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# SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

OBSERVATION SHEET
a) Obtaining of short circuit armature current oscillogram Pre short circuit line voltage = 104.3 V Steady short circuit current = 5.77 A Generator speed = 1500 rpm Number of generator pole pairs = 2

Oscillogram 1 b) Obtaining of field current oscillogram Steady state field current = 0.3 A

Oscillogram 2

c) Obtaining of open circuit armature voltage waveform. Minimum phase current Maximum phase current Minimum line voltage Maximum line voltage Generator speed = = = = = 4.8 A 5.4 A 47.5 V 48.3 V 1475 rpm

## Oscillogram 3 d) Obtaining supply voltage waveform at slip test.

Oscillogram 3

Calculations
1.
STEP 1 From short circuit armature current wave form using oscillogram 1, computation for X d & Xd Time(ms) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Half of peak to peak value. Ia (A) 27 20.5 18 15 14 13.5 12.5 11.5 11 10 9.5 9.5 9 9 9 Log (Ia) 1.431363764 1.311753861 1.255272505 1.176091259 1.146128036 1.130333768 1.096910013 1.06069784 1.041392685 1 0.977723605 0.977723605 0.954242509 0.954242509 0.954242509

Using the graph the calculated values of A & B in the ampere units A = antilog (1.431363764) =27 B = antilog (0.954242509) = 9 According to the theory

## Time(ms) vs Log (Ia)

STEP 2 From short circuit armature current wave form using oscillogram 1, computation for X d & Td Time(ms) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140

x (A) 17.838 11.778 8.318 6.278 5.078 4.168 3.348 2.498 1.728 1.048 0.539 0.172 0 0 0

log x
1.25134616 1.07107155 0.920018916 0.797821311 0.705692697 0.61992771 0.524785449 0.397592434 0.237543738 0.020361283 -0.268411235 -0.764471553

Using the graph the calculated values of C & D in the ampere and ms units. C = antilog (1.30044) =19.97 So C/e = 7.3469 so the log value of this is 0.866 hence correscopnding value obtained for D using the figure is 25 ms

## According to the theory

Time(ms) vs log x

STEP 3 From short circuit armature current wave form using oscillogram 1, computation for Td & Tdo Time(ms) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

y (A)
14.24005858 7.209749896 3.704663695 1.879807084 0.910019998 0.398075891 0.140719611 0.028503233 0

Log y
1.153511776 0.857920199 0.568748789 0.274113282 -0.040949064 -0.400034124 -0.851645374 -1.545105882

Using the graph the calculated values of E & F in the ampere and ms units. E = antilog (1.27955) =19.0348 So E/e = 7.0025 so the log value of this is 0.845 hence corresponding value obtained for F using the figure is 12 ms.

Time(ms) vs log y

STEP 4 Graph between time vs Ia,(+ve peak + -ve peak) Time(ms) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Ia,(+ve peak + -ve peak) 54 41 36 30 28 27 25 23 22 20 19 19 18 18 18

Using the graph the calculated values of G & H in the ampere and ms units. G = 40.73 A from the graph H = 130.1 ms from the graph So
Time(ms) vs Ia,(+ve peak + -ve peak)

[

(1

## Tkd t / T ''d Tkd t / Ta )e e cos t ] T ' 'd T ' 'd

Ifo is the field current before the short circuit which observed as 0.3 A

Tkd is the direct axis damper time constant and assuming no damper s Field current variation
[ [ [ ]

e t / T ''d ]
]

]
]

[
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## Armature line voltag

4) Value of Xd and XQ from the slip test, From the graphs of armature current and armature voltage of the slip test,

Discussion
Compare the parameter values computed using Short circuit current oscillogram, open circuit voltage oscillogram and slip test Since the two methods to find the parameter values of the generator use graphical decomposition methods, and each method having certain assumptions, which introduces to neglect some transient components like double frequency component and displaced angle, there should be some deviation between the parameter values obtained by the two methods. And the graphical approach having more than one step leads to some inherent error in interpolating and curve fitting. Compare the agreement of theoretical and observed oscillogram, of short circuit field current and open circuit line voltage When we compare the theoretical and practical graph of the variation of field current at short circuit test, it seems both are having same shape. But the practical curve takes more time to acquire the steady state, compare with theoretical curve. This may occur due to the effect of damping effect in real situation.

## Features of Short Circuit Oscillogram

In short circuit oscillogram we can identify 4 components in the transient behaviour. (1) Transient component (2) Sub transient component (3) DC offset component (4) Steady state component

Transient and sub transient components occure for very short period of time and transient component takes much time to decay than sub transient component

When we observe the short circuit oscillogram , four components in field current can be noticed. They are sub transient , transient , DC offset and steady state componenets. Generally sub transient period lasts for 3-4 cycles of current. However transient period is long and lasts for some hundreds of cycles. DC offset current is caused due to the armature reaction. Before the short circuit, armature flux is zero. With the short circuit, armature reaction flux ?a is forced to be established. i.e. sudden armature current tends to be established. Depending on the field flux, the phase 'a' winding is receiving at the instant of the short circuit, phase 'a' coil establishes a DC current to maintain the same flux following the short circuit causing the DC offset term.

## Importance of short circuit study on synchronous generators.

To apply necessary protection schemes in synchronous generators, generator parameters such as synchronous reactance, transient reactance , sub transient reactance and etc. should be known. By performing sudden open short circuit test only, these parameters can be determine. Therefore it is important to do short circuit test.