 53 grade)

e) Water Water is an important ingredient of concrete as it actually participates in the chemical reaction with cement. Since it helps to from the strength giving cement gel, the quantity and quality of water is required to be looked into very carefully. Water cement ratio used is 0.40 for M25 and 0.30 for M40 concretes. DESIGN MIX METHODOLOGY a) Design Mix A mix M25 & M40 grade was designed as per IS 10262:2009 and the same was used to prepare the test samples. The design mix proportion is shown in Table 3 Table 3. Concrete Design Mix Proportions

c) Coarse Aggregate The fractions from 20 mm to 4.75 mm are used as coarse aggregate. The Coarse Aggregates from crushed Basalt rock, conforming to IS: 383 are used. The Flakiness Index and Elongation Index were maintained well below 15%. b) Compression & Split Test Standard metallic cube moulds (150*150*150 mm) were casted for compressive and split strength. A table vibrator was used for compaction of the hand filled concrete cubes. The specimens were demoulded after 24 hours and subsequently immersed in water for different age of testing. For each age three specimens were tested for the determination of average compressive and split strength. Test was performed on compression testing machine having capacity of 200 MT. figure 5 & 6 show compressive and split strength testing setup on testing machine.

Figure 3. Coarse aggregate

d) Fine aggregate Those fractions from 4.75 mm to 150 micron are termed as fine aggregate. The river sand and crushed sand is used in combination as fine aggregate conforming to the requirements of IS: 383. The river sand is washed and screened, to eliminate deleterious materials and over size particles.fig.-3 and 4 coarse aggregate and fine aggregate. Table-2 gives the properties of aggregates.

Fig.5. compressive strength testing Figure 4. Fine aggregate IJAET/Vol. IV/ Issue I/Jan.-March., 2013/31-35

Pitroda et al., International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

RESULTS The compressive strength results are compiled in Table-4 and split strength in Table-5. The compressive strength vs % replacements of cement results are graphically shown in figure 7 and 8. The same for split strength is in figure 9.

Fig.6. split strength testing Table 4. Compressive Strength and % Change of Strength at 7, 14, 28 days for M25 & M40

Fig.7. Compressive Strength of Cubes at 7, 14 & 28 Days for M25 Table 5. Split Strength and % Change of Strength at 56 days for M25 & M40

Fig.8. Compressive Strength of Cubes at 7, 14 & 28 Days for M40

IJAET/Vol. IV/ Issue I/Jan.-March., 2013/31-35

Pitroda et al., International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Fig.9. Split strength of cubes (150X150X150) at 56 Days for M25 & M40 Table- 6 Cost of Materials

Cost Impact on concrete The change in cost due to addition of fly ash replacing cement is worked out in table 7. The basic market rates of materials are given table 6. Cost decrease due to reduction in cement.

Table-7 Materials for designed M25 & M40 concrete

CONCLUSION Based on limited experimental investigation concerning the compressive & split strength of concrete, the following conclusions are drawn: Compressive strength reduces when cement replaced hypo sludge. As hypo sludge percentage increases compressive strength and split strength decreases. Use of hypo sludge in concrete can save the paper industry disposal costs and produces a greener concrete for construction. The cost analysis indicates that percent cement reduction decreases cost of concrete, but at the same time strength also decreases. Environmental effects from wastes and residual amount of cement manufacturing can be reduced through this research. A better measure by an innovative supplementary cementitious Construction Material is formed through this research. This research concludes that hypo sludge can be innovative supplementary cementitious Construction Material but judicious decisions are to be taken by engineers. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The Authors thankfully acknowledge to Dr.C.L.Patel, Chairman, Charutar Vidya Mandal, Er.V.M.Patel, Hon.Jt. Secretary, Charutar Vidya Mandal, Mr. Yatinbhai Desai, Jay Maharaj construction,
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Dr.A.K.Verma, Head & Professor, Structural Engineering Department, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India for their motivational and infrastructural support to carry out this research. REFERENCES
1. Ali Ergun (2011), Effects of the usage of diatomite and waste marble powder as partial replacement of cement on the mechanical properties of concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 25(2), pp 806812. D.L.Venkatesh Babu, S.C. Natesan, Studies on Strength and Durability Characteristics of High Performance Silica Fume Concrete,Proceedings of the INCONTEST 2003, pp.262 267, September 2003 Gopalakrishna, S., Rajamane, N.P., Neelamegam, M., Peter, J.A. and Dattatreya, J.K. 2001. Effect of partial replacement of cement with fly ash on the strength and durability of HPC. The Indian Concrete Journal, pp. 335-341. Ganesan K., Rajagopal K., Thangavelu K., Effects of the Partial Replacement of Cement with Agro Waste Ashes on Strength and Durability of Concrete. Proc.of Internat. Conf. on Recent Adv. in Concrete a. Constr. Technol., organised by Dept. of Civil Engng , S.R.M. Engng. College, Chennai, Dec. 7-9, 2005. Gambhir M.L. Concrete Technology Tata McGraw Hill Company,New Delhi. Hassan, K.E., Cabrera, J.G., and Maliehe, R.S. 2000. The Effect of Mineral Admixtures on the Properties of High-Performance Concrete. Cement & Concrete Composites, Vol. 22, pp. 267-271. IS 456:2000 Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete (fourth revision) IS 10262:2009 Code of concrete mix proportioning guidelines (first revision) Prof. J R Pitroda, Dr L B Zala, Dr F S Umrigar (2012), Hypo Sludge Management: Opportunities For

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Pitroda et al., International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology


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