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# A FORCE

can be defined as "A push or a pull on an object". The FORCE (push or pull) may
result from a contact between two objects, or from an influence in which no
contact takes place, such as magnetism or gravitation. A FORCE can cause a
change in motion of the object. If the object is not acted upon by other pushes and /
or pulls which combine to form an equal and opposite counteracting action, then
the FORCE will change the motion of the object to which it is applied.
Force is a vector quantity, meaning that it has both magnitude and direction.
Forces are sometimes described in terms of magnitude only, and in many of those
cases, the direction is self-evident.
Sir Isaac Newton, the 17th century English mathematician, formulated a series of
observations about the basic behavior of forces on objects. Those observations
have become known as "Newton's Laws of Motion", and are fundamental to the
study of forces acting on objects. They are:
1. Every object continues in a state of rest or of uniform motion until it is
compelled by a force to change its state of rest or motion.
2. The change in motion of an object is proportional to the net magnitude of the
combination of the applied forces, and takes place along the straight line in
which the ombination of the applied forces acts (sometimes stated as: F =
MA, or force = mass x acceleration).
3. For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. In other words,
when two objects exert forces on each other, the forces are equal in
magnitude, opposite in direction, and collinear.
The equation "F = MA" is a simplification of Newton's second law, but it has
extreme significance. It means that the force required to accelerate an object is
equal to the mass of the object multiplied by the desired acceleration. This simple
equation forms the basis for determining the loads applied to objects as the result
of motion ("dynamics").
Another common example of Newton's second law is the calculation of the force
required to lift an object (its weight) The weight of an object is the acceleration of
gravity (32.2 ft-per-second-per-second average on earth; quite different on other
planets) times the mass of the object.
PRESSURE
A PRESSURE is the result of a FORCE being applied to a specific cross-sectional
area, and is defined as FORCE per unit AREA, as in POUNDS per SQUARE
INCH. For example, if a downward FORCE of 1000 pounds is applied evenly to a
square plate of steel which measures 2" by 2" (4 square inches of area), then the
PRESSURE applied to that block (Force per unit AREA) is determined by dividing
the FORCE (1000 pounds) by the AREA (4 square inches), which is 250 pounds
per square inch ("psi").
If the same 1000 pound FORCE was applied to a plate which measured 2" x 4" (8
square inches), then the PRESSURE would be reduced to 125 psi because the area
of the plate doubled. The same force is being applied over a greater area, resulting
in a LOWER force per unit area.
Taking it a step further, suppose you have a hydraulic cylinder with a 1/2" diameter
piston. The area of that piston = diameter x diameter x 0.785, or in this case, 0.5 x
0.5 x 0.785 = 0.196 square inches. Now, if you apply 1000 pounds to the rod of
that cylinder, the 1000 pound FORCE is applied by the rod to the piston, which
acts against the oil in the cylinder to produce a pressure in the oil of 5102 (1000 /
0.196 = 5102) psi. If that oil is routed through some tubing to another hydraulic
cylinder which has a 2.5 inch diameter piston, then the 5102 psi will be applied to
the 4.91 square inch piston (2.5 x.2.5 x .785 = 4.91) and results in a 25, 050 pound
force being available at the end of the rod on that cylinder.
FRICTION
FRICTION is an especially interesting example of a force. It is the resistance to
motion which takes place when one body is moved upon another. Friction is
generally defined as "that force which acts between two bodies at their surface of
contact, so as to resist their sliding on each other".
Suppose that a block of metal, weighing 40 pounds, is resting on a flat, horizontal
table top. If, using an accurate tension scale, you exert a small horizontal force on
the block, the block will not move. Now suppose you increase the horizontal force
until the block moves, and you notice that the value of the force is 8 pounds.
You now have enough data to calculate an important friction parameter known as
the coefficient of friction (), which defines the nature of the resistance to motion
these two bodies exert on each other. The value of the coefficient of friction () is
the horizontal force needed to move the block ( 8 lbs.) divided by the vertical force
pressing the block and the table together (40 lbs.) = 8 / 40 = 0.20 )
There are several interesting properties of friction between dry, unlubricated
surfaces, summarized as follows:
1. At low velocities, the friction is independent of the velocity of rubbing. As
the velocity increases, the friction decreases. In other words, the force
required to overcome friction and start a body into motion is greater than the
force required to sustain the resulting motion. That fact is reflected in the
existence of two different coefficients of friction for each material pair: the
static coefficient and the dynamic coefficient.
2. For low contact pressures (normal {perpendicular} force per unit area),
friction is directly proportional to the normal force between the two surfaces.
As the contact pressure increases, the friction does not rise proportionately,
and when the pressure becomes very high, friction increases rapidly until
seizing takes place.
3. For a constant normal force, the friction, in both its total amount and its
coefficient, is independent of the surface area in contact (as long as the
pressure is not high enough to enter the seizing region).
Now suppose you apply a thin film of oil on the table under the block. The oil
reduces the coefficient of friction to somewhere in the neighborhood of 0.025, so
the block can now be moved with a horizontal force of about 1 pound (0.025 * 40
= 1).
The properties of friction between well-lubricated surfaces are considerably
different from those above for dry surfaces.
1. The frictional resistance is almost independent of the contact pressure if the
surfaces are flooded with oil.
2. For low contact pressures, the friction varies directly with velocity. For high
contact pressures, the friction is very high at low velocities, dropping to a
minimum at about 2 feet-per-second, then increasing as the square root of
velocity.
3. For well-lubricated surfaces, the friction decreases dramatically with
increasing temperature, from the influence of (a) rapidly-decreasing oil
viscosity and (b) for a journal bearing, increasing diametral clearance.
4. If the bearing surfaces are flooded with oil, the friction is almost
independent of the nature of the materials of the contact surfaces. As the
lubrication diminishes, the coefficient of friction becomes more dependent
on the materials.
INTRODUCTION
The concepts of velocity and acceleration are essential to the understanding of
objects that are in motion, and of the relationships between forces which are
applied to those objects and the motions that occur as a result of those forces.
Velocity and acceleration provide the means to quantify and predict the changes in
position of an object as a function of time, or as a function of some other reference
variable such as the rotation of a shaft.
VELOCITY
Velocity is defined as the rate at which the position of a body changes with respect
to some reference. Typically, the reference is time, and we are all familiar with
everyday expressions of velocity (speed), such as miles-per hour, feet-per-second,
revolutions per minute, furlongs-per-fortnight, etc.
In addition to time, another common reference variable is rotation, or angular
position. For example, the change in the position of a piston with respect to the
angular movement of the crankshaft is a convenient way to study piston motion.
Similarly, the change in the position of a cam follower with respect to the angular
position of the camshaft is a convenient way to study valvetrain motion.
The term velocity technically refers to a vector quantity, meaning that it has both
magnitude and direction. The "speed" of an object is the measure of how fast the
object is moving, without regard for the direction. Saying that a car is travelling 60
MPH is a statement of its speed, whereas saying it is travelling 60 MPH North
defines its velocity.
However, velocity is sometimes stated in terms of magnitude only (speed), because
often the direction is self-evident. Examples of that include the motion of a piston
confined to move along the axis of a cylinder, or a poppet valve constrained to
move along the axis of its guide. In other cases, the direction is irrelevant. For
example, the direction component of the velocity of an automobile is assumed to
be coincident with the direction of the road upon which it is travelling. (When the
direction diverges from that of the road, usually some very rapid acceleration is
soon to follow.) For the remainder of this discussion, we will be primarily
discussing the magnitude portion of the velocity vector, and therefore will take the
liberty to use the terms speed and velocity interchangeably.

Linear Velocity
is the measure of the linear (straight-line) distance something moves in a specified
amount of time. It is typically calculated as distance divided by time. That
calculation produces what is called average speed. For example, if a car travelled
exactly 60 miles in exactly one hour, it would be obvious that the average speed
was 60 MPH. But that calculation does not take into account any changes in
direction that occurred. Nor does it take into account the fact that over the course
of that 60 mile journey, the instantaneous speed of the car will most certainly have
been changing, under the influence of stop lights, slower drivers, passing cars,
corners, freeway offramps, a wobbly right foot, etc.
Suppose it was necessary to produce a graph showing a better representation of the
car's speed throughout the journey. In the absence of a data acquisition system, we
could take time and distance measurements throughout the trip. The incremental
distances and times would simply be the difference between two adjacent
measurements. By dividing those incremental distances by the corresponding
incremental times, we would have the average speed over that smaller portion of
the trip.
By decreasing the size of the time increments at which the distance measurements
were taken, we would be able to get ever closer to determining the instantaneous
speed of the vehicle. In fact, that is precisely what the mathematical operation
known as a derivative accomplishes. Therefore, speed is the first derivative of
position with respect to time without regard to direction, and velocity is the first
derivative of position with respect to time, taking both speed and direction into
account.
Angular velocity is the measure of rotational distance something moves in a
specified amount of time. It is typically expressed in units such as revolutions-per-
minute (RPM) and degrees-per-second.
For many engineering calculations, it is necessary to express angular units as
rather than degrees-per-second or revolutions per minute (RPM). The explanation
of "why" requires more math than is appropriate here, but suffice it to say that it is
necessary in order to make the numbers work out right.
A radian is an angular measurement equal to approximately 57.3 degrees. It is
defined as the angle formed by an arc on the circumference of a circle, the length
of which is equal to the radius of that circle. Since the circumference of a circle is
the radius times 2, then obviously the value of a radian is the angle 360 divided
by 2, or 57.29578 degrees.

ACCELERATION
Acceleration is the measurement of how quickly the velocity of an object is
changing, usually with respect to time. If you measure the velocity of an object at a
particular time (Time
1
), then again at a subsequent time (Time
2
), then the average
acceleration which the object has experienced will be:
Acceleration = (Velocity
2
- Velocity
1
) / (Time
2
-Time
1
)
Clearly, the longer the period of time over which the measurements are taken, the
more that value becomes an average, and the less will be known about the
instantaneous acceleration of the object.
Acceleration is a critically important value for dynamic systems, because it is the
instantaneous acceleration imposed on moving (dynamic) components, along with
the mass of the components, which determines the actual forces raquired or applied
in order to get components within the a system to change velocity from one value
to another (Newton's second law), covered previously in Force, Pressure and
Friction).
Linear acceleration is typically expressed in inches-per-second-per-second and
feet-per-second-per-second (velocity per unit time). Common units of angular
and RPM-per-second.
However, acceleration (and velocity as well) need not be expressed with respect to
time. For example, the acceleration value typically used in camshaft lobe design is
inches-per-degree-per-degree or inches-per-degree . This value is the acceleration
which a cam lobe applies to the cam follower it is driving. In order to calculate the
forces a cam applies to its mating components, the cam lobe angular velocity with
respect to time must be known. Using that value, the lobe acceleration value can
then be converted into inches-per-second-per-second, from which the forces are
then calculated. In 2004, for some undiscernible, but most certainly politically-
correct, reason, the cam design community apparently switched to metric units {
velocity in mm/deg and lobe acceleration in mm/deg }.

WORK
Suppose the engine of your car stalled while you were in line to exit from a flat,
level parking lot. You try several times to restart it, but it just won't start.
Since you are a considerate person, you decide to push your car out of the way of
the people behind you. You get out and go round back and begin to push on the
car. Suppose also that you are a fairly strong person, so you exert a horizontal force
of 100 pounds on the rear of the car. The car doesnt move. But you are also a
persistent person, so you continue to push on the car for two whole minutes,
exerting the same 100 pounds of force. The car still wont move. Although you
will probably be quite tired, you will have done NO WORK.
WHY? Because WORK is defined as a FORCE operating through a
DISTANCE. The car didnt move, so although there was FORCE, there was no
MOTION.
Now you get smart and release the parking brake, and, having recovered from your
previous 2-minute exercise in futility, you again push the car with the same
constant 100 pound force. This time the car moves, and you push it for another two
minutes. It travels 165 feet during that two minutes of effort. In that case, you will
have produced 16,500 foot-pounds of WORK (100 pounds of force x 165 feet of
distance = 16,500 foot-pounds).
ENERGY
Later that day, you are working in your shop. You need to install a 3-inch long
spring into a 2-inch space. The nature of this particular spring is that it takes 600
pounds of force to compress it one inch (the "spring rate" = 600 pounds per inch).
Using a lever-operated spring compressor, you pull on the lever with a force of 100
pounds and you move the lever 6 inches, causing the compressor to squeeze the
spring and shorten it by 1 inch. The spring is now pushing on the compressor with
a force of 600 pounds. You have stored the WORK you did on the compressor
lever (100 pounds x 6 inch = 600 inch-pounds) in the spring, in the form of
ENERGY (600 pounds x 1 inch = 600 inch-pounds).
ENERGY is defined as the CAPACITY of a body to do WORK, by virtue of the
position or condition of the body.
Now suppose there is a 150-pound plate of steel on your bench, resting on four
blocks which are 2 inches tall (so the space between the bottom of the plate and the
bench is 2 inches). You install the compressed spring into that space and locate it
at exactly the CG of the plate, and release the spring compressor.
The spring will lift the steel plate 3/4 of an inch, so the spring has done WORK on
the plate, thereby releasing some of the ENERGY stored in the spring.
There are many different forms of energy. There are a few which are of particular
interest with respect to powerplants: kinetic energy (the energy contained in a body
by virtue of its velocity), potential energy (the energy contained in a body by virtue
of its position), chemical energy (energy which can be released by a chemical
reaction, such as combustion), and heat energy (energy which can be used to make
machines operate).
In order to understand POWER, you must first understand ENERGY and
WORK. If you have not reviewed these concepts for a while, it would be helpful
and Work. (There is a longer version of this page in the Engine Technology
POWER is defined as the rate of doing WORK, or WORK per unit TIME.
Sometimes it seems that people are confused about the relationship between
POWER and TORQUE. For example, we have heard engine builders, camshaft
consultants, and other technical experts ask customers:
"Do you want your engine to make HORSEPOWER or TORQUE?"
And the question is usually asked in a tone which strongly suggests that these
experts believe power and torque are somehow mutually exclusive.
In fact, the opposite is true, and you should be clear on these facts:
1. POWER (the rate of doing WORK) is dependent on TORQUE and RPM.
2. TORQUE and RPM are the MEASURED quantities of engine output.
3. POWER is CALCULATED from torque and RPM, by the following equation:
HP = Torque x RPM 5252
(At the bottom of this page, the derivation of that equation is shown, for anyone
interested.)
Engines (and motors) produce POWER by providing a ROTATING SHAFT
which can exert a given amount of TORQUE on a load at a given RPM. The
amount of TORQUE the engine can exert usually varies with RPM.
TORQUE
TORQUE is defined as a FORCE around a given point, applied at a RADIUS
from that point. Note that the unit of TORQUE is one pound-foot (often misstated),
while the unit of WORK is one foot-pound.

Figure 1
Referring to Figure 1, assume that the handle is attached to the crank-arm so that it
is parallel to the supported shaft and is located at a radius of 12" from the center of
the shaft. In this example, consider the shaft to be fixed to the wall. Let the arrow
represent a 100 lb. force, applied in a direction perpendicular to both the handle
and the crank-arm, as shown.
Because the shaft is fixed to the wall, the shaft does not turn, but there is a torque
of 100 pounds-feet (100 pounds times 1 foot) applied to the shaft.
Note that if the crank-arm in the sketch was twice as long (i.e. the handle was
located 24" from the center of the shaft), the same 100 pound force applied to the
handle would produce 200 lb-ft of torque (100 pounds times 2 feet).
POWER
POWER is the measure of how much WORK can be done in a specified TIME.
In the example on the Work and Energy page, the guy pushing the car did 16,500
foot-pounds of WORK. If he did that work in two minutes, he would have
produced 8250 foot-pounds per minute of POWER (165 feet x 100 pounds 2
minutes). If you are unclear about WORK and ENERGY, it would be a benefit to
review those concepts HERE.
In the same way that one ton is a large amount of weight (by definition, 2000
pounds), one horsepower is a large amount of power. The definition of one
horsepower is 33,000 foot-pounds per minute. The power which the guy produced
by pushing his car across the lot (8250 foot-pounds-per-minute) equals
horsepower (8,250 33,000).
OK, all thats fine, but how does pushing a car across a parking lot relate to
rotating machinery?
Consider the following change to the handle-and-crank-arm sketch above. The
handle is still 12" from the center of the shaft, but now, instead of being fixed to
the wall, the shaft now goes through the wall, supported by frictionless bearings,
and is attached to a generator behind the wall.
Suppose, as illustrated in Figure 2, that a constant force of 100 lbs. is somehow
applied to the handle so that the force is always perpendicular to both the handle
and the crank-arm as the crank turns. In other words, the "arrow" rotates with the
handle and remains in the same position relative to the crank and handle, as shown
in the sequence below. (That is called a "tangential force").

Figure 2
If that constant 100 lb. tangential force applied to the 12" handle (100 lb-ft of
torque) causes the shaft to rotate at 2000 RPM, then the power the shaft is
transmitting to the generator behind the wall is 38 HP, calculated as follows:
100 lb-ft of torque (100 lb. x 1 foot) times 2000 RPM divided by 5252 is 38 HP.
The following examples illustrate several different values of TORQUE
which produce 300 HP.
Example 1: How much TORQUE is required to produce 300 HP at 2700 RPM?
since HP = TORQUE x RPM 5252
then by rearranging the equation:
TORQUE = HP x 5252 RPM
Answer: TORQUE = 300 x 5252 2700 = 584 lb-ft.
Example 2: How much TORQUE is required to produce 300 HP at 4600 RPM?
Answer: TORQUE = 300 x 5252 4600 = 343 lb-ft.
Example 3: How much TORQUE is required to produce 300 HP at 8000 RPM?
Answer: TORQUE = 300 x 5252 8000 = 197 lb-ft.
Example 4: How much TORQUE does the 41,000 RPM turbine section of a 300
HP gas turbine engine produce?
Answer: TORQUE = 300 x 5252 41,000 = 38.4 lb-ft.
Example 5: The output shaft of the gearbox of the engine in Example 4 above
turns at 1591 RPM. How much TORQUE is available on that shaft?
Answer: TORQUE = 300 x 5252 1591 = 991 lb-ft.
(ignoring losses in the gearbox, of course).
The point to be taken from those numbers is that a given amount of horsepower
can be made from an infinite number of combinations of torque and RPM.
There is a longer version of this page in the Engine Technology section, with more
information which relates specifically to piston engines.
Power to Drive a Pump
In the course of working with lots of different engine projects, we often hear the
suggestion that engine power can be increased by the use of a "better" oil pump.
Implicit in that suggestion is the belief that a "better" oil pump has higher pumping
efficiency, and can, therefore, deliver the required flow at the required pressure
while consuming less power from the crankshaft to do so. While that is technically
true, the magnitude of the improvement number is surprisingly small.
How much power does it take to drive a pump delivering a known flow at a known
pressure? We have already shown that power is work per unit time, and we will
stick with good old American units for the time being (foot-pounds per minute and
inch-pounds per minute). And we know that flow times pressure equals POWER,
as shown by:
Flow (cubic inches / minute) multiplied by pressure (pounds / square inch) =
POWER (inch-pounds / minute)
From there it is simply a matter of multiplying by the appropriate constants to
produce an equation which calculates HP from pressure times flow. Since flow is
more freqently given in gallons per minute, and since it is well known that there
are 231 cubic inches in a gallon, then:
Flow (GPM) x 231(cubic inches / gal) = Flow (cubic inches per minute).
Since, as explained above, 1 HP is 33,000 foot-pounds of work per minute,
multiplying that number by 12 produces the number of inch-pounds of work per
minute in one HP (396,000). Dividing 396,000 by 231 gives the units-conversion
factor of 1714.3. Therefore, the simple equation is:
Pump HP = flow (GPM) x pressure (PSI) / 1714.
That equation represents the power consumed by a pump having 100% efficiency.
When the equation is modified to include pump efficiency, it becomes:
Pump HP = (flow {GPM} x pressure {PSI} / (1714 x efficiency)
Common gear-type pumps typically operate at between 75 and 80% efficiency. So
suppose your all-aluminum V8 engine requires 10 GPM at 50 psi. The oil pump
will have been sized to maintain some preferred level of oil pressure at idle when
the engine and oil are hot, so the pump will have far more capacity than is required
to maintain the 10 GPM at 50 psi at operating speed. (That's what the "relief" valve
does: bypasses the excess flow capacity back to the inlet of the pump, which, as an
added benefit, also dramatically reduces the prospect cavitation in the pump inlet
line.)
Now suppose your 75%-efficient pump is maintaining 50 psi at 3000 RPM, and is
providing the 10 GPM needed by the engine. It is actually pumping 30 to 50 GPM
( 10 of which goes through the engine, and the excess flow recirculates through the
relief valve ) at 50 psi. The power to drive that pressure pump stage is:
HP = ( 50 gpm x 50 psi ) / ( 1714 x 0.75 efficiency ) = 1.95 HP
Suppose you succumb to the hype and shuck out some really big bucks for an
allegedly 90% efficient pump. That pump (at the same flow and pressure) will
consume:
HP = ( 50 gpm x 50 psi ) / ( 1714 x 0.90 efficiency ) = 1.62 HP.
WOW. A net gain of a full 1/3 of a HP. Can YOUR dyno even measure a 1-HP
difference accurately and repeatably?
Derivation of the Power Equation
(for anyone interested)
This part might not be of interest to most readers, but several people have asked:
"OK, if HP = RPM x TORQUE 5252, then where does the 5252 come
from?"
By definition, POWER = FORCE x DISTANCE TIME (as explained above
Using the example in Figure 2 above, where a constant tangential force of 100
pounds was applied to the 12" handle rotating at 2000 RPM, we know the force
involved, so to calculate power, we need the distance the handle travels per unit
time, expressed as:
Power = 100 pounds x distance per minute
OK, how far does the crank handle move in one minute? First, determine the
distance it moves in one revolution:
DISTANCE per revolution = 2 x x radius
DISTANCE per revolution. = 2 x 3.1416 x 1 ft = 6.283 ft.
Now we know how far the crank moves in one revolution. How far does the crank
move in one minute?
DISTANCE per min. = 6.283 ft .per rev. x 2000 rev. per min. = 12,566 feet per
minute
Now we know enough to calculate the power, defined as:
POWER = FORCE x DISTANCE TIME
so
Power = 100 lb x 12,566 ft. per minute = 1,256,600 ft-lb per minute
Swell, but how about HORSEPOWER? Remember that one HORSEPOWER is
defined as 33000 foot-pounds of work per minute. Therefore HP = POWER (ft-
lb per min) 33,000. We have already calculated that the power being applied to
the crank-wheel above is 1,256,600 ft-lb per minute.
How many HP is that?
HP = (1,256,600 33,000) = 38.1 HP.
Now we combine some stuff we already know to produce the magic 5252. We
If we divide both sides of that equation by RADIUS, we get:
Now, if DISTANCE per revolution = RADIUS x 2 x , then
(b) DISTANCE per minute = RADIUS x 2 x x RPM
(c) POWER = FORCE x DISTANCE per minute
So if we plug the equivalent for FORCE from equation (a) and distance per minute
from equation (b) into equation (c), we get:
POWER = (TORQUE RADIUS) x (RPM x RADIUS x 2 x )
Dividing both sides by 33,000 to find HP,
HP = TORQUE RADIUS x RPM x RADIUS x 2 x 33,000
By reducing, we get
HP = TORQUE x RPM x 6.28 33,000
Since
33,000 6.2832 = 5252
Therefore
HP = TORQUE x RPM 5252
Note that at 5252 RPM, torque and HP are equal. At any RPM below 5252, the
value of torque is greater than the value of HP; Above 5252 RPM, the value of
torque is less than the value of HP.

In order to better understand the various discussions about loads, stresses and the
expected life of components, it helps to have an understanding of the fundamental
terms used in those discussions. The following paragraphs give a very brief
background on those terms. Please note that this is a very basic explanation of
subjects which some engineers spend their entire careers studying.
TENSILE and COMPRESSIVE STRESS
Stress is a value which describes the amount of load carried by each unit of cross
sectional area of a component. For example, suppose the block shown in Figure 1
weighs 10,500 pounds and it is suspended from the shaft (with the arrowhead). The
shaft diameter is 0.504", so it has a cross-sectional area of 0.200 square inches
(in).

Figure 1
The stress that the 10,500 pound load applies to the shaft is defined as the load
divided by the cross-sectional area of the shaft, which is 10,500 pounds 0.200
square inches = 52,500 pounds per square inch (psi). Note that this "load per unit
area" is the PRESSURE concept, presented in Force, Pressure and Friction.
If the diameter of the shaft is increased to 3/4", then the area increases to 0.4418
square inches (in) and the stress decreases to 10,500 0.4418 = 23,766 psi.
Since the load shown in the picture is trying to lengthen the shaft, it is called
tensile stress. If we flipped the picture over so that the shaft was supporting the
block from underneath, the block would be trying to shorten the shaft, and the
stress would be called compressive stress.
The loads which produce tensile and compressive stresses are acting perpendicular
to the areas on which they act. Tensile and compressive stresses are often referred
to as normal stresses. Here, "normal" is not a behavioral term, but a geometric one,
which, in this context means "acting perpendicular to" a particular area or plane.
SHEAR STRESS

Figure 2
Forces which act parallel to the areas resisting them are known as shear forces, and
produce shear stress in the elements which carry those loads.
For example, suppose the two clevises (clevi?) in this picture have equal tensile
forces acting on their ends ("normal" to the end faces), as depicted by the arrows.
Those forces are trying to pull the clevises apart, and in so doing, they apply a
shear force (parallel to the cross-sectional area of the bolt) on the bolt holding the
parts together. The shear force is trying to cut the bolt in half across its diameter in
two places, where the two outer faces of the lower clevis meet the two inner faces
of the upper clevis. This instance is known as "double shear" because there are two
separate areas of the bolt exposed to the shear force.
Suppose the bolt in this example is 3/4" diameter, and the tensile loads are both
20,000 pounds. The cross-sectional area of the bolt is 0.4418 square inches (in).
Then shear stress applied to the bolt would be 20,000 pounds divided by twice the
bolt area (because the load is shared by two different cross-sectional areas of the
bolt), or 22,634 psi.
It is important to note that the shear stress capacity of most metallic materials is
considerably less than the tensile or compressive capacities.
BENDING STRESS

Figure 3
Bending Stress occurs when a component is loaded by forces which, instead of
trying to stretch or shrink the component, are trying to bend it. Those bending
forces generate a combination of tensile and compressive stress in the load-
carrying components, known as bending stress.
An example of that type of loading is shown in tFigure 3, where the tubular shaft is
resting on two triangular supports. The two vertical arrows represent downward
forces applied to the tube. The tube deflects, or bends, downward under the
influence of those forces, as illustrated.
If you cut a section through the tube at the right hand support and were able to
visualize the internal stresses between metal molecules at the cut face, they would
appear as tensile and compressive stresses, illustrated by the green arrows in Figure
4. The stress magnitude is largest at the outer extremities and decrease to zero at
the geometric center.

Figure 4
The bending stress is calculated from the properties of the cross-section and the
magnitude of the bending moment. The bending moment is the magnitude of the
applied force times the distance from the point where the force is applied to the
cross section being examined. That horizontal distance from the point of
application of the force (the purple arrow) to the cross-section is called the moment
arm. (This is a massive simplification, but it illustrates the concept.)
STRAIN
Strain is the measure of how much a material deforms when a load is applied to it,
expressed in inches of deformation per inch of material length. For example, if the
1/2" diameter shaft supporting the 10,000 pound load in Figure 1 is 12" long, it
will stretch about 0.020" (20 thousandths) from its unloaded length, which you can
measure. The strain is the measured deflection (0.020) divided by the length of the
shaft, or 0.020 12 = 0.00167 inches per inch.
Suppose you measure a specimen which has no load applied to it. Then you apply
a load to the specimen, then release the load and measure the specimen again. If
you find that it has returned to its original length, then the specimen experienced
elastic deformation when it stretched under the load.
Most materials are elastic. That is, if you apply a load to the material, it will
deform in some way, by an amount which is proportional to the load. When you
wasn't too large. The deformation might be too small to measure, but it still occurs.
If, after the load is released, you can measure some permanent deformation in the
specimen, (the specimen does not return to its original length), then the material
has been stressed beyond its elastic limit and has experienced plastic deformation.
YIELD STRESS and ULTIMATE STRESS
There are two basic values which characterize the strength of a metal. Each of
those values is a stress level at which a particular event occurs.

Figure 5
The dark line in Figure 5 shows the stretch of a specimen in response to an applied
tensile stress. In this example, from 0 to to 70,000 psi the stretch (strain) is
proportional to the stress, and if the load is removed, the specimen returns to its
original length. This is known as elastic deformation.
However, if the load (in this example) exceeds 70,000 psi, notice that the strain
becomes greater per unit increase in stress, and is no longer proportional to the
stress. Once this specimen has been loaded beyond 70,000 psi, the specimen does
has been permanently deformed (plastic deformation).
The stress level at which a material no longer behaves elastically, but instead
experiences a small permanent (plastic) deformation is known as the Yield Stress
(YS), (also known as the proportional limit). That is the stress level at which the
elastic limit of the material has been exceeded.
The second interesting value is called the Ultimate Tensile Stress (UTS). It is the
stress value at which the material will break under the influence of pure tensile
stress.
A specialized test machine is used to measure those values. A small sample of the
subject metal (usually 0.357" or 0.504" diameter) is installed in the machine, as
shown in Figures 6 and 7 below.

Figure 6

Figure 7
The machine applies a tension load on the specimen, and increases the load until
the specimen breaks. The computer which controls the machine plots the load vs.
deflection in real time, and detects the yield point. At some point after the material
begins to yield, the operator pauses the test and removes the deflection gauge (to
prevent it from being destroyed when the specimen fractures). The operator then
resumes the test and the machine continues to increase the load until the specimen
breaks. The load at which the specimen broke is divided by the original cross-
sectional area (0.100 in for 0.357" diameter or 0.200 in for 0.504" diameter) to
find the UTS value. As the specimen approaches the failure point, a portion of the
diameter (where the failure will occur) begins to plastically-deform and reduce in
diameter ("necking-down"). The percentage that the cross sectional area of the
material reduces is a measurement of the ductility (lack of brittleness) of the
material, and is stated as %-reduction-in-area (ROA).
STRESS CONCENTRATION
It has been known for a long time that the presence of irregularities or
discontinuities in a part (holes, rapid changes in diameter, shoulders, grooves,
notches, etc.) significantly increases the value of the actual stress which occurs in a
part when compared to the stress value calculated based on the cross section of the
part. These increases in stress, called stress concentrations, occur in the immediate
vicinity of the discontinuity.
The ratio of the actual stress to the calculated stress is known as a stress
concentration factor. The magnitude of stress concentration factors can be 3, 4, or
more depending on the severity of the particular discontinuity.
This phenomenon can be demonstrated in tests. There is a large body of
accumulated data relating the physical characteristics of various types of
discontinuities to the increase in observed stress they cause. There are several
books which present the methods to calculate these factors. One of the most
accepted works on this subject is Peterson's Stress Concentration Factors (ref-2:4).
Some FEA systems have incorporated the effect of discontinuities into their
calculations.
There are also several accepted methods to diminish the stress-increasing effect of
discontinuities surrounding a necessarily abrupt one.
As an example of theses techniques, consider the picture below, showing a typical
input shaft for an automotive transmission, with a shoulder for the supporting
bearing and a snap-ring retaining the bearing on the shoulder.

The following two pictures show a cross section through the shaft pictured above,
without the bearing or snap ring installed. Figure 8 shows the typical shaft
implementation, with a sharp-cornered snap ring groove (necessary to clear the
edges of the snap ring), and a sharp-cornered shoulder, required to clear the small
radius on the edge of the bearing, typically less than 0.040". The sharp corners in
the groove and the shoulder provide severe concentrations (as much as 10 to 1) for
the applied stresses, making the material behave in fatigue (next topic) as if the
applied stress was significantly greater. Compare theshaft in Figure 8 to the better
configuration shown in Figure 9, which has teardrop, large-radius grooves on both
sides of the sharp-cornered snap ring groove, and which has a large radius undercut
into the bearing shoulder. These provisions dramatically reduce the stress
concentrations (down to as low as 1.5 to 1) as compared to Figure 8.

Figure 8

Figure 9

Long ago, engineers discovered that if you repeatedly applied and then removed a
nominal load to and from a metal part (known as a "cyclic load"), the part would
break after a certain number of load-unload cycles, even when the maximum cyclic
stress level applied was much lower than the UTS, and in fact, much lower than the
Yield Stress (UTS and YS are explained in Stress and Strain). These relationships
They discovered that as they reduced the magnitude of the cyclic stress, the part
would survive more cycles before breaking. This behavior became known as
"FATIGUE" because it was originally thought that the metal got "tired". When
you bend a paper clip back and forth until it breaks, you are demonstrating fatigue
behavior.
The following information on this page attempts to explain metal fatigue by
2. How do you determine the fatigue strength of a material?
3. Does the strength of a material affect its fatigue properties?
4. Why is the surface of a part so important?
5. Is fatigue life an exact number?
6. Do real-world parts behave the same as laboratory tests?
7. Are fatigue cycles cumulative?
There are different types of fatigue loading. One type is zero-to-max-to zero,
where a part which is carrying no load is then subjected to a load, and later, the
load is removed, so the part goes back to the no-load condition. An example of this
type of loading is a chain used to haul logs behind a tractor.
load. The suspension wires in a railroad bridge are an example of this type. The
wires have a constant static tensile load from the weight of the bridge, and an
cycle of this type of fatigue loading occurs when a tensile stress of some value is
applied to an unloaded part and then released, then a compressive stress of the
same value is applied and released.

Figure 1
A rotating shaft with a bending load applied to it is a good example of fully
reversing load. In order to visualize the fully-reversing nature of the load, picture
the shaft in a fixed position (not rotating) but subjected to an applied bending load
(as shown here). The outermost fibers on the shaft surface on the convex side of
the deflection (upper surface in the picture) will be loaded in tension (upper green
arrows), and the fibers on the opposite side will be loaded in compression (lower
green arrows). Now, rotate the shaft 180 in its bearings, with the loads remaining
the same. The shaft stress level is the same, but now the fibers which were loaded
in compression before you rotated it are now loaded in tension, and vice-versa.
In fact, the laboratory mechanism used to test the fatigue life of materials is a
rotating shaft with an applied bending load.
To illustrate how damaging fully-reversing load is, take a paper clip, bend it out
straight, then pick a spot in the middle, and bend the clip 90 back and forth at that
spot (from straight to "L" shaped and back). Because you are plastically-deforming
the metal, you are, by definition, exceeding its yield stress. When you bend it in
one direction, you are applying a high tensile stress to the fibers on one side of the
OD, and a high compressive stress on the fibers on the opposite side. When you
bend it the other way, you reverse the stresses (fully reversing fatigue). It will
The number of cycles that a metal can endure before it breaks is a complex
function of the static and cyclic stress values, the alloy, heat-treatment and surface
condition of the material, the hardness profile of the material, impurities in the
material, the type of load applied, the operating temperature, and several other
factors.
HOW IS THE FATIGUE STRENGTH OF A METAL DETERMINED?
The fatigue behavior of a specific material, heat-treated to a specific strength level,
is determined by a series of laboratory tests on a large number of apparently
identical samples of that specific material.
This picture shows a laboratory fatigue specimen. These laboratory samples are
optimized for fatigue life. They are machined with shape characteristics which
maximize the fatigue life of a metal, and are highly polished to provide the surface
characteristics which enable the best fatigue life.

Figure 2
A single test consists of applying a known, constant bending stress to a round
sample of the material, and rotating the sample around the bending stress axis until
it fails. As the sample rotates, the stress applied to any fiber on the outside surface
of the sample varies from maximum-tensile to zero to maximum-compressive and
back. The test mechanism counts the number of rotations (cycles) until the
specimen fails. A large number of tests is run at each stress level of interest, and
the results are statistically massaged to determine the expected number of cycles to
failure at that stress level.
The cyclic stress level of the first set of tests is some large percentage of the
Ultimate Tensile Stress (UTS), which produces failure in a relatively small number
of cycles. Subsequent tests are run at lower cyclic stress values until a level is
found at which the samples will survive 10 million cycles without failure. The
cyclic stress level that the material can sustain for 10 million cycles is called the
Endurance Limit (EL).
In general, steel alloys which are subjected to a cyclic stress level below the EL
(properly adjusted for the specifics of the application) will not fail in fatigue. That
property is commonly known as "infinite life". Most steel alloys exhibit the infinite
life property, but it is interesting to note that most aluminum alloys as well as
steels which have been case-hardened by carburizing, do not exhibit an infinite-life
cyclic stress level (Endurance Limit).
IS THERE ANY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN UTS AND FATIGUE
STRENGTH?

Figure 3
The endurance limit of steel displays some interesting properties. These are shown,
in a general way, in this graph, (Figure 3) and briefly discussed below.
It is a simplistic rule of thumb that, for steels having a UTS less than 160,000 psi,
the endurance limit for the material will be approximately 45 to 50% of the UTS if
the surface of the test specimen is smooth and polished.
That relationship is shown by the line titled "50%". A very small number of special
case materials can maintain that approximate 50% relationship above the 160,000
psi level.
However, the EL of most steels begins to fall away from the 50% line above a
UTS of about 160,000 psi, as shown by the line titled "Polished".
For example, a specimen of SAE-4340 alloy steel, hardened to 32 Rockwell-C
(HRc), will exhibit a UTS around 150,000 psi and an EL of about 75,000 psi, or
50% of the UTS. If you change the heat treatment process to achieve a hardness of
about 50 HRc, the UTS will be about 260,000 psi, and the EL will be about 85,000
psi, which is only about 32% of the UTS.
Several other alloys known as "ultra-high-strength steels" (D-6AC, HP-9-4-30,
AF-1410, and some maraging steels) have been demonstrated to have an EL as
high as 45% of UTS at strengths as high as 300,000 psi. Also note that these values
are EL numbers for fully-reversing bending fatigue. EL values for hertzian
(contact) stress can be substantially higher (over 300 ksi).
The line titled "Notched" shows the dramatic reduction in fatigue strength as a
result of the concentration of stress which occurs at sudden changes in cross-
sectional area (sharp corners in grooves, fillets, etc.). The highest EL on that curve
is about 25% of the UTS (at around 160,000 psi).
The surface finish of a material has a dramatic effect on the fatigue life. That fact is
clearly illustrated by the curve titled "Corroded". It mirrors the shape of the
"notched" curve, but is much lower. That curve shows that, for a badly corroded
surface (fretting, oxidation, galvanic, etc.) the endurance limit of the material starts
at around 20 ksi for materials of 40 ksi UTS (50%), increases to about 25 ksi for
materials between 140 and 200 ksi UTS, then decreases back toward 20 ksi as the
material UTS increases above 200 ksi.
WHY IS THE SURFACE SO IMPORTANT?
Fatigue failures almost always begin at the surface of a material. The reasons are
that (a) the most highly-stresses fibers are located at the surface (bending fatigue)
and (b) the intergranular flaws which precipitate tension failure are more
frequently found at the surface.
Suppose that a particular specimen is being fatigue tested (as described above).
Now suppose the fatigue test is halted after 20 to 25% of the expected life of the
specimen and a small thickness of material is machined off the outer surface of the
specimen, and the surface condition is restored to its original state. Now the fatigue
test is resumed at the same stress level as before. The life of the part will be
considerably longer than expected. If that process is repeated several times, the life
of the part may be extended by several hundred percent, limited only by the
available cross section of the specimen. (ref-3:8:6) That proves fatigue failures
originate at the surface of a component.
IS THE ENDURANCE LIMIT AN EXACT NUMBER?
It is important to remember that the Endurance Limit of a material is not an
absolute nor fully repeatable number. In fact, several apparently identical samples,
cut from adjacent sections in one bar of steel, will produce different EL values (as
well as different UTS and YS) when tested, as illustrated by the S-N diagram
below. Each of those three properties (UTS, YS, EL) is determined statistically,
calculated from the (varying) results of a large number of apparently identical tests
done on a population of apparently identical samples.
The plot below shows the results of a battery of fatigue tests on a specific material.
The tests at each stress level form statistical clusters, as shown. a curve is fitted
through the clusters of points, as shown below. The curve which is fitted through
these clusters, known as an "S-N Diagram" (Stress vs. Number), represents the
statistical behavior of the fatigue properties of that specific material at that specific
strength level. The red points in the chart represent the cyclic stress for each test
and the number of cycles at which the specimen broke. The blue points represent
the stress levels and number of cycles applied to specimens which did not fail. This
diagram clearly demonstrates the statistical nature of metal fatigue failure.

Figure 4
DO REAL-WORLD COMPONENTS EXHIBIT THE "LABORATORY"
EL?
Unfortunate experience has taught engineers that the value of the Endurance Limit
found in laboratory tests of polished, optimized samples does not really apply to
real-world components.
Because the EL values are statistical in nature, and determined on optimized,
laboratory samples, good design practice requires the determination of the actual
EL will be for each specific application, known as the Application-Specific
Endurance Limit (ASEL).
In order to design for satisfactory fatigue life (prior to testing actual components),
good practice requires that the "laboratory" Endurance Limit value be reduced by
several adjustment factors. These reductions are necessary to account for:
(a) the differences between the application and the testing environments, and
(b) the known statistical variations of the material.
This procedure is to insure that both the known and the unpredictable factors in the
application (including surface condition, actual load, actual temperature,
tolerances, impurities, alloy variations, heat-treatment variations, stress
concentrations, etc. etc. etc.) will not reduce the life of a part below the required
An accepted contemporary practice (ref-2:3:328) to estimate the maximum fatigue
loading which a specific design can survive is the Marin method, in which the
laboratory test-determined EL of the particular material (tested on optimized
samples) is adjusted to estimate the maximum cyclic stress a particular part can
survive (the ASEL).
This adjustment of the EL is the result of six fractional factors. Each of these six
factors is calculated from known data which describe the influence of a specific
condition on fatigue life.
Those factors are:
1. Surface Condition (k
a
): such as: polished, ground, machined, as-forged,
corroded, etc. Surface is perhaps the most important influence on fatigue
life;
2. Size (k
b
): This factor accounts for changes which occur when the actual size
of the part or the cross-section differs from that of the test specimens;
c
torsional) between the actual part and the test specimens;
4. Temperature (k
d
): This factor accounts for reductions in fatigue life which
occur when the operating temperature of the part differs from room
temperature (the testing temperature);
5. Reliability (k
e
): This factor accounts for the scatter of test data. For
example, an 8% standard deviation in the test data requires a ke value of
0.868 for 95% reliability, and 0.753 for 99.9% reliability.
6. Miscellaneous (k
f
): This factor accounts for reductions from all other
effects, including residual stresses, corrosion, plating, metal spraying,
fretting, and others.
These six fractional factors are applied to the laboratory value of the material
endurance limit to determine the allowable cyclic stress for an actual part:

Real-World Allowable Cyclic Stress = ka * kb * kc * kd * ke * kf * EL
It is important to realize that fatigue cycles are accumulative. Suppose a part which
has been in service is removed and tested for cracks by a certified aircraft
inspection station, a place where it is more likely that the subtleties of Magnaflux
inspection are well-understood. Suppose the part passes the inspection, (i.e., no
cracks are found) and the owner of the shaft puts it on the "good used parts" shelf.
Later, someone comes along looking for a bargain on such a part, and purchases
this "inspected" part. The fact that the part has passed the inspection only proves
that there are no detectable cracks RIGHT NOW. It gives no indication at all as to
how many cycles remain until a crack forms. A part which has just passed a
Magnaflux inspection could crack in the next 100 cycles of operation and fail in
the next 10000 cycles (which at 2000 RPM, isn't very long!).

Fretting corrosion has been the cause of countless failures at the contact points of
machinery components. (Click here to see several clear photos of fretting which
resulted in fatigue fracture). The ASM Handbook on Fatigue and Fracture
defines fretting as:
"Fretting is a special wear process that occurs at the contact area between two
materials under load and subject to minute relative motion by vibration or some
other force." (ref-3:9:321).
When two pieces of material, pressed together by an external static load, (for
example, bolted flanges, riveted lap-joints, press-fits such as a gear or bearing on a
shaft) are subjected to a transverse cyclic loading, so that one contacting face is
relatively displaced cyclically parallel to the other face, in the presence of high
contact stress, wear on the mating surfaces occurs. If the magnitude of the
displacement is less than about 0.003 inches, the wear is termed "fretting".
Fretting occurs by contacting asperities on the mating surfaces continually welding
together then breaking. That leads to surface pitting and the transfer of metal
particles from one surface to another. In addition, the small fragments of metal
which are broken off oxidize, forming oxide particles which, for most engineering
metals, are harder than the mated parts. These particles become trapped between
the mating surfaces and cause abrasive damage and scoring.
Briefly, the characteristics of fretting are:
1. It is most serious when oxygen is present, although it can also occur in an
inert gas;
2. It is worst under perfectly dry conditions;
3. It increases with contact load, slip amplitude, and number of oscillations;
4. Soft materials generally exhibit more susceptibility to fretting than do hard
materials of a similar type;
5. Lubricants, particularly when used with surface treatments such as
phosphating, reduce fretting damage.
It is interesting to note that there is disagreement in the reference literature on the
effectiveness of lubrication. Reference 3:9:324 says: "The introduction of a
lubricant into the interface can make matters worse by increasing the relative
slip".
Fretting appears to be particularly aggressive in cases of disks (gears, pulleys,
wheels, flywheels, bearings, hubs, etc.) which are press-fit (shrink-fit) onto shafts
which are subjected to reversing bending stress, and worse yet under the added
influence of vibration. The stress concentration which occurs where the shaft just
meets the disk compounds the problem.
Under fretting conditions, fracture cracks can initiate at very low stresses, well
below the fatigue limit of non-fretted specimens. Fretting corrosion can reduce the
endurance limit of steels to as little as 18% of their original values. The greatest
reduction in fatigue strength occurs when the fretting process AND cyclic stressing
are applied simultaneously. The fact that fatigue cracks can form under low
nominal cyclic stresses in areas where fretting is occurring is dramatically
illustrated by the well-known low fatigue limit of a shaft having a pressed-on
bearing.(ref-3:8:365)

This plot illustrates the dramatic effect that fretting has on the fatigue life of steels.
The line titled "Corroded" mirrors the shape of the "notched" curve, but is much
lower. The corroded curve shows that, for a badly corroded surface (fretting,
oxidation, galvanic, etc.) the endurance limit of the material starts at around 20 ksi
for materials of 40 ksi UTS (50%), increases to about 25 ksi for materials between
140 and 200 ksi UTS, then decreases back toward 20 ksi as the material UTS
increases above 200 ksi.
Prevention of fretting fatigue in the design process is essential. Although there is
ample descriptive material on the mechanism and examples of fretting, there is
limited availability of generalized techniques or modeling methodology for the
prediction of crack initiation due to fretting. Testing is usually required to find and
validate a solution to a fretting problem.
This information has been excerpted and condensed from four different reference
works: ref-2:3, ref-2:5, ref-3:8, and ref-3:9.

The prediction of the life of a rolling-element bearing (ball, roller, needle) is a
statistical calculation of the FATIGUE properties of the bearing components, in
which the specific parameters defining the operation of the bearing are taken into
account. Those parameters include: load, rpm, lubrication viscosity, bearing
material and cleanliness. The predicted life is expressed as the number of hours
that a specified percentage of a large population of the bearing being considered
will survive under the specified load with the specified set of operating
conditions.
The life of a given bearing is a nonlinear function of the applied load. For a ball
and needle bearings, it is the 3.33 power. That means that a relatively small
increase in bearing load can cause a dramatic reduction in bearing life.
The dynamic load rating listed in bearing catalogs is the load at which 90% of a
large population of apparently-identical bearings will survive one million cycles.
when subjected to idealized operating conditions of lubrication and cleanliness.
Notice that a bearing supporting a shaft turning at 6000 RPM will experience one
million cycles in 2 hours and 46 minutes. That's probably OK for a race car, but
not exactly an aircraft-quality life expectancy.
The usual life rating for industrial applications is called "L-10" life. The L-10 lif is
defined as the number of hours in service that 90% of a large population of
apparently-identical bearings will survive when subjected to the boundary
conditions (load, speed, lubrication, material and cleanliness) that are specific to
the application. Stated another way, 10% of that population will have failed in the
L-10 number of service hours under the specific operating conditions.
To achieve the 5% failure rate with a given set of boundary conditions requires
1.64 times greater bearing capacity (dynamic load rating); to achieve a 2% failure
rate requires 3.0 times greater dynamic load rating.
Put another way, for a given L-10 life, the L-5 life of the same bearing at the same
load and under the same conditions is 61% of the L-10 value, and the L-2 life is
33% of the L-10 value. We think that the L-5 life (5% predicted failure) criterion is
a bare minimum requirement for aircraft design.
From that discussion, it should be clear that the prediction of the expected life of a
rolling element bearing in a specific application involves a bit more analysis than
simply plucking a load rating from a bearing catalog.
Most rolling element bearing manufacturers publish detailed life-load analysis
procedures. The bearing life calculations which the manufacturers publish take into
account factors including:
2. RPM,
3. pitchline velocity,
4. lubricant viscosity,
5. contamination,
7. desired probability of survival (failure rate).
All of them are important, but the effects of lubricant viscosity and cleanliness are
huge.
These calculations have been implemented in a computer program which EPI
wrote several years ago for doing bearing life analysis. This program uses a user-
defined LOAD MODEL of the expected service to evaluate bearing life in an
actual application. The load model is a set of different operating loads and speeds
which the actual machine is designed to handle, and an estimate of the % of service
that each load and speed represents.
For example, the load model of an an aircraft propeller gearbox on a normally-
aspirated engine might be described as 5% of the time at max power (takeoff), 10%
at climb power, 70% at cruise power, and 15% in aerobatic maneuvers. Each one
of those conditions impose significantly different loads and speeds on the gearbox
bearings. The combination of those different conditions in a realistic load model
allows for a more reasonable selection of bearings for an application.
Certain bearing manufacturers (SKF, for example, in late 2003) have made
available, on their websites interactive programs for predicting "L-10" bearing life.
The SKF website provides a life-calculation program which produces THREE
different values for an L-10 life rating:
1. the original (old) Arvid Palmgren method, which predicts a relatively short
life,
2. the seasoned, proven "A
23
" method (the one implemented in the EPI
bearing program), and
3. the new, SKF-"marketing-friendly" rating.
The rating you pick depends on how realistic you want to be.
Our bearing life calculation program matches the SKF-website values calculated
for an L-10 life under the "A
23
" method for the same input values. However, our
program also includes the ability to calculate life ratings for complete load models
(described above) as well as for survival probabilities more appropriate to aircraft
applications (95, 96, 97, 98 and 99%).
his section describes the general properties of V-belt and Toothbelt transmission
systems, and provides a detailed explanation of PRELOAD, a necessary
component of all types of belt drives.
BELT DRIVE BASICS
In order for a belt drive to operate properly, the residual tension in the "loose" span
(the non-driving span) of the belt can never be allowed to get near zero (unlike a
chain drive, where the "loose" span can actually be loose.). That requirement is
accomplished by establishing a static "preload" on the belt. The term "preload"
means the establishment of a static tension value in all the spans of the belt.
For V-belt drives, preload maintains the contact force between the belt and the
surface of the pulley grooves so that friction can transmit the power. For toothbelt
drives, preload maintains the correct contact pattern between the belt teeth and
sprocket grooves. The preload for V-belt drives is usually greater than that required
for toothbelt drives.
Any belt will stretch when a load is applied to it, although the amount of stretch is
usually very small. The amount of force to produce a specified stretch is known as
the belt modulus.
The static preload in the system stretches each span (spring) of the belt equally, as
illustrated in the picture below.

The amount of preload required in a belt drive depends on a number of factors,
including:
1. the maximum amount of torque which the drive must transmit;
2. the diameter of the driving sprocket (pulley);
3. the minimum arc of contact between the belt and sprockets ("wrap");
4. the properties of the belt.
Preload can be established by means of adjusting the centerline distance between
shafts (shimming) or by using an idler which imposes a side load on the "loose"
span.
Everyone is probably familiar with establishing preload on an automotive fan-belt
system by wedging on the pivoting alternator and locking it in place with the
slotted locator arm. You are also probably familiar with the result of not having
enough preload in the drive: the belt will slip and squeal under high load. That
happens frequently with power steering belts when you turn the steering wheel up
against one of the stops.
When torque is applied to the driving sprocket (pulley) of a belt drive, one span of
the belt gets tighter and stretches slightly in response to the additional load applied
by the driving torque. At the same time, the load in the loose span reduces by the
same amount, and the loose span shortens by the same amount the tight side
stretched.
Clearly then, the tension in the tight (driving) span becomes greater than the
preload, and conversely, the tension in the loose span becomes less than the
preload. This behavior is illustrated in the picture below.

When a belt drive is operating and transmitting power, the amount of force being
transmitted from the driving sprocket (pulley) to the driven sprocket (pulley) is the
difference between the tension in the " tight" (driving) span of the belt and the
tension in the "loose" (following) span of the belt.
NOTE that the sum of the tight and loose strand tensions is always the same, which
means that the bearing loads and shaft bending load caused by a belt drive will be
essentially constant, regardless of the torque being transmitted. (Only the angle
of application changes with applied torque).
The value of the tension in the tight (driving) span is the sum of two values: (a) the
"driving tension" plus (b) the existing "loose-side" tension, as shown above. The
"driving tension" is the tension in the tight span produced by the torque applied to
the driving sprocket (pulley), and has the value:
Driving Tension = applied drive torque / drive sprocket pitch radius
For example, a torque of 2760 lb-in (230 lb-ft) applied to a sprocket of 2.155 pitch
radius (4.311 pitch diameter) produces a driving tension of 1281 pounds (2760 /
2.155). If a smaller diameter driving sprocket is used, say 1.705 pitch radius (3.409
pitch diameter) then the driving tension increases to 1620 pounds (2760 / 1.705).
The amount of preload which a belt drive requires is specified by a value known as
"tension ratio" (TR), which is expressed as:
TR = Tight-Side Tension / Loose-Side Tension
Knowing that Tight-Side Tension is the sum of the Driving Tension plus the
Loose-Side Tension, that equation can be rewritten as:
TR = (drive tension + loose-side tension) / loose-side tension
or (by means of some high-school algebra)
TR = 1 + (drive tension / loose-side tension)
Rearranging that equation produces the more useful form:
Loose-side tension = Drive-tension / (TR - 1)
The value of the preload can be measured by applying a side force to one span
and measuring the force required to deflect the belt a specified amount. Note that
the side-load force you apply at midspan is NOT the preload. The force required to
produce the specified deflection just a rough measure of the belt preload.
The force and deflection values used to measure preload are a function of the
"springiness" of the belt and the length of the span, and can be calculated from data
provided by belt manufacturers.
V-BELT DRIVES
The transmission of force from a pulley to a V-belt (and the inverse) depends on
friction between the belt and the pulley. The friction force between the belt and the
pulley depends on three factors:
1. the normal force between the belt and the pulley (that is, the force which is
perpendicular to the side surface of the groove),
2. the coefficient of friction between the belt and the pulley, and
3. the arc of contact between the belt and the pulley.
You already know (explained in Force and Friction) that the frictional force
between two objects is the product of the coefficient of friction and the normal
force. The coefficient of friction is independent of the shape of the belt, but the
normal force between the belt and sides of the pulley sheave depends on:
1. the included angle between the sheave sides, and
2. the tension on the belt.
Because of the wedging action between the belt and the pulley, the normal force is
a significant multiple of the belt tension.
In order for the system to transmit the required torque, the belt(s) must be wedged
into the groove(s) tightly enough to transmit the applied force.
In order to achieve the necessary wedging, it is necessary to apply a static preload
to the drive system. The required preload is calculated from three factors:
1. the maximum torque to be transmitted by the drive,
2. the minimum arc of contact, and
3. the pitchline velocity of the belt(s) (to account for the effect of centrifugal
force, which reduces the wedging effect).
Belt manufacturers recommend that the tension ratio for a system with 180 of
contact on each sheave should be no tighter than 5:1 (when a new belt has been
installed) and no looser than 8:1 (after the belt has run-in).
If the arc of contact on any load-transmitting pulley in the system is less than 180,
then the required tension ratio decreases, which means more preload.
TOOTH-BELT DRIVES
Preload in a toothed-belt system is required in order to keep the teeth from
attempting to climb up the sides of the grooves in the sprockets, and, in extreme
In a static (non-moving) toothed-belt drive, the tension force in each span of the
belt is equal, and is determined by the required preload. The required preload is
determined by four factors:
1. the number of teeth engaged on the driving sprocket,
2. the pitch diameter of the driving sprocket,
3. the maximum torque to be transmitted by the drive, and
4. the recommended tension ratio.
If the preload of a toothbelt is slightly less than required, the teeth will try to climb
the belt, and (b) very high shaft bending loads (higher than if the preload were
correct).
Belt manufacturers recommend that the tension ratio for a system with more than a
defined minimum number of teeth in contact on the smallest sprocket should be in
the range of 8:1 to 10:1 (after the belt has run-in).

This section crams a lot of information into a short space, so a little extra time
the liberties taken in the interest of brevity.)
Components in a vibrating system have three properties of interest. They are: mass
(weight), elasticity (springiness) and damping (dissipation). Most physical objects
have all three properties, but in many cases one or two of those properties are
relatively insignificant and can be ignored (for example, the damping of a block of
steel, or in some cases, the mass of a spring).
The property of mass (weight) causes an object to resist acceleration. It also
enables an object to store energy, in the form of velocity (kinetic) or height
(potential). You must expend energy to accelerate a mass or to lift a mass. If you
decelerate a moving mass, or drop a lifted mass, the energy it took to accelerate it
or to lift it (as applicable) can be recovered.
The property of elasticity enables an object to store energy in the form of
deflection. A common example is a spring, but any piece of metal has the property
of elasticity. That is, if you apply two equal and opposite forces to opposite sides
of it, it will deflect. Sometimes that deflection can be seen; sometimes it is so small
that it can't be measured with a micrometer. The size of the deflection depends on
the size of the applied force and the dimensions and properties of the piece of
metal. The amount of deflection caused by a specific force determines the "spring
rate" of the metal piece. Note that all metals (in the solid state) have some amount
of elasticity.
You must expend energy to deflect a spring. The spring stores most of the energy
required to deflect it. When you release a deflected spring, the stored energy can be
recovered.
The term damping is frequently misunderstood. The property of damping enables
an object to DISSIPATE energy, usually by conversion of kinetic (motion) energy
into heat energy. The misnamed automotive device known as a "shock absorber" is
a common example of a damper. If you push on the ends of a fully extended
"shock absorber" (so as to collapse it) the rod moves into the body at a velocity
related to how hard you are pushing. Double the force and the velocity doubles.
When the "shock" is fully collapsed, and you release your hand pressure, nothing
happens (except maybe you drop it). The rod does not spring back out. The energy
(defined as a force applied over a distance) which you expended to collapse the
damper has been converted into heat which is dissipated through the walls of the
shock absorber.
The resonant frequency of an object (or system) is the frequency at which the
system will vibrate if it is excited by a single pulse. As an example, consider a
diving board. When a diver bounces on the end of the board and commences a
dive, the board will continue to vibrate up and down after the diver has left it. The
frequency at which the board vibrates is its resonant frequency, also known as its
natural frequency. Another example is a tuning fork. When struck, a tuning fork
"rings" at its resonant frequency. The legs of the fork have been carefully
manufactured so as to locate their resonant frequency at exactly the acoustic
frequency at which the fork should ring.
The resonant frequency of a system (symbolized "
n
", pronounced "omega-sub-
n") is determined by both the mass properties and the elasticity properties of the
system.
If you increase the mass property or decrease the elasticity property of a system,
the resonant frequency will decrease according to the relationship:

n
= (k/m)
where "k" is the appropriate elasticity value (spring rate) and "m" is the appropriate
mass value.
Note that damping has no effect on the system resonant frequency. Damping
simply dissipates energy from a vibrating system, and thereby limits the amount of
energy which can feed back into the system, and so limits the amount of "out-of-
control" vibration which can occur near resonance.
A waveform is a pictorial representation of a vibration. For illustration purposes,
Figure 1 shows waveform representing the instantaneous torque of a typical 8-
cylinder engine.
The term frequency occurs often in the discussion of vibration. The frequency of a
waveform (torque variation, in this case) is the number of times per second that the
waveform repeats itself, while the order of a waveform is the number of times that
the waveform repeats itself during a particular event (such as one revolution of a
crankshaft).

FIGURE 1
Waveform Example
The waveform shown in Figure 1 is a 4
th
order torsional vibration (four spikes per
rotation). The frequency of the vibration changes with engine RPM. For example,
at 4600 RPM the frequency of the 4
th
order vibration is 307 cycles per second, or
"Hertz" (HZ), the units of cycles per second.
(The frequency value 307 is calculated as follows: 4600 revolutions-per-minute
divided by 60 seconds-per-minute = 76.7 revolutions-per-second, multiplied by 4
pulses-per-revolution = 307 HZ. Using the same arithmetic, the excitation
frequency of a 4
th
-order vibration at 800 RPM is 53 HZ.)

Consider the system represented schematically in Figure 1. It consists of a heavy
flywheel, rigidly mounted on a round shaft. The shaft is supported in a frictionless
bearing at the flywheel end, and rigidly attached to a big strong wall at the opposite
end.

FIGURE 1
Single Degree of Freedom Torsional System
Suppose you grabbed the rim of the flywheel with both hands and twisted it like a
steering wheel. The wheel turns a bit, but the rotation of the wheel is resisted by
the twisting action of the shaft. When shaft has twisted enough to exert the same
resisting torque on the center of the wheel as you are applying to the rim, the wheel
turns no further. As you slowly relax your twisting force, the wheel returns to its
neutral (untwisted) position.
The shaft (if it has not been twisted excessively) has acted like a particular kind of
spring known as a torsion spring or torsion bar. The torsional spring rate of the
shaft can be defined as the amount of torque it takes to twist it one degree
(symbolized by "K
t
"). The torsional rate can be calculated if the dimensions and
material of the shaft are known.
Now suppose you twist the wheel again, but instead of releasing it slowly, you
suddenly let go. What happens? The energy stored in the shaft (torsion spring)
exerts a torque on the flywheel, which accelerates the flywheel toward its neutral
position. When the flywheel reaches the neutral position, the flywheel has reached
its maximum velocity. The shaft has released all its stored energy, and the flywheel
has recovered that energy (which had been stored in the spring) and has stored it as
kinetic (motion) energy.
Because the flywheel is in motion, it continues to rotate past neutral. After the
flywheel passes the neutral position, the shaft begins to deflect again, opposing the
motion of the flywheel, and begins to decelerate it. When the resistance of the shaft
stops the flywheel, it has rotated (theoretically) to the same angular distance past
neutral as when you released it, but in the opposite direction. The shaft has
recovered the wheels kinetic energy and converted it (again) to deflection energy.
The shaft now begins to accelerate the wheel back in the other direction.
This back-and-forth motion of the flywheel and shaft is an example of torsional
vibration. In an idealized world, this vibration goes on forever. In the real world,
there is always some energy lost, so the vibration eventually stops (there are no
practical frictionless bearings, and springs have some amount of hysteresis loss,
and everyone knows about aerodynamic drag).
In this example, we are interested in how many times per second (how frequently)
the wheel oscillates (cycles) back and forth. That frequency is the resonant
frequency of the torsional system. The value of the resonant frequency can be
calculated if you know two values: (1) the torsional rate of the shaft (K
t
) and (2)
the mass moment of inertia (MMOI) of the flywheel (symbolized "J
m
").
The MMOI of a flywheel is a calculated value, related to it's weight, which takes
into account how far the weight is concentrated from the center of rotation. The
MMOI is a measure of how difficult it is to accelerate or decelerate the flywheel,
and can be thought of as "FLYWHEEL EFFECT".
Now suppose the J
m
and the K
t
of the system pictured in Figure 1 are such that the
resonant frequency is one cycle per second (1.0 HZ). Also suppose that the we get
a Very Coordinated Person to apply a 10 LB. yank on the flywheel rim, in the
direction the wheel is starting to move, every time it changes direction (every half-
second). The input from the VCP has changed the system into what is known as a
Forced Vibration System. The 10-LB. yank every half-second is called a driving
force, or an excitation force.
Now what will happen to the system? Because it is being driven at its resonant
frequency and is essentially without damping, the number of degrees the flywheel
moves will increase with every oscillation until the weakest part of the system
(perhaps the shaft, perhaps the attachment of the shaft to the wall, perhaps the
attachment of the flywheel to the shaft) fails. This situation is an example of
undamped, forced vibration at resonance. It is a system which is out of control.
The study of forced vibration systems shows that when the excitation force is
sinusoidal (in the shape of a sine wave) and is periodic (repeats itself over and
over), then the system will vibrate at the frequency of the excitation.

Figure 1 shows the torsional excitation generated by an even-fire 8-cylinder engine
(explained in ENGINE TORSIONAL EXCITATION). This is a "fourth order"
excitation, which at an 800 RPM idle, produces 53 pulses per second (Hz), and at
5000 RPM, produces 333 pulses per second (Hz). Note that the four torque peaks
are nearly twice as high as the mean torque produced by the engine (the torque
measured by the dynamometer).

FIGURE 1
One might think it would be sufficient to design a PSRU to sustain the loads
produced by the input torque peaks. However, depending on the resonant
frequencies of the engine-PSRU-propeller system, the PSRU and the propeller can
be subjected to vibratory forces many times HIGHER than the peaks produced by
the engine. The following discussion explains how that can happen. (The
fundamentals of vibration are presented in Vibration Basics and Torsional
Vibration Overview.)
The ratio between the amplitude of the excitation torque (the size of the pulses)
and the amplitude of the output torque is expressed by a value called
transmissibility. For the Engine-PSRU-Prop system, the engine torque variation (as
shown in Figure 1) multiplied by the transmissibility equals the torque variation
applied to the PSRU, which is then multiplied by the gear ratio and applied to the
prop.
Figure 2 shows how transmissibility changes with excitation frequency and with
damping. The horizontal axis is frequency ratio (r), which is the excitation
frequency divided by the resonant frequency. The symbol "" shows the amount
of damping in the system. =0 is none, =2 is a lot.

FIGURE 2
The different curves in Figure 2 show how transmissibility will change as the
excitation frequency changes from zero to seven times the resonant frequency, and
with different amounts of damping. Note that at r=1 (resonance) the system with
no damping (=0) allows the transmissibility to become huge (theoretically
infinite).
Notice that all the curves in Figure 2 have the same transmissibility at r = 0 (which
is completely obvious) and at r = 1.414 (which is 2 and is easily proven with the
governing equation). The point at which all the curves go from amplification (T >
1) to suppression (T < 1) is called the crossover point.
Note that below crossover, the more damping the system has, the less the input
waveform will be amplified, but amplified it will still be. Understand this: No
matter how much damping is added, if the engine-PRSU-Propeller system is
operating below crossover, the PSRU (thus the gears, shafts and propeller) feels
torque pulses greater than what the engine produces. If operation below crossover
is unavoidable, then adding damping significantly reduces the amplification around
resonance. However, it is very important to notice that as you add DAMPING to
the system, the pulse suppression which is available above crossover is
dramatically reduced. Then, if you really need the band-aid of damping, it can be
problem to implement that damping in a reliable manner, and to cool it.
Remember: dampers convert motion energy to heat energy.
The following example shows the practical implications of transmissibility in a
PSRU system. Figure 3 shows the transmissibility curves of two different PSRU
systems for the same V-8 engine and propeller. The first-mode resonant frequency
for one system (red line) is at 450 RPM; the other (blue line) is at 3700 RPM.

FIGURE 3
In order to examine the effect those different resonance points have on gear and
propeller loads, let's determine the torque variation seen by the PSRU in each
system while being driven at 4000 RPM by an engine such as the one shown in
Figure 1 (625 lb.-ft. mean torque, with peaks of 1235 lb.-ft. and valleys of 68 lb.-
ft.).
First, consider the system with the resonant frequency at 3700 RPM. At 4000
RPM, the transmissibility is 5.93, which means the engine torque pulses (from 68
to 1235 lb-ft) are amplified nearly 6 times before reaching the PSRU, and range
from valleys of -2678 lb-ft. to peaks of +4243 lb-ft. It is easy to see why this
gearbox and prop did not last very long.
Now consider the system with the resonant frequency at 450 RPM. At 4000 RPM,
the transmissibility is .013. That means the engine torque pulses (which range from
68 to 1235 lb-ft) are nearly erased. The torque which is applied to the PRSU varies
from a low of 618 to a peak of 633 lb-ft. This is "turbine-smooth".
In order to design and evaluate Engine-PSRU-Propeller systems, EPI has
implemented several proprietary computer programs which assist us in the design
of our proprietary coupling system which has transmissibility numbers below 0.10
in the normal operating ranges (nearer to 0.010 at cruise and takeoff power
settings). This coupling system takes into account the properties of the whole
powerplant (engine, gearbox, reduction ratio, propeller characteristics) in order to
locate the system first mode resonant frequency well below engine idle speed.
One of the most useful of that suite is our program which calculates, with great
accuracy, the effective engine MMOI values from data which include the
crankshaft stroke and weight, number of journals, bobweight value, and the
dimensions of the flywheel, torsional absorber, and accessories. That program uses
known measured values from the industry as a validity cross-check.

THERMODYNAMICS
Thermodynamics is the science that deals with the relationship between heat
and work. Thermodynamics is the study of 3 E's Energy, Equilibrium and Entropy.

System:

It is a definite quantity of matter of fixed mass and identity bounded by
a closed surface. All things other than the system is surroundings ( Both space
and matter ). There are three types of systems.
1. Closed system - There is no mass transfer between the system and
surroundings. But their is energy transfer. E.g.. compression of a gas in
a piston cylinder.
2. Open system - Both mass and energy transfer takes place. It is classified
3. Isolated system - No mass and no energy transfer takes place. E.g. All
subsystem of a power producing system
Sorroundings:
All things other than the system that are outside the wall that interact
with the system in question is called as surroundings. There are different
types of walls that are used to separate the system from the surroundings.
They are rigid wall, diathermal wall and adiabatic walls. A rigid wall does not
permit the volume of the system to change. A diathermal wall is one that will
make it possible for the system to communicate thermally with its
surroundings. Two systems separated with a diathermal wall is said to be in
thermal contact. An adiabatic wall is the one that is impermeable to thermal
energy. Such a wall cuts of the thermal interaction between between a system
and surroundings.
Properties:

Properties are used to identify the state of the system and solely dependent
upon the state of system and not upon how the state was reached. A quantity is a
property if it has a exact differential. A quantity can be called a property of the
system if the changes in the value between two equilibrium states of system is
same. Properties may be directly observable or indirectly observable characteristic
of a system. Two properties, namely the temperature and entropy are unique to
thermodynamics. There are two types of properties. They are
- Extensive state properties: Here the value of entire system is equal to sum
of the values of the parts of the system. They are dependent upon the
mass. E.g.. Total Volume, total energy
- Intensive state properties: The value of the entire system is not equal to
the sum of the parts of the system. These properties are not dependent
upon the mass. E.g.. Temperature, pressure, Density etc.
Path and point functions :
This is with reference to a system being
taken from state 1 to 2. There may be any three
quasi static process A, B, and C. Area below the
curve gives the amount of work involved in each
case.
Thus the value of work depends upon the
path and not on the end state of the process. Hence
work ( and also heat ) are path functions. On the contrary thermodynamic property
are point functions. These are definite values for a given state. The change in
property is independent of the path and depends on only the initial and final states (
Exact differential )

Process:

Whenever a system undergoes a change, process is said to have taken
place. There are different types of process. They are
1. Reversible process: Is the one in which both the system and surroundings
return to their original state. All real time process are irreversible. Process
are irreversible due to turbulence, temperature gradient and Friction. In a
reversible process there should be no viscous force or coulomb friction in
the system
2. Cyclic Process: The end states are identical. The system undergoes a series
of change and returns to original condition.
3. Quasi-static Process: The system departs from the equilibrium condition
only infinitesimally.
4. Adiabatic Process : There is no heat flow between the system and
surroundings. ( = 0 )
Work and Heat:

Work is the energy in transition in which the energy flows from the system
to the surroundings.

Heat is the energy in transition which flows from one body to another body
on account of the temperature difference between the two bodies. Unit of heat is
Joule

Both the Heat and work are Transient Phenomena, Boundary Phenomena
and Path functions.
Derivation for displacement work:
This derivation is valid only for quasi static
process. Consider a cylinder of area 'a' and length of
the piston is 'l'. The piston moves due to gas
pressure. Between section 1 and 2, the value of
pressure and volume is P and V. When the piston
moves the force acting on the piston is
F = pressure x area = P.a
Work done = Force x distance moved = F.dl = P.a.dl
We know that area x length = volume. Hence a.dl = v. Thus the above
equation for work done becomes P.v. Thus when a piston moves from 1 to 2 the
amount of work done is given by dw = Pdv
Internal energy:

A system undergoes a change of state in which both heat transfer and work
transfer are involve. The net energy accumulated is stored in the system. It is
denoted by the symbol U, it includes all form of energy other than kinetic and
potential energy.

Q - Heat to the system.
W - Work from the system.
( Q - W ) is the net energy stored in the system.

This ( Q - W ) is neither heat or work and is given the name, internal energy
of system. The internal energy is just a form of energy like the potential energy of
an object at some height above the earth, or the kinetic energy of an object in
motion. In the same way that potential energy can be converted to kinetic energy
while conserving the total energy of the system, the internal energy of a
thermodynamic system can be converted to either kinetic or potential energy. Like
potential energy, the internal energy can be stored in the system.
Entropy:

Entropy means transformation. It increases with the addition of heat and
vice versa. Change in entropy can be defined. Over a small range the increase or
decrease in entropy when multiplied with absolute temperature, gives the heat
absorbed or heat rejected. For any reversible process, the change in Entropy of
system and surroundings is Zero.

Entropy is the index of unavailability of energy. Energy that goes down the
sink is less available for any useful work. Entropy changes are accompanied by
heat transfers. But may also take place with out the transfer of heat. In a
reversible process, if the entropy of the system increases, then the entropy of
surroundings decreases by a equal amount. Entropy is a property like T and V.

Change in entropy of a system along two equilibrium states can be obtained
by taking the system along any reversible path connecting the states, dividing the
heat added at each point with the temperature and summing the quotients.
Energy:

It is the capacity to produce effect. There are two types of energy. They
are stored energy ( E.g.. Potential energy, Kinetic energy and Internal energy ) and
Transient energy ( Heat, work and electric energy ).

Power:
The rate of energy transfer is called as power. The unit is watts. 1 W = 1
J/s = 1 Nm/s

Throttling :

The fluid expands from high pressure to low pressure without doing any
work. There is no change in KE and PE. Hence there is no heat transfer.

Nozzles and Diffusers:

Nozzles increases the kinetic energy of flowing fluid by creating a pressure
drop. But in diffusers, the pressure is increased and Kinetic energy is decreased.

Carnot's Cycle:

It is a reversible cycle in which the ideal gas receives heat at one
temperature and rejects heat at another temperature. There are 2 isothermal and 2
reversible adiabatic process. Efficiency of carnots cycle is given by
= W / Qa = ( Qa - Qr ) / Qa
Enthalpy:

Of a substance is defined as the sum of internal energy and flow work. h =
u + pv.

Graham's Law of Diffusion of Gas:

It states that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to square
root of density.
Laws In Thermodynamics:

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics:

If two bodies are in equilibrium with a third body, then the two bodies are
in equilibrium with each other. Through this concept, the temperature of the
system may be measured by bringing it into thermal equilibrium with a
thermometer. Following the conversion factors between various temperatures.
R = F + 459.67
K = C + 273.15
K = 1.8 R

First Law of Thermodynamics:

This law deals with conservation of energy, which states that energy can
neither be created not destroyed, but can be changed from one form to another.

Whenever a system under goes a cyclic change the algebraic sum of work
transfer is proportional to the algebraic sum of heat transfer. Work and heat are
inter convertible.

First law could be said as law of internal energy. However the drawback
in this law is that it does not tell anything about direction of heat flow.

Second Law of Thermodynamics:

For an isolated system, only those processes can take place for which the
entropy of the system increases or remains constant. Second law could be called as
law of entropy. In this there are two statements.
Lord Kelvin and Max Planck's statement of the Second Law: It is
impossible to construct a device operating in a cycle for the sole purpose of
extracting heat from a reservoir and changing it into an equal amount of work
without rejecting a part of the heat. i.e. it is impossible to devise a machine that
converts 100% of heat into work. i.e. The universe is cooling down.
Clausius' statement of the Second Law: It is impossible to construct a
device that operating in a cycle will produce no effect other than the transfer of
heat from a cooler to a hotter body. The spontaneous flow of heat from a colder
body to a hotter body is impossible.

Third Law of Thermodynamics:

It introduces the concept of absolute entropy. It states that the total entropy
of pure substances approaches 0
o
as the absolute temperature approaches 0
o
. ( It is
impossible to reach the absolute zero of temperature in any physical process. )
Thermodynamic Equilibrium:
When a collection of matter experiences no more changes in all its
properties, then it is in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. But a real system is
never in equilibrium. To attain thermodynamic equilibrium, Mechanical,
Chemical and Thermal equilibrium should first be obtained. When a system has
no unbalanced force within it and when the force its exerts on its boundary is
balanced by external force, the system is said to be in Mechanical equilibrium.
When the temperature of the system is uniform throughout and is equal to the
temperature of the surroundings, the system is said to be in thermal equilibrium.
When the chemical composition of a system will remain unchanged, the system is
said to be in chemical equilibrium.
Thermodynamic reservoirs:
There are three different types of thermodynamic reservoirs. They are
work reservoir, heat reservoir and Matter reservoir.
Work reservoir:
It is a device that we may employ to keep track of the amount of work done
by or done to a given thermodynamic system. It is a body in which every unit of
energy crossing the boundary is work energy. A work reservoir might be
visualized as a perfectly elastic spring that is compressed by the work done on it by
a system, or as a weight that is raised as the system does work upon the reservoir
and lowered as the reservoir does not work on the system.
Heat reservoir:
It serves as a heat source or heat sink, in the analysis of thermodynamic
problems. It can be considered as a body with large energy capacity so that its
temperature remains constant when heat flows into or out of it. The atmosphere
around the earth and the ocean may be considered as heat reservoirs.
Matter reservoir:
Matter, as well as heat and work can cross the boundary of an open system,
the surroundings of an open system may be imagined to contain only heat and
work reservoirs but also one or more matter reservoirs to supply and receive
matter. A matter reservoir is considered to be sufficiently larger than the system so
that the reservoir itself remains in a given equilibrium state. The atmosphere
around the earth may be considered as a matter reservoir supplying air to the
engines of our automobiles and to air separation plants.
Important Thermodynamic Process:
The below mentioned process uses the concept of AU = Q - W
Process
Significance /
Example
Implications
Pictorial
Representation
Isobaric
Process
Pressure is
Constant (AP = 0)
Gas heated in a
cylinder fitted with
a movable
frictionless piston.
The pressure the
atmosphere and the
pressure due to the
weight of the
piston remains
constant as the gas
heats up and
expands.
AU is zero in a constant
pressure process. For
an ideal gas, constant
pressure work is W = v
PdV = PAV
Heat that flows into the
system causes the
temperature to rise. Q =
m C
p
AT = mR( T
2
- T
1

)

Isothermal
Process
Temperature is
constant (AT = 0)
The gas in a
cylinder is
compressed slowly
enough that heat
flows out of the gas
at the same rate at
which is being
For an Ideal gas U is a
function of the
temperature, Hence
AU is zero since AT =
0. Since AU = 0 then W
= Q.
P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2
= nRT,
for an isothermal

done on the gas. process.
Work done W = PV ln(
V
2
/V
1
) which is also
the equation for Q.
Isochoric
process
Volume is constant
(AV = 0)
Heating of a gas in
a rigid, closed
container.
No work is done on the
gas because W = v PdV
= v P ( 0 ) = 0. This
implies that AU = Q =
m C
v
AT.
V
1
= V
2
= nRT
1
/P
1
=
nRT
2
/P
2
, the ideal gas
law for constant
volume process.

process
No heat flows into
or out of the
system ( Q = 0 )
Compression of a
Gas in an Insulated
Cylinder.
AU = W ( Since Q = 0 ).
Hence any
temperature rise or fall
is due to the work done
or by the gas alone.
W = (P
1
V
1
- P
2
V
2
) / ( -
1)

Isentropic
process (
Rev.
process )
Entropy is constant
( AS = 0)
A heat engine in
which the working
fluid undergoes an
cyclic process.
Any isentropic process
AU = v dQ/T and Q = 0.
However, not all
isentropic.
For a reversible heat
engine, not only the
change in entropy of
the working fluid must

be zero but also AU of
the environment (heat
reservoirs) must also be
zero.
Polytropic
process
PV
n
is constant
Compression or
Expansion of a gas
in a real system
such as a Turbine.
n = 0 for Isobaric
process since PV
0
= P =
constant.
n = 1 for Isothermal
process since PV
1
= PV
= NKT = constant.
n = 0 for Isovolumetric
process and
process.

Specific Heat:

It is the heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of substance by
one degree. There are two types, they are specific heat at constant volume ( Cv
)and Specific heat at constant pressure ( Cp ). Its unit is J/Kg/K

For air Cp = 0.24 J/Kg/K and Cv = 0.171 J/Kg/K

The ratio of Cp / Cv = Gamma. and Cp - Cv = R / j

Gas Laws:
There are 5 gas laws. All perfect gases obey all gas laws under all
conditions of pressure and temperature.
1. Boyle's law : At constant temperature PV = C. The magnitude of C depends
upon the volume of the gas.
2. Charles lay : At constant pressure V T.
3. Gay - Lussac law : At constant volume P T.
4. Joules law : Change of internal energy is directly proportional to the change
in temperature.
5. Avagadro law : Equal volumes of all gases under the same pressure and
temperature contain equal number of molecules.
Ideal Gas Real Gas
Obeys the equation of state at all
conditions of pressure and temperature.
Obeys the equation of state at all
conditions of Pressure and temperature,
except at the point where Pressure
approaches absolute Zero.
The gases cannot be liquefied or
solidified
Can be solidified and liquefied.
Specific heat values are constant Not so, Varies with temperature and
pressure.

Ideal gas equation : PV = mRT where
P is in N / m
2
V is in m
3
T is in K R is gas constant in
Nm / Kg
o
K
Following are the assumptions for a ideal gas
- Molecules occupy a negligible volume fraction.
- Long range forces of attraction between the particles are negligible.
Assumptions of Kinetic Theory
- Large number of molecules ~ their motion can be treated statistically.
- Molecules are in continuous and rapid motion which is random, colliding
with each other and the walls of the vessel very frequently, the collision
being elastic.
- Pressure originates from the summation of large number of reacting forces
as the molecules bounce off the walls.
Combustion chamber:
Combustion Chambers convert the chemical energy stored in a liquid or
gaseous fuel to an enthalpy increase in the gas passing through them. Usually, the
gas is air, but it could be any gas with the proper components to react with the fuel.
A combustion chamber requires one initial spark to begin the combustion of the
fuel in the chamber. After that, the chamber will function as long as it has fresh
fuel and gas. The fuel combusts, or burns, in the chamber. This combustion
releases large amounts of energy to be absorbed by the gas. This increases the
temperature and enthalpy of the gas.
ominal size:
The size designation used for general identification. The nominal size of a
shaft and a hole are the same. This value is often expressed as a fraction.
Basic size:
The exact theoretical size of a part. This is the value from which limit
dimensions are computed. Basic size is a four decimal place equivalent to the
nominal size. The number of significant digits imply the accuracy of the
dimension.
example: nominal size = 1 1/4
basic size = 1.2500
Design size:
The ideal size for each component (shaft and hole) based upon a selected
fit. The difference between the design size of the shaft and the design size of the
hole is equal to the allowance of the fit. The design size of a part corresponds to
the Maximum Material Condition (MMC). That is, the largest shaft permitted by
the limits and the smallest hole. Emphasis is placed upon the design size in the
writing of the actual limit dimension, so the design size is placed in the top
position of the pair.
Tolerance:
The total amount by which a dimension is allowed to vary. For fractional
linear dimensions we have assumed a bilateral tolerance of 1/64 inch. For the fit of
a shaft/hole combination, the tolerance is considered to be unilateral, that is, it is
only applied in one direction from design size of the part. Standards for limits and
fits state that tolerances are applied such that the hole size can only vary larger
from design size and the shaft size smaller.
Basic hole system:
Most common system for limit dimensions. In this system the design size
of the hole is taken to be equivalent to the basic size for the pair (see above). This
means that the lower (in size) limit of the hole dimension is equal to design size.
The basic hole system is more frequently used since most hole generating devices
are of fixed size (for example, drills, reams, etc.) When designing using purchased
components with fixed outer diameters (bearings, bushings, etc.) a basic shaft
system may be used.
Allowance:
The allowance is the intended difference in the sizes of mating parts. This
allowance may be: positive (indicated with a "+" symbol), which means there is
intended clearance between parts; negative("-"), for intentional interference: or
"zero allowance" if the two parts are intended to be the "same size".
Base and Supplementary Units
Quantity Unit Symbol
Length meter m
Mass kilogram kg
Time second s
Electric current ampere A
Thermodynamic
temperature
Kelvin
K
Luminous intensity candela cd
Molecular substance mole mol
Derived Units
Quantity Unit Symbol
Space and Time
Area square meter m
Volume cubic meter m
Velocity meter per second m/s
Acceleration meter per second per
second
m/s
Angular acceleration radian per second per
second
Frequency hertz Hz (cycle/s)
Rotational speed revolution per second
revolution per minute
r/s
r/m
Mechanics
Density kilogram per cubic
meter
kg/m
Momentum kilogram meter per
second
kg m/s
Moment of inertia kilogram meter squared kg m
Force newton N (kg m/s)
Torque, moment of force newton meter N m
Energy, work, heat quantity joule J (N m)
Power watt W (J/s)
Pressure, stress pascal Pa (N/m)
Heat
Customary temperature degree Celsius C
Thermal conductivity watt per meter Kelvin W/(m K)
Entropy joule per Kelvin J/K
Specific heat joule per kilogram
Kelvin
J/(kg K)
Light
Luminous flux lumen lm (cd sr)
Illumination lux lx (lm/m)
Luminance candela per square
meter
cd/m
Viscosity
Kinematic viscosity square meter per second m/s
Dynamic (absolute) viscosity pascal second Pa s

Quantity Equivalent Dimensions S.I. units
Mass M
Kilogram
(kg)
Length L Metre (m)
Time T Second (s)
Frequency cycles/unit time T
-1
Hertz (Hz)
Area length x width L
2
m
2

Volume length x height x width L
3
m
3

Density Mass/unit volume ML
-3
kg/m
3

Velocity Distance/unit time LT
-1
m/s
Acceleration Velocity/unit time LT
-2
m/s
2

Force mass x acceleration MLT
-2
Newton
Weight
mass x gravitational
acceleration
MLT
-2
Kilogram
Pressure or
Stress
force/unit area ML
-1
T
-2

Pascal
(Pa)
Moment of
Inertia
mass x length
2
ML
2
kg m
2

Work force x distance ML
2
T
-2
Joule (J)
Energy Work capacity ML
2
T
-2
Joule (J)
Potential
Energy
mass x gravitational
acceleration x height
raised
ML
2
T
-2
Joule (J)
Kinetic
Energy
1/2 mass x velocity
2
ML
2
T
-2
Joule (J)
Power Work/unit time ML
2
T
-3
Watt (W)
Momentum Mass x velocity MLT
-1

CONVERSIONS
Millibar (mb): 1 mb = 100 Pa; 1 Pa = 0.01 mb
Celsius:
o
C = K 273.15; K =
o
C + 273.15
Fahrenheit:
o
F = 9/5(
o
C) + 32;
o
C = 5/9(
o
F-32)
USEFUL NUMERICAL CONSTANTS
Universal Gas Constant (R) 8.3143 J K
-1
mol
-1

Stefan-Boltzmann constant (o) 56.696 x 10
-9
W m
-2
K
-4

Planck constant (h) 0.66262 x 10
-33
J s
Velocity of light (c) 299.8 x 10
6
m s
-1

Wiens constant 2897 m
Acceleration due to gravity 9.80665 m s
-2

Molecular weight of dry air 28.97 g mol
-1

Density of dry air 1.209 kg m
-3

Specific heat of air at constant pressure (C
p
) 1004 J K
-1
kg
-1

Gas constant for dry air (R
d
) 287 J kg
-1
K
-1

Standard atmospheric pressure 101.3 kPa
Gas constant for water vapor (R
v
) 461 J kg
-1
K
-1

Specific heat of water vapor at constant pressure 1952 J K
-1
kg
-1

AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING
Automobile is a self propelled vehicle. Steam engines are external
combustion engines.
IC Engines Steam Engines
Easy to start and Stop. Takes time, not so easy.
Lighter Heavier
A small tank is sufficient. A boiler is needed to store water
and produce steam.
In a IC engine, because of heat the gas expands but volume remains
constant and hence temperature raises.

Fuel feed system :
Petrol Engines:
There are two types of fuel pumps. They are mechanical and electrical fuel
pumps. It contains the following parts
- Fuel tank, Pump, filter
- Carburetor,
- Intake manifold and
- Gauge to indicate the driver the fuel level in fuel tank.
Diesel Engines:
There are two methods of fuel injection. They are air blast injection and
Airless or solid injection. It contains the following parts.
- Fuel tank, Filter
- Injection pump,
- Injector and
- Fuel gauge.
Super Charging:

The process of supplying to the engine the A / F mixture above the
atmospheric pressure is called as super charging. The following are the objectives
of super charging.
- To reduce the weight / Horse power.
- To reduce the space occupied by engine.
- To maintain power at high altitudes where less oxygen is available as in
aircrafts.
Governors:

In SI engines carburetor are responsible for delivering the proper mixture of
air and petrol. But in CI engines it is achieved by Governors.

Exhaust silencers:
As the exhaust valve opens, high pressure exhaust gas is released which
causes pressure wave in the air producing noise. The noise frequencies are 50 -
500 Hz and 3000 to 10000 Hz. To reduce noise engine exhaust is connected to a
silencer or a muffler. Various type of mufflers are Baffle type, wave cancellation
type, resonance type, absorber type and combined resonance and absorber type.
Baffle types are less efficient. Length of gas paths are so adjusted such that
crest of one wave coincides with the trough of another wave canceling each other.
This type of muffler does not eliminate noise completely. Gas flowing through
Resonance muffler does not experience high resistance. Series of resonators
reduce the noise of the fundamental and higher harmonics. Sound absorbing
materials are kept surrounding the perorated tube through which the exhaust gases
pass. During high pressure fluctuations the gases pass through the perforations to
the sound absorbing materials, when these fluctuations are reduced and thus the
noise gets reduced in intensity. The silencers may be straight flow type or reverse
flow type.
Air Cleaner:

The intake air should be cleaned if it contains dirt and dust, it will damage
the engine. It acts as inlet system silencer and arrests flame due to back firing if
any. It is mounted at the air entrance of carburetor. The following are the different
types
1. Oil bath type - The filter contains a filter element wetted with oil. At the
bottom there is a separate oil pan. Air from the atmosphere enters through
circumferential gap. Air hits oil in the oil pan. Large dust particles are
removed. then air passes through filler element. Further cleaning takes
place. Then the air enters the engine. Maximum efficiency of oil bath type
air cleaners is about 98%. Oil bath air cleaners can be designed with
centrifugal pre-cleaners.
2. Dry type - In this the filter element is paper or felt. Felt filters are not
efficient as paper filters. But are more efficient than oil bath air filters.
paper filters can be as efficient as 99.99%.
3. Oil wetted type.
4. Paper pleated type and
5. Centrifugal type.
Engine Cooling:

In IC engine the temperature of the gases inside the cylinder vary from 35o
C to 2750o C during the cycle. Obviously at such high temperature the metals will
loose their characteristic and piston will expand the seize the liner. An efficient
cooling system removes 30 - 35 % of heat generated. Too much heat removal will
reduce efficiency. There are 4 types of cooling. They are
1. Air cooling
2. Water cooling
3. Liquid cooling and
4. Stream cooling.
Lubrication:

It is applied between the moving parts. It is necessary to reduce wear and
tear, reduce friction and also acts as a cooling medium. A lubricant should possess
the following important properties.
Flash point : The lowest temperature at which the oil will flash when a small
flame is passed across the surface. It happens due to the volatilization of liquid
particles in the oil.
Fire point : When the oil is further heated after flash point, the oil will burn
continuously.
Cloud point : When the oil is cooled it becomes solidified and becomes cloudy at
this point.
Lubrication system:

Following are the different types of lubrication system.
1. Petrol system
2. Splash system.
3. Pressure system
4. Semi pressure system and
5. Dry sump system.
Following are the parts of lubricating system.
1. Oil tank
2. Pump ( Gear pump, Rotor pump, plunger pump and Vane pump )
3. Cooler
4. Oil pressure gauge and
5. Oil level indicator.
Battery:

It constitutes the electrical system. It needed to start the engines. There are
three types of batteries. They are lead alkaline batteries, Alkaline batteries and
Zinc air batteries.

Ignition System:

It supplies a high voltage of 30000 Volts across a small gap in spark plug.
The ignition system contains a battery, switch ignition distribution, ignition coil,
spark plug and necessary wings. There are two types. They are battery and
Magneto ignition system.
Battery Ignition Magneto Ignition
Current is obtained from
battery.
Current from magneto.
Less costly. More costly.
Good sparking even at low
speeds.
Poor sparking at high speeds.
Gear Boxes:
Functions of gear box:
It allows the engine to run at different speeds to maintain its power and
regulate its torque. Gear box is essential when the vehicle is to be reversed.
Types of gear boxes:
- Sliding mesh gear box,
- Constant mesh gear box
- Synchro mesh gear box and
- Planetary gear box.
Epicyclic gear box:
It is a speed gearbox also known as sun and planet gearbox. In these gear
boxes on sliding dogs or gears are provided to engage the gears. Tightening the
brake bands on the gear drums performs changing the gear. It consists of a ring
gear and planer gears with a carrier. Any one of them can be held from rotation by
means of brake bands for obtaining different speeds.
Dead axles only support the wheels but do not transmit any power. While a
live axle apart from supporting the wheels also transmits torque to the rear wheels.
Axle breather:
In order to maintain the pressure of oil in the rear axle, so that the oil is not
forced past the oil seal, an axle breather is used. This increase in pressure is
caused by expansion of air due to heat from the gears. The axle breather is placed
in axle casing.
Reverse shaft in gear box:
This shaft is used to reverse the direction of drive by bringing into the mesh
the larger gear wheel on the main shaft with the lay shaft is known as reverse shaft.
Functions of differential gear:
Is to keep both the rear wheels at the same speed in straight travel and make
the outer rear wheel to rotate faster than the inner one during turn.
Forces on rear axle:
The axle shaft transmits drive from the differential to the rear hub. The
various stresses to be resisted by these shafts are
- Bending stress due to the weight of the vehicle.
- Torsional stresses due to driving and bracing torque.
- Shear forces due to vehicle weight.
- Tensile and compressive stresses due to side thrusts or cornering forces.
Brakes:
There are different types of brakes in automobiles. They are Mechanical,
Hydraulic, pneumatic, vacuum, electrical and combined vacuum and hydraulic.
Molded pulp, compressed fabric, woven and impregnated asbestos sheet are used
as brake liners.
Requirements of braking fluid: Following are the requirements of a braking fluid.
- It must have a high boiling point and low freezing point.
- It must be chemically stable.
- It must remain fluid at low temperatures but must retain good film strength
at high temperature.
- It must have good lubricating properties.
- It must be non-corrosive and must not attack rubber or metallic parts.
Braking requirements of a vehicle:
- Application of brakes should bring he vehicle to a relatively quick stop on
- The braking system components must require minimum maintenance.
- The pedal effort required to produce maximum deceleration should be
negligible and should not vary with condition of the road.
- The braking action should not involve and noise, or drift the vehicle away
from its desired path.
- Provisions for quick heat dissipation must be incorporated.
The leading shoe is the first shoe after the cam in the direction of rotation.
The friction between the shoe and the drum pushes the tip of the leading shoe
harder in contact with the drum and pushes it off at its toe, where as the trailing
shoe tip is throw away off the brake drum, as the drum rotates against.
Fading of brakes: Higher vehicle speeds give rise to excessive temperatures during
braking.. Such a high temperature results in fast wear of the lining and brake fade
i.e. heat temporarily changes the friction properties of the brake linings and brake
Tyres:

They are mounted on wheel rims to carry load and provide a cushioning
effect. There are two types of Tyres. They are tubed tyres and tubeless tyres.
MECHANICS OF MACHINES

Plane Motion:

When the motion may be confined to one plane then it is called as plane
motion. There are two types
1. rectilinear motion - In rectilinear the motion is along a straight path.
2. curvilinear motion - It is in circular path.
Simple Harmonic Motion ( SHM ):

For a body to execute SHM, it should satisfy the following two conditions.
1. Its acceleration is always directed towards the center called as the mean
position.
2. The acceleration is proportional to the distance from that point.
The following are the basic concepts to be worth noting.

Amplitude: Maximum displacement of a body from its mean position.
Time Period: Is the time taken for the complete revolution. Tp = 2
Frequency: Number of cycles per second.

Center of Percussion:

Also called as the center of oscillation. It is the point at which a blow may
be struck on a suspended body so that the reaction at the support is zero.

Simple Mechanisms:

Structure:

It is an assemblage of a number of members having no relative motion
between them and are meant for carrying loads. E.g.. Bridge, Truss and Machine
Frames.

Difference Between a Machine and Structure:

* In machines, the parts move relative to one another, but in structure, it is not
so.
* Machine transforms energy to useful work, but in structure there is no such
things.
* Links in machines transmit power and motion. But links of structure transmit
force.

Types of Motion

1. Completely Constrained Motion: In this the motion is limited to a definite
direction, irrespective of direction of force. E.g.. Piston and cylinder
2. Incompletely Constrained Motion: Here the motion between a pair takes place
in more than one direction.
3. Successfully Constrained Motion: When the motion between the elements is
such that the completed constrained motion is not completed by itself, but a
external source. E.g.: Shaft in a foot bearing.

Kinematics Pair:

Two elements in contact in a machine is called a pair. If the relative motion
between them is completely constrained, then it is called kinematic pair.

Classification of Kinematic Pairs:

a. Sliding Pair :- Piston and cylinder ( Example of CCM )
b. Turning Pair :- Two elements of a pair are such that one element turns about
the fixed axis of another element.
c. Rolling Pair :- One element rolls over another fixed element. E.g.. Roller and Ball
bearing.
d. Screw Pair :- One element can turn about the other by means of screw threads
E.g.. Bold and nut.
e. Spherical Pair :- One element is spherical in shape, turns or swivels about
another fixed element. E.g.. Car mirror attachment.

Lower Pair:- When two elements of a pair have surface contact during relative
motion, then it is called as lower pair. E.g.. Sliding, shaft in bearings, turning and
Screw pairs.

Higher Pair:- When two elements in the pair have line or point contact when
relative motion takes place and the relative motion between them is partly
turning and sliding then it is a higher pair.

E.g.. - Belt and rope drives.
- Cam and
- Ball and roller Bearings.

Kinematic Chain: When the kinematic pairs are coupled in such a way that the
last link is joined to the first link to transmit definite motion. It is a combination of
kinematic pairs, joined in such a way that each link forms a part of the pair and
the relative motion between the links is in CCM or SCM.

Mechanism:

When one link in a kinematic pair is fixed then the chain is called a
mechanism. It is used for transmitting or transforming motion. A simple
mechanism contains around four links and a complex mechanism contains more

Friction:

Laws of Dynamic Friction:
- Force of friction always acts opposite to direction of motion.
- For moderate speed, force of friction is constant but decreases slightly at
higher speeds.
Laws of Fluid Friction:
- Friction force reduces with increase in temperature.
- The force of friction is different for different lubrication substance.
Screw friction:

threads are stronger and offer more frictional resistance to motion. V-Threads are
used in nuts and bolts. Square threads are used in Screw jacks.

Simple Pendulum:
In its simples form this type of pendulum has a heavy bob, suspended at the
end of a light inextensible, flexible string and the other end of the string is rigidly
fixed to wall. 'm' is the mass of the bob and 'l' is the length of string. Following
laws of simple pendulum are important.
1. Law of isochronism: It states that the time period (t) of simple pendulum
does not depend on its amplitude of vibrations, and remain the same
provided the angular acceleration does not exceed 4.
2. Law of mass: States that the time period of a simple pendulum does not
depend upon the mass of the body suspended at the free end of the string.
3. Law of length: states that the time period of a simple pendulum is
proportional to \ l, where l is the length of the string.
4. Law of gravity: states that the time period of simple pendulum is inversely
proportional to \ g.
Hence the time period t = 2 t\ l / g
Belt Drives:

Belts are used to transmit power from one shaft to another by means of a
pulley. When the driver rotates, it carries the belt due to grip between its surface
and the belt. The belt in turn carries, the driven pulley which starts rotating. The
grip between the pulley and the belt is obtained by friction. This friction grip if
required is increased by tightening the belt. The amount of power transmitted
depends upon
1. Tension under the belt.
2. Velocity of belt. and
3. Arc of contact.
Leather, Rubber, cotton and Balata are the materials used for belt. Flat
belt, V-Belt and round belt are the different types of belt. The following are the
common terms used in belts.

Slip: This is caused because of less friction. The effect is that, it educes the overall
velocity ratio.

S
1
- % Slip in driver belt.
S
2
- % Slip in driven belt.

The speed ratio is given by

N
2
/ N
1
= ( d
1
+ t ) / ( d
2
+ t ) x ( 1 - S / 100 )

Creep: When the belt passes from slack side to the tight side, a certain portion of
belt extends and contracts again when moving from tight to slack side. Because of
this, there is a relative motion between belt and pulley called creep.

V- Belts:

These belts are used when two pulleys are nearby each other. The
included angle is usually 30
o
-40
o
. In order to have good grip the V-Belt is in
contact with side faces of the groove.

Chain Drives:

The advantage of chain drive are that it prevents slipping. Steel chains are
used. The chains are made of rigid links, which are hinged together. They wrap
around the driving and driven wheels. The wheels are also called sprocket and
resemble spur gears.

Pitch of Chain: It is the distance between the hinge center of one link and the

Gears:

Following are the different types of gears.

Parallel Gears: The shafts are parallel. Spur gears are where the teeth is parallel
to axis of wheel. But in helical gears the teeth are inclined at an angle to the axis.
A double helical gear is called as herringbone gears.

Non Parallel and Intersecting Gears: Bevel and Helical bevel gears are the
examples.

Non Parallel and Non Intersecting Gears: Spiral Gearing.

Terms Used in Gears:
S.
No
Terms Definition
1 Pitch Circle A imaginary circle which by pure rolling action would
give the same motion as the actual gear.
2 Pitch Circle
Diameter
The diameter of Pitch circle. Gears are specified by this
PCD.
3 Addendum The radial distance between the PCD and top of tooth.
Addendum circle is drawn through the top of teeth and
concentric to PC.
4 Deddendum The radial distance been the PC and bottom of teeth.
5 Circular Pitch The distance measured from the circumference of the
pitch circle from a point in one tooth, to the
corresponding point in next tooth.
6 Module it is the ratio of PCD to the number of teeth.
7 Diametrical
pitch
Inverse of Module.
8 Total depth Addendum + Deddendum
9 Tooth
Thickness
Width of the tooth measured along pitch circle.
10 Face of Tooth Surface of gear above the pitch surface.
11 Flank of Tooth Surface of gear above the pitch surface.

System of Gear Teeth:
- 14.5
o
Composite System.
- 14.5
o
Full depth involute system.
- 20
o
Full depth involute system.
- 20
o
Stub involute system.
Gear ratio = T / t = Teeth on Wheel / Teeth on pinion.

Gear Trains:

Two or more gears are made to mesh with each other to transmit power
from one shaft to another shaft. Such a combination is called as gear train.
1. Simple gear train
2. compound gear train
3. Reverted gear train
4. Epicyclic gear train.
Flywheel:

It acts as a reservoir which stores energy when the energy supply is more
than requirement and releases it during the period when required energy is less
than supply.

Coefficient of Fluctuation of Speed in Flywheel :

The difference between Max. and Min speeds is called as Maximum
fluctuation of speed. The ratio between max. fluctuation of speed and mean
speed is called as Coefficient of Fluctuation of Speed.
Cs = 2 ( N
2
- N
1
) / ( N
2
+ N
1
)

1 / Cs = m =Coefficient of steadiness.

Energy stored in a fly wheel = mk
2
w
2
Cs

Governors :

The function is to regulate the mean speed of the engine with changes in
load. The governor automatically controls the supply of working fluid to the
engine with the varying load conditions and keeps the mean speed with the
certain limits. Governors are broadly classified into Centrifugal governors and
Inertia governors.

Centrifugal governors :
The main principle of working of the centrifugal governor is based upon the
balancing of centrifugal force on the rotating balls by an equal and opposite radial
force, known as the controlling force.
- Pendulum Type - Watt governor
o Dead weight governors - Proel and portel governors.
o Spring controlled governors - Hartnell, hartung governors, Wilson-
hartnell and Pickering governors.
Inertial governors :
They operate on different principle .Governor balls are arranged that the
inertia forces caused by an angular acceleration & retardation of the governor shaft
tend to alter their position. The obvious advantage of this type of governor is
quick response to load variation .This advantage is offset however by the practical
difficulty of arranging for complete balance of the revolving parts of the governor.
Equilibrium speed: Is the speed at which the governor balls are at complete
equilibrium and the sleeve does not tend to move up or down.

Sensitiveness: If there is more displacement in sleeve for the same speed then the
governor is said to be sensitive. It is equal to

2 ( N
2
- N
1
) / ( N
2
+ N
1
)

Hunting: In this the governor switches between the maximum and minimum
position.
Lubrication :
The different types of lubrication between two surfaces having relative
motion can be classified as
1. Fluid film lubrication
2. Boundary lubrication
3. Extreme boundary lubrication
4. Surface contact of the sliding members
Fluid film lubrication:
In this the moving or sliding surfaces are separated from each other by a
thick film of fluid which is at least 1000 angstrom thick so that direct surface-to-
surface contact and welding of junctions rarely occurs. This is also called as
hydrodynamic lubrication.
Fluid friction is considerably less than metallic friction and under such
circumstances, the viscosity of the fluid plays an important role in the design
parameters of the bearing. It is very clear that the lubricant chosen should have the
minimum viscosity under the working conditions. At the same time it should
remain in place and separate the surfaces. The co-efficient of friction in such cases
should be as low as 0.001 to 0.03. Fluid film lubrication prevails when there is
high relative velocity between sliding surfaces. In a journal bearing the lubricating
oil covers the irregularities of shaft as well as the bearing surfaces and the metal
surfaces do not come into direct contact with each other.
Boundary lubrication:
This is also called as thin film lubrication. when t he relative velocity
between the two sliding surfaces is very low, the fluid film will not be able to
support the total load and under such circumstances boundary lubrication is done.
The clearance space between the moving surface is lubricated with a
lubricating oil., a thin layer of which is adsorbed, on both the metallic surfaces.
These layers avoids direct metal-to-metal contact. The value of co-efficient of
friction is usually, 0.05 to 0.15.
The friction phenomena in this case is complicated and no exact theory is
available for boundary lubricated bearings. However it has been found that certain
metals and lubricants with less friction compared to others have the same viscosity
improve the performance of such bearings.
Extreme boundary lubrication:
When the moving surfaces are under very high pressure and speed, a high
local temperature is attained and under such condition the fluid film is completely
broken because of decomposition or vapoursation and there is direct metal to metal
contact at that high spots of the sliding materials. High load and speed in turn
generates heat with the following mentioned effects.
- Welded junction and metal tearing.
- Deformation and seizure of surfaces.
- Change in physical and chemical properties of metals and lubricants that
renders lubricants ineffective.
The mechanism of this type of lubrication is given below. Special additives
that are capable of withstanding very high load and temperatures are added to the
lubricants. These additives react with metallic surfaces at prevailing high
temperatures to form metallic chlorides, sulphides or phosphides. These metallic
compound posses high melting points and serve as good lubricant under high
temperature and pressure conditions. If by chances, the low shear strength films
are broken by the rubbing action of moving parts, they are immediately
replenished. Since a chemical reaction takes place in this lubrication, the metal
surface under goes certain wear.
The function of lubricant is to reduce the loss of energy, to reduce surface
deformation, war and tear, to increase the efficiency of engine, to reduce the
frictional heat and thus prevents the expansion of metals, to reduce the
maintenance cost of a machine etc.
Application of Liquid Lubricants:
Mechanical devices to supply lubricants are called lubricators. A simple
form of lubricator is a container mounted over a bearing or other part and provided
with a hole or an adjustable valve through which the lubricant is gravity-fed at the
desired rate of flow. Wick-feed oilers are placed under moving parts, and by
pressing against them they feed oil by capillary action. Horizontal bearings are
frequently oiled by a rotating ring or chain that carries oil from a reservoir in the
bearing housing and distributes it along the bearing through grooves or channels.
Bath oiling is useful where an oil-tight reservoir can be provided in which the
bearing journal may be submerged; the pool of oil helps to carry away heat from
contact surfaces. Splash-oiling devices are used where gears, bearings, or other
parts contained in housings have moving parts that dip into the lubricant and splash
it on the bearings or into distribution channels. Centralized oiling systems usually
consist of a reservoir, pump, and tubes through which oil is circulated, while
heaters or coolers may be introduced to change the viscosity of the lubricant for
various parts of the system. Many oiling operations are automatically synchronized
to start and stop with the machinery.

Application of Semisolid and Solid Lubricants:
Grease lubricants are semisolid and have several important advantages.
They resist being squeezed out, they are useful under heavy load conditions and in
inaccessible parts where the supply of lubricant cannot easily be renewed, and they
tend to form a crust that prevents the entry of dirt or grit between contact surfaces.
Grease is a mixture of a lubricant and a thickener; often it is made from a mineral
oil and a soap. It may be applied in various ways: by packing enclosed parts with
it, by pressing it onto moving parts from an adjacent well, by forcing it through
grease cups by a spring device, and by pumping it through pressure guns. Solid
lubricants are especially useful at high and low temperatures, in high vacuums, and
in other applications where oil is not suitable; common solid lubricants are graphite
and molybdenum disulfide.
CAM:

Is a rotating machine element which transmits oscillating or reciprocating
motion to the follower. They have line contact and constitutes higher pair.
According to the type of follower they are classified as
1. Knife edge follower.
2. Roller follower.
3. Flat faced follower and
4. Spherical faced follower.
The four types of motion of follower are
1. Uniform Velocity
2. Uniform acceleration
3. SHM and
4. Cycloidal motion.
Types of Vibrations:
1. Free ( or natural ) vibration.
2. Forced vibration and
3. Damped vibration.

ENGINEERING MECHANICS - STATICS
Engineering mechanics is the science that deals with the state of rest or
motion of bodies under the action of forces. It is further divided into mechanics of
rigid bodes, deformable bodes and fluids.
Rigid Bodies:
Such bodies don't deform under the action of applied forces. However in
many cases, it is negligible to affect the results. So it is assumed that bodies does
not deform or the distance between two points on a body does not change because
of external load. Mechanics of rigid bodies is further subdivided into statics and
dynamics.
Statics : Study which deals with bodes in rest.
Particle : Refers to a object, whose mass is concentrated at a point. This
assumption is made when the size of body is negligible. Many particles together
constitute the particle.
Mass and Weight:
Mass is defined as the measure of how much matter an object or body
contains -- the total number of subatomic particles (electrons, protons and
neutrons) in the object. So if your body weight is fluctuating, because of eating or
exercising, it is actually the number of atoms that is changing.
Mass Weight
It is quantity of matter
contained in a body
It is the force with which
the body is attracted
towards the center of
earth.
It is constant at all places
It is different at different
places
It resists the motion in
the body
It produces the motion in
the body
It is a scalar quantity It is a vector quantity
Measured with ordinary
balance
Measured with spring
balance
It is never zero
It is zero at the center of
the earth.
The weight of a body of mass m should be measured in Newtons. W = mg
= m (9.8 m/s
2
) = 9.8 N.
Newton's Law:
First law: Every body continues in a state of rest or uniform motion in a straight
line, unless it is compelled by a external force to change the state.
Second Law: Change of momentum is proportional to impress force and takes
place in the direction of the straight lines, in which the force acts. It states that
- acceleration is directly proportional to net force when mass is constant, and
- acceleration is inversely proportional to mass when net force is constant,
and consequently
- net force is directly proportional to mass when acceleration is constant.
This law enables to measure a force and establishes the fundamental
equation of dynamics. Consider, a body moving along a straight line. Where 'm'
is the mass of the body, 'u' is the initial velocity of body, 'v' the final velocity of
body and 'a' acceleration of the body.
Initial momentum = m.u and final momentum = m.v. Thus the rate of
change in momentum is m(v-u) / t = m.a Newton's second law of motion is more
compactly written as the equation F = ma
The concept implied in Newton's Second Law of Motion are found in
many places, as shown below

Cause
of change
=
Resistance
to change
x
Rate of
change of...
Newton's second
law
force

mass

velocity
rotational
dynamics
torque
moment
of inertia
angular
velocity
Newtonian fluids
shearing
stress
viscosity shear
thermal
conduction
temperature
r-factor heat
ohm's law
potential
difference
electrical
resistance
charge
potential
difference
inductance current
Third Law: to every action, there is a equal and opposite reaction. This goes to
say, that the force of action and reaction are equal in magnitude by opposite in
direction.
Law of Gravitation:
Two particles are attracted towards each other along the lines joining them,
with a force whose magnitude is directly proportional to the product of masses and
inversely proportional to the square of distance between them.
F = G m
1
m
2
/ r
2

Where G is universal gravitation constant.
Scalar quantity: Some quantities like time, mass volume can be expressed in
terms of magnitude alone and don't have any direction. They obey the law of
algebra.
Vector quantity: Quantities like distance, velocity, acceleration and all are
expressed in terms of both magnitude and direction. They obey the law of vectors.
To define such a quantity Magnitude, Direction and Point of application has to be
specified.
FORCE:
It is a derived unit. It is a force that imparts a acceleration of 1 m/s
2
on a
body of mass one Kg. 1N = 1 Kg m/s
2
= It is a agency which changes or tends to
change the state of rest or motion of a body. Force has the capacity to impart
motion to a particle. Force can produce pull, push or twist. It is a vector quantity,
hence to define force its point of application, its magnitude and its direction has to
be specified. For simplicity sake, all forces (interactions) between objects can be
- Contact forces: Are types of forces in which the two interacting objects are
physically contacting each other. Examples of contact forces include
frictional forces, tensional forces, normal forces, air resistance forces, and
applied forces.
- Action-at-a-distance forces: are types of forces in which the two interacting
objects are not in physical contact with each other, yet are able to exert a
push or pull despite a physical separation. Examples
1. Gravitational forces ( E.g., the sun and planets exert a gravitational pull on
each other despite their large spatial separation, even when our feet leave
the earth and we are no longer in contact with the earth, there is a
gravitational pull between us and the Earth ),
2. Electric forces ( E.g., the protons in the nucleus of an atom and the
electrons outside the nucleus experience an electrical pull towards each
other despite their small spatial separation ), and
3. Magnetic forces ( E.g., two magnets can exert a magnetic pull on each other
even when separated by a distance of a few centimeters ).
Apart from this force is also classified as internal and external force.
Internal force are those that hold together the particles forming the rigid body. If
the rigid body has several parts, the forces holding the component parts together
are also called as internal force. External forces represent the action of other
bodies on he rigid body under consideration. They will either cause it to move or
assure that it remains at rest.
Types of forces:
Equal and Equivalent force:
Two forces of the same magnitude and direction but having a different
point of application is called as equal force.
Two forces are said to be equivalent if they produce the same effect on a
rigid body. Equivalent forces is based on some specific effect.
Coplanar forces:
When a number of forces lies in the same plane, then it is called as coplanar
force. Other wise it is called as non coplanar forces.
Concurrent forces:
These forces are those in which the forces have the lines of action passing
through common point. However, all of the individual vectors might not acutally
be in contact with the common point.

Parallel force:
These are a set of forces, whose line of action is parallel to each other.
Following are the types of parallel forces.
- Like parallel force : When two parallel forces have the same direction but
may or may not have the same magnitude.
- Unlike unequal parallel force : when both the forces are unequal in
magnitude and act in opposite directions.
- Unlike equal parallel force : When two forces are opposite indirection and
equal in magnitude.

Parallelogram Law for addition of forces:
If two forces acting on a point are represented in magnitude and direction,
by two adjacent sides of a parallelogram, then the diagonal of parallelogram
passing through the points of intersection, represents the resultant force in both
magnitude and direction.
Triangle law of forces:
If two forces acting at a point are represented by two sides of a triangle
taken in order, then their sum of resultant is the third side of triangle taken in
opposite order.
Polygon law :
When a number of coplanar forces are acting at a point, such that they can
be represented in magnitude and direction by the side of polygon taken in order,
then the resultant can be represented both in magnitude and direction, by the
closing side of polygon taken in opposite order.
Lami's Theorem:
When three forces acting at a point are in equilibrium, then each force will
be proportional to the sine of the angle between the other two forces.
Principle of Transmissibility:
It states that condition of state of rest or motion of body does not change if
the point of application of a force is transmitted to any other point, along its line of
action. This principle is used to determine the external forces acting on the rigid
body. But should not be used to determine the internal forces and deformation of
the body.
Resultant of several force:
When a number of forces acting on a rigid body is replaced by a single
force which has the same effect as all the forces on the rigid body, then that forces
is called as resultant of several force.

Any concurrent set of forces, not in equilibrium, can be put into a state of
equilibrium by a single force. This force is called the Equilibrant. It is equal in
magnitude, opposite in sense and co-linear with the resultant. When this force is
added to the force system, the sum of all of the forces is equal to zero.

Condition for equilibrium:
When the resultant of all the forces acting on a particle is zero, then the
particle is said to be in a state of equilibrium.
Constraint, Action and Reaction:
A body is not always free to move in all directions. This restriction to the
free motion of a body is called as constraint. A action of a constrained body on
any support induces a equal and opposite reaction from the support.
Free body diagram:
To draw the free body diagram the supports are removed and replaced by
the reactions the support exerts on the body.
Moment of force:
A force can produce a rotary motion. This measure of this turning effect
produced by a force is called as moment of a force. The moment of a force about a
point is equal to the product of the force and the perpendicular distance between
the line of action of force and the point ( also called as Moment centre )
Varignon's Theorem:
The moment of a force about a axis is equal to the sum of the moments of
Couple:
A system of two equal parallel forces acting in opposite directions can be
replaced by a single force. In such a case a couple is produced, which has a
tendency to rotate the body. The perpendicular distance between the line of action
of two forces is called as arm of couple.
Moment of a couple:
The rotational tendency of a couple is measured by its moment. The
moment of a couple is the product of magnitude of one of the forces and arm of the
couple.
Central values:
Centre of mass: is the point through which the entire mass of the body is assumed
to be concentrated. Both are different only when the gravitational field is not
uniform and parallel, other wise it is the same.
Centroid: is the point where the entire area of the lamina is assumed to
concentrated.
Center of gravity of a Two-dimensional body:
Centre of gravity is defined as the point through which the resultant of the
distributed gravitational forces, act irrespective of the orientation of the body.
For illustration, let us consider a flat horizontal plate is considered. We
divide the plate into a small elements. The co-ordinates of the first element is
denoted by (x1, y1) for the second element it is (x2, y2). Similarly the forces
exerted by the earth on the elements on the plate will be denoted respectively by
AW1, AW2 .... AWn. These forces or weights are directed towards the center of
the earth, however for all practical purposes they are assumed to be parallel. The
resultant W is a single force in the same direction. The magnitude W of this force
is obtained by adding the magnitudes of the elementary weights.
W = AW1 + AW2 + ...... + AWn.
To obtain the co-ordinates of centroid (x, y) where the resultant W is
applied, we write the moments of W about the x and y axes to be equal to the sum
of the corresponding moments of the elementary weights.
xW = x1.AW1 + x2.AW2 + ......... + xn.AWn.
yW = y1.AW1 + y2.AW2 + ......... + yn.AWn.
Now the size of each element is decreased the number of elements is
increased. We then obtain the limit of the following expressions.
W = } dW xW = } xdW yW = } ydW
The magnitude of weight W is denoted by gt AA. Substituting this value
of W and W in the above equations and dividing it by gt, we get
xA = x1.AA1 + x2.AA2 + ....... + xn.AAn
yA = y1.AA1 + y2.AA2 + ....... + yn.AAn, Similarly the values of integral also
changes as shown.
xA = } xdA yA = } ydA
First moments of Areas and Lines:
The integral } xdA in previous Para is known as the first moment of Area
with respect to y axis and is denoted by Qy. Similarly the integral } ydA defines
the first moment of Area with respect to the x axis and is denoted by Qx.
Mathematically we can also derive
Qx = yA Qy = xA
Beams:
It is a structural member designed to withstand loads at various points
along the members. Usually the loads are applied perpendicular to the axis of the
beam thus causing shear and bending in the beam. If the loads are not at right
angles of the beam, then they will also produce axial forces in the beam. Beams
are long, straight prismatic members designed to support loads applied at various
points along the member.
In the design of a beam we have to consider the most effective cross section
that will provide the most effective resistance the shear and bending moment
produced by the applied loads. Hence the design of beam consists of two distinct
parts. In the first part the shearing force and the bending moment produced by the
loads are determined. In the second part there is a selection of cross section that
best with stands the shear and bending moment determined in the first part.
Cables:
These are flexible members capable of withstanding only tension, designed
to support either concentrated or distributed load.
Friction:
The friction is a force distribution at the surface of contact and acts
tangential to the surface of contact. This force always develop when one surface
attempts to move over the other. There are two types of friction. They are dry (
also called as coulomb friction ) and fluid friction.
Dry friction:
Is the one which exists between two dry surfaces. Such a friction is caused
mainly because of minute projections present on the surface of body hindering
relative motion. The friction between liquid surfaces is called as fluid friction.
Limiting friction:
When a body of mass m is there with a weight W a continuously increasing
force P is applied on the body to move it. This force P is opposed and resisted by
frictional force F. As P increases F also increases. The body also remains at rest.
At a point F cannot increase, hence P > F and the body begins to move. The
friction force at this instant is called as limiting friction.
Limiting friction is the maximum frictional force exerted at the time the
body begins to move. The friction that exists between two moving bodies is called
as kinetic or dynamic friction.
Laws of dry friction :
1. The total frictional force developed is independent of the magnitude of area
of contact.
2. The total frictional force is directly proportional to the normal force acting at
the surface of contact.
F = N
Where F - Frictional force
- Coefficient of static friction and
N - Normal reaction.
Angle of Friction:
The normal reaction N and the frictional force F can be combined into a
single resultant force R called resultant reaction. The angle which the resultant
reaction R makes with the normal reaction N is called as angle of friction
Tan = F / N = N / N =
is called as coefficient of friction.
Angle of repose:
It is defined as the maximum angle of inclination at which the body
remains in equilibrium at a inclined surface at the influence of friction alone,
beyond which the body slides.
Rolling resistance:
A ball is present on the ground. They are in touch only at the point of
contact. That a large amount of friction is eliminated. But then the when or ball
starts rolling, the resistance increases. This is mainly due to deformation over
which the ball creates on the surface. Thus there is no longer a point contact but a
area contact. This area a is called as the forward length of deformation also called
as coefficient of rolling resistance.
Engineering structures:
Any system of interconnected members builds to support or transfer force
acting on them and to safely withstand these forces are called as engineering
structure. Following are the types.
Truss : It is a system of members which are joined together at the ends, by riveting
or welding at the ends. All members are two force members. Load is applied only
at joints.
Frame : Here one or more members are subject to more than two forces.
1. The joints are frictionless.
2. Loads are applied only in the joints.
3. The members are two force members with forces acting collinear to centre
line of members.
4. The weight of members is negligible and
5. The truss is statically determinate.
To determine the axial forces on the members, there are three methods.
They are
1. Method of joints,
2. Method of sections and
3. Graphical method.
Moment of Inertia:
By analogy the role played by the moment of inertial in the rotary motion is
similar the role played by mass in translatory motion. The moment of Inertia of
area is called as the area moment of inertia. The moment of Inertia of mass is
called as the mass moment of inertia.
dA is a element at a distance ( x, y ) from the axes.
The moment of area with respect to X axis is = Ix = y
2
dA
The moment of area with respect to Y axis is = Iy = x
2
dA
Polar moment of Inertia :
The moment of inertia of a area of plane figure with respect to the axis that
is perpendicular to x-y plane and passing through O is called polar moment of
Inertia it is denoted by
j
o
= r
2
dA
j
o
= ( x
2
+ y
2
) dA = Ix + Iy
Theory of Papus-Guidinus:
It states that the surface of revolution is a surface which may be generated
by rotating a plane curve about a fixed axis. The surface of sphere may be
obtained by rotating a semicircular arc about its diameter, the surface of a cone by
rotating a straight line inclined about its axis.
A body of revolution is a body which may be generated by rotating a plane
area about a fixed axis. A solid sphere may be generated by rotating a semi
circular area, a cone by rotating a triangular area and a torus by rotating a full
circular area.
Parallel axis theorem:
The moment of Inertia of a lamina about any axis in the plane is equal to
the sum of the moment of inertia abut a parallel centroidal axis in the plane of the
lamina and the product of the area and square of distance between two axes.
Perpendicular Axis theorem:
If Ix and Iy are the moment of inertia about two mutually perpendicular
axis OX and OY. Iz be the moment of inertia of lamina about a axis normal to the
lamina and passing through the point of intersection of Ox and OY axes then
Iz = Ix + Iy
Quantity Unit Symbol
Acceleration meter / sec
2
m/s
2

Angular
velocity
Angular
acceleration
2
2

Area metre
2
m
2

Density
Kilogram /
meter
3

Kg/m
3

Energy Joule J = Nm
Force Newton
N = Kg
m/s
2

Frequency Hertz Hz
Length meter m
Mass Kilogram Kg
Moment of
Newton-metre Nm
force
Power Watts W = J/s
Pressure Pascal
Pa =
N/m
2

Stress Pascal
Pa =
N/m
2

Torque Newton-metre Nm
Velocty metre/second m/s
Volume metre
3
m
3

Work Joule J = Nm

NUMERICAL PROBLEMS
Problem 1: For the system of forces shown, calculate the resultant force and its
angle of inclination.
Solution: Each force shown is resolved into the x and y components. To get the x
components, the magnitude is multiplied with the Cosine of the angle of inclination
( F Cos o ). For y components the magnitude of force is multiplied with Sine of
the angle of inclination ( F Sin o ).
Force Magnitude
x y
component component
F1 150 129.9 75
F2 80 -27.4 75.2
F3 110 0 -110
F4 100 96.6 -25.9
Sum of x component of force = 199.1 N
Sum of y component of force = 14.3 N
Resultant = \ (199.1)
2
+ (14.3)
2
= 199.6 N
Angle of inclination = Tan
-1
( 14.3 / 199.1 ) = 4.1
o

Problem 2: For the plane shown determine (a) the first moments and the location
of centroid.
Solution: To proceed further the plane is considered to be a combination of
Rectangle + Triangle + Semi circle - Circle.
Component
Area
(a)
Centroid
X
Centroid
Y
X.a Y.a
Rectangle 9600 60 40 576000 384000
Triangle 3600 40 -20 144000 -72000
Semi-circle 5655 60 105.5 339300 596602.5
Circle -5026 60 80
-
301560
-402080
Total
13829
757740 506522.5
First moment of area Qx = 506522.5
First moment of area Qy = 757740.0
Centroid = ( 757740 / 13829, 506522.5 / 13829 ) = ( 54.8 mm, 36.62 mm )

REFERENCES:
1. Vector Mechanics for Engineers, Ferdinand P. Beer and E. Russel Johnston Jr.
2. Engineering Mechanics, A. K. Tayal

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER

Internal Energy:

Molecules in a system are in constant motion by mutual forces of
attraction. The molecular motion has Kinetic energy. The energy of mutual
forces of attraction is Potential energy. The sum total of the energy is the internal
energy. This internal energy is dependent upon temperature level of the system.
Higher the temperature, higher the internal energy. U is the most common
symbol used for internal energy.
E.g.. A room temperature glass of water sitting on a table has no apparent
energy, either potential or kinetic . But on the microscopic scale it is a seething
mass of high speed molecules traveling at hundreds of meters per second.

Heat:

Energy transfer due to temperature difference is called as heat. This subject
studies the rate at which this energy is transferred. A system might have accepted
or rejected heat. This is reflected by the changes in temperature. A increase in
temperature indicates that the system has accepted heat and a decrease in
temperature indicates that the system has rejected heat. The quantity of heat
transferred is given by the product of mass (m), Specific heat ( Cp or Cv ) and the
temperature difference ( T ).

Difference Between Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer:

Consider a heated steel bar cooled in water. Thermodynamics helps to
predict the final equilibrium temperature of the composite system. But heat
transfer predicts the time taken to reach the equilibrium temperature or to find what
would the temperature be after a certain length of time. Thus heat transfer helps to
predict the temperature of both bar and water as a function of temperature.

Modes of Heat Transfer:

Conduction:

The thermal energy transfer takes place from a region of high temperature to
the low temperature region, between two bodies which are in contact. The energy
transfer takes place by means of electrons, which are free to move. The observable
effect is equalization of temperature. The flow of heat by conduction as given by
Fourier law is given by the following formula. Here K is called the thermal
conductivity. It has the units W/m.K
Q = - KA ( dT / dX)

Convection:

It is possible because of mixing of fluid medium. This type of heat transfer
is possible only in a fluid medium and is directly linked with the transportation of
fluid itself. The amount of heat transferred by convection depends largely upon
the extent to which the fluids mix with each other. Thus there exists a mass
moment. There are two types of convection, they are
- Natural Convection:- This results because of the temperature different
leading to the differences in density.
- Forced Convection:- This take place when the flow is caused by external
means such as a fan or pump.

Thermal radiation is the form of transmission of heat from one body to
another body without a intervening space. It does not require a material medium,
for the transfer of heat. The heat is transferred in the form of radiant energy or
wave energy. The mechanism of heat transfer consists of three distinct phases.
- Conversion of thermal energy to photons.
- Passage of photons in air space.
- Transformation of photons back to heat.
Stefan Boltzman Law:

The emissive power of a black body is directly proportional to the fourth
power of absolute temperature. T is the absolute temperature, and the value of
the Stefan-Boltzmann constant is 5.67 x 10
-8

E T
4

E = AT
4

Planks Law:

All bodies emit radiation, the quantity and quality of which depends upon
the temperature and property of the material.
Absorbivity, Reflectivity and Transmissibility:

First consider a distinction between heat and infrared radiation. Infrared
radiation refers to a particular range of wavelengths, while heat refers to the whole
range of radiant energy flowing from one body to another. Consider a radiant heat
flux, q falls upon a translucent plate that is not black as shown in the figure

Then let
=Absorbivity or fraction of total energy absorbed by the body.
= Fraction of total energy reflected.
= Fraction of total energy transmitted.
Qo = Qa + Qr + Qt

Qa / Qo + Qr / Qo + Qt / Qo = 1

+ + = 1
The following are the important conclusions drawn.
- When = 1 and = = 0
Then it is a Non-reflecting and Non Transmitting surface. Such a
surface is called as black body.
- When = 1 and = = 0
Then it reflects all radiation and is called a specular of a absolutely
white body.
- When = 1 and = = 0
Then it allow all radiations to pass throughout it and is called a
transparent or diathermanous body.

Black body:
Black bodies are perfect thermal radiators. It is necessary to have a
experimental method for making a perfectly black body. The conventional device
for this approach is the hohlraum, which means literally hollow space. It is a
simple device that traps all the energy that reaches the aperture. The cross section
of a hohlraum is shown below. The hole has the attributes of a nearly perfect
thermal black body.

Condensation:

Fluid in gaseous or vapor phase changes to liquid state, with the liberation
of heat from the vapor. There are two types of condensation. They are film
condensation and Drop wise condensation.
In film condensation, liquid drop lets cover the surface and further
condensation is not possible. But in drop wise condensation, there is not wetting
of cooling surface. Apart of the condensation film is always exposed to vapor
without the formation of liquid film.

Heat Exchangers:

It is a equipment designed for the effective heat transfer between two fluids,
where one of them is hot and other is cold. The purpose may be to remove heat or
add heat. Examples of such heat exchangers are Automobile radiators, Air and
water coolers & Air and Water Heaters.
Based on the nature of heat exchange process, the following are the
classifications.
Direct contact - Both heat and mass transfer takes place.
Regenerators - The hot fluid flows in a matrix or tube followed by the cold fluid or
vice versa.
Recuperators - Fluid flows simultaneously on either side of a separating unit. No
physical contact of the fluids. The heat is transferred as follows.

Convection - Hot fluid & Wall.
Conduction - Across the wall.
Convection - Wall & Cold fluid.
Parallel Flow Arrangement - The hot and cold fluids enter and leave the unit in the
same direction ( Unidirectional )
Counter Flow Arrangement - The two fluids enter the units from opposite ends,
and travel in opposite directions. Maximum heat transfer rate.
Cross Flow Arrangement - The fluids travel at right angles to each other.
The figure of parallel, counter flow and cross flow arrangement is shown below.
Parallel and cross flow arrangement

Cross flow arrangement

Fins:
The conductive removal of heat from a surface can be substantially
improved if we put extensions on that surface to increase its area. These
extensions can take a variety of forms. The surface of a commercial heat
exchanger tubing can be extended with protrusions called as fins.
Mass Transfer:

The transfer of one constituent from a region of higher concentration to a
region of lower concentrations called mass transfer. There are two types of mass
transfer. They are diffusive and convective mass transfer. Examples of mass
transfer are
Evaporation of petrol in the carburetor of engine.
Evaporation of liquid ammonia in the atmosphere of hydrogen in a electro flux
refrigerator.
Compressors:

A simple definition of a compressor is a device used to pressurize a fluid,
including liquids and gases. There are many different kinds of compressors, but
typically the main purpose of using a compressor is to raise the pressure of a liquid
or gas. Compressors are found in both gas power cycles and vapor compression
refrigeration cycles.

A compressor converts shaft power to a rise in enthalpy of a fluid. The
fluid, often a gas, enters the compressor at a low pressure (low enthalpy) and exits
at a high pressure (high enthalpy). The rotating shaft is attached to a blade
assembly. The rotating blades push on the gas and increase the pressure, thereby
increasing the enthalpy. Compressors are continuous flow processes, and can be

NUMERICAL PROBLEMS
Problem 1: The front of a slab of lead ( k = 35 W/m.K ) is kept at 110
o
C and the
back is kept at 50
o
C. If the are of the slab is 0.4m
2
and it is 0.03m thick, compute
the heat flux, q, and the heat transfer rate, Q.
Heat flux q = - K (dT / dX) = -35 x ( 50 - 110 ) / 0.03 = 70,000 W/m
2

Heat transfer rate = qA = 70,000 x 0.4 = 28 Kw.
Problem 2: The heat flux q is 6000 W/m
2
at the surface of an electrical heater.
The heater temperature is 120
o
C, when it is cooled by air at 70
o
C. What is the
average convective heat transfer coefficient, h?
Convective heat transfer coefficient h = q / dT = 6000 / (120 - 70) = 120 W/m
2
K
HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER BOOKS
1. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 5th Edition by Frank P.
Incropera, David P. Dewitt
2. The Heat Transfer Problem Solver: A Complete Solution Guide to Any
Textbook (Rea's Problem Solvers) by Staff of Research and Education
Association, James Ogden
3. Schaum's Outline of Heat Transfer by Donald R. Pitts, Leighton E. Sissom
(Contributor)
4. Heat Transfer by J. P. Holman
5. Handbook of Heat Transfer by Warren M. Rohsenow, James P.
Hartnett,Young I. Cho. (Editors)
6. Compact Heat Exchangers by W. M. Kays, A. L. London
7. Heat Exchangers: Selection, Rating and Thermal Design, Second Edition by
8. Principles of Heat Transfer by Massoud Kaviany
9. Convective Heat Transfer, 2nd Edition by Louis C. Burmeister
10. Convective Heat Transfer by Tuncer Cebeci
11. A Heat Transfer text book by John H. Lienhard IV and John H. Lienhard V

Instrumentation and Metrology
Whatever exists, exist in some amount. finding this amount is what is called as
measurement.
Measurement is the act or process that consist of obtaining a quantitative
comparison between a standard entity and measure entity. This measured entity is
called as measurand. This act produces a result.
General method of measurement:
Direct method and indirect method are the two methods of measurement.
In many cases direct method is not possible, then we use indirect method.
Measuring system has three stages. Indirect method makes use of a
transducing device coupled to a chain connecting apparatus. All these are called
measuring system. This chain of devices converts the basic form of input into a
analogous form which then processes and presents at the output as a known
function of input. Hence the generalized measuring system can be divided into
three stages.
1. A detector - transducing sensor stage.
2. An intermediate stage - signal conditioning stage and
3. A terminating stage / Read out stage.
Stages in Measurement:
First Stage:
First stage is to detect and sense the measurand and ideally it should be
insensitive to every other input for example. If it is a pressure pickup device then
it should be insensitive to acceleration, a strain gauge should be insensitive to
temperature and frequently one finds there are more than one transduction in the
first stage.
Classification of first stage devices:
First stage may involve number of operation and fences these devices are
classified as
1. Those which are used for detection only,
2. Those which are used as detector and single transducer and
3. Those which are used as detector and two stage transducer.
The first stage instrumentation may be simple consisting of no more than a
mechanical spindle or a contacting member to convey the quantity to secondary
transducer. It may also consist of complex assembly of elements. The sole
function of this stag is to selectively sense the quantity of interest and to process
the sensed information into a form acceptable to stage two operations. It does not
give any output in an useful form. Example
- Contracting spindle
- Simple pendulum
- Thermocouple used to convert temperature into voltage
- Variable resistivity
- Photo voltaic cell which converts light to potential and
- Photo emission cell that converts light to current.
Many of the sensors mentioned above transduces the input displacement
into an electrical output. This is a fortunate situation for realizing practical
combination of mechanical sensors acting as a primary transducer and the
electrical sensory as secondary transducer.
Second Stage:
This stage on the system modifies the transduced information so that it is
acceptable to the third or termination stage. It may also include such operations
like selective filtering, integration, differentiation or telemetering. Most common
function of the second stage is to increase the power or amplitude of signal or both
to the level required to drive the final terminating device.
Third Stage:
This stage proves the information sort in a form understandable /
intelligible to the human beings to a controller either as a relative displacement or
in a digital form.
Tyre Gauge (Pressure measurement):
This is used for measuring the tyre pressure. It consists of a cylinder and
piston. A spring resisting the piston movements. As the air pressure pushes the
piston the resulting force compresses the spring until the spring force and air force
balance. The calibrated stem shows air pressure. Piston-cylinder acts as a
transducer that produces force and spring converts force to displacement. Finally
the transduced input is transferred without signal conditioning the scale and
inducts the read out. The pressure is measured in Pascal or atmospheres.
1 Pa = 1 Nm
2

1 Torr = 1 mm of mercury = 1.33 x 10
2
Pascals
1 Atmosphere = 14.696 psi = 101.3 x 10
3
Pascal
DISPLACEMENT MEASUREMENT
Sliding contact resistive transducer:
This converts a mechanical displacement into a electrical output which is
either voltage or current.
R = L / A
Where R is in Ohms, L in mm, A is area in mm2 and is in Om.
The effective length between one end of wire and slider contact is a
measure of mechanical displacement. Devices of this type have been sued for
large displacements. Potentiometer are called pots.

Electrical Strain gauges - Resistance Strain gauge:
Lord Kelvin with his experiments demonstrated t hat the resistance of
copper or Iron wire change when subjected to strain. He made use of wheat stones
bridge with a galvanometer as indicator. Unbonded resistance elements are
sometimes used as secondary transduces in accelerometer and other component.
Theory:
Generally four such separate filaments are connected electrically to wheat
stone's bridge. The general relation between electrical and mechanical properties
are derived as follows.
Initial length of conductor = L
Cross sectional area = CD
2
, where C = constant and D = sectional
dimension.
If the section is square then C = 1 and for circle C = t/ 4. Let us consider
the conductor be axially kept under tension there by causing any increase in length
and as a consequence the lateral dimension decreases as a function of Poisson's
ratio. Therefore
R = L / A = L / CD
2

When strained each quantity in he above equation except C may change.
dR = [ CD
2
( -dL + Ld) L ( 2 CD/dD) | / C
2
D
4

dR / R = dL / L - 2 dD / D + d /
dR / R 2 dD / d d /
= 1 +
dL / L dL / L dL / L
Where dL / L = Axial strain and dD / d = Lateral strain. The ratio of which is the
Poisson ratio. Substituding in the above equation.
dR / R
d /
( Also called as gauge factor,
F ) = 1 2 +
dL / L dL /
L
Ignoring the third term we have F = 1 + 2
The resistivity does not change with strain. This basic knowledge and the
value of lies between 0.25 and 0.3. F = 1+2(0.3) = 1.6. This gauge factor is a
function of Poisson ration in the elastic range and should not vary from 1.6. The
gauge factor for metallic gauge is essentially a constant and is in the range of
elastic strain
c
a
= AR / RF. Where AR is the incremental value. The manufacturers supply the
value of F and R. Hence the AR = F.R.c
a

In practical applications the value of F and R are supplied by manufacturers
and the user determines the value of AR.
Types of strain gauge:
As the circuit that are used to measure the resistance changes they require a
minimum resistance to be measured. This value depends on the current in the
gauge and its length. Higher the resistance, larger will be the change in AR for a
given gauge factor. It draws lesser current The smaller the current the dissipation
is less. Normally the resistance chosen is at the order of 60 - 1000 ohms. Strain
gauges are classified as bonded or unbonded strain gauges, according to the
method of manufacture.
Bonded strain gauge is directly bonded on the surface of the specimen to be
measured. A layer of adhesive cement is used for this purpose. It serves to
transmit the strain from specimen to gauge wires and at the same time serves as an
electrical insulator.
In unbonded strain gauge is one in which there is a free filament sensing
element where strain is transferred to the resistance wire directly without any
backing.
Semi-conductor gauges:
They employ piezo resistive property of doped silicon and germanium.
The strain sensitivity is mainly due to resistivity changes in the semi-conductor
materials and the change in resistance due to stain is 40 - 100 times more than that
of the conventional metal alloys. The gauge factor F = ( AR/R ) / c = 1 + 2+m.
Where m = tE, here E is the young's modulus and t is the coefficient of piezo
resistance along the axis of the gauge.
Thin film gauges:
Of late thin film gauges are receiving attention because of certain
advantages. Thin film of metals such as aluminum, gold, nickel, platinum or
palladium are formed in desired patterns directly on a substrate by thermal
evaporation in vacuum and this substrate is attached to the specimen in the same
manner as that used for other gauges. The thin film gauge resistance is given by
R
f
= ( w / l ) x R
g

Where W is the width of the film, l the length of film Rf the specific sheet
resistance. But R
g
=
f
l/A. Here
f
is the film resistiviy in Ohm-metre and A is the
area of cross section.
ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT
Errors may arise from different sources and are usually classified as
follows.
Gross Errors:
This class of errors mainly covers human mistakes in reading instruments
and recording and calculating the results. The responsibility of the mistake
normally lies with the experimenter. Gross errors can be minimized or avoided.
Care should be taken while recording or reading the data. Number of readings
should be taken and a close agreement between readings assures that no errors has
been committed.
Systematic errors:
These types of errors are classified into three categories.
1. Instrumental errors
2. Environmental errors and
3. Observational errors.
Instrumental errors:
There are many factors in the design and construction of instruments that
limit the accuracy attainable. Assembly errors (Because of bend or distorted
pointers, non uniform division of the scale, or displaced scale that does not
coincide with the actual zero position) come under this category of errors. These
types of errors does not alter with time, but it can be easily discovered and
corrected. Examples and causes of this types of errors are as follows.
- Improper selecting and poor maintenance of the instrument.
- Faults of construction resulting from finite width of knife edges.
- Mechanical friction and wear, backlash, yielding of supports, pen or pointer
drag and hystersis of elastic members due to aging.
- Unavoidable physical phenomenon due to friction, capillary attraction and
imperfect rarefaction.
Environmental errors:
These types of errors are more dangerous as they change with time in an
unpredictable manner. The instrument would have been assembled and calibrated
in one environment. For measurement it would been carried to a different place
and because of this change, error occurs. The change may be due to different
temperatures, pressures, humidity and altitude etc. These errors can be eliminated
or reduced by the following precautions mentioned.
- Using the instrument in controlled condition of pressure, temperature, in
which it was assembled and calibrated.
- If this is not possible, then the deviations in local conditions from the
calibrated value is measured and suitable correction to the instrument
- Automatic compensation using sophisticated devices is possible and is
usually applied.
- Make a new calibrations based on the local conditions.
Observational errors:
Even when the instruments are properly selected, carefully installed and
calibrated, short coming in the measurement occur due to certain mistakes on the
part of the observer. These types of errors may be due to
- Parallax apparent displacement when the line of vision is not normal to the
scale.
- Inaccurate estimates of average reading, lack of ability to interpolate
- Non simultaneous observation of independent quantities.
- Personal bias - a tendency to read high or low, or anticipate a signal and
- Wrong scale reading, and wrong recording of data.
Modern instruments use digital systems that eliminate the possibilities of
errors due to human observations. These errors an be eliminated by careful
training and by taking independent readings of each item by two or more
observers.
Random errors:
These vary in an unpredictable manners and it is very difficult to list out all
the sources of errors since these errors remain even after the consideration of
systematic errors these are also called as residual errors. Following are the most
common.
- Friction in the instruments movement.
- Mechanical vibration,
- Finite dimensions between scale and pointer
- Hysterysis in the elastic members
- Backslash in the movement
The importance of these errors is that they cancel each others effect and
ultimately may lead to correct values. for example vibrations can be avoided by
placing on shock absorbing mountings.
Apart from there errors, there are other types and forms of errors. A brief
outlook of the other types of errors is as follows. Translation and signal
transmission errors caused due to the non capability of the instrument to follow
rapid changes in the measured quantity due to inertial and hystersis effect. The
error may also result from unwanted disturbances such as noise, line pick up, hum
ripple etc. These errors are remedied by calibration and by monitoring the signal at
one or more points along its transmission path.
Operational errors are caused due to poor operation techniques. A few
examples are given below.
- A thermometer will not read accurately if the sensitive portion is
insufficiently immersed or is radiating heat to colder portion of the
installation.
- A pressure gauge will correctly indicate pressure only when it is exposed
only to the pressure which is to be measured.
- A steam calorimeter will not give true indication of the dryness fraction of
steam unless the sample drawn correctly represents the condition of the
steam.
Systematic errors are caused to the act of measurement. As it affects the
condition of the measurand and thus leading to uncertainties in the measurements,
he examples of which are given below.
- Introduction of a thermometer alters the thermal capacity of the system
and provides an extra path for heat leakage.
- A ruler pressed against a body results in a differential deformation of the
body relative to the ruler.
- A obstruction type flow meter may partially block or disturb the flow
condition. Consequently the flow rate shown by the meter may not be
same as before the meter installation.
- Reading shown by a hand tachometer would vary with the pressure with
which it is pressed against a shaft.
- A milli-ammeter would introduce additional resistance in the circuit and
thereby alter the flow current by a significant amount.
Systematic errors cannot be determined by direct and repetitive
observations of the measurand made each time with the same technique. The only
way to locate there errors is to have repeated measurements under different
conditions or with different equipment and if possible by an entirely different
method.

PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
Angular Velocity:
The angular velocity of a rotating body is the distance covered per second
by a point lying at a distance of one meter from the axis of rotation, along the
periphery of circle of 1 meter radius and having its centre along the axis of
rotation.
= 2N / 60 rad / sec
V = r
Work holding devices:
Magnetic chuck:
There are two types. They are electromagnetic chuck and permanent
magnetic chuck. The magnetic power of the electromagnetic chuck can be carried
according to the size of the work. But not so in the case of a permanent magnet
chuck. Thus type of work holding device is suited for ferrous work pieces.
De-magnetizer:
It is a special device used to remove the magnetic power from an object. In
grinding whenever a job is ground by holding in a magnetic chuck, the job will
also get some magnetic power. A demagnetizer is therefore required to remove
this.
Vice:
Vices are used to hold jobs with narrow surface or non-ferrous work pieces
( which cannot be conveniently held in magnetic chucks ). A vice may be placed
directly on the grinder table or on a magnetic chuck. There are three types. They
are
- Plain vice,
- Tilting type vice and
- Universal vice.
Angle plate:
Are used to hold the work piece while grinding one surface perpendicular
to another surface or while grinding one surface at an angle to another surface.
'V' block:
Are used to hold the round work piece while grinding a flat on the work
piece. These are used for holding tube or bar work pieces for grinding flat surfaces
on the exterior. Magnetic vee blocks may be used in combination with other
mounting devices, such as angle plates which themselves can be clamped to the
work table or held in position on a magnetic chuck.
Clamps:
are used to hold any work piece or a work holding device. Alternatively
they may be held on a magnetic chuck.
Basics of Machine tools:
Machine tools produce the required shape by performing some metal
removing operation on the raw material. For this the machine tools
- Hold / support / guide the work piece/ tools.
- Regulate the cutting speed and feed between tool and work piece.
Parts of a Machine Tool:
1. Machine Bed frame and Structure : This houses and supports other parts.
Some are in motion and others are fixed. this provides stability.
2. Slide ways and Slide : They are attached to the top of bed and guide the
slides. The movement of slides should be accurate. The different types are
flat, vee, dovetail, cylindrical and combined.
3. Spindles and Bearings : Spindles are provided to ensure that the position of
axis or rotation is within line. Members that rotate the work piece and
cutters are called spindles. These spindles are shaft mounted on bearings.
The spindles must be rigid and must have rotational accuracy.
4. Machine tool drives : electric motor is the power unit and the power from
motor reaches the work piece or cutter through belts, gears, chains and
pulley.
In machine tools there are two types of motion. They are
- Primary Motion : This is higher that other speeds.
- Feed motion : This is less than primary motion.
Metal Sawing: This machine is used to produce work piece of desired length.
Following are the different sawing machines.
1. Reciprocating Saw ( manual and power operated )
2. Band saw ( Band filing, Vertical, Horizontal and friction )
3. Circular saw ( Cold saw, Steel friction disk and Abrasive disk )
Lathe: Following are the important parts in a lathe.
2. Tail stock,
3. live centre,
5. apron,
6. cross slide
7. top slide and
8. Tool post.
A lathe is specified by
- Length of bed,
- width of bed,
- No of spindle speeds and
- Maximum distance between centers.
Following are the different types of lathes.
- Speed lathe,
- Engine lathe,
- Special lathe
- Automatic lathe,
- Bench lathe,
- Tool room lathe and
- Turret lathe.
Machining time:
- L - Length of cut.
- f - feed in mm / rev
- S - cutting speed in m / min
- N - Spindle speed and
- D - Diameter of work piece.
Machining time = L / f x N Where N = 1000 S / D.
Shaping operations:
There are three shaper diving mechanisms. They are
1. slotted link quick return mechanism,
2. Whitworth quick return mechanism and
3. Hydraulic mechanism.
Shaping operations can be used to cut splines and gears.
Cutting speed : On a shaper may be defined as the average speed of tool during the
cutting stroke and primarily depends on number of strokes / min and length of
stroke.
L - length of stroke
N - Number of strokes / min.
Distance moved per minute = LN.
Machining is done during cutting stroke and return stroke is a idle stroke.
Cutting stroke / Return stroke = 3 / 2
Cutting time / Total time = 3 / 5.
Thus actual time to cut LN metres is 3 / 5 min and not 1 minute. Hence in
one minute the tool cuts 5 / 3 LN metres.
Slotting Machines:
These can be considered as a vertical shaper. The difference between a
shaper and slotter is the direction of cutting action. They are used to create splines,
key ways, Internal and External gears.
Planners:
These are similar to shaping machines, but the tool is stationary and the
work piece slides back and forth. The following are the different types of planers.
- Double housing planner.
- Open side planer,
- Pit type planner and
- Divided table planner.
Following are the differences between shaper and planner.
SHAPER PLANNER
Suitable for small jobs.
Suitable for large jobs.
Light duty machine Heavy duty machine
Only one cutting tool is
used
Multiple cutting tools.
Less accuracy
More accuracy because
of high rigidity
Drilling Machines:
Following are the different types of drilling machines.
1. Portable Drilling Machine.
2. Bench type Drilling Machine
3. Sensitive Drilling Machine
4. Multiple Drilling Machine
5. Deep hole Drilling Machine and
6. Automatic Drilling Machine.
Different types of drilling operations:
Drilling:
Is used to make circular holes. Drilling involves the creation of holes that
are right circular cylinders. This is accomplished most typically by using a twist
drill, something most readers will have seen before. The figure below illustrates a
cross section of a hole being cut by a common twist drill. The chips must exit
through the flutes to the outside of the tool. As can be seen in the figure, the cutting
front is embedded within the work piece, making cooling difficult. The cutting area
can be flooded, coolant spray mist can be applied, or coolant can be delivered
through the drill bit shaft.
The characteristics of drilling that set it apart from other powered metal cutting
operations are:
- The chips must exit out of the hole created by the cutting.
- Chip exit can cause problems when chips are large and/or continuous.
- The drill can wander upon entrance and for deep holes.
- For deep holes in large work pieces, coolant may need to be delivered
through the drill shaft to the cutting front.
- Of the powered metal cutting processes, drilling on a drill press is the most
likely to be performed by someone who is not a machinist.
Reaming :
This uses a multipoint cutting tool. Cannot produce holes but produces
accurate size and good finish. Reaming is a process which slightly enlarges a pre-
existing hole to a tightly toleranced diameter. A reamer is similar to a mill bit in
that it has several cutting edges arranged around a central shaft, as shown below.
Because of the delicate nature of the operation and since little material is removed,
reaming can be done by hand. Reaming is most accurate for axially symmetric
parts produced and reamed on a lathe.

Reamed holes should not intersect with drilled holes, so the configuration below
should NOT be implemented

Boring : This operation, enlarges a existing hole and finishes it. Used when a drill
of a particular size is not available. Adjustable boring head eliminate the need for
a complete inventory of expensive large size drills.
Counter boring : Where as boring enlarges for a entire length of hole, counter
boring does not.
Counter sinking : Bevels the mouth of hole with a tool called counter sink.

Tapping : Used to cut threads in drilled holes.
Trepanning : is used when a large hole has to be created on a thin metal sheet.
Types of Work holding devices:
- Machine vice,
- V- Block,
- T bolts,
- Strap clamps,
- Step blocks and
- Angle plate.
Broaching:
- This operation uses a tool called as broach.
- A tapered tool, where there is a teeth of desired contour. It passes through
the work piece and produces the contour in a single pass.
- Used for mass production.
- Can machine both internal and external surfaces
- A broach has 3 types of teeth. They are Roughing teeth, finishing teeth and
semi-finishing teeth.
It is very similar to shaper but uses a multipoint cutting tool, as it has many
teeth. Each successive tooth has a greater cutting edge. Each tooth removes a
predetermined quantity of material.
Surface Finish Process:
- Honing : It is well cutting process which removes metal by means of a
revolving honing tool. This tool moves up and down inside the work piece.
- Lapping and
- Super finishing.
Welding:
It is the process of joining different metals. Various welding and allied
process are classified below.
1. Gas Welding
- Air acetylene
- Oxy acetylene
- Oxy hydrogen
- Pressure gas welding.
2. Arc welding
- Carbon arc welding and
- Shielded metal arc welding.
Oxy-Acetylene Welding:
In this acetylene is mixed with oxygen in proper proportions. Produces a
temperature of 3200 C. There are three types of flames produced. They are
1. Neutral flame : Produces no chemical change on molten metal. Hence no
cambering or oxidizing.
2. Oxidizing flame : Produces a loud roar. High temperature is reached. The
ratio of oxygen to acetylene is 1.5 : 1.
3. Carburizing flame.
Metal Arc welding:
It is a arc welding process done by heating the work piece by striking a arc
between the electrode and work piece. The arc melts the electrode and job and
molten metal is transferred from electrode to work piece. The flux coating melts
and forms a gaseous shield and slag to prevent atmospheric contamination of
molten metal.
Submerged Arc Welding:
In this instead of a flux coated electrode, granular flux and base electrode is
used. The job remain submerged under the flux. The flux serves a shield and
protects the molten metals from contamination.
Tungsten Inert Gas Welding:
It is a arc welding process done by heating the job within a electric arc
struck between tungsten electrode and job. A gas shield namely helium or Argon
is used to avoid atmospheric contamination of welding pool.
Metal Arc Welding:
It is done by striking a arc between a continuously fed metal electrode and
the job. No flux is used by t he act and molten metal is protected by helium or
Argon.
Plasma Arc Welding:
In this arc is circulated between tungsten electrode and water cooled
nozzle. Two inert gases are used. One of them produces the plasma arc and the
second acts as a shield. In this there are two types.
1. Non-transfer arc process: In this arc is produced between nozzle and
tungsten electrode. Work piece does not form part of electrical circuit.
2. Transfer arc process : This is a arc between tungsten electrode and work
piece.
Resistance Welding:
In this the joint is produced by using the resistance of the work piece for the
flow of current and by application of pressure. No filler metal is required.
Spot welding:
It is a type of resistance welding process, in which two overlapping sheets
of metal are joined by local fusion at one or more spots by the heat produced by
resistance to the flow of current, that are held together by the forces or electrodes.
Cold Welding:
It is a solid state welding carried out at room temperature and no heat is
produced. The condition is that one of the material must be ductile. Only
mechanical pressure is applied.
Ultrasonic Welding:
In this a high frequency vibratory energy is applied on work piece. The
work piece is held in a interface. The combine effect of pressure and vibration
causes movement of metal molecules and this creates a sound bonding. This
completed in 0.5 - 1.5 seconds.
Friction and Inertial Welding:
The work piece are rotated and suddenly pressure is applied and both
pieces get welded, Because of the high heat generated.
Atomic-Hydrogen Welding:
In this the joint is produced by an arc between 2 electrodes in a atmosphere
of hydrogen, which acts as shielding gas. Job does not become a part of electrical
circuit.
Electron Beam welding:
In this joint is produced by heat obtained by concentrated electron beam
which contains high speed electrons.
Difficulties in Welding Aluminum:
There are five things that greatly effect aluminums ability to be welded

1) Surface Oxidation: Aluminum has an oxidation coating, which is beneficial in
terms of corrosion resistance. However, this coating can be trapped inside the
molten weld material eventually causing the weld to be porous. The surface
oxidation should therefore be removed before welding.

2) High Thermal Conductivity: The thermal conductivity of aluminum is about
four times that of steel. Therefore, welds may need higher heat inputs, preheating,
and/or a shorter weld time. This could increase the heat affected zone (HAZ).

3) High Thermal Expansion: Due to the high coefficient of thermal expansion, a
weld can decrease by 6% in volume during solidification. This may lead to
cracking or distortion.

4) Low Melting Point: The parent material could melt through during the welding
process.

5) No Color Change Near Melting Point: Unlike steel, aluminum does not turn a
reddish color when approaching the melting point. This makes it difficult to tell
when the welding temperature has been reached.
Brazing:
In this joint is produced by heating to a suitable temperature and by using a
filler material having liquidus below the solidus of base metal. Used for non
ferrous metals.
Soldering:
The melting point of the filler material is below 427
o
C. The melting point
of filler material used in brazing is above 427
o
C.
MATERIAL SCIENCE AND PROCESS
This is a branch of science that investigates the relationship between
structure of materials and their properties. Engineering material are classified into
the following three types.
1. Metals and alloys
2. Ceramics and
3. Organic Polymers.
Classification of Materials:

Metals: are nothing but elemental substance. Valence electrons are detached
from atoms, and spread in an 'electron sea' that "glues" the ions together. Metals
are usually strong, conduct electricity and heat well and are opaque to light (shiny
if polished). Examples: aluminum, steel, brass, gold.

Alloys: are obtained by melting two or more relatively pure metals to form a new
metal. They alloys have quite different properties in comparison to the other two
materials used for its manufacture.
Semiconductors: The bonding is covalent (electrons are shared between atoms).
Their electrical properties depend extremely strongly on minute proportions of
contaminants. They are opaque to visible light but transparent to the infrared.
Examples: Si, Ge, GaAs.

Ceramics: contains two phases. A phase is a physically separable and is a
homogenous constituent. The phases may be metallic or non metallic. Atoms
behave mostly like either positive or negative ions, and are bound by Coulomb
forces between them. They are usually combinations of metals or semiconductors
with oxygen, nitrogen or carbon (oxides, nitrides, and carbides). Examples: glass,
porcelain, many minerals.

Organic Materials: are derived from carbon combined with oxygen, Hydrogen
etc. Their structure is fairly complex. Plastics and rubber are the organic
engineering materials. Also called as polymers because of the polymerization
process. Polymerization is the process in which two or more simple molecules are
chemically combined to form a massive long chain molecules.
Other categories are not based on bonding. A particular microstructure
identifies composites, made of different materials in intimate contact (example:
fiberglass, concrete, wood) to achieve specific properties. Biomaterials can be any
type of material that is biocompatible and used, for instance, to replace human
body parts.
Modern Material's Needs:
- Engine efficiency increases at high temperatures: requires high
temperature structural materials
- Use of nuclear energy requires solving problem with residues, or advances
in nuclear waste processing.
- Hypersonic flight requires materials that are light, strong and resist high
temperatures.
- Optical communications require optical fibers that absorb light negligibly.
- Civil construction materials for unbreakable windows.
- Structures: materials that are strong like metals and resist corrosion like
plastics.
Properties of Materials:

Mechanical Properties : Strength, Stiffness, Elasticity, plasticity, ductility,
malleability, hardness and brittleness.
Electrical Properties : Conductivity and Resistivity.
Magnetic Properties : Coercive forces and Hysterisys.
Thermal Properties : Conductivity, specific heat, thermal expansion.
Chemical Properties : Corrosion resistance, acidity and alkalinity.
Physical Properties : Dimension and density.
Acoustic Properties : Sound transmission and Reflection.
Optical Properties : Light transmission and light reflection.

Material Structure:

Depending on the level of magnification the structure of material is
classified as follows.

Macrostructure: It is the structure of the material, as seen by the naked eye. It
deals with shape and size. ( Like fracture, flaws on surface etc. )

Microstructure: It is observed with a magnification of X 75 - X 1500. Optical
microscope is used for this purpose.

Substructure: In this the structure is observed with a magnification of X 100000
using a electron microscope. It provides information on crystal imperfections.

Crystal Structure: This structure tell about the atomic arrangement within the
crystal. X-Ray and electron diffraction techniques are used for this study.

Electronic Structure: This deals with the study of electrons in the outermost shells
of individual atoms. Spectroscopic techniques are used.

Nuclear Structure: It is studied using Nuclear spectroscopic techniques.

Criteria For Selection of Materials:

The choice is made based upon taking the following factors.
1. Service : There are of paramount importance and should have properties
like adequate strength, corrosion resistance, hardness and toughness.
2. Fabrication : This is also gaining importance. This includes the possibility to
shape a material and join with other materials. These include ductility,
Machinability, hardenability, weldability, castability.
3. Economy.
Atomic Structure:

Atom:

It is a electrical structure having a diameter of 1 x 10
-10
metres or 1
Angstrom. It has two main parts. A heavier nucleus and electrons surrounding
it. This nucleus is made of protons and neutrons.

Protons:

It is positively charged and 1836 times heavier as electron. It exists with the
neutrons in the nucleus of atom.

Neutron:

It is 1.008 times heavier than proton. It has no electric charge. For large
atoms, the ratio of Mass to Neutron to Mass of Proton is greater than 1.008.

Electron:

Surrounds the nucleus and at a greater distant from the nucleus. Its mass is
1/1836 of proton. It is negatively charged. with a magnitude equal to the charge
of protons. Electrons in the outermost orbit are called as valence electrons which
determine many of the properties of materials. Electron and protons are negative
and positive charges of the same magnitude, 1.6 10
-19
Coulombs.

Atomic Number:

Number of protons or number of electrons.

Mass Number:

Sum of protons and Neutrons.

Atomic Weight:

Weight of a atom of element in comparison with weight of a atom of
oxygen taken as 16.

Isotopes:

Same elements having different number of neutrons.

Bonding of solids:

The arrangement of atoms in a solid element is determined by the
character, strength of chemical bonds or cohesive forces. The bonds may be
attractive or repulsive, which hold the atoms at a particular spacing and which
just balances the opposite forces. There are two types of Chemical bonds. They
are primary bonds and secondary bonds.

Primary Interatomic Bonds:
1. Ionic Bonding:
This is the bond when one of the atoms is negative (has an extra electron)
and another is positive (has lost an electron). Then there is a strong, direct
Coulomb attraction. An example is NaCl. In the molecule, there are more electrons
around Cl, forming Cl
-
and less around Na, forming Na
+
. Ionic bonds are the
strongest bonds. In real solids, ionic bonding is usually combined with covalent
bonding. In this case, the fractional ionic bonding is defined as % ionic = 100 [1
exp(-0.25 (X
A
X
B
)
2
], where X
A
and X
B
are the electronegativities of the two
atoms, A and B, forming the molecule.
2. Covalent Bonding:
In covalent bonding, electrons are shared between the molecules, to
saturate the valency. The simplest example is the H
2
molecule, where the electrons
spend more time in between the nuclei than outside, thus producing bonding.
3. Metallic Bonding:
In metals, the atoms are ionized, loosing some electrons from the valence
band. Those electrons form a electron sea, which binds the charged nuclei in place,
in a similar way that the electrons in between the H atoms in the H
2
molecule bind
the protons.
Secondary Bonding (Van der Waals):
1. Fluctuating Induced Dipole Bonds:
Since the electrons may be on one side of the atom or the other, a dipole is
formed: the + nucleus at the center, and the electron outside. Since the electron
moves, the dipole fluctuates. This fluctuation in atom A produces a fluctuating
electric field that is felt by the electrons of an adjacent atom, B. Atom B then
polarizes so that its outer electrons are on the side of the atom closest to the + side
(or opposite to the side) of the dipole in A. This bond is called van der Waals
bonding.
2. Polar Molecule-Induced Dipole Bonds:
A polar molecule like H
2
O (Hs are partially +, O is partially ), will induce
a dipole in a nearby atom, leading to bonding.
3. Permanent Dipole Bonds:
This is the case of the hydrogen bond in ice. The H end of the molecule is
positively charged and can bond to the negative side of another dipolar molecule,
like the O side of the H
2
O dipole.
Crystals:

These are solids in which the atoms are arranged in some regular repetitive
pattern in three dimension. This arrangement is called as crystal structure.

Crystal Imperfections:

No crystal structure is perfect. It is associated with imperfections, which is
often helpful for understanding the properties of crystals. The following are the
crystal defects.
1. Thermal Vibration.
2. Point defects ( Vacancies, Interstitial cies and electron defects )
3. Line defects ( Edge and screw dislocations )
4. Surface defects and
5. Volume defects.
Solid Study:

There are two approaches. They are structural approach ( electrons,
valence bonds ) and Compositional approach ( Deals with the phase of materials
). This compositional approach is used to know the state and condition of solid
and to change the condition from thermodynamic point of view.

System:

it is a substance or group of substance unaffected by the surroundings. It is
subjected to change in composition, temperature, pressure or total volume only
to the extend allowed by the person investigating it. The system may be
composed of solid, liquid or gas or a composition of all three.

State:

Of a system is a physical condition defined by quantities. E.g. Length and
angles define the state of triangles.

Phase:

It is physically and chemically homogenous. Homogenous in the sense that
the smallest adjacent part is indistinguishable form the other. Each phase has its
own physical and chemical properties.

Gibbs Rule:

F = C - P + 2

F - Degrees of freedom.
C - Number of components at equilibrium.
P - Number of phases that can co exist at equilibrium.

Mechanical Properties and testing:

Since a number of properties are best evaluated by testing under various
conditions, mechanical testing are carried out to provide useful data to a
materials are continuous, homogenous and isotropic.
- Continuous - No voids or space.
- Homogenous - Identical properties at all points.
- Isotropic - With respect to some property. That property does not vary
with direction.
- Anisotropy - A body where the property varies in different directions.
Stress:

When a material is subjected to a load, it does not deform instantaneously,
but increases steadily till it stops. During the process of deformation, the material
exerts continuously increases it resistance to the load. The moment the
deformation stops, the body is in state of equilibrium.

Applied load = Internal resistance of the body.

Both are equal and opposite indirection. The sum total of interatomic
forces that prevails in the body to counteract the externally applied load is called
stress and the resultant deformation is expressed a fraction change in dimension
called as strain.

True Stress:

In this instead of taking the original area into account for the calculation of
stress, that area at any instant on applying the load it taken into account.
Different Mechanical properties of materials:

Strength:

It is the capacity of the materials to withstand load without destruction,
under the action of external load. It is the ability of the material to with stand
stress without failure. This strength varies according to the type of loading (
bond are the strongest. Then comes Ionic bond, Metallic and Molecular bond.

Stiffness:

It is the resistance of the material to elastic deformation. A material having
only slight deformation has a high amount of stiffness.

Flexibility:

This is opposite to stiffness. It is related to bending.

Resilience:

It is the capacity of body to absorb energy elastically, and return it when
unloaded. The maximum energy that can be stored upto elastic limits is called as
proof resilience. This property is associated with high elastic limits. Materials
with high resilience is used tin springs.

Modulus or resilience = Proof resilience / Volume.

Plasticity:

It is the property of the material to undergo permanent deformation without
rupture. Plastic deformation occurs beyond the elastic limits. Plasticity increases
with increase in temperature.

Ductility:

It is a measure of tensile property. It enables a material to be easily drawn
to wires. Percentage increase in elongation and percentage reduction in are the two
measures used. Rivets are made of ductile material.
Machinability:
It is the ease with which the metals could be removed from operation like
turning, drilling etc.

Malleability:

It is a measure of compressive property. It is the ability of material to be
flattened into sheets without cracking by rolling and hammering.

Toughness:

It is the ability of material to withstand both elastic and plastic deformation
( is the ability to withstand high deformations and high stress without fracture. ) It
is the amount of energy that it could absorb before rupture. It is not possible to
measure toughness but it is the area under the Stress-Strain curve. There is a
difference between ductility and toughness. Ductility deals with only deformation.

Hardenability:

Indicates the degree of hardness that could be imparted to particular steel,
by the process of hardening is connected with the transformation of characteristic
of steel.

Brittleness:

It is the property of breaking of a material without much permanent
deformation ( Glass ), Tensile stress of a brittle material is only a fraction of their
compressive stress.

Fatigue:

80% - 90% of total machine failure is because of fatigue. The term fatigue
is used to describe the failure of the material under repeated stress. The stress
necessary to cause failure when it is applied a large number of times is much below
the actual breaking strength. Thus fatigue deals with cyclic loading in which the
maximum stress applied / cycle is within the elastic limits. If failure occurs, the
material has poor fatigue strength.

Mechanism : This fatigue begins at irregularities at the surface or at points of high
stress or stress concentration. Fracture so formed is brittle even in a ductile
material.

Fatigue stress:

The stress at which the material fails because of fatigue is called as fatigue
stress. For most materials, there is a limiting stress within which it can be applied
for a indefinitely large number of times without causing failure. This is called as
endurance limit or fatigue limit. The presence of stress concentrators reduce the
endurance limit.
- As tensile strength increase, the endurance limit increases.
- As temperature decreases below the ambient temperature, the endurance
limit increases.
To resist fatigue failure there should be good surface finish, No stress
raisers and control of corrosion and erosion.

Creep:

A material is subject to constant tensile load at an elevated temperature
will creep and undergo a time dependent deformation. This slow and progressive
deformation of the material under constant stress is called as creep. This creep
continues until sufficient strain has occurred in necking down and reducing the
cross sectional area, and finally the material ruptures. Creep occurs at stress
below the elastic limits.
- At low temperatures, the creep rate usually decreases with time and
logarithmic creep curve is obtained.
- At high temperatures, ( T = 0.5 - 0.7 Tm ) the creep rate does not decrease
gradually. This is due to mechanical recovery.
- At very high temperatures ( T > 0 .7 Tm ) the creep is primarily due to
diffusion and stress applied has little effect.
Yield Point:

This is the horizontal portion of stress-strain curve. It is the point, where
the material yields without any increase in load. Yield strength is defined as that
stress at which there is a great increase in strain, without the corresponding
increase in stress. For materials which does not have a clear cut yield point, it is
determined by offset test.

Tensile strength:

Beyond the yield point the load can again be increased to a minimum value,
when a necking down occurs and there is a reduction in cross sectional area. This

Anelastic:

Refers to stress and time dependent of elastic strain. Fully recoverable by
time dependent deformation is called anelatic deformation. Upon removal of
load, the material does not regain it shape instantaneously. This asymptotic
approach to reach the equilibrium value is called as elastic after effect. This can
be understood, by understanding the concept of relaxation time.
Elastic after effect:
At t=0 a stress is applied which is followed by a instantaneous strain, which
again is followed by delayed strain in time 't' which asymptotically attains a final
value. When loading is removed the strain decreases by the same amount by
effect is internal fricition

Plastic Deformation:

It is a function of stress, temperature and rate of straining.

Fracture:

It is the failure caused by stress, separating the material into two or more
pieces. Following are the different modes of failure
1. Yielding
2. Fracture
3. Deflection
4. Wear
5. Corrosion and
6. Caustic embrittlement
Types of fracture:
There are two types of fracture. They are ductile and brittle fracture.
Following are the differences between brittle and ductile fracture
Ductile Brittle
deformation extensive little
track propagation slow, needs stress fast
type of materials most metals (not too cold) ceramics, ice, cold metals
warning permanent elongation none
strain energy higher lower
fractured surface rough smoother
necking yes no
1. Ductile Fracture
Stages of ductile fracture
- Initial necking
- small cavity formation (microvoids)
- void growth (elipsoid) by coalescence into a crack
- fast crack propagation around neck. Shear strain at 45
o

- final shear fracture (cup and cone)
The interior surface is fibrous, irregular, which signify plastic deformation.
2. Brittle Fracture
There is no appreciable deformation, and crack propagation is very fast. In
most brittle materials, crack propagation (by bond breaking) is along specific
crystallographic planes (cleavage planes). This type of fracture is transgranular
(through grains) producing grainy texture (or faceted texture) when cleavage
direction changes from grain to grain. In some materials, fracture is intergranular.
3. Brittle Fracture of Ceramics
The brittle fracture of ceramics limits applications. It occurs due to the
unavoidable presence of microscopic flaws (micro-cracks, internal pores, and
atmospheric contaminants) that result during cooling from the melt. The flaws
need to crack formation, and crack propagation (perpendicular to the applied
stress) is usually transgranular, along cleavage planes. The flaws cannot be closely
controlled in manufacturing; this leads to a large variability (scatter) in the fracture
strength of ceramic materials.
The compressive strength is typically ten times the tensile strength. This
makes ceramics good structural materials under compression (e.g., bricks in
houses, stone blocks in the pyramids), but not in conditions of tensile stress, such
as under flexure.
Plastic deformation in crystalline ceramics is by slip, which is difficult due
to the structure and the strong local (electrostatic) potentials. There is very little
plastic deformation before fracture. Non-crystalline ceramics, like common glass
deform by viscous flow (like very high-density liquids). Viscosity decreases
strongly with increases temperature.
Following are the different theories of failure.
1. Maximum principle stress theory - Rankine theory
2. Maximum shear shtress theory - Coloums theory
3. Maximum strain energy theory - venants theory
4. Maximum strain theory - Haigh theory
5. Distortion energy theory - von misses theory.
DIFFERENT HARDENING MECHANISMS
Solid solution hardening:
This is the common way to increase the hardness and yield strength and
particularly its straining rate.
- Every element has got a distinct atomic diameter that is different from other
elements. When a solid solution is formed the solute atoms will be either
largest or small in diameter when compared to the solvent atoms.
- Since solvent and solute atoms have different sizes when solute is added to
solvent, distortion of lattices takes place. Based on size of solute there are
two types of solid solutions. They are interstitial solid solutions and
substitutional solid solutions.
- In interstitial solid solutions the solute is smaller in size when compared to
solvent atoms and this solute occupies a space in between the solvent atoms.
In this case tensile fields areas set up. E.g.. Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen and
Iron.
- In solid solutions of substitutional type the solute atoms is approximately the
same size as that of the solvent atoms and this solute occupies a space in
between the solvent atoms and in this case compressive fields are set up.
- The more the different between atomic size of solute and solvent the higher
is the stress field around solute atoms thereby providing more resistance to
the motion of dislocation and thereby increasing the tensile strength.
- If the number of solute atoms is more greater will be the local distortion in
the lattice and hence more will the resistance to moving dislocation and
there by increasing the hardness and strength of the material.
Dispersion Hardening:
This means a strengthening a metal by creating a fine dispersion of
insoluble particles o a second phase within the metal. The insoluble particles may
be slag inclusions, inter metallic compound formed between the alloying elements
and any other impurity atoms. The presence of finely distributed hard particles
obstruct the flow pattern of the stress deformation and causes rapid hardening. The
effect depends upon the size, shape, concentration and physical characteristics.
Age hardening:
This is the phenomenon observed in many non-ferrous alloys like Al, Si,
Mg alloys whereby the hardness of the material increase with time. The essential
requirement for precipitation to occur in solution is the decreasing solubility of a
solute with decreasing temperatures. This results in super saturated solid solution
that being unstable tends to decompose according to the relation.
Super saturated o solid solution = saturated solution o + | precipitation.
Age hardening involves the following mentioned stages
Heating: The alloy is first solutionized by heating into a single phase reaction, held
there long enough to dissolve all existing soluble precipitate particles.
Quenching: After solutionizing, the alloy is rapidly quenched into the two phase
reaction region. The rapidity of the quench prevents the formation of equilibrium
precipitates and thus produces the supersaturated solid solution. The quenching
medium is usually water.
Aging: On aging at or above room temperature, fine scale transition structures as
small as 100 Angstrom is formed.
Strain hardening:
In most of the metals and alloys it is observed that the yield strength of the
material increases after the material undergoes plastic deformation from the stress-
strain curve shown. Strain hardening or work hardening is the phenomenon which
results in an increase in hardness and strength of a metal subjected to plastic
deformation at temperatures lower than the re-crystallisation range. Strain
hardening however reduces ductility and plasticity.
An important characteristic of plastic deformation of metals is that the
shear stress required to produce slip continuously increases with shear strain.
When the metal is loaded, the strain increases with stress and the curve reaches a
point A in the plastic region. If at this stage, the specimen is unloaded, the strain
does not recover along the original part AO, but moves along AB. If the specimen
is reloaded immediately the curve again rises from B to A, and reaches the point C,
after which it still follows the curvature, if loading is continued. IF the specimen
would not have been unloaded, after point A, the stress-strain curve would have
The figure shows the stress strain curve of FCC crystal. There are three
regions of hardening and are experimentally distinguishable. The forest
dislocation theory stages that when a material is stressed the dislocation starts
moving which results in plastic deformation. Even as the stress increase the
number of dislocations present in the body increase exponentially by frank reed
source mechanism. The movement of a large number of dislocation along different
slip lanes creates a traffic jam like situation and there by making it difficult for any
movement of dislocation. Therefore further plastic deformation requires more
Stage I or the easy glide region, immediately follows the yield point and is
characterized by little strain hardening undergone by the crystal. During easy glide
the dislocation are able to move over relatively large distances without
encountering barriers.
Stage II region marks a rapid increase in work hardening, the slope of
which is approximately independent of applied stress, temperature, orientation
alloy content. In this region slip occurs on both primary and secondary slip
systems. As a result, several new lattice irregularities may be formed which will
include.
- Forest dislocations
- Lomer-cottrell barriers,
- Jogs produced either by moving dislocations cutting through forest
dislocations or by forest locations cutting through source dislocations
There are three theories that explain the hardening mechanism at this stage.
They are pile-up theory, forest theory and jog theory. The pile up theory states that
some of the dislocations give out by the frank reed sources are eventually stopped
at barriers, according to this theory, the hardening is principally due to long range
internal stresses from piled up groups interacting with guide dislocations.
Stage III is the region of decreasing rate of strain hardening. At the
sufficiently high stress value or temperature in region 3, the dislocations help up in
stage 2 are able to move by a process that had been suppressed at lower stresses
and temperatures. In this mechanism, dislocations can by-pass the obstacles in
their guide plane and do not have to interact strongly with them. For this reason,
this stage exhibits a lower rate of work hardening.
Grain boundary hardening:
It is a relevant fact that the dislocations are obstructed by the grain
boundaries during plastic deformation of the material. This is basically due to the
disordered at grain boundaries, that is in the grain boundary the atoms are not
arranged in any particular fashion by arranged randomly. It requires large amount
of force for the dislocations to travel through the disordered structure, than along
the slip planes. Transmission electron microscope picture have revealed that
dislocations get piled up like grain boundary as the deformation process at this
stage the stress concentration near the grain boundary must be sufficient to
nucleate slip in the next grain. In a material with fine grains the area of grain
boundary within gives a volume that is going to be very high compared to
materials with large grains. So the materials with fine grain will have higher
strain. This effect is called grain boundary strengthening or hardening.

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING

Refrigeration system is a mechanical system which circulates the coolant or
refrigerant to absorb the surrounding heat. Refrigeration is the withdrawal of
heat from a substance or space so that temperature lower than that of the
natural surroundings is achieved. Refrigeration may be produced by
- Thermoelectric means
- Vapor compression systems
- Expansion of compressed gases
- Throttling or unrestrained expansion of gases.
Vapour compression systems are employed in most refrigeration systems.
Here, cooling is accomplished by evaporation of a liquid refrigerant under reduced
pressure and temperature. The fluid enters the compressors at state 1 where the
temperature is elevated by mechanical compression (state 2). The vapor condenses
at this pressure, and the resultant heat is dissipated to the surrounding. The high
pressure liquid (state 3) then passes through an expansion valve through which the
fluid pressure is lowered. The low-pressure fluid enters the evaporator at state 4
where it evaporates by absorbing heat from the refrigerated space, and reenters the
compressor. The whole cycle is repeated.

Refrigerant:

It has its boiling point below the atmospheric temperature, hence when
subjected to atmospheric temperature it absorbs heat and becomes vaporized.
Some of the most commonly used refrigerants are Ammonia, Carbon dioxide,
Sulphur di oxide, F - 12 and F - 22. The atmosphere also gets coooled. There are
two types of refrigerants. They are
1. Primary refrigerants : Cools the substance by absorbing latent heat.
2. Secondary refrigerants : Cools the substance by absorbing their sensible
heat ( E.g. Air, water )
COP:

It is nothing but, Coefficient of Performance. It is the ratio of actual
refrigeration obtained to the Work done in the system. But Relative COP is the
ratio of actual to Theoretical COP.

Capacity of Refrigeration:

It is expressed in Tons, the rate at which refrigeration is produced. One ton
of refrigeration is the heat rate for melting one ton of ice in 24 hours.

Air Conditioning:

Absolute Humidity:

Ratio of weight of water vapor per unit volume.

Relative Humidity:

The actual amount of moisture in air at any temperature divided by the
greatest amount of moisture the air could hold without condensation.

Psychrometry:

It is the branch of science, which deals with the study of mixture of dry air
and water vapor. Dry air contains Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Water vapor
and traces of other gases.

Moist Air:

Mixture of dry air and water vapor. The quantity of water vapor present in
air depends upon the temperature.

Moisture:

The water vapor present in air is called as moisture.

Saturated Air:

When moist air contains the maximum amount of water vapor, that it can
hold, then the air is said to be saturated. If any more water is added to the
saturated air, it remains in suspension and makes the air foggy. Moist air that is
not saturated is called as unsaturated air.

Humidity Ratio:

It is the weight of water vapor per unit weight of dry air in vapor air
mixture.

Degree of Saturation:

Ratio of Humidity ratio of moist air to the Humidity ratio of saturated air at
the same conditions of Temperature and Pressure.

Dew Point Temperature:

It is the temperature at which moist air just becomes condensed when
cooled at constant pressure.

Sensible Heat Factor = Sensible heat / ( Sensible heat + Latent Heat )

The total quantity of heat that has to be pumped out of a space to maintain
a level of temperature using a refrigeration equipment is called as cooling load.

FLUID MECHANICS
It is the branch of science that deals with the behavior of the fluids at rest
as well as motion. Fluid mechanics study is classified into the following types.
- Fluid statics - Study of Static Fluid
- Fluid Kinematics - Study of Moving fluid with no pressure acting on it
- Fluid Kinetics - Study of moving fluid with pressure acting on it
Fluid Properties:
Viscosity :
It is the property of a fluid with offers resistance to the movement of one
layer of fluid over another adjacent layer of the fluid. Let there be two layers of
fluid with a distance dy and velocities u and u+du respectively. The viscosity along
with relative velocity causes a shear stress between the fluid layers.
du / dy
= du / dy
Where = Coefficient of dynamic viscosity. Mathematically viscosity is
the shear stress required to produce unit rate of shear strain.
For liquids decreases with increase in temperature due to cohesive forces
predominates than molecular momentum transfer. However for gases increase
with increases with increasing temperature, because molecular momentum
predominates cohesive forces.

Specific weight (or) weight density:
It is the ratio of weight to volume. Its unit is N/m
3
.
Specific volume:
It is the ratio of volume to weight. Its unit is m
3
/kg.
Density:
It is the ratio of mass to volume. It signifies what amount of mass is
contained in a given amount of space. It is unit is Kg/m
3
. Thus specific volume is
inverse of density.
Pressure:
It is the force exerted normally on a unit area of a body (Thus the force
applied over a surface is pressure). Pressure increases with depth because of the
additional weight of the fluid above. Pressure = Weight density x height. Its unit
is N/m2
1 Atm = 101.325 Kpa = 101.325 KN/m
2
= 760 mm of Hg = 14.7 psi =
2117 lb/ft
2

1 bar = 105 N/m
2
.
1 Atm = 101.3 x 10
3
Pa = 1.01 bar.
1 Pascal = 1 N/m
2

Differences between solids and fluids:
The differences between the behaviors of solids and fluids under an applied force
are as follows:
i. For a solid, the strain is a function of the applied stress, providing that the
elastic limit is not exceeded. For a fluid, the rate of strain is proportional to
the applied stress.
ii. The strain in a solid is independent of the time over which the force is
applied and, if the elastic limit is not exceeded, the deformation disappears
when the force is removed. A fluid continues to flow as long as the force is
applied and will not recover its original form when the force is removed.
Differences between liquids and gases:
Although liquids and gases both share the common characteristics of fluids,
they have many distinctive characteristics of their own. A liquid is difficult to
compress and, for many purposes, may be regarded as incompressible. A given
mass of liquid occupies a fixed volume, irrespective of the size or shape of its
container, and a free surface is formed if the volume of the container is greater than
that of the liquid.
A gas is comparatively easy to compress. Changes of volume with pressure
are large, cannot normally be neglected and are related to changes of temperature.
A given mass of gas has no fixed volume and will expand continuously unless
restrained by a containing vessel. It will completely fill any vessel in which it is
placed and, therefore, does not form a free surface.
Fluid Classifications:

All fluids can be classified as either Newtonian or non-Newtonian. The
difference lies in the relationship between the fluid's tangential stress (friction force
between the layers per unit surface) and the shear rate or gradient (difference in
speed between the layers divided by the distance between them). If the relationship
is linear and the fluid has zero stress at zero velocity gradient then it is Newtonian.
If not, it is non-Newtonian, and is further classified into one of various
subdivisions based on the curve of their stress vs. their velocity gradient.
For non-Newtonian fluids, the velocity gradient is dependent on the
viscosity; that is, the fluid has a higher or lower stress depending on its velocity.
Based on these qualities, the fluid can be given its sub classification
.
NEWTONIAN
Water
Most salt solutions in water
Light suspensions of dye
High-viscosity fuels
Gasoline
Kerosene
Most motor oils and mineral oils

NON-NEWTONIAN
YIELD PSEUDOPLASTIC, BINGHAM PLASTIC, YIELD DILATANT
Clay
Mud
Tar
Sewage sludge
Digested sewage
Thermoplastic polymer solutions

PSEUDOPLASTIC
Sewage sludge
Paper pulp
Grease
Soap
Paint
Printer's ink
Starch
Latex solutions
Most emulsions

DILATANT
Feldspar
Mica
Clay
Beach sand
Starch in water

THIXOTROPIC - RHEOPECTIC
Inks
Most paints
Silica gel
Thixotropic - decreases viscosity over time
Rheopectic - increases viscosity over time

Behaviour of Non-Newtonian fluid:
Time-Independent behaviors:
Properties are independent of time under shear.

Bingham-plastic: Resist a small shear stress but flow easily under larger shear
stresses. e.g. tooth-paste, jellies, and some slurries.
Pseudo-plastic: Most non-Newtonian fluids fall into this group. Viscosity
decreases with increasing velocity gradient. e.g. polymer solutions, blood.
Pseudoplastic fluids are also called as Shear thinning fluids. At low shear
rates(du/dy) the shear thinning fluid is more viscous than the Newtonian fluid, and
at high shear rates it is less viscous.
Dilatant fluids: Viscosity increases with increasing velocity gradient. They are
uncommon, but suspensions of starch and sand behave in this way. Dilatant fluids
are also called as shear thickening fluids.
Time dependent behaviors:
Those which are dependent upon duration of shear.
Thixotropic fluids: for which the dynamic viscosity decreases with the time for
which shearing forces are applied. e.g. thixotropic jelly paints.
Rheopectic fluids: Dynamic viscosity increases with the time for which shearing
forces are applied. e.g. gypsum suspension in water.
Visco-elastic fluids: Some fluids have elastic properties, which allow them to
spring back when a shear force is released. e.g. egg white.
Types of Fluid:
Ideal fluid : Incompressible and where = 0.
Real fluid : If > 0 then it is called as real fluid.
Ideal plastic fluid : Shear stress is more than yield value and proportional to
Isothermal Process:
Changes in density takes place at constant temperature. P / = constant.
Changes in density occurs without any heat transfer to and from the gas in
the absence of friction.
Surface Tension:
It is the tensile force acting on the surface of a liquid in contact with a gas
or on the surface between two immiscible liquids, such that the contact surface
behaves like a membrane under tension. It is denoted by . It is the magnitude of
force per unit distance. SI unit = N / m.
Surface tension of liquid droplet = pd / 4
Surface tension of hollow bubble = pd / 8
Surface tension of a liquid jet = pd / 2
Cohesion means intermolecular attraction between molecules of the same
liquid. But adhesion means attraction between the molecules of a liquid and the
molecules of a solid boundary surface in contact with liquid.
Capillarity:
It is the phenomenon of rise or fall of a liquid in a capillary tube relative to
the adjacent general level of liquid, when the tube is held vertically in the liquid.
Rise in liquid level is called as capillary rise and fall in liquid level is called as
capillary depression. ( First figure shows capillarity rise and second figure shows
capillarity depression ) Its value is expressed in Cm or mm. Its value is dependent
upon
- Surface tension,
- Diameter of pipe and
- Weight density of liquid.
Capillary rise = h= 4 Cos / wd.
for glass and water = 0 and hence the above expression becomes h = 4 /
wd.

Pascal's Law:
Pressure at a point in static fluid is equal in all directions.
Hydrostatic Law:
The rate of increase in pressure in vertically downward direction must be
equal to specific weight at that point.
w = P / z
Where,
z = Height of fluid element from the fluid surface ( Pressure head )
p = Pressure above the atmospheric pressure.
Pressure management systems:
Atmospheric pressure is the weight of air above an area. At sea level, a
column of air extending up through the atmosphere, with a cross sectional area of 1
m
2
, encloses about 10,000 kg of air. This air weighs about 1 x 10
5
N.
Atmospheric pressure decreases with altitude.
If measurement is made above complete vacuum then it is called as
absolute pressure. If the pressure is measured above atmospheric pressure than it
is called as gauge pressure. The atmospheric pressure at sea level at 15
o
is 101.3
KN / m
2
. There are two types of pressure measuring devices. They are manometer
and mechanical gauges.
Manometer: These are devices that are used for the measure of pressure at a point
in fluid by balancing a column of the fluid by same or another column of fluid.
There are two types of manometers. They are simple manometers and differential
manometers.
Simple Manometer: It is a glass tube where one end is connected to a point where
pressure is to be measured and the other end remains open in the atmosphere.
There are 3 types of simple manometers. They are
1. Piezometer,
2. U - Tube manometer and
3. Single column manometer.
U - Tube manometer: It contains a u tube. One end of which is connected to a
point where pressure is to be measured and the other end open to atmosphere.
The U - Tube contains mercury. There are two types of manometer. They are
1. Single column manometer ( In this, there are further vertical single
column manometer and inclined single column manometer )
2. Differential manometer : These are devised used to measure the
pressure different between two points in a pipe or between two
different pipes. It contains a U tube with a heavier liquid. ( There are
types. They are differential U - tube manometer and inverted U - tube
manometer. )
Mechanical gauges:
These are device that are useful for measuring the pressure by balancing the
fluid column by spring or dead weight.
Buoyancy:
When a body is immersed in a fluid a upward force is exerted by the fluid
on the body. This upward force is equal to the weight of fluid displaced by the
body.
Center of buoyancy:
It is the point through which the force of buoyancy acts on the body.
Buoyant force is a vertical force and is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.
Hence center of buoyancy = center of gravity of fluid displaced.
Meta centre: It is the point about which a body starts oscillating when the body is
tilted by a small angle.
Kinematics of flow:
There are two methods to describe the fluid motion. They are lagrangian
method and Euler method. In lagrangian method a fluid particle is followed during
its motion and its velocity, acceleration and density are described.
But in Eulerian method the velocity, acceleration and density are described
at a point in flow field. This is most commonly used.
Velocity Potential:
It is defined as a scalar function of space and time such that its negative
derivative with respect to any direction gives the fluid velocity in that direction.
Stream function:
It is defined as the scalar function of space and time such that its partial
derivative with respect to any direction gives the velocity component at right
angles to this direction.
Types of fluid flows:
Steady Flow : is defined as the type of flow in which the fluid characteristics like
velocity, pressure and density at any point does not change with time.
Unsteady flow : is defined as the type of flow in which the fluid characteristics like
velocity, pressure and density at any point changes with time.
Uniform motion : is defined as the type of flow in which the velocity at any given
time does not change with respect to space.
Non-Uniform motion : is defined as the type of flow in which the velocity changes
with respect to space.
Laminar flow : is the one in which the fluid particles move in well defined paths,
with one layer of fluid moving over another layer of fluid smoothly. Streamlines
are straight and parallel. This is also called as viscous flow.

Turbulent Flow : is the one in which the fluid move in Zigzag manner randomly.
Eddy formation takes place and thus there is a loss of energy.
Compressible Flow : Here the density of fluid changes from point to point.
Incompressible Flow :The density is constant. Thus gas is compressible fluid, but
liquids are incompressible fluids.
Rotational Flow : In this the fluid particles when traveling in a stream line, rotate
Discharge :
It is defined as the quantity of fluid flowing per second through a section of
pipe or channel.
For incompressible fluids discharge = Volume / second = Lit / sec.
For compressible fluid discharge = Weight / second = N / s.
Bernoulli's Equation :
In an ideal incompressible fluid when the flow is steady and continuous, the
sum of pressure energy, potential ( or datum ) energy and kinetic energy is constant
along a stream line. This law is based on the conservation of energy.
Continuity Equation :
It is based on the principle of conservation of mass. For a fluid flowing
through a pipe, at any cross section, the quantity of fluid flowing per second is
constant. Any fluid must satisfy this equation.

1
A
1
V
1
=
2
A
2
V
2

Venturimeter:
It is a device used to measure the rate of flow of fluid in a pipe
Orifice meter:
It is a device used for the measurement of rate of flow of a fluid through a
pipe. Works on the same principle of venturimeter. But cheaper than the
Venturimeter. By reducing the cross sectional area of flow passage a pressure
difference between the two sections is developed and the measurement of pressure
difference enables the determination of the discharge through the pipe.
Pitot's Tube:
is a device used to measure the velocity of flow at any point in a pipe or
channel. When a velocity of a fluid is made zero by bringing it to rest, the kinetic
energy is converted to pressure energy and hence pressure is increased.
Flow over notches:
A notch may be defined as an opening provided in the side at a tank or
vessel such that the liquid surface in the tank is below the top edge of the opening.
In general notches are used for measuring the rate of flow of liquid from a tank or
in a channel. The sheet of water flowing through a notch is knows as the nappae
(French term meaning sheet) or vein. The bottom edge of a notch over which the
water flows is known as sill or crest, and its height above the bottom of the tank or
channel is known as crest height. A notch is more often termed as sharp crested
weir on account of similarity in the pattern of flow over a notch and sharp crested
weir. Notches are classified as follows.
- Rectangular notch,
- Triangular notch
- Trapezoidal notch
- Parabolic notch and
- stepped notch
Notches may be classified according to the effect of the sides on the nappe
emerging from a notch, as notch with end contraction and notch without end
contraction or suppressed notch. If the sides at a notch cause the contraction of
nappe, then it is said to be notch with end contraction on the other hand if there is
no contraction of the nappe due to the sides or in other words the end contractions
are suppressed than it is known as a notch without end contraction. In a channel, if
the crest length of the notch is less than the width of the channel then it is a notch
with end contraction. But if the crest length of the notch is equal to the width of
the channel then it is a notch without end contraction.
Dimensional Analysis:
It is a mathematical technique used in research works and for conducting
model test. It deals with the dimension of various physical quantities involved in
the phenomenon.
Boundary Layer Flow:
When a real fluid passes through the boundary, it adheres to it. Hence the
velocity of fluid near the boundary will be same as that of the boundary. If the
boundary is stationery then the velocity of fluid near the boundary is zero. But for
away from the boundary there is a high velocity and hence a velocity gradient
exists.
The increase in velocity from zero to free stream velocity is normal to the
boundary. This variation takes place in a very small region near the boundary.
This is called as boundary layer. In the boundary layer region, the fluid exerts a
shear stress on the wall equal to
= du / dy
But however outside the boundary layer velocity V = U and du / dy = 0 and
hence shear stress = 0.
Forces acting on a body:
A force exerted by the fluid on the body. The total force Fr ( resultant force
) acts in a direction normal to the surface of the body.
Drag : This is the component of resultant force, in the direction of motion. This
force is exerted by the fluid in the direction of motion.
Lift : This is the component of resultant force which is exerted by the fluid on the
body normal to the direction of motion. Lift occurs only when the body is inclined
at an angle to the direction of fluid flow.
HYDRAULIC MACHINES:
Hydraulic machines convert fluid energy into mechanical energy or vice
versa.
Turbines:
Turbines convert Hydraulic energy to mechanical energy. A turbine is a
device which converts the enthalpy and kinetic energy of a moving fluid into some
form of mechanical work. A basic turbine consists of a rotor or series of rotors.
These rotors are mainly composed of fins connected to a shaft. When a fluid flows
through the fins, the angle of the fins causes the rotor or rotors spin, which causes
the shaft to rotate. The torque in the shaft is then able to do some form of
mechanical work, such as rotate a compressor or turn a generator which produces
current. An important application is the steam power plant which utilizes steam
pressure to rotate a generator and produce electricity. As the fluid passes through
the turbine, it loses some of its velocity, pressure, and temperature.
There are three types of turbines. They are Pelton, Francis and Kaplan
turbines. Turbines are classified as
- Impulse turbine : Here the water at the inlet of turbine contains only kinetic
energy.
- Reaction turbine :If the water at the inlet posses both kinetic energy and
pressure energy then it is called as reaction turbine.
- Tangential flow. The water flows tangential to the runner.
- Radial flow : If the water flows in the radial direction through runner then it
is called as radial flow. Further they are classified into Inward radial and
- Axial flow : The water flows in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation of
runner.
- Mixed flow : If the water enters radially, but leaves in a direction parallel to
the axis of rotation of runner, then it is called as mixed flow turbine.
Draft Tube:
The pressure at exit in the reaction turbine is less than atmospheric
pressure. Hence a pipe of gradually increasing area is used to carry the discharge
from turbine outlet to tail race.
Unit Quantities in turbines:
In order to compare the performance of different turbines which operate
with different speeds, blade angles the results are obtained in terms of quantities
which is obtained when the head of the turbine is made unity. Unit speed and unit
discharge are two such quantities. Unit speed is the speed of the turbine at unit
head. and Unit discharge is the discharge is the discharge of turbine at unit head.
Pumps:
Convert mechanical energy to Hydraulic energy. A pump is a device used
to raise, transfer, or compress liquids and gases. Water is a typical fluid used by
pumps in applications such as irrigation and cooling, among others. Another very
typical use of a pump is to force gas into a combustion chamber such as in a jet
engine, where it is termed a compressor. Multitudes of uses have been discovered
for pumps involving liquids varying from blood to sludge. Although a pump can be
used with almost any liquid, certain attributes of the working fluid must be
considered when designing a pump. For example, if the pump must displace an
acidic fluid, the pump must be composed of materials which will not react with the
acid.

In a pump system, there must be some form of work done on the pump to
make it operate. In most cases, this would be a motor which would drive either a
piston or a type of rotor. The pump then does work on the fluid passing through it,
and this work is translated into total energy within the fluid. Following are the
different types of pumps.
Centrifugal Pumps:
The hydraulic energy is in the form of pressure energy. If the mechanical
energy is converted to pressure energy by means of centrifugal force then that
hydraulic machine is called as centrifugal pump.
Principle:
The centrifugal pump works in the principle of forced vortex
flow. According to which when a liquid is rotated by a external tongue, there is
arise in pressure head. This rise in pressure head at any point in the rotating liquid
is proportional to the square of tangential velocity of the liquid at that point. At the
outlet of the impeller, the pressure is more and hence the rise in pressure head is
also more. The liquid will be discharged at the outlet at a high pressure. This high
pressure will be sufficient to lift the liquid to a very great heights.
Multistage Centrifugal Pumps:
If the centrifugal pump contains two or more impellers then it is multistage
pump. They may be mounted on same shafts or different shafts. This arrangement
is done to obtain
- Discharge huge quantity of water.
To obtain huge quantity of water impellers are connect in series ( In same
shaft). If the discharge is required is high the impellers are connected in parallel (
different shafts )
Reciprocating Pump:
If the mechanical energy is converted into hydraulic energy by sucking a
liquid into a cylinder in which a piston reciprocates and exerts a thrust on the liquid
and increase the hydraulic energy is called the reciprocating pump. Following are
parts in reciprocating pumps.
- Suction Pipe and valve
- Delivery pipe and valve,
- piston, connecting rod and crank.
The piston moves back with the crank and connecting rod attachment. The
crank rotates by electric motor. Both the valves are one way valves or Non return
valves, allowing the water to flow only in one direction.
When the piston moves from right to left vacuum is created in cylinder. But
the liquid is at atmospheric pressure. Hence because of this pressure drop, the
liquid is forced through the suction valve into cylinder. When it moves from left to
right the pressure in cylinder is above atmospheric suction valve closes and
delivery valve opens and liquid is forced into delivery pipe.

FLUID MECHANICS BOOKS
1. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics by Robert W. Fox, Alan T. McDonald
2. Schaum's Outline of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics by Ranald V. Giles,
Jack B. Evett, Cheng Liu, Jack Evett
3. Investigating Solids, Liquids, and Gases with Toys by Jerry L. Sarquis
(Editor), Lynn Hogue, Mickey Sarquis, linda Woodward
4. Boundary-Layer Theory by Hermann Schlichting, Klaus Gersten, Egon
Krause, Katherine Mayes
5. Computational Methods for Fluid Dynamics by Joel H. Ferziger, Milovan
Peric
6. 2,500 Solved Problems In Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics by Jack B. Evett,
Cheng Liu
7. Fluid Mechanics, Second Edition by Pijush K. Kundu, Ira M. Cohen
8. Applied Fluid Mechanics (5th Edition) by Robert L. Mott
9. Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics by Ron Darby
10. Computational Fluid Dynamics by T. J. Chung

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
There are three types of Materials. They are
2. Plastic : Undergoes deformation on loading and it is permanent upon
Stress:

When a material is subjected to a load, it undergoes deformation. Against
this deformation the material offers resistance to prevent it from deformation.
This force of resistance offered by a body against this deformation is called
stress. The external force is called load. Load is applied on the body, while the
stress is induced in the body. Load may be of two types. They are dead and live

Stress = Force ( or Pressure ) / Area = N / m
2

There are different types of stress. They are tensile stress, compressive
stress and shear stress.

Tensile stress : When the resistance by a body is against the increase in length
then it is tensile stress.

e = Increase in length / Original length.

Compressive stress : If the resistance offered by the body is against the decrease
in length, then the stress induced is compressive stress.

e = Decrease in length / Original length.

Shear stress:
If two equal and parallel forces F, not in the same line act on parallel faces
of a member, then the member is said to be loaded in Shear. Consider the
rectangular block shown in the figure, a force F is applied tangentially along the
top and bottom face. ( The force is called as shear force ). The shear stress formula
indicates only the average shear stress. In reality the distribution of shear stress is
far from uniform. In reality it varies parabolically from zero at the edges to a
maximum at the center.

Shear stress = Shear force / Area = P / ( L x H )

Shear strain = Transverse displacement / Distance form lower face.

Thermal Stress :
The size of a body will change as the ambient temperature fluctuates,
expanding as it rises and contracting as it falls. If the natural change ( +ve or - ve )
in the length of the rod is not prevented, then the stress is not induced. The increase
in length of a rod = TL.

= Coefficient of linear expansion.
T - Temperature rise.
L - Actual change in length.
Bending stress:
When bending a piece of metal, one surface of the material stretches in
tension while the opposite surface compresses. It follows that there is a line or
region of zero stress between the two surfaces, called the neutral axis. Make the
following assumptions in simple bending theory:
1. The beam is initially straight, unstressed and symmetric
2. The material of the beam is linearly elastic, homogeneous and isotropic.
3. The proportional limit is not exceeded.
4. Young's modulus for the material is the same in tension and compression
5. All deflections are small, so that planar cross-sections remain planar before
and after bending.
Strain:

It is the ratio of change in length to the original length. It has no units. It is
expressed with the Greek word (epsilon) c = dl / l

Hooke's Law:

Within in elastic limits, the ratio of stress to strain is constant. This
constant is called Young's modulus of elasticity. In case of shear force, if the ratio
of shear stress to shear strain is also constant. That constant is called as shear
modulus of rigidity. This young's modulus of elasticity is a measure of stiffness.
The greater the Young's modulus for a material, the better it can withstand greater
forces. More about the relation between, stress and strain is discussed in the
following paragraphs.

Young's modulus ( E ) = Stress / Strain.

Stress-strain curve:
The relationship between the stress and strain that a material displays is
known as a Stress-Strain curve. Stress-strain diagrams can be generated for axial
- Tension specimens have a narrow region in the middle along the so-called
gage length.
- Compression specimens are much thicker and shorter than tension
specimens with no cross-sectional variations.
In either case, data are collected in terms of applied force and the change in
the gage length. The normal stress is obtained by dividing the applied force by the
cross-sectional area of the specimen, and the normal strain is obtained by dividing
the change in gage length by its original value. The plot of stress versus strain
gives the stress-strain diagram.. These curves reveal many of the properties of a
material (including data to establish the Modulus of Elasticity, E). A typical
stress-strain diagram for a ductile metal undergoing tension is given below.

Proportional limit:
During the first portion of the curve (up to a strain of less than 1%), the
stress and strain are proportional. The greatest stress at which a material is
capable of sustaining the applied load without deviating from proportionality or
stress to strain. This holds until the point 'a', the proportional limit, is reached.
Stress and strain are proportional because this segment of the line is straight.
Elastic limit:
From a to b on the diagram, stress and strain are not proportional, but
nevertheless, if the stress is removed at any point between O and b, the curve will
be retraced in the opposite direction and the material will return to its original
shape and length. In other words, the material will spring back into shape in a
reverse order to the way it sprung out of shape to begin with. In the region Ob,
then, the material is said to be elastic or to exhibit elastic behavior and the point b
is called the elastic limit. The point on the stress strain curve beyond which the
material permanently deforms, upon removal of the external load.
If the material is stressed further, the strain increases rapidly, but when the
stress is removed at some point beyond b, say c, the material does not come back
to its original shape or length but returns along a different path to a different point,
shown along the dashed line in figure. The length of the material at zero stress is
now greater than the original length and the material is said to have a permanent
set.
Plastic behavior:
Further increase of stress beyond c produces a large increase in strain until
point d is reached at which fracture takes place. From b to d, the metal is said to
undergo plastic deformation. If large plastic deformation takes place between the
elastic limit and the fracture point, the metal is said to be ductile. Such materials
are capable of being drawn out like a wire or hammered thin like gold leaf. If,
however, fracture occurs soon after the elastic limit is passed, the metal is said to
be brittle.
Ultimate strength:
The maximum stress that a material withstands when subjected to an
applied load. Dividing the load at failure by the cross sectional area determines the
value.
Yield strength:
This is the point at which the material exceeds the elastic limits and will not
return to the original shape, if stress is removed. This value is determined by
evaluating a stress-strain diagram produced during a tensile test.
The stress-strain curve for different material is different. The figure below
shows the comparison of the curves for mild steel, cast iron and concrete. It can
be seen that the concrete curve is almost a straight line. There is an abrupt end to
the curve. This, and the fact that it is a very steep line, indicate that it is a brittle
material. The curve for cast iron has a slight curve to it. It is also a brittle material.
Both of these materials will fail with little warning once their limits are surpassed.
Notice that the curve for mild steel seems to have a long gently curving "tail".
This indicates a behavior that is distinctly different than either concrete or cast
iron. The graph shows that after a certain point mild steel will continue to strain
(in the case of tension, to stretch) as the stress (the loading) remains more or less
constant. The steel will actually stretch like taffy. This is a material property
which indicates a high ductility.

If the original cross-sectional area is used to calculate the stress for every
value of applied force, then the resulting diagram is known as the Engineering
Stress-Strain Diagram. However, if the applied force is divided by the actual value
of the cross-sectional area, then the resulting diagram is known as the True Stress-
Strain Diagram. Therefore, in engineering stress-strain diagram the ultimate and
failure strength points do not coincide whereas in the true diagram they do. The
difference in the two diagrams becomes apparent in the inelastic region of the
curve where the change in the cross-sectional area of the specimen becomes very
significant.
Yielding:
Yielding occurs when the design stress exceeds the material yield strength.
Design stress is typically maximum surface stress (simple loading) or Von Mises
yielding occurs when the Von Mises stress, o
v
exceeds the yield strength in
tension. Often, Finite Element Analysis stress results use Von Mises stresses. Von
Mises stress is

------------------------------------------

( o
1
- o
2
)
2
+ ( o
2
- o
3
)
2
+ ( o
1
- o
3
)
2

o
v
= ----------------------------------------

2
Where o
1
, o
2
, o
3
are principal stresses. Safety factor is a function of design
stress and yield strength. The following equation denotes safety factor, f
s
. Where
Y S is the Yield Strength and D S is the Design Stress

Y S
f
s
= ---

D S
Poisson Ratio:

Within elastic limits the ratio of lateral strain to longitudinal strain is
constant and is equal to Poisson ratio. When a load is applied on a body, there is a
dimensional increase along the longitudinal direction and dimensional decrease in
lateral direction. Poisson ratio is constant for a given material.
- Rubber has a Poisson ratio close to 0.5 and is therefore almost
incompressible.
- Cork, on the other hand, has a Poisson ratio close to zero. This makes cork
function well as a bottle stopper, since an axially-loaded cork will not swell
laterally to resist bottle insertion.
- For non-dilatant materials the Poisson ratio is 0.6.
- The Poisson ratio for most metals falls between 0.25 to 0.35. However the
limiting values of Poisson ratio is -1 and 0.5
- Theoretical materials with a Poisson ratio of exactly 0.5 are truly
incompressible, since the sum of all their strains leads to a zero volume
change.
Volumetric Strain ( e
v
):

Because of increase in length, and decrease in breadth and depth, there is a
change in volume. Volumetric strain is defined as the ratio of change in Volume to
original volume.

Ductility:

It is the capability of a material to be drawn into wires. There are two
methods used for its measurement. One based on total elongation produced and
other based on total reduction in sectional area.

% increase in elongation = ( L- l ) / l
% reduction in cross sectional area = ( A - a ) / A x 100

Impact Test:

This test is used to find out the resistance of a body against shock load.
This is called as Izod impact test. The test specimen is a 10 mm square rod and
notched at a face. The notch is at a depth of 2 mm and a radius of 0.25 mm at the
bottom. It is fixed in a vice. The pendulum is raised and the value stored is around
165 joules.

Fatigue:

Sometimes members are subjected to loads that vary in magnitudes. They
may be even reversible loading. ( The member is subjected to repeated tensile and
compressive stress ). These members fail at point lower than ultimate stress. This
property is called fatigue of materials. At a certain range of applied stress, the
number of cycles becomes infinite. That limit is called as Endurance limit.
Strain Energy:

It is the energy stored on a member when work is done on it to deform it.

Torsion in Shafts:

A shaft of circular cross section is said to be in torsion, when it is subjected
to equal and opposite end couples. Whose axes coincide with axes of shaft. As a
result of torsion, a shaft twists.

Torsional Rigidity:

It is the amount of torque required to produce a twist of 1 radian at unit
length of shaft.
Beams:

These are structural members in which the load is applied at right angles to
the axis. The following are the different types of beams.
- Cantilever beams,
- Freely supported beams,
- Fixed beams and
- Continuous beams.
Column and Struts:

These are members that are subjected to compressive load along the axis.
Short columns fail by crushing. Thus we have to take care of crushing load. But
long columns fail by buckling or bending, hence we have to take care of crippling

This value of bucking load is low for long members and vice versa. Thus
- Length of member and
- Least lateral dimensions.
Effective length:

Of a given column with the given end conditions is the length of the
equivalent column of the same section with hinged ends. The crippling load is
same in both cases. The effective length under different conditions is given by
- Both ends pinned L = l
- One end fixed and other end free L = 2l
- Both fixed L = l / 2
- One end fixed and other end hinged L = l / \2
Proof resilience:

It is the maximum energy stored at elastic limits.

Factor of Safety:

It is the ratio of Ultimate stress / allowable stress. Following are the
reasons why factor of safety is used in manufacturing and design.
3. Machine strength uncertainty
4. Work environment - corrosive
5. Reliability requirements and
6. Effect of manufacturing process.
Bulk Modulus:

It is the ratio of applied Stress to volumetric strain.
Stress concentration:
Sometimes the cross section of a member changes abruptly because of
presence of a hole, notch, groove or shoulder. In regions close to the abrupt
change the stress is of high magnitude. This change in section is called
discontinuity or stress raisers. Following are the causes.
1. Variation in properties of materials due to presence of internal cracks, air
holes in casting, cavities in welds
2. Abrupt changes in cross sectional area or due to surface conditions like cuts
and grooves.
Disc springs:
Disc spring / Belleville spring, Occupy small space and gives high spring
rates. Parallel arrangement takes a higher load for a given deflection and series
arrangement gives a larger deflection. Leaf springs are used in automobiles. They
are energy absorbing devices. There are two types. Constant width and constant
strength springs.
HARDNESS
Hardness of a substance is the resistance that a body offers or indentation
by other bodies. For testing hardness, there are two tests. They are Scratch test
and Indentation test. The greater the hardness of the metal, the greater resistance it
has to deformation. In mineralogy the property of matter commonly described as
the resistance of a substance to being scratched by another substance. In metallurgy
hardness is defined as the ability of a material to resist plastic deformation.
Hardness measurement methods:
These hardness tests measure a metal's hardness is to determine the metal's
resistance to the penetration of a non-deformable ball or cone. The tests determine
the depth which such a ball or cone will sink into the metal, under a given load,
within a specific period of time. The followings are the most common hardness test
methods used in today's technology. More details about each test is given in
subsequently.
1. Rockwell hardness test
2. Brinell hardness
3. Vickers
4. Knoop hardness
5. Shore
Rockwell Hardness Test:
The Rockwell Hardness test is based on the net increase in depth of
impression as a load is applied. Hardness numbers have no units and are indicated
R, L, M, E and K scales. The higher the number in each of the scales means the
harder the material. The type of indenter and the test load determine the hardness
scale (A, B, C, etc). In the Rockwell method of hardness testing, the depth of
penetration of an indenter under certain arbitrary test conditions is determined.
The indenter may either be a steel ball of some specified diameter or a spherical
diamond-tipped cone of 120 angle and 0.2 mm tip radius, called Brale.
The Rockwell test uses two loads, one applied directly after the other. The
first load, known as the "minor", load of 10 kilograms is applied to the specimen to
help seat the indenter and remove the effects, in the test, of any surface
irregularities. In essence, the minor load creates a uniformly shaped surface for the
major load to be applied to. A minor load causes an initial penetration and holds
the indenter in place. Then, the dial is set to zero and the major load is applied.
still on. The difference in the depth of the indentation between the minor and
major loads provides the Rockwell hardness number. The hardness number may
then be read directly from the scale.
The Rockwell hardness tester to measure the hardness of metal measures
resistance to penetration like the Brinell test, but in the Rockwell case, the depth of
the impression is measured rather than the diametric area. With the Rockwell
tester, the hardness is indicated directly on the scale attached to the machine. This
dial like scale is really a depth gauge, graduated in special units.
For soft materials a 1/16" diameter steel ball is used with a 100-kilogram
load and the hardness is read on the "B" scale. In testing harder materials, a 120
degrees diamond cone is used with up to a 150 kilogram load and the hardness is
read on the "C" scale. There are several Rockwell scales other than "B" & "C"
scales, (which are called the common scales). The other scales also use a letter for
the scale symbol prefix, and many use a different sized steel ball indenter. A
properly used Rockwell designation will have the hardness number followed by
"HR" (Hardness Rockwell), which will be followed by another letter which
indicates the specific Rockwell scale. An example is 60 HRB, which indicates that
the specimen has a hardness reading of 60 on the B scale.
Brinell Hardness Test:
Brinell hardness is determined by forcing a hard steel or carbide sphere of a
specified diameter under a specified load into the surface of a material and
measuring the diameter of the indentation left after the test. The Brinell hardness
number, is obtained by dividing the load used, in kilograms, by the actual surface
area of the indentation, in square millimeters. The result is a pressure
measurement, but the units are rarely stated. The BHN is calculated according to
the following formula

where
BHN = the Brinell hardness number
F = the imposed load in kg
D = the diameter of the spherical indenter in mm
D
i
= diameter of the resulting indenter impression in mm
The Brinell hardness test uses a desk top machine to press a 10 mm
diameter, hardened steel ball into the surface of the test specimen. The machine
applies a load of 500 kilograms for soft metals such as copper, brass and thin
stock. A 1500 kilogram load is used for aluminum castings, and a 3000 kilogram
load is used for materials such as iron and steel.
The load is usually applied for 10 to 15 seconds. After the impression is
made, a measurement of the diameter of the resulting round impression is taken. It
is measured to plus or minus 0.05mm using a low-magnification portable
microscope. The hardness is calculated by dividing the load by the area of the
curved surface of the indention, (the area of a hemispherical surface is arrived at by
multiplying the square of the diameter by 3.14159 and then dividing by 2 -As
shown in the formula above). A well structured Brinell hardness number reveals
the test conditions, and looks like this, "75 HB 10/500/30" which means that a
Brinell Hardness of 75 was obtained using a 10mm diameter hardened steel with a
500 kilogram load applied for a period of 30 seconds. On tests of extremely hard
metals a tungsten carbide ball is substituted for the steel ball.
Vickers Hardness Test:
It is the standard method for measuring the hardness of metals, particularly
those with extremely hard surfaces, the surface is subjected to a standard pressure
for a standard length of time by means of a pyramid-shaped diamond. The
diagonal of the resulting indention is measured under a microscope and the Vickers
Hardness value read from a conversion table.
The indenter employed in the Vickers test is a square-based diamond
pyramid whose opposite sides meet at the apex at an angle of 136. The diamond
material of the indenter has an advantage over other indenters because it does not
deform over time and use The diamond is pressed into the surface of the material at
loads ranging up to approximately 120 kilograms-force, and the size of the
impression (usually no more than 0.5 mm) is measured with the aid of a calibrated
microscope. The Vickers number (HV) is calculated using the following formula
HV = 1.854(F/D2),

Where F is the applied load (measured in kilograms-force) and D2 the area
of the indentation (measured in square millimeters). The impression left by the
Vickers penetrator is a dark square on a light background. The Vickers impression
is more easily "read" for area size than the circular impression of the Brinell
method. The load varies from 1 to 120 kilograms. To perform the Vickers test,
the specimen is placed on an anvil that has a screw threaded base. The anvil is
turned raising it by the screw threads until it is close to the point of the indenter.
With start lever activated, the load is slowly applied to the indenter. The load is
released and the anvil with the specimen is lowered. The operation of applying
and removing the load is controlled automatically. Although thoroughly
adaptable and very precise for testing the softest and hardest of materials, under
varying loads, the Vickers machine more expensive than the Brinell or Rockwell
machines.

Vickers hardness test.

Knoops Hardness Test
Knoop hardness:
This test method was devised in 1939 by F. Knoop at the National Bureau
of Standards in the United States. By using lower indentation pressures than the
Vickers hardness test, which had been designed for measuring metals, the Knoop
test allowed the hardness testing of brittle materials such as glass and ceramics. In
this test, a pyramid-shaped diamond indenter with apical angles of 130 and
17230 (called a Knoop indenter) is pressed against a material. Making a
thombohedral impression with one diagonal seven times longer than the other. The
hardness of the material is determined by the depth to which the Knoop indenter
penetrates.
The diamond indenter employed in the Knoop test is in the shape of an
elongated four-sided pyramid, with the angle between two of the opposite faces
being approximately 170 and the angle between the other two being 130. Pressed
into the material under loads that are often less than one kilogram-force, the
indenter leaves a four-sided impression about 0.01 to 0.1 mm in size. The length of
the impression is approximately seven times the width, and the depth is 1/30 the
length. Given such dimensions, the area of the impression under load can be
calculated after measuring only the length of the longest side with the aid of a
calibrated microscope. The final Knoop hardness (HK) is derived from the
following formula
HK = 14.229(F/D2),

Where F is the applied load (measured in kilograms-force) and D2 the area
of the indentation (measured in square millimeters). Knoop hardness numbers
are often cited in conjunction with specific load values.
Shore:
The shore scleroscope measures hardness in terms of the elasticity of the
material. A diamond-tipped hammer in a graduated glass tube is allowed to fall
from a known height on the specimen to be tested, and the hardness number
depends on the height to which the hammer rebounds; the harder the material, the
higher the rebound. Shore hardness is a measure of the resistance of material to
indentation by 3 spring-loaded indenter. The higher the number, the greater the
resistance. The Shore hardness is measured with an apparatus known as a
Durometer and consequently is also known as 'Durometer hardness'. The hardness
value is determined by the penetration of the Durometer indenter foot into the
sample. Because of the resilience of rubbers and plastics, the hardness reading may
change over time - so the indentation time is sometimes reported along with the
hardness number.
Shore Hardness, using either the Shore A or Shore D scale, is the preferred
method for rubbers/elastomers and is also commonly used for 'softer' plastics. The
Shore A scale is used for 'softer' rubbers while the Shore D scale is used for
'harder' ones. The shore A Hardness is the relative hardness of elastic materials
such as rubber or soft plastics can be determined with an instrument called a Shore
A durometer. If the indenter completely penetrates the sample, a reading of 0 is
obtained, and if no penetration occurs, a reading of 100 results. The reading is
dimensionless.
EXPERIMENTAL STRESS ANALYSIS
Introduction:
When mathematical methods become too cubersome or impossible for
application as in the case of determining stress concentration around openings (
discontinuity ) or member with unusual cross section, experimental methods are
used to determine the stresses. This methods are known as "Experimental stress
analysis". Number of methods are available to obtain stress or strain distribution in
loaded members. Often it is necessary to know either the stress or strain
distribution in the whole field on the stresses or strains at selected points. The
stress distribution in the entire field is obtained by the following methods.
Whole field method:
This method gives the overall (entire) stress distribution in the loaded
member. Two techniques, namely, the photo elastic method and the brittle lacquer
technique are available to evaluate the stress distribution in the entire field.
Point by point method:
This gives the stress or strain at selected points, usually strain gauges are
used to obtain stresses at selected points.
Photo elastic method:
This method is one which is extensively used to solve the problem in
practical way. Basic principle involved in this method is "double refraction" or
"Bi-refringence". So, this method depends upon the property of certain transparent
solids by which they become doubly refractive under the action of stress, the
magnitude of optical effect bearing a definite relation to that of the stress. This
optical phenomenon is called as photo elastic effect. The photo elastic method of
evaluating the stress in a stress field is based on the following two photo elastic
laws.
1. "The light on passing through a stressed model becomes polarized in the
direction of principle stress axes and is transmitted only on the plane of
principal stress"
2. "The velocity of transmission in each principal plane is dependent on the
intensity of the principal stress in these planes.
When a ray of light is incident on certain crystals, it is split at entry into
components which generally, are transmitted through the crystal in different
directions with different velocities. This phenomenon is known as "Natural double
refraction" or "Bi-refringence". One of the component which is not deviated is
known as the "Ordinary ray" and the other ray, which is always deviated is called
the "Extra ordinary ray". For some crystalline transparent materials such as mica,
calcite, the property of double refraction is a permanent property of material.
Certain transparent materials such as perpix, bakelite, araldite are optically
sensitive and exhibit the property of double refraction when external loads are
applied. This optical effect disappears when the external loads are removed. In
other words these materials are ordinarily isotropic, optically but become optically
anisotropic when loaded and display double refraction characteristics temporarily.
Such materials are called as photo elastic materials.
When a material is subjected to external loads, it develops principal stresses
P1 and P2 at any point 'O' along two mutually perpendicular directions. Because
of this property of the material to exhibit double refraction when stressed, the
refractive index of the material which is n1 in the direction of the principal stress
P1 changes to n2 in the direction of the principal stress P2. The changes in the
refractive indices is fount to be linearly proportional to the stresses.
The color of light is due to the frequency of waves and each frequency
produces a different color (VIBGYOR). A monochromatic light may be
considered as a light corresponding a particular wave length and color. Thus, light
from mercury vapor lamp produces green and violet color with different wave
frequencies. However, when a suitable filter is used, violet waves may be
absorbed and only green light may be obtained. "Monochromatic light' is a light
corresponding to a particular wave length or color and are obtained by using
suitable filters. "Polarization" denotes the ability to extinguish light in all direction
except one.
"Polariscopes" are devised to produce polarization of light. For the photo
elastic investigations two types of polariscope are used.
- Plane polariscope, plane polarized light is used,
- Circular polariscope, circular polarized light is used.
A plane polariscope consists of a light source, to emit monochromatic light
and white light, condensing lens to collect white rays, the field lens to give a
parallel light beam, the polarize to produce plane polarized light, the loading frame
by which external load can be applied as the model itself made out of photo elastic
material such as Epoxy resins, columbic resin (CR - 39), homolite 100, Bakelite
(carsalin 61 - 893), glass etc. An analyzer which would combine the two beams
emerging out of the model to produce "Interference fringes". The projection lens
projects the image or the stress pattern on the screen. A camera may also be used
in pace of the screen to get the permanent record of the fringe patterns. A typical
arrangement of a plane polariscope is shown in the figure below.

To analyzing the stress pattern, a scale model of the loaded member is
made using a photo elastic material. The model is subjected to loads similar to the
one that might be applied on the original member. Light, on passing through the
polarizer, will be plane polarized, on entering the stress model, the light vector
decomposes into two vectors along the two principal plane directions. As the
result of this optical effect stress patterns known as "fringes" are developed.
Fringes represent the loci or points of equal "Phase difference" produced by
"temporary double refraction".
There are points of equal brightness or darkness. "Phase difference" is
proportional to the difference of principal stresses or maximum shear stress. The
fringe pattern related to the principal stress difference is called "Isochromatic
fringe pattern" the fringe pattern consists of 'isoclinic and isochromatic' fringes.
Using law of elasticity and stress-optic law the stress pattern produced are
transformed into stress differences and ultimately the state of stress at all points of
the model are obtained. One such advanced automatic polariscope is shown in the
figure.

Brittle coating method:
In this method, a brittle coating is sprayed over the surface of the specimen
for about 0.1 to 0.25 mm thick. The coating is allowed to dry completely. The
loads are applied on the sample. Since the coating is very ting the strains on the
surface of the specimen are totally transmitted to the coating without any increase
or decrease. White wash on walls represent the very common example of brittle
coating, but these coatings require large strains to cause them crack. When the
specimen is stressed, the coating cracks in a direction perpendicular to the
maximum principal stress. Stresses in the specimen and the stresses in the coating
are related using the theory of elasticity.
This method represent on the non-destructive methods of stress
determination and the coating fails at very low stresses and the specimen is not
over stressed. Commonly used coating is known as "Stress coat" and consist of a
zing resinate as base, carbon di sulphide as solvent and dibutyl pthlate as
plasticizer to control the plasticity of the coating and to vary the degree of
brittleness of the coating.
This method is inexpensive and stress evaluation is easy and quick and also
provides a simple and direct approach for failure analysis or is service components,
determining the location and direction of stress sensors such as strain gauges. It is
also useful in determining areas of stress concentration, measurements of thermal
and residual strains in members and estimating the magnitude and directions of
principal stresses in a stress fields. Following are the advantage of this method.
- Enables stress in the whole field to be determined,
- Directly applied to a prototype, no need for a model,
- This technique may be applied to an actual machine component while
working, and hence no need for simulation.
- Analyzing the specimen stressed from coating stresses is simple and easy.
1. Behavior of coating depends upon temperature and humidity.
2. Behavior of coating should be properly understood as a number of variables
affect the behavior.
3. The technique is more qualitative than quantitative.
Strain gauges:
A strain gauge may be defined a any instrument or device that is employed
to measure the linear deformation over a given gauge length, occurring in the
material of a structure during the loading of structure. Depending upon the
magnification system, the strain gauges may be classified as follows
- Mechanical gauges ( wedge and screw, lever spindle and compound, rack
and pinion, combination of lever and rack and pinion and dial indicators)
- Optical strain gauges.
- Interferometric type
- Electrical (Inductance, Capacitance, Resistance, Pieze electric and Piezo
resistive)
- Magnetic
- Acoustical and
- Photo stress gauge.
Mechanical strain gauge:
To meet the demand for greater sensitivity while retaining the advantage of
relative ease of applying the mechanical gauges, mechanical magnification is
used. Two commercially available gauges are Berry gauge and Tinius olsen strain
gauge.
BERRY GAUGE

TINIUS AND OLESON GAUGE
Rack and Pinion:
The rack and pinion principle along with various types of gear trains is
employed in gauges in which the magnification system is incorporated in an
indicating dial. In general a dial indicator consists of an encased gear train
actuated by a rack cut in the spindle, which follows the motion to be measured. A
spring imposes sufficient spindle force to maintain a reasonable uniform and
positive contact with moving part. The gear train terminates with a light weight
pointer which indicates spindle travel on a graduated dial. Lost motion in the gear
train is minimized by the positive force of a small coil spring. Dial gauges are
permanently attached to structure to indicate the deflection on deformation
obtained under working conditions These gauges then indicate excessive
deformation due to either an overload or damage to the structure.
Electrical strain gauges:
These are usually measured on a small area. A very thin wire, usually 20 -
25 microns in diameter and having a considerable initial resistance is used to
measure the strain at a point. This think wire is attached to the specimen surface
using a suitable adhesive at the point where strain is to be measured in such a way
that the strains on the surface of the specimen is totally transmitted to the wire.
When the specimen suffers a tensile strain, the length of the wire increases, thus its
area decreases and consequently the resistance will increase. This change in
resistance is proportional to the tensile strain suffered by the specimen therefore,
by measuring the change in resistance the strain at the surface of the specimen may
be evaluated.
Most commonly used alloys as strain gauges are constantan (Nickel copper
alloy), Nichrome (Nickel chromium alloy) and Isoelastic (Nickel, chromium,
Molybdenum and Iron alloy). Resin adhesives are commonly used.
BOOKS ON STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
1. Schaum's Outline of Statics and Strength of Materials by by John H.
Jackson
2. Problem Solver in Strength of Materials and Mechanics of Solids by
James R. Ogden
3. Advanced Mechanics of Materials by Robert Cook
4. Practical Stress Analysis in Engineering Design by Alexander Blake
5. Advanced Strength of Materials by J. P. Den Hartog
6. Practical Stress Analysis in Engineering Design by Alexander Blake
7. Mechanics of Materials by James M. Gere
8. Advanced Mechanics of Materials by Richard J. Schmidt, Arthur P. Boresi
9. Mechanics of Materials by Anthony Bedford, Kenneth M. Liechti
10. Applied Statics and Strength of Materials (3rd Edition) by Leonard
Spiegel, George F. Limbrunner
11. Strength of Materials and Mechanics of Solids Problem Solver by James
Ogden

ENGINEERING MECHANICS - DYNAMICS
Engineering mechanics is the science that deals with the state of rest or
motion of bodies under the action of forces. It is further divided into mechanics of
rigid bodes, deformable bodes and fluids.
Dynamics: deals with bodies in motion. This is further divided to kinetics and
kinematics. Kinetics, deals with the bodies in motion due to the application of
force, by considering the force that causes the motion. Kinematics, is the study of
displacement, velocity and acceleration without considering the force causing the
motion. Following are the definition of important terms in dynamics
Speed:
The speed of a body, may be defined as its rate of change of displacement
with respect to its surroundings. The speed of a body is irrespective of its direction
and hence is a scalar quantity.
Velocity:
The velocity of a body may be defined as its rate of change of
displacement, with respect to its surroundings, in a particular direction. As the
velocity is always expressed in a particular direction, it is a vector quantity.
Acceleration:
The acceleration of a body may be defined as the rate of change of its
velocity. It is said to be positive, when the velocity of a body increase with time,
and negative when the velocity decreases with time. The negative acceleration is
also called as retardation. In general acceleration denotes the rate at which the
velocity is changing. It may be uniform or variable.
Uniform acceleration:
If a body moves in such a way that its velocity changes equal in magnitude
in equal intervals of time, it is said to be moving with a uniform acceleration.
Variable acceleration:
If a body moves in such a way that its velocity changes unequal in
magnitude in equal intervals of time, it is said to be moving with a variable
acceleration.
Types of motion:
Rectilinear motion: When a particle moves in a straight line then it is called as
rectilinear motion.
Curvilinear motion: If the particle traces a curve, then curvilinear motion. If the
curve lies in a plane, then it is called as plane curvilinear motion.
Uniform motion: A particle in this case should move with a constant velocity and
zero acceleration
Uniformly accelerated motion: A particle moving with a constant acceleration is
called as uniformly accelerated motion.
Motion with uniform acceleration:

Here 'a' is constant. Hence a = dv / dt
dv = a.dt
( Integrating on both sides, within their
limits )
dv = a dt
( v - u ) = at
v = u + at

v = dx / dt
dx = v dt
Substituting the value of v
dx = ( u + at ) dt
( Integrating on both sides, within
their limits )
dx = ( u + at ) dt = ut + at
2

x = ut + at
2

a = v dv / dx
a dx = v dv
( Integrating on both sides, within their
limits )
a dx = v dv
ax = V
2
- U
2

V
2
= u
2
+ 2ax
Derivation:
Acceleration (a) = Rate of change of velocity with respect to time = dv / dt
Velocity (v) = Rate of change of distance with respect to time = dx / dt
a = dv / dt = d
2
x / dt
2

a = dv / dt = ( dv / dx ) x (dx / dt ) = v dv / dx
Equation of motion:
Fx = ma
x

Fy = ma
y

Fx is the resultant of all forces acting along the x axis.

Fy is the resultant of all forces acting along the y axis.
Equations of dynamic equilibrium:
Fx + ( - ma
x
)

= 0
Fy + ( - ma
y
)

= 0
The value ( - ma
x
) and ( - ma
y
) is called as inertia force or D' Alembert
force.
Curvilinear motion:
The direction of acceleration and velocity may not be the same in
curvilinear motion. There are two components of acceleration. They are
tangential component ( at ) and normal component ( an )
Tangential component:
at = dv / dt
It is equal to the rate of change of speed of the particle. It is positive and is
along the direction of tangent of the motion.
Normal component:
an = v
2
/
It is the ratio of square of velocity and radius of curvature of the part at that
point. The directions is towards the center of curvature of the path. This is also
called as the centripetal ( centre seeking ) acceleration.
a = ( a
t
2
+ a
n
2
)
Direction = Tan
-1
( a
n
/ a
t
)
Momentum:
consider the motion of particle of mass 'm' acted by a force F. Then the
equation of motion in a generalized from is given as
F = ma = m ( dv / dt ) = d ( mv ) / dt
Thus the force acting on a particle is equal to the rate of change of
momentum of the particle. The quantity mv is called as momentum. It unit is Ns.
Impulse:
When a large force acts on a body for a small interval of time then that
force is called as impulse force. It can be visualized as the area under the force Vs
time diagram. Impulse is nothing but, change in momentum.
Conservation of Momentum:
When the sum of impulses due to external forces is equal to zero, the
momentum of the system remains conserved.
Elastic bodies:
The property of a body by virtue of which they rebound after impact is
called elasticity. A body which rebounds to a greater height is said to be more
elastic and the body that bounces less is called lesser elastic. If a body does not
rebound, then it is inelastic. When two bodies collide with each other, the
phenomenon of collision takes place as given below.
1. The body, immediately after collision, come momentarily to rest.
2. The two bodies tend to compressed each other, so long as they are
compressed to the maximum value.
3. The two bodies attempt to regain its original shape due to their elasticity.
This process of regaining the original shape is called as restitution.
The time taken by the two bodies in compression, after the instant of
collision, is called as the time of compression and time for which restitution takes
place is called the time of restitution. The sum of the two times is called the period
of impact or the period of collision.
Impact : The phenomenon of collision of 2 bodies which occurs for a short period
of time, during which the two bodies exert a very large force on each other.
Line of Impact: The common normal to the surface of two colliding bodies is
called line of impact.
Central / Non-central impact: The centers of body m1 and m2 coincide with Line
of impact, hence called as central impact.
Direct / Indirect ( Oblique ) impact: There are the types of collision. If the
velocities of two bodies are collinear with line of impact before collision, then is
called as direct impact. Else it is indirect impact.
Coefficient of restitution: It is the ratio of the velocity of separation (v2 - v1) and
velocity of approach (u1 - u2). Its value lies between 0 to 1. If e = 0 then the two
bodies are inelastic. If e = 1, then the two bodies are perfectly elastic.
Projectile:
Any motion which is given just a initial velocity and after which its motion
is influenced by acceleration due to gravity is called as projectile. Thus a projectile
is moving under the combined effect of vertical and horizontal forces. The vertical
component of the motion is always subjected to gravitational acceleration and the
horizontal component remains constant. The combined effect of both the forces
causes the body to move along a parabolic path. Following are the important terms
used in projectiles.
- Trajectory is the path traced by a projectile in space.
- Velocity of projection is the velocity, with which a projectile is projected.
- Angle of projection is the angle with the horizontal, at which a projectile is
projected.
- Time of flight is the total time taken by the projectile t reach maximum
height and to return back to the ground.
- Range is the distance, between the point of projection and the point where
the projectile strikes the ground.
Equation for the path of projectile is y = x.tano - ( gx
2
/ 2.u
2
.coss
2
o )
Time of flight of projectile t = 2.u.sin o / g
Horizontal range of projectile R = u
2
.sin 2o / g
Maximum height of projectile H = u
2
. sin
2
o / 2g

NUMERICAL PROBLEMS
Problem 1: On turning a corner, a motorist rushing at 20 m/s, finds a child on the
road 50 m ahead. He instantly stops the engine and applies brake, so as to stop
the car within 10 m from the child. Calculate retardation and time required to
stop the car.
Solution: Let 'a' be the acceleration. v
2
= u
2
+ 2as, Here u = 20 m/s and v = 0
0 = (20)
2
+ 2.a.(50 - 10)
a = - 5 m/s
2
( Retardation of the car )
We also know that v = u + at. Hence the time required to stop the car is
0 = 20 + (-5) t,
t = 4 seconds.
Problem 2: A stone is dropped from the top of a tower, 50 m high. At the same
time another stone is thrown upwards from the foot of the tower with a velocity of
25 m/s. When and where the two stones cross each other?
Solution: Height of the tower is 50 m. First the stone that was dropped from the
top is considered. For this u = 0 and a = g. Hence the distance traversed by the
stone in time 't' is
s = ut + at
2
= 0 + 0.5gt
2

Now consider the stone that was thrown from the bottom. u = 25 m/s and a = -g.
Distance traversed by the stone in time 't' is
50 - s = 25t - 0.5gt
2

Adding both the equations we get the value of t = 2 seconds.
The distance at which both stones cross each other is s = 0.5gt
2
= 0.5 x 9.8 x (2)
2
=
19.6 m.
Problem 3: A fly wheel runs at a constant 100 rad/s. When the drive motor is
switched off the wheel takes 5 minutes to come to rest. What is the angular
deceleration?
Solution: Time t = 300 seconds. Initial angular velocity e
o
= 100 rad / sec and
e = 0.
e = e
o
+ ot,
Hence retardation o = ( 0 - 100 ) / 300 = -0.33 rad / sec
2

Problem 4: A racing car takes a bend. Given that vA = 40 m/s , vB = 48 m/s
Constant tangential acceleration and R = 300m. What is the total acceleration at
B?

Tangential angular acceleration a
t
= ro, and angle u
A B
= t / 2
e
a
= 40 / 300 = 0.133 rad / sec, e
b
= 48 / 300 = 0.16 rad / sec
Angular acceleration o = ( e
b
2
- e
a
2
) / 2uA B
2

Hence Tangential acceleration = ro = 300 x 0.00252 = 0.76 m / s
2

Normal acceleration a
n
= v
b
2 / R = 7.68 m / s
2

Total acceleration = \ 0.76
2
+ 7.68
2
= 7.72 m / s
2

DYNAMICS BOOKS
1. Engineering Mechanics by A. K. Tayal
2. Engineering Mechanics by R. S. Khurmi
GRINDING
Grinding is a finishing process used to improve surface finish, abrade hard
materials, and tighten the tolerance on flat and cylindrical surfaces by removing a
small amount of material. In grinding, an abrasive material rubs against the metal
part and removes tiny pieces of material. The abrasive material is typically on the
surface of a wheel or belt and abrades material in a way similar to sanding. On a
microscopic scale, the chip formation in grinding is the same as that found in other
machining processes. The abrasive action of grinding generates excessive heat so
that flooding of the cutting area with fluid is necessary. Following are the reasons
for using grinding operation.
- The material is too hard to be machined economically. (The material may
have been hardened in order to produce a low-wear finish, such as that in a
bearing raceway.).
- Tolerances required preclude machining. Grinding can produce flatness
tolerances of less than 0.0025 mm (0.0001 in) on a 127 x 127 mm (5 x 5
in) steel surface if the surface is adequately supported.
- Machining removes excessive material.
Principle of Operation:
To grind means to abrade, to war away by friction or to sharpen. In
manufacturing it refers to the removal of metal by an abrasive wheel rotating at
high speeds and working on the external or internal surface of a metallic or other
part hard enough to be abraded, rather than indented by the grinding wheel. The
action of the grinding wheel is similar to that of a milling cutter. The grinding
wheel is composed of many small abrasive particles bounded together, each one
acting as a miniature cutting point.
Grinding removes metal from the work piece in the form of small chips by
the mechanical action of abrasive particles bonded together in a grinding wheel.
Grinding operations :
Following are the different grinding operations that could be performed.
1. Grinding flat surface
2. Grinding vertical surface
3. Grinding slot
4. Grinding angular surfaces
6. Cutting off.
TYPES OF GRINDING MACHINES:
Grinding machines are designed principally for finishing parts having
cylindrical, flat or internal surfaces. The kind of surface machined largely
determines the type of grinding machine. Following is the classification of various
types of grinding machines.
1. Surface grinding machine:
It is a precision grinding machine to produce flat surfaces on a work piece.
It is more economical and practical method of accurately finished flat surfaces than
filling and scraping. The grinding is done on the circumference of the plain
wheel. Area of contact is less. Following are the different types of surface
grinders. In general, following are the parts of any grinding machine.
Base: It has a driving mechanism ( hydraulic device, tank and motor. ) It has
column at the back for supporting the wheel head.
Saddle: It is the frame. It carries the table in its cross wise movement. It is used to
give cross-feed to the work. It can be moved by hand feed or auto-feed.
Table: It is fitted on the saddle. It reciprocates along the guide ways to proved the
longitudinal feed to the work. It has 'T' slots for clamping purposes. It is moved
by hand or auto-feed.
Wheel head: It is mounted on the column. It can be moved vertically up and down
to accommodate work piece of different lengths. The wheel rotates at a constant
speed of 1500 m / min.
Horizontal spindle reciprocating
table
Horizontal spindle rotary table

Vertical spindle reciprocating
table
Vertical spindle rotary table

Specification of surface grinder:
- Maximum diameter of the wheel that can be held one the spindle.
- Maximum size of the job that can be ground.
- The type of drive of the work table ( Hydraulic / electrical )
2. Centered Grinding:

Grinding for surfaces of rotation (axially symmetric surfaces) can be either
centered or centerless. Centered grinding involves fixturing the part on a spindle
axis as it is ground, as illustrated below. This configuration can be compared to
fixturing a part on a lathe with or without a tail stock. The abrasive material is on a
grinding wheel that rotates in a direction such that rolling or sliding contact occurs
where the wheel and work piece touch. Centered grinding is accurate and stable,
but set-up takes time and through-put suffers.

3. Centreless Grinding:
Center less grinding is similar to centered grinding except that there is no
spindle. This allows high through-put since parts can be quickly inserted and
removed from the process. Out of the two wheels the large wheel is the grinding
wheel, and the smaller one is the pressure wheel. In operation, the pressure exerted
by the grinding wheel on the work forces the work against the work rest and
regulating wheel. The regulating wheel is of rubber bonded abrasive having the
frictional characteristics to rotate the work at its own rotational speed.
The axial movement of the work piece past the grinding wheels is obtained,
by tilting the regulating wheel at a slight angel from horizontal. An angular
o
to 10
o
is provided in the machine for this purpose. There are three
main types of center less grinding.

Through-feed grinding:

In through-feed grinding, the part rotates between the grinding wheel and a
regulating wheel as shown below. For through-feed grinding, one or both wheels
of the centerless grinding machine are canted out of the horizontal plane, as shown
below. This imparts a horizontal velocity component to the work piece, so that
outside feed mechanisms are not necessary.

The grinding wheel is canted with respect to the other two axes so that a
component of its surface velocity pushes the part in the direction shown below.
This auto feeding characteristic is useful for rapidly processing many parts in quick
sequence. Because of the axial movement, through-feed parts can only have right
circular cylindrical ground surfaces. The wheel cannot be dressed to grind more
complex shapes.

In-Feed Grinding:

It is used for jobs that, because of a shoulder or some other obstruction on
the part, can only enter the machine so far and then, after the grinding is done,
must be with drawn. In-feed grinding differs from through-feed grinding in that
the part is not fed axially so that the ground surface does not need to be a right
circular cylinder. The grinding wheel can be dressed to accommodate the part.
Once the work piece part is in place, the grinding wheel is fed in radially.

Because of the set up time involved for each part, in-feed grinding does not
have the high throughput of through-feed grinding. In-feed grinding is illustrated
below.

End-Feed Grinding:

In end-feed grinding, the part moves in axially between the grinding
wheels, stops for grinding, and then moves out again. The wheel can be dressed to
form more complex shapes, but the part can only get progressively smaller in
diameter. End-feed grinding is illustrated below.

Center less grinding is used when large quantities of the same part are
required. Production is high and cost are relatively low because there is not need
to drill center holes nor to mount the work in holding device. Almost an material
can be ground with this technique. Minimum time is lost in loading and
unloading. Since no axial force is acting on the work piece, long slender work
pieces can be used without being distorted.
Large grinding wheels are used and hence wear is less and minimum
amount of adjustment. A low order of skill is required to attend the centerless
grinding much of the time.
4. Cylindrical grinder:
It produces a cylindrical or conical shape on a work piece. The work piece
is mounted between centers or in a chuck and the face of the grinding wheel passes
over the external surface of the revolving work piece. There are two types of
cylindrical grinders. They are
Plain cylindrical grinders:
These are the machines that are designed for simple external grinding. The
wheel head is made to operate to and from the work table but cannot be swiveled.
The work table holds the work head and tail stock and can be swiveled for slight
tapers. The head stock is rigidly attached to the work table and cannot be
swiveled. It is located to the left of the operator. These grinders are used to
produce
- Plain or stepped surface,
- External cylinders.
- Tapers,
- Under cuts and
- Form grinding by dressing the grinding wheel the desired shape.
Universal cylindrical grinders:
It is different from the above grinder in the sense that the wheel head can be
swiveled on its base and can be fed to and from the table. The upper work table
can be swiveled and is equipped with scales and adjusting screws for setting the
table to produce slight tapers. Steep tapers may be ground by swiveling the
headstock on its base. The universal grinding machine is a tool room machine.
5. Internal Grinder:
It is designed to facilitate the finishing of holes. There are three type of
internal grinders. They are
- Work rotating type machine is commonly used in tool and die rooms. In
this grinder, the wheel head may be stationary with a reciprocating work
table or the wheel head may reciprocate and the work table remains
stationery.
- Planetary internal grinder is where the wheel spindle is arranged that
besides rotating on its axis it can be made to run eccentrically, thus making
it possible to grind large holes of varying diameter depending upon how
much the wheel spindle is made to run eccentric. The work is mounted on
a table which has vertical, horizontal and longitudinal adjustments similar
to those of the plain milling machine.
- Centreless internal grinder works on a roller chucking principle in which the
rollers hold the work and impart the rotary motion to the work. The wheel
head has reciprocating motion and may be fed in and out by hand. This
machine issued for work of a repetitive nature.
6. Tool and cutter grinder:
In a machine shop, many of the operations are done by single point cutting
tools or multipoint cutting tools called as milling cutters. The cutting tools become
blunt and becomes important to carry out re-sharpening. This is done in tool
rooms where a tool and cutter grinder is sued for this purpose. A universal tool
and cutter grinder is used to re-sharpen reamers, taps, single point tools dies and
punches. A tool and cutter grinder is also used as a surface, grinding, cylindrical
grinding and internal grinding machine with the help of certain attachments.

GRINDING WHEELS:
A grinding wheel may be considered as a multipoint cutting tool with a
cutting action similar to that of a milling cutter except that the cutting points are
irregularly shaped and randomly distributed over the active face of the wheel. In
order to make the grinding wheel suitable for different work situations, the features
such as abrasive, grain size, grade, structure and bonding materials can be varied.
Those grains which actually perform the cutting operation are called active
grains. In peripheral grinding, each active grain removes a short chip of gradually
increasing thickness in a way that is similar to the action of a tooth on a slab
milling cutter. Because of irregular shape of the grains, there is considerable
plowing action, between each active grain and the new work surface. The plowing
results in progressive wear, causing the formation of worn areas on the active
grains. As grinding proceeds the number and size of these worn areas increase,
thus increasing the interference or friction, resulting in an increase in the force
acting on the grain. Eventually this force become large enough to tear the work
grain from the bond of the wheel and thus expose a new cutting edges. Thus
grinding wheel has self sharpening characteristics.
A grinding wheel consists of an abrasive that does the cutting and a bond
that holds the abrasive particles together. There are two types of abrasives. They
are Natural and Artificial abrasives. The natural abrasives are emery and
corundum. These are impure forms of aluminum oxide. Artificial abrasives are
silicon carbide and aluminum oxide. The abrasives are selected depending upon
the materials to be ground. Following are important criteria in grinding wheel
manufacture.
Grain size: The number indicating the size of the grit represents the number of
openings in the sieve used to size the grain. Larger the grit size number, finer the
grit.
Grade: Indicates the strength of the bond and, therefore the hardness of the wheel.
In a hard wheel the bond is strong and it securely anchors the grit in place, and
therefore, reduces the rate of wear. In a soft wheel, the bond is weak and he grit is
easily detached resulting in a high rate of wear.
Structure: This indicate the amount of bond present between the individual
abrasive grains, and the closeness of the individual grains to each other. An open
structure will cut more freely. That is, it will remove more material in a give time
and produce less heat.
Bond: Is a substance which, when mixed with abrasive grains holds them together,
enabling the mixture to be shaped in the form of the wheel, and after suitable
treatment to take on the form of the wheel and the necessary mechanical strength
for its work. The degree of hardness possessed by the bond is called as 'grade' of
the wheel, and this indicates the ability of the bond to hold the abrasive grains in
the wheel. There are several types of bonding materials used for making wheels.
Types of bonding:
Vitrified bonding ( V ):
Vitrify means to change into glass by heat and fusion. Thus when clay,
feldspar or flint are mixed with the abrasive grains and heated to 1200
o
C, the
ceramic material melts and forms a lass like coating and bonding agent for the
grains. The forming of wheels is mostly done by the puddled or pressed process.
In puddled process, the correct proportion of grain and bonding material are
mixed wet and poured into a molt to dry. The wheel is then shaped on a machine
operating on the principle of potters wheel. The wheel are then charged into a kiln
for the burning process which takes 2 - 3 weeks. In pressed process the grains and
bonding clay are mixed in a semi-dry state and the wheel moulded under pressure.
But this process the wheels can be made under better control as regards density,
giving a wider range of grades.
It has high porosity and strength which makes this type of wheel suitable
for high rate of stock removal. It is not adversely affected by water, acid, oils at
ordinary temperature conditions.
Silicate bonding ( S ):
Silicate wheels have a milder action and cut with less hardness than
vitrified wheels. For this reason they are suitable for grinding fine edge tools,
cutlery etc.
Shellac bonding ( E ):
This is used for heavy duty, large diameter wheels where a fine finish is
required. These are expensive and comparatively very rare. They are used where
their exceptionally cool cutting abilities are essential to prevent burn damage or to
provide very fine finish. Applications include metallurgical sample cutting and
Tool & Cutter grinding for reclaiming broken slot and end mills. Shellac wheels
may be made to 3 mm or less in thickness. Shellac wheels posses considerable
elasticity.
Rubber bonding ( R ):
This is used where a small degree of flexibility is required on the wheel as
in the cutting of the cutting off wheels. They produce good quality of cut with
minimal of burr formation. This could be uses in places where there is polishing of
metals such as ball bearing races and for cutoff wheels where burr and burn must
be avoided.
Resinoid bonding ( B ):
This is used for high speed wheels. Such wheels are used in foundries for
dressing castings. Resinoid bond wheels are also used for cutting off parts. They
are strong enough to with stand considerable abuse. Resinoid bond is made from
powdered synthetic resin used as phenol formaldehyde. This is mixed pressed and
heated to 177o C. After cooling, this makes a wheel which is less brittle, tougher
and more flexible than the vitrified bond and which can be run up to 2900 m/min.
Wheel structure:
Wheel structure defines how "open" or "closed" the wheel surface is. An
"open" wheel is one with the grits spaced relatively far apart, a "closed" wheel is
one with the grits spaced close together. For conventional wheels, it is assigned a
number, normally between 1 [most closed] and 15 [most open]. It is a measure of
the percentage of grit by volume. The less volume of grit, the more open the wheel
structure is with more space for coolant and chip clearance.
Vitrified bond wheels naturally have a certain amount of porosity in their
structure. The porosity level can typically be up to 50%. The structure can be
artificially changed to increase the porosity level by introducing an additional
material when the grit and bond are mixed together before firing. This material is
in particle form of a specified size. During firing of the wheel, this material is
removed to leave pores of the same size as the original particles. This type of
wheel is called an induced porosity wheel. The wheel then contains natural
porosity plus induced porosity as shown in the figure. Induced porosity wheels
provide additional space for chip clearance and for coolant. They are particularly
useful for grinding processes which have a long arc of contact between wheel and
component. For this reason, they are used almost invariably for creep feed
grinding. They are also used for the grinding of rubbers, plastics and polyurethane.

Types of Lay:
Each method will produce a characteristic finished determined by the lay of
the surface of the work piece after the grinding operation. A straight wheel with
reciprocating motion produces fine straight lines on the work piece. Where as a
cup wheel with reciprocating motion will produce curving lines. A cup wheel with
rotating work piece will produce concentric circles.
Marking system for grinding wheels:
Standard wheel markings specify all the important wheel characteristics.
The marking system comprises of seven symbols which are arranged in the
following order.
E.g.. 51 - A46 H5V8
51 - Manufacturers symbol for abrasive
AA - Type of abrasive grit
46 - Grain size
5 - Structure
V - Type of bond
8 - Manufacturers own mark.
Specification of grinding wheels:
A grinding wheel is specified by the marking, shape, outside diameter, bore
diameter, thickness etc. A recessed wheel is specified with all the above given
particulars plus the diameter of the recess and the depth of the recess.
Selection of grinding wheel:
For grinding a job the right grinding wheel is to be selected. The selection
of a grinding wheel will depend on the following factors.
Material to be ground: For grinding high tensile material an aluminum oxide
wheel, and for low tensile material silicon, a carbide wheel should be selected. For
grinding hard materials a soft wheel and for grinding soft material, a hard wheel is
chosen.
Amount of stock to be removed: When the stock of material to be removed is more
with heavy cuts select a coarse grain, open structured and hard grade wheels. For
removing less stock of material with light cut, select fine dense structured soft
wheel.
Finish required: Rough finish requires coarse grains and open structure. High
finish requires fine grain and dense structure.
Area of contact: The are of contact depends on the size of the work piece, the
grinding wheel and the nature of operation. When the area of contact is more a
soft grade and coarse grain wheel is to be selected. For less area of contact select
hard grade and fine grain wheel.
Type of grinding operation: The selection of grinding wheel is affected by the
grinding operation to be done. The wheel shape and size are to be selected on the
basis of the grinding operation such as surface, cylindrical or tool grinding.
Wheel speed: Generally the speed at which a grinding wheel is to be used will be
marked on the wheel by the manufacturer. Select a soft wheel for high speed and a
hard wheel for low speed.
Work speed: Select a hard wheel for high work speed and a soft wheel for low
work speed.
Condition of the machine: For rigid and new machines, select a soft grade and
open structured wheel. For light and old machines, select a hard grade and dense
structured wheel.
Personal factor: A skilled person can do the operation effectively, even if there is a
slight deviation in the selection. But for a semi skilled labor, perfect selection is
essential.
Method of cooling: If better cooling is required select an open structured wheel.
Always the coolant should be directed at the cutting areas to minimize the heat and
to wash away the grain particles.
Balancing of grinding wheels:
When a new grinding wheel is used it should be checked for balancing.
Most manufacturers balance their wheels before selling them. For checking the
balance of the grinding wheels, it is mounted at the center of a perfect straight and
round spindle, the assembly then being rested on level knife-edge ways on a lathe
bed or on a special stand. For the test to be really satisfactory the wheel should be
mounted on its won spindle. The wheel is then rolled a little and left. Any out of
balance will result in the wheel coming to the rest with the heavy side underneath.
Balancing may be achieved by adding lead weight to the light side. This
may be accomplished by removing small amounts of the wheel beneath the flanges
and then filling the hole thus made with lead. The wheel is mounted on its own
spindle kept on knife edge ways, and again give a slight push, allowing it to roll
back and forth until it comes to rest, which it will do with the heavy portion of the
wheel at the bottom. Continue adding weight from the wheel, until it is balanced.
This will be evident when the wheel rolls to a gentle sop with no apparent tendency
to roll backward.

Types of grinding fluid:
There are 5 main types of grinding fluid. Of these four are water based and
the other is a neat oil. With the water based fluids, the main constituent is water
with a concentrate added to a specified percentage. The concentrate should always
be added to the water, rather than the other way round, so that a stable emulsion
will be formed.
1. Emulsion: The concentrate normally has an oil content of 30-80%. When
mixed with water, oil droplets are formed and these are dispersed evenly
throughout the fluid. Droplet size is typically 3-8 um, which gives the fluid a
milky appearance.
2. Semi-synthetic: The concentrate contains both oil and a synthetic lubricant.
The oil content is in the range 4-30%.
3. Micro-emulsion: The concentrate has an increased emulsifier system to
reduce the oil droplet size to less than 2 um. This makes the fluid
transparent. Oil content in the concentrate can be up to 60%.
4. Synthetic: The concentrate contains no oil and a clear solution is formed. It
can contain non-mineral lubricity materials at levels between 0 and 60%.
With no oil content, a rust inhibitor is an essential additive.
5. Neat oil: The main constituent is a mineral oil. The type of base oil
determines the viscosity. The viscosity affects the power required from the
coolant pump and friction losses in the pipe work. A higher viscosity
requires more pumping power and loses more velocity through friction in
the pipes. The type of base oil, and the viscosity, selected depends on the
application. Values of viscosity can range from 2 to 100 cSt @ 40
o
C, with
80% of applications in the range 6 to 40 cSt @ 40
o
included, with the types of additive depending on the application.

Glazing:
When the surface of a grinding wheel develops a smooth and shining
appearance, then it is said to be glazed. This indicates the abrasive particles on the
wheel face are not sharp. These are worked down to their bond level.
When soft materials like aluminium, copper, lead etc are ground the metal
particles get clogged between the abrasive particles. This condition is called as
effects.
- Excessive cutting pressure between wheel and work.
- More heat generation,
- Burning of the ground surface,
- Poor surface finish,
- Inaccuracies in the size and shape of the work piece and
- Wheel breakage.
Causes of glazing:
- Wrong selection of grade and size,
- High wheel speed,
- Feed too fine
- Dirty coolant
A glazed or loaded grinding wheel can be reused after removing the glazed
or loaded particles from the grinding wheel face.
Grinding wheel dressing:
Dressing is an operation to change the cutting action of a wheel or to
recondition its grinding surface. Mostly dressing and truing are done at the same
time. Grinding wheels should be dressed and trued regularly to improve
- Work production,
- Wheel performance and
- Grinding economy.
Dressing Truing
Refers to the removing of
clogs and blunt abrasive
grains from the surface of
the grinding wheel.
Dressing exposes the cutting
edges which restore the
correct cutting action of the
Refers to the shaping of the
wheel to make it run
concentric with the axis.
When a new grinding wheel
is mounted, it must be trued
before use to remove the run
out. Truing is done on the
wheel which is out of shape
due to long use. Sometime a
wheel. Dressing is done on
a glazed or loaded wheel to
recondition it.
wheel is also trued to change
the shape of the grinding
wheel face for a specific
grinding operation like form
grinding.
There are three types of wheel dressers. They are
- Diamond,
- Steel and
- Abrasive.
Dressing tools:
A diamond dressing tool has a hard diamond point mounted in a metal
shank. The shank is fitted in a tool holder for location on the grinding machine to
perform dressing. Diamond dressers are most effective for precision grinding
wheels. The low feed of a diamond dresser can glaze the wheel. They are
specified by their weight in carats. Usually 0.5 carat to 1 carat diamond is used for
dressing up to 300 mm diameter of wheels.
Steel dressers for dressing a grinding wheel have rotary cutting surfaces
made from hard steel. They are held in place against the grinding wheel by hand
and moved across the face of the grinding wheel to do the dressing. The tool rest
or other rigid support must be used during this operation.
When only light dressing is required abrasive sticks are used. There are
abrasive materials made in the form of square or round sticks or put in metal tubes
for convenient handling. This type of dresser is more common in tool and cutter
grinders where truing and dressing is necessary.
Measurement of Grinding process:
There are two types of measurement. Those that are necessary to check
component quality and those that can be used to check efficiency of the grinding
process.
Measuring quality: There are three main checks on component quality.
 Accuracy: This involves overall dimensions and profile shape.
 Surface finish: This is often specified as a value of a surface roughness
parameter. Ra is probably the most common, other parameters such as Rz and Rt
are also used. As well as conforming to a measured value, visual appearance is also
important in some applications. This may mean avoiding vibration or chatter
marking and deep scratches.
 Component material condition: In many grinding applications it is essential to
avoid grinding burn (also called grinding abuse). This usually means damage to the
material structure of the component. There are three degrees of abuse:
[a] Rehardening burn. This is the most severe type of grinding
damage. It produces a hard, brittle layer on the surface. This is often
associated with grinding cracks.
[b] Temper burn. This is a softening of the material through
overheating during grinding. It is less severe than re hardening burn.
Requirements vary from no temper burn allowed to no check required.
In between, specifications are sometimes laid down for the amount of
surface softening that can be allowed.
[c] Residual stress. Grinding can leave stresses in the component
material, even when there is no burn. This can be critical for certain
applications such as gears and bearings, since fatigue life can be
affected.
Rehardening burn and temper burn are commonly assessed using a Nital
etch. Temper burn shows up as a darker area. Re hardening burn shows up as a
lighter area, usually surrounded by an area of temper burn. Residual stress
measurement is not common, but may become more so, as component quality
requirements become more stringent. Specialized equipment is needed.
Measuring grinding efficiency:
The following are three ways in which grinding efficiency can be
measured, additional to the quality checks above. These have not traditionally been
measured, but the trend is to add these to quality checks as a way of improving the
control of the grinding process and as a means of ensuring defects do not occur,
rather than leaving inspection to discover them and then scrap the component.
 Grinding power: A measurement of grinding power will show how efficiently
the wheel is cutting. A blunt or worn wheel will tend to rub so creating friction and
increased grinding power. This can be used to indicate when dressing is required.
Grinding power can also be used to detect if burn is likely to occur, since in some
cases, the start of burn can be related to a specific level of grinding power.
 Grinding ratio: This is defined as the ratio of the volume of component
material removed to the volume of the wheel consumed in the process. It is
therefore a measure of the efficiency with which the wheel is being used. This
measurement can be used to check if the wheel specification is correct. A low
grinding ratio may mean the wheel is too soft and is therefore breaking down too
easily under the grinding forces. Care is needed here, as too hard a wheel can
sometimes give a low grinding ratio as well. Too hard a wheel encourages chips to
stick to the wheel surface and this can cause grits to fall out too soon.
 Vibration: Vibration can be caused by many factors including a low stiffness
machine, too high a work speed, too hard a wheel, faulty bearings, out-of-balance,
etc. It usually leads to more efficient cutting as the vibration gives a self-dressing
effect. However, it is detrimental to surface finish, wheel life and machine life.
Also, it often causes excessive noise.
Grinding speed, feed and depth of cut:
Grinding speed:
It is the rate of travel of the wheel surface past a point on the work piece.
Wheel speed is otherwise called surface speed. It is expressed in terms of meters
per second.
N = V x 1000 / t x d
V - Surface speed in meters / second.
D - Diameter of the wheel in mm.
N - RPM of the machine spindle.
1000 - to convert mm to meters.
60 - to convert RPM to revolution per second.
Feed:
In grinding refers to the movement of the wheel per stroke across the work
surface. The feed in grinding depends on the work speed, wheel width and the
finish required. It is generally 3/4th to 2/3rd of the wheel face width for rough
grinding and 1/4th to 1/8 of the wheel face width in case of the finish grinding.
When feed is high the wheel wear increases surface finish deteriorates and the
dimensional accuracy of the work piece is affected.
Depth of cut:
It is the thickness of the material removed in surface grinding for one cut.
Depth of cut depends on the cutting load, power of the machine and finish
required. Generally the depth of cut is 0.02 to 0.03 mm for rough cut and 0.005 to
0.01 mm for finish cut.