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The Architectonic Colour

Polychromy in the Purist architecture of Le Corbusier


Jan de Heer
oo Publishers, Rotterdam
Contents
Preface 6
. Introduction 8
The review of the architectonic polychromy of Le Corbusier 9
Issue 16
. Disegno and experimental aesthetics 20
Disegno 20
LEsprit Nouveau 25
Dead painters 26
Living painters 28
Undesirable painters 29
Experimental aesthetics 33
Fechner 34
Lalo 36
Henry 37
Sound box 39
Sensation et nergie 41
Conclusion 42
. Purism: form, beauty and colour
Form 44
Beauty 47
Le Purisme 48
Ozenfant and Jeanneret 52
Gamma 61
Ton local 62
Variant paintings 63
Impressionism 66
Conclusion 69
. LEsprit Nouveau and De Stijl 71
LEsprit Nouveau and architecture 71
De Stijl stuttering 73
Piano 77
Wall 78
Geometry 79
Lger and Ozenfant 82
Conclusion 84
. Purist architecture and colour 87
Realized projects 87
Recipe 89
Exterior and interior 94
The associative factor in architectonic polychromy 99
Conclusion 103
. Polychromy and the promenade architecturale 105
Promenade architecturale 105
Appia 108
Maison Guiette 115
Conclusion 120
. Post-Purist architecture and colour 122
Lyricism 122
La peinture moderne 124
Five points and four compositions 126
Villa Baizeau 132
Maison Loucheur 135
Conclusion 140
. Polychromy architecturale 142
Salubra and Polychromy architecturale 142
Architectonic colour 144
Smooth and sculptured 149
Sentiment 151
Salubra keyboard 1931 153
Pavillon Suisse 1933 157
Conclusion 163
. Lespace indicible 165
Synthse des arts 165
Modulor 171
Unit 173
Pavillon Suisse 1957 180
Types couleurs and Salubra 1959 184
Conclusion 188
Appendices 191
I. Publication dates of L'Esprit Nouveau 192
II. List of pseudonyms of Ozenfant and Jeanneret 193
III. List Variant paintings 194
IV. Realized projects and references with regard to polychromy 199
V. Texts by Le Corbusier on polychromy 207
Bibliography 240
Index 244
Credits 246
Preface
Polychromy is an essential ornamental component of architecture. Polychromy
is concerned with neither the choice of structural system nor the ordering of
spaces, but involves the treatment of the surfaces that are exposed to everyday
use. In present-day architecture, this often relates to the choice and ordering of
the materials.
The origin of the debate on modern architectonic polychromy lies in the nine-
teenth century, and the true centre of gravity lies in post-Revolution France.
The idea of polychromous architecture arose at the moment that the classical
ideal of architecture, the Greek temple and the accompanying architectonic
orders became hackneyed. Opposing this universal, eternal monolithic model of
architecture, archaeological research had indicated that a constructive skeleton
had been coated with a layer of stucco bearing expressive ornamentation and
decorations. It had not been a monolithic structure but a polylithic one, and not
a radiant monochrome architecture but one rich in polychromy. The term poly-
chromy acquired a polemical charge.
The architects involved in this concept-forming included Henri Labrouste, Lon
Vaudoyer, Flix Duban, Jacques Ignace Hittorf, and Gottfried Semper. On the
basis of this division into construction and cladding, the last-mentioned archi-
tect developed an architectural theory in which cladding fullled a dominant
role. At the opposite extremity, there arose the idea of an evolution of architec-
ture which took the history of building techniques as its starting point, the
work of Auguste Choisy being a classic example in this context.
The discovery of traces of paint on the walls of the construction elements of the
antique temples induced Labrouste and his fellows to draw far-reaching conclu-
sions. Their reconstructions of the antique temples were equipped with richly
painted polychromous decoration. The work of these architects also often dis-
played coloured use of materials and also painted polychromous decorations.
The work of Le Corbusier also conforms to this tradition, from his earliest work
right down to his last. The polychromy of his Purist architecture, dating approx-
imately from to , represents an exceptional period in his oeuvre. From
onward, Le Corbusier worked as a painter and the experiences he thus
gained led him to formulate a radical change in his notions of polychromy. His
buildings were painted in their entirety in various colours, comparable to the
way in which he assigned colour to the forms in his paintings. The polychromy
of his architecture in this stage of his work can be regarded as a play of colours.
The efect of this painting was one of total dematerialization, of pure reduction
to architectonic form and colour.
Hittorf thought that a polychromous system had existed for the Greek temples
just as it had done for architecture. Much of the literature on the polychromy of
Le Corbusiers Purist architecture assumed a similar system. In his post-war
work in particular, a certain systematic use of colour is immediately conspicu-
ous. However, this book presents the view indicate that the system of poly-
6
chromy in Purist architecture only referred to the palette of colours.
In the thirties, this extraordinary position was abandoned and his architectonic
polychromy acquired a more regular character; in other words, he devoted
attention not only to painted polychromy but also to the natural polychromy of
the materials.
The extent to which Le Corbusier was acquainted with this (ancient) history is
not known. But he was deeply aware of the fact that polychromy is an aspect of
architecture, even in its purely painted form.
This book is not a historical study of the relationship between colour and archi-
tecture in general nor is it a historical study of architectonic polychromy. Rather,
it represents a reconstruction of a working method and of the considerations
that led to this working method. It is the reconstruction of the architectonic
polychromy that Le Corbusier developed for his Purist architecture. This recon-
struction investigates the relationship between Purist painting and Purist archi-
tecture, with the emphasis on the relationship between form and colour.
Research into the origins of the various constituent components of Purist poly-
chromy has given this book a certain kaleidoscopic character.
As far as possible, an analysis is performed on the polychromy of Le Corbusiers
projects from the twenties. Much attention is paid to the way in which he
applied the colours in his architecture during a promenade architecturale. A
critical analysis of Le Corbusiers article entitled Polychromy architecturale
forms a concluding evaluation of the study. Finally, as a contrast to the unsys-
tematic polychromy from the twenties, a chapter on the systematic use of
colour in his architecture from the fties has been added.
This book was originally published in Dutch. The English edition contains sev-
eral small improvements.
7
8
The architectonic revolution is complete...
Space, Salubra wallpaper collection, 1931
1 Introduction 1
1 Le Corbusier, Oeuvre com-
plte II -, .
2 For all Le Corbusiers texts
on colour, see Appendix V.
3 See Appendix V.
4 For all coloured drawings
and coloured-in photos in
publications from the twen-
ties, see Appendix IV
9
The review of the architectonic polychromy of Le Corbusier
The rst part of Le Corbusiers Oeuvre complte was published at the end of ,
immediately after his return from South America. The book is a summary of a
decade of modern architecture, the conclusion of a period. In the introduction
to the second part of this Oeuvre complte, which embraces the period from
to , he wrote: It was by chance that the rst volume came out in . This
year meant to me, to a certain extent, the end of the rst period of investiga-
tions. opened a period of new tasks; it relates to important works, great
events in architecture and town construction, to the marvellous epoch of evolv-
ing a new machine civilization. Le Corbusier regarded his architectonic revolu-
tion as complete.
It is interesting to know that, of the realized works, only three were allocated
any elucidatory words on the subject of colour use: the La Roche-Jeanneret vil-
las, the housing project in Pessac, and the Pavillon de LEsprit Nouveau. Alto-
gether, Le Corbusier expended no more than nine hundred words on this topic.
In comparison to the enormous quantity of his other writings, it comes of
rather poorly. The text on Pessac appeared in LArchitecture Vivante and later in
Oeuvre complte I; the Pavillon de LEsprit Nouveau was a little more expansively
treated in Le Corbusiers Almanach darchitecture moderne and also returned in an
abbreviated version in Oeuvre complte; the colour of the La Roche-Jeanneret
villas was only discussed in Oeuvre complte. These articles, plus a text in Cahiers
dart, are the meagre textual remains of reections on colour from the period of
Le Corbusiers architectonic revolution. For coloured pictures, one had to rely
upon LArchitecture Vivante, in which seven diferent projects were presented.
In the context of historiography, the wallpaper samples book he compiled for
the Salubra company forms a rich supplement, giving greater insight into the
polychromy experiments he had undertaken in previous years. The samples
themselves consisted mainly of plain colours that corresponded to the previ-
ously painted colours. A colour keyboard was supplied along with the samples
book, providing the opportunity to make colour choices. This ofers insight into
the combination patterns that he used in various buildings. What he had used as
experiments in his houses in the twenties was commercialized with the wallpa-
per and made suitable for large-scale application.
The actual accompanying text of the Salubra collection was never published by
Le Corbusier himself. Although the samples book itself came with a short expla-
nation, the text entitled Polychromy architecturale, which was rst made pub-
lic in the eighties, contained a comprehensive explanation of the wallpaper col-
lection in addition to an equally extensive outline of the polychromy in his
architecture. In conjunction with the samples book, this text provides the most
5 le Corbusler, Veel-
kleurlgleld ln arcllieciuur,
ln 1an de leer, Kleur en
architectuur (Roiierdam,
i,80). lor an exienslve
revlew ol ills subjeci and a
ublcailon ol ile iexi
Polyclromle arcllieciurale
ln ilree languages (lrencl,
Cerman, and lngllsl), see
Ruegg, A., Le Corbusier -
Polychromie architecturale
(Basle, i,,/). A (sllglily
lmroved) iranslailon lnio
lngllsl ol le Corbuslers
arilcle, iaken lrom Rueggs
book, las been lncluded ln
Aendlx V.
6 lliclcock, l.R. and
Pllll 1olnson, The Inter-
national Style (New York,
i,0o), /.
7 leger, l., Mauern,
Arclliekien und Maler ln
Mensch. Machine. Malerei
(Bern, i,/i), i(o, orlglnally
ubllsled as Fonctions de la
peinture (Parls, i,0).
10
comleie lciure ol le Corbuslers amblilons ln ills eld. Arilur Ruegg regards
ile sei-u ol ile samles book as ile iesiameni ol ile Purlsi colour ileory and,
ln dolng so, lmlles ilai ills also marked ile concluslon ol a cerialn erlod wlil
regard io colour.
ln ile same year ilai ile Salubra collecilon aeared, i,i, an exllblilon on
modern arcllieciure was leld ln ile Museum ol Modern Ari ln New York. 1le
book coverlng ile exllblilon, The International Style by lliclcock and 1olnson,
aeared a year laier. le Corbuslers vlllas were allocaied a arilcularly conslc-
uous lace among ile modern arcllieciure ol ile iweniles. ln ile book, ile
alnied olyclromy ln modern arcllieciure was reduced io iwo oslilons: ln
lolland and Cermany small areas ol brlgli elemeniary colors were used, ln
lrance large areas ol more neuiral color. 1le iwo racilces were ln large ari
due io ile lnuence ol iwo dllereni sclools ol absiraci alnilng, as reresenied
on ile one land by Mondrlaan and ile oiler by 0zenlani. ln boil cases colors
were arilclally alled and ile majorliy ol wall surlaces remalned wllie. And
ile ireailse conilnues wlil ile remark ilai colour ls currenily (i,z) used io a
mucl lesser exieni. li ceased io siarile and began io bore. Neliler le Corbusler
nor 1leo van Loesburg, wlo lad dled jusi revlously, ln Marcl i,i, recelved
ile lonour ilai was due io llm. Alier all, alilougl le Corbusler and 0zenlani
severed relailons wlil one anoiler as lar back as i,z, Purlsi alnilng was ilelr
jolni rogeny, and ile olyclromle arcllieciurale was excluslvely le Cor-
buslers work. And alilougl Mondrlaan lad wrliien a greai deal on ile absor-
ilon ol alnilng ln arcllieciure and ile layoui ol lls own siudlo was a mlxed
meialor ol ills noilon, 1leo van Loesburg was aciually ile drlvlng lorce
bellnd ile varlous colour exerlmenis ln ile arcllieciure ol Le Siljl. Neverile-
less, The International Style lad lniroduced a slmle reducilon and dlcloiomy ln
ldeas lnio general clrculailon.
ln May i,, ile alnier lernand leger gave a leciure ln Zurlcl enililed les
raoris de larcllieciure ei de la elniure, wllcl was also relerred io as le
mur, larclliecie, le elnire ln lis wrliien lorm. 1le leciure was resenied on
ile occaslon ol an exllblilon ol lls work belng slown ilere. ln some ol legers
revlous arilcles on ile same ileme, le lad manoeuvred close io ile oslilon
adoied by le Corbusler. Bui as ile iweniles rogressed, le began io exerl-
ence lncreaslng sceilclsm wlil regard io alnilng ln arcllieciure. lall ol ile
leciure ln Zurlcl was exressly dlrecied over ile leads ol ile audlence ioward
arclliecis ln general. le dld noi ialk aboui colour bui railer aboui ile blank
wall, aboui ile dlvlslon ol labour, and aboui ile soclal lmllcailons ol modern
arcllieciure. leger wondered wly arcllieciure, alnilng and sculiure were no
longer lnierconnecied, as iley lad been ln ile asi, and le gave arclliecis ile
blame lor ills. le observed ilai modern arcllieciure lad exanded io cover ile
eld ol urban lannlng. ln dolng so, le olnied io ile scllsm beiween modern
arcllieciure and ile lllesiyle ol ile common man wlo was conslgned, lel-
lessly, io an emiy sace wlil blank walls wlilln modern arcllieciure. Palniers
were needed io ll ills vold, clalmed leger. ln lls olnlon, based on ile rlncl-
le ol seclallzailon, li was noi ldeal io lave ile arcllieci deiermlne ile
colours. 1le alnier ls ile arcl-enemy ol all dead surlaces and ls silll awalilng
your asslgnmeni. Lo arclliecis aciually know wlai li means io creaie bulld-
11
Fernand Lger, Pierre Jeanneret and Le Corbusier near Carcassonne FLC L4-14-16-001
Alfred Roth, Der Ton, 1933
Alfred Roth, Der Farbton, 1933
Alfred Roth, Die Farbe, 1933
lngs lor ile eole? Arclliecis ougli io iackle ills roblem ln conjuncilon wlil
sculiors and alniers. le descrlbed ile seclalliy ol ile alnier as lollows:
Colour ls one ol ile elemenis ol llle, no less so ilan waier or re, a raw maie-
rlal jusi as uselul as graln. You lave brougli movemeni io your walls by means
ol colours, le sald io ile arclliecis, bui ile alnier ls ile one wlo iruly acil-
vaies ilem. Colour ls noi someillng suerclal, bui railer someillng ilai ls
vlial.
1le leciure was undoubiedly a resonse io le Corbuslers Salubra collecilon. le
Corbusler lad made use ol ile lrase Colour ls one ol ile elemenis ol llle, noi
less so ilan waier or re, counierslgned wlil ile name lernand leger, as a slo-
gan ln ile elucldailon ol lls wallaer collecilon. leger aarenily was
unlay wlil ile assoclailon ol lls slogan and lls name wlil a rojeci ln wllcl
colour was alled io an arcllieciural rojeci wliloui a alnier belng lnvolved.
ln lls vlew, ile slgnlcance ilai colour galned lrom ile land ol ile alnier
exiended luriler ilan ile colour keyboards ol ile Salubra collecilon.
Among legers audlence ln Zurlcl ilai day was Allred Roil, a lormer member
ol sial ol le Corbusler, wlo dld noi agree wlil varlous siandolnis ol ile
seaker. Roil lad seclal lnieresi ln ile iolc, arily due io lls coniaci wlil le
Corbusler and Mondrlaan. Silmulaied by ills leciure, le roduced lls own els-
ile enililed Arclliekiur und Malerel, Analyse der larblgen 0beraclengesial-
iung von Raum und Volumen (Arcllieciure and Palnilng. Analysls ol coloured
surlaces ol sace and volumes). le was concerned wlil ile oilcal elecis ol
colour, dlvlded lnio ilree levels ol lniensliy: ile 1one, ile Colour 1one, and ile
Colour. 1o ile lowesi lniensliy level, ile 1one, Roil aiiacled ile seclc aiien-
ilon ilai leger lad dlrecied ioward mass-roduced louslng. 1le 1one lad io be
used ln neuiral colours io amelloraie ile roorilons ln louslng consirucilon
and worklaces. Subsequenily, ile Colour 1one lad exllcli oilcal roeriles
and was caable ol clanglng sailal roorilons, arilcularly ln comblnailon
wlil wllie and grey. Accordlng io Roil, ile mosi lmoriani examle ol ills
could be lound ln ile work ol le Corbusler. llnally, le regarded ile ilree rl-
mary colours, along wlil wllie, black and grey, as used ln Le Siljl, as belng ile
Colour. le relerred exllclily io Mondrlaans siudlo as an examle ol ills. Roil
resenied lls siudy ai ile louril ClAM congress ln ile resence ol le Corbusler
and leger. Ai ile same congress, ln ile llons den one mlgli say, leger leld ile
same leciure as ln Zurlcl, bui now enililed Llscours aux arclliecies. Roil lad
seni lls iexi io Mondrlaan lor commeni rlor io ile leciure. 1ley soke aboui li
comrelenslvely, on several occaslons. Roil never meniloned any communlca-
ilon wlil le Corbusler on ile iexi. 1le laiier, wlo could be regarded as ile
iuior ol Roil ln modern arcllieciure io a cerialn exieni, musi lave seen ills as
beirayal by Roil.
1le end ol i,( wlinessed ile ubllcailon ol ile second ari ol le Corbuslers
Oeuvre complte wlil a loreword by Slglrled Cledlon. le argued ilai ile arcll-
ieciure ol le Corbusler was based on ile llve olnis, and regarded Vllla
Savoye (i,z,) as ile llglllgli ol ills ileory. Wlil regard io ile vlllas, ills was
also ile end olni, as none ol ile slx dwelllng louses ilai le Corbusler bulli ln
ile illriles was deslgned wlil relerence io ilese llve olnis. And only one ol
ilese bore olyclrome alnilng, namely, lls own louse on ile rue Nungesser-
12
8 lbld. i(z
9 Roil, A., Begegnung mit
Pionieren (Siuiigari, i,/),
i/o.
10 li ls sirlklng ilai ile
sclemailc dlvlslon ol ile
colours ilai Roil used was
borrowed lrom ile scleme
ilai 1leo van Loesburg
lad resenied ln Le
beieekenls van de kleur ln
blnnen- en bulien-arclliec-
iuur. le Corbusler lad
relused io ubllsl ills aril-
cle ln LEsprit Nouveau,
wllcl Roil robably dld
noi know ai ilai ilme, see
also . 8, 80 ol ills book.
ei-Coll. lowever, mucl use was made ol ile exresslve claracier ol naiural
maierlals. We also know wlil cerialniy ilai colour was alled ln ilree large-
scale bulldlngs ilai were consirucied ai ile same ilme: ile Clarie bulldlng ln
Zurlcl, Pavlllon Sulsse and ile Clie de Reluge, boil ln Parls. ln ills coniexi, one
musi reallze ilai, alier i, io i,(0, le Corbusler only reallzed one slngle bulld-
lng. Wlil ile exceilon ol ile releniless ow ol rojecis and ubllcailons, lls
arcllieciural racilce lad come almosi io a lali.
ln a dlscusslon wlil leger and Aragon on Pelniure ei reallie ln i,0, le Cor-
busler lormulaied a resonse io boil Roil and leger. le was scaillng aboui
Roils relerence lor Mondrlaan. Perlas ile norilern races ile Anglo-Sax-
ons or ile Cermanlc eoles iake ile llberiy io lndulge ln absiracilons, le
wroie. ln conirasi, lrencl ari ls essenilally concreie and reallsilc and lorms
ile basls ol lniernailonal ari. le endorsed legers clalm ilai ile aris lad
eniered a collecilve erlod, wlil arcllieciure ai ile lore. Arcllieciure lad io be
accomanled by alnilng and sculiure, bui le assumed ile rlmacy ol arcll-
ieciure. li lad io make demands on ile oiler ari lorms so ilai iley could be
adoied lnio arcllieciure ln a larmonlous manner. Arcllieciure could noi
rogress luriler wliloui ilese, bui ll iley wlsled io accomany arcllieciure
iley lad io iake roorilon, ile basls ol arcllieciure, as ile siarilng olni.
None ile less, le was also alrald ilai lnarorlaie ari would soll ile walls
and, lor ilai reason ioo, ile arilsi lad io lollow ile iraln ol ilougli ol ile
arcllieci. le dlsilngulsled iwo meilods ol alylng alnilng. 1le rsi was
olyclromy. ln lls vlew, arcllieciural olyclromy could curb conluslon, creaie
lyrlcal saces, brlng order, enlarge dlmenslons. 1lls ls noi yei alnilng. 1lai ls
noi necessary. 1lls ls arclliecionlc olyclromy. ll a wall or ari ol a wall las an
oresslve eleci, l can break li oen wlil a suliable colour. Bui, ll ilere ls
scoe lor li, l can also ask a alnier io slae lls lmaglnailve ilouglis on ills
iolc and io oen ile doors io ile dlsiani land ol dreams ln one lell swoo
and eseclally ai ilose laces wlere ilere ls no real deil. 1le second
meilod could be alled wlen ile arcllieci reared a lace lor ile arilsi io
lniroduce a lyrlcal ioucl ln ile wlole ol lls arcllieciure. Wlil ills, ile osslbll-
liy ol dee larmony was generaied, bui ile danger ol duallsm loomed. 1o le
Corbusler, ile lniegrailon ol modern arcllieciure ln large urban rojecis and ile
alm io ensure ile allcabllliy ol olyclromy ln wallaer lor ile common man
were ari and arcel ol ile same ldeal. le wlsled io exiraci ile relailonsll
wlil alnilng lrom ills rocess and io lniegraie li ln a new synilese des aris.
1le same book ilai conialns ile above-meniloned iexi by le Corbusler also
lncludes a iexi by Alberio Sariorls, Colour ln lnierlor arcllieciure. Sariorls
lad been a member ol ile Movlmenio liallano er larcllieiiura razlonale slnce
i,z,, and le Corbusler knew llm lrom ile rsi ClAM congress ln i,z8. ln ills
iexi, Sariorls ireaied colour as a vlial comlemeni ol arcllieciure, li ls one ol
lis loglcal and lndlsensable elemenis. le dlsilngulsled beiween a dynamlc and
a neo-lasilc meilod, boil ol wllcl are rmly llnked io ileorles ol arclliec-
ionlc luncilonallsm. Accordlng io ile dynamlc meilod, walls ilai do noi recelve
dlreci llgli ougli io be alnied wllie or glven a very llgli colour. Walls ilai are
lall-lllumlnaied or lully lli can be glven gradually brlglier colours. Bui every
colour las io reseci ile wall, lis lorm, volume and urose. ln ile neo-lasilc
13
11 le Corbusler, Lesiln de
la elniure ln La querelle
de ralisme (Parls, i,0), 8o
l. Publlsled ln lngllsl as
le Corbusler, 1le quarrel
wlil reallsm, ile desilny ol
alnilng ln 1.l. Mariln ei
al., Circle, International Sur-
vey of Constructive Art
(london, i,/), 0/ l. See
also le Corbusler, les ien-
dances de larcllieciure
railonallsie en raori avec
la collaborailon de la eln-
iure ei de la sculiure ln
LArchitecture Vivante. Le
Corbusier et Pierre Jean-
neret, seileme serle, Parls
i,/, a leciure leld ln Rome
ln i,0.
12 lbld. /o.
13 lbld. /z-.
14 Sariorls, A., Colour ln
lnierlor arcllieciure ln 1.l.
Mariln ei al., Circle, Inter-
national Survey of Construc-
tive Art (london, i,/), ziz
l.
15 Braham, W., Modern
Color / Modern Architecture
(Burlington, ); this
books sketch of the colour
theory of Purism is rather
inadequate.
14
method, every wall is painted in the primary colours of red, yellow or blue,
along with white, grey and black. In contrast to this restriction of the palette,
the dynamic method makes use of all colours. Sartoris believed that, to generate
harmony, it was best to make use of dissonance and contrast, thus creating an
animated unity, a vital harmony. With this, he took a stand against the mono-
chrome interior and the monochordal composition of the interior, and saw his
idea of harmony as the normal link in attuning architecture and divergent fur-
nishings.
In a recent study, William Braham has dealt with Ozenfants ideas on poly-
chromy in the thirties. In , Ozenfant published several articles on colour in
relation to architecture, and these formed the basis of Brahams study. The arti-
cles showed that Ozenfant had denitively abandoned his Purist standpoint,
and that he had not followed Le Corbusiers transformation of this standpoint to
architecture. His ideas were a complete repudiation of a position that he had
rst advanced in , in conjunction with Le Corbusier, and which Le Corbusier
still appeared to advocate. Ozenfant adopted an almost scientic approach, as
had been elaborated by Signac at the end of the nineteenth century. Colour was
treated as an autonomous phenomenon, subject to its own laws. In architecture,
colour was not directly connected to form and proportion, but rather to ambi-
ence, use, the furnishings, and the entire upholstery of the interior.
One can conclude that, in the early thirties, a picture arose of the architectonic
Alberto Sartoris, Casa Morand-Pasteur, axonometry of interior, 1933 Alberto Sartoris, Casa Morand-Pasteur, axonometry of interior, 1933
15
Amde Ozenfant, colour scheme of interior of own studio in London, 1937