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Tadao Ando often uses Zen philosophies when conceptualizing his structures.

One theme he expresses in this work is the dual nature of existence. The space of the chapel is defined by light, the strong contrast between light and solid. In the chapel light enters from behind the altar from a cross cut in the concrete wall that extends ertically from floor to ceiling and horizontally from wall to wall, aligning perfectly with the !oints in the concrete. At this intersection of light and solid the occupant is meant to become aware of the deep di ision between the spiritual and the secular within himself or herself. One feature of the interior is its profound emptiness. "any who enter the church say they find it disturbing. The distinct oid space and absolute #uiet amounts to a sense of serenity. $or Ando the idea of %emptiness% means something different. It is meant to transfer someone into the realm of the spiritual. The emptiness is meant to in ade the occupant so there is room for the %spiritual% to fill them. &In all my works, light is an important controlling factor,& says Ando. &I create enclosed spaces mainly by means of thick concrete walls. The primary reason is to create a place for the indi idual, a zone for oneself within society. 'hen the external factors of a city%s en ironment re#uire the wall to be without openings, the interior must be especially full and satisfying.& And further on the sub!ect of walls, Ando writes, &At times walls manifest a power that borders on the iolent. They ha e the power to di ide space, transfigure place, and create new domains. 'alls are the most basic elements of architecture, but they can also be the most enriching.& emphasizing nothingness and empty space to represent the beauty of simplicity As an architect, he belie es that architecture can change society, that &to change the dwelling is to change the city and to reform society&.

'e do not need to differentiate one from the other. (welling in a house is not only a functional issue, but also a spiritual one. The house is the locus of mind )kokoro*, and the mind is the locus of god. (welling in a house is a search for the mind )kokoro* as the locus of god, !ust as one goes to church to search for god. An important role of the church is to enhance this sense of the spiritual. In a spiritual place, people find peace in their mind )kokoro*, as in their homeland.+,architecture must be experienced first hand. . peter zumthor To me, buildings can ha e a beautiful silence that I associate with attributes such as composure, self.e idence, durability, presence, and integrity, and with warmth and sensuousness as well/ a building that is being itself, being a building, not representing anything, !ust being. The sense that I try to instil into materials is beyond all rules of composition, and their tangibility, smell, and acoustic #ualities are merely elements of the language we are obliged to use. 0ense emerges when I succeed in bringing out the specific meanings of certain materials in my buildings, meanings that can only be percei ed in !ust this way in this one building. 'hen I concentrate on a specific site or place for which I am going to design a building, when I try to plumb its depths, its form, its history, and its sensuous #ualities, images of other places start to in ade this process of precise obser ation1 images of places I know and that once impressed me, images of ordinary or special places places that I carry with me as inner isions of specific moods and #ualities/

images of architectural situations, which emanate from the world of art, or films, theater or literature. 0e!ima creates her designs with clean modernist elements. They usually include slick, clean, and shiny surfaces made of glass, marble, and metals. 0he also likes to use s#uares and cubes, which can be found in her designs in arious usages. 2arge windows allow natural light to enter a space, and make her space be in ol ed with the world which is on the other side of the glass. It is this connection of two spaces from which she draws her inspirations.