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Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer 6 K. Hanjali, Y. Nagano and S. Jakirli ( ditors! "##$ %egell House, &nc.

Study the Effect of Swirl on a Confined Coannular Jet using LES


K.K.J.Ranga Dinesh1, K.W.Jenkins1 and
1

.!.Kirk"atrick#

Sc'ool of ngineering, (ranfield )ni*ersit+, (ranfield, %edford, MK,- #./, )K, ranga.dines'0cranfield.ac.uk # Sc'ool of .eros1ace, Mec'anical and Mec'atronic ngineering, T'e )ni*ersit+ of S+dne+, S+dne+ NS2 "##6, .ustralia, 3ic'ael.kirk1atrick0aero3ec'.us+d.edu.au

Abstract - Large Eddy Si$ulations %LES& are used to $odel a tur'ulent confined coannular co$'ustor and e(a$ine the effects of swirl on the flow field and $i(ing. )hree se"arate si$ulations with relati*ely high $esh resolutions and different swirl nu$'ers ha*e 'een carried out using a finite *olu$e $ethod on a Cartesian non+unifor$ structured grid. , localised dyna$ic S$agorinsky $odel is used to "ara$eteri-e the su'grid scale tur'ulence. Results for 'oth instantaneous and ti$e a*eraged statistics are "resented and *alidated against e("eri$ental data. )he sna"shots of the a(ial, swirl *elocities and *elocity *ector fields indicate the co$"le( flow "atterns de*elo"ing with increased swirl nu$'er and ra"id decay of a(ial $o$entu$. We o'ser*e that the radial trans"ort of a(ial *elocity de"ends on the swirl strength. !recessing *orte( cores were identified for all three cases and the $ean a(ial *elocity "lots indicate that the u"strea$ e(tre$ity of the *orte( 'reakdown 'u''le shifts towards the inlet as the swirl nu$'er increases. )he radial "lots of $ean "assi*e scalar and its *ariance also de$onstrate an increase in the rate of $i(ing with increasing swirl nu$'er.

1. Introduction
Swirl is i$"ortant in $any "ractical flows. .or e(a$"le, understanding the characteristics of swirl for *arious conditions still re$ains a $a/or focus in fluid dyna$ics research 'ecause of its rele*ance to *arious ty"es of engineering a""lications. Swirl is used in $any a""lications to i$"ro*e $i(ing, 'ecause it can for$ an ad*erse "ressure gradient and "ro*ides an aerodyna$ics 'arrier to the flow. Swirl can create different flow "atterns such as *orte( 'reakdown %01& induced recirculation, coherent structures known as 2"recessing *orte( cores3 %!0C& and also i$"ro*e fla$e sta'ility in co$'ustion a""lication. ,lthough the nature of swirl and its a""lications ha*e 'een e("loited for so$e ti$e, a co$"rehensi*e understanding of the nature of swirl re$ains an elusi*e goal, es"ecially in co$'ustion a""lications where the interaction 'etween co$'ustion dyna$ics and swirling shear layers, tur'ulence+che$istry interactions under different swirl strengths, the effects of swirl on glo'al fla$e e(tinction known as lean 'lowout %L14& which can lead to co$'ustion insta'ility and the structure of the dro"let *a"orisation with swirl in s"ray co$'ustion syste$s re$ain "oorly understood. Co$"utational studies can offer useful details of the unsteady 'eha*iour in co$"le( configurations in*ol*ing swirl. Direct nu$erical si$ulation %D5S&, in which all scales of $otion are resol*ed, is "ossi'le, 'ut only at Reynolds nu$'ers well 'elow the range of engineering i$"ortance. 4n the other hand, large eddy si$ulation %LES&, in which only the large scale $otions are resol*ed and the effect of s$all scales is $odelled, can now 'e "erfor$ed at such Reynolds nu$'ers as are found in "ractical engineering syste$s. )he de*elo"$ent of the LES techni6ue o*er the "ast ten years and de*elo"ing co$"uting resources has "er$itted the "rediction of swirl flows in co$"le( engineering configurations and the *alidation of the "redictions against a range of e("eri$ental data sets. Earliest in*estigations for LES of swirl sta'ilised coannular co$'ustor were done inde"endently 'y !ierce and oin

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718 and Ki$ et al. 7#8. 9rinstein et al. 7:8 also studied the flow field around a fuel in/ector no--le using a $onotone integrated large eddy si$ulation % ;LES& $ethod. , LES techni6ue with Lagrangian "article tracking was first a""lied 'y ,"te et al. 7<8 for "article laden swirling flow. Lu et. al. 7=8 conducted LES of swirling flow in a du$" co$'ustor and Ja$es et al. 7>8 studied the flow dyna$ics of one of the Rolls+Royce aero engine co$'ustors using LES. Wegner et al. 7?8 also carried out LES of a generic ty"e co$'ustor and Wang et al. 7@8 conducted LES of a gas tur'ine swirl in/ector. LES has 'een also a""lied to $odel swirl co$'ustion a""lications for *arious flow and fla$e conditions. !ierce and oin 7A8 si$ulated swirling fla$es and studied the fla$e dyna$ics in a coannular co$'ustor. Di are et al. 71B8 also "erfor$ed LES of a $odel gas tur'ine co$'ustor and ahesh et al. 7118 in*estigated a section of the !ratt and Whitney gas tur'ine co$'ustor using LES. Des"ite the *arious in*estigations and key "oints addressed in the literature, the dyna$ical nature of swirl 'ased engineering a""lications is still not well understood, es"ecially o*er a wide range of $ore "ractically oriented conditions. With this in $ind, the "resent "a"er in*estigates the influence of swirl on the flow field and $i(ing in a coannular swirl co$'ustor using large eddy si$ulation %LES&. )he configuration considered for this study is a confined coannular swirl co$'ustor e("eri$entally in*estigated 'y So$$erfeld and Ciu 71#871:8 for their "article laden two+"hase flows. ;n this work, we consider the gaseous flow field and neglect the "article calculation. Des"ite the a'sence of "article distri'ution here we study the effects of swirl on the unsteady flow dyna$ics, $ean 6uantities, tur'ulence fluctuations and "assi*e scalar distri'ution while *alidating the LES results with a*aila'le e("eri$ental data. ;n the following section we descri'e the go*erning e6uations, nu$erical discretisation, geo$etry and 'oundary conditions and si$ulation details. ;n the $ain "art of the "a"er %section :& we discuss the results o'tained fro$ LES calculations and finally the conclusions will close the "a"er.

2. Numerical Details
#.1. 9o*erning e6uations and $odelling )he LES techni6ue is 'ased on the si$ulation of the largest scales e("licitly whilst the effect of the s$aller uni*ersal scales %the so called su'+grid scales& are $odelled using a su'+grid scale %S9S& $odel. )he go*erning e6uations are the s"atially filtered inco$"ressi'le $ass, $o$entu$ and "assi*e scalar e6uations and can 'e written asD
u j 4 j =B,

%1& %#&

u i %u i u j & 1 5 % #S ij & % ij & + = + , t 4 j 4i 4 j 4 j


c %u j c & # c + =% & , t 4 j 4 j 4 j 4 j

%:& where u i , , 1,, c, and t denote the *elocity, density, "ressure, kine$atic *iscosity, "assi*e scalar concentration, la$inar and tur'ulent Sch$idt nu$'ers, and the strain rate
i + j . Eere = B.? .)he ter$s ij tensor, Sij = # 4 j 4i

1 u

= ui u j ui u j

in e6uation %#& and

K. Hanjalic et al.

= %u j c u j c& a""ear in e6uation %:& results fro$ the unresol*ed su'+grid scale contri'utions and hence su'se6uent $odeling is re6uired to close the filtered $o$entu$ e6uations and filtered scalar e6uation. Eere we e$"loyed the S$agorinsky 71<8 eddy *iscosity $odel to calculate the S9S stress tensor ij = ( ui u j ui u j ) and the = %u j c u j c& such that such that 1 ij ij kk = # sgs S ij %<& : c = sgs %=& t 4 j )he eddy *iscosity sgs is gi*en as a function of the filter si-e and strain rate
sgs = (s S
1
#

%>&

where (s is a S$agorinsky 71<8 $odel "ara$eter and F S F= %# S ij S ij & # . Eere we e$"loyed the localised dyna$ics "rocedure of !io$elli and Liu 71=8 to o'tain the Sch$idt nu$'er % t & and the $odel "ara$eter (s a""ear in e6uations %=& and %>& as a "art of the S9S tur'ulence $odel. #.#. 5u$erical discretisation )he $athe$atical for$ulations for $ass, $o$entu$ and "assi*e scalar are nu$erically sol*ed 'y $eans of a "ressure 'ased finite *olu$e $ethod using the large eddy si$ulation code !G..;5 de*elo"ed 'y Kirk"atrick et al. 71>871?8. )he code has 'een recently "arallelised 'y Kirk"atrick 71@8 and the results "resented in this "a"er ha*e 'een o'tained using the "arallel *ersion. S"atial discretisation is achie*ed using a non+unifor$ Cartesian grid with staggered cell arrange$ent. Second order central differences %CDS& are used for the s"atial discretisation of all ter$s in 'oth the $o$entu$ e6uation and the "ressure correction e6uation. )his $ini$ises the "ro/ection error and ensures con*ergence in con/unction with an iterati*e sol*er. )he diffusion ter$s of the "assi*e scalar trans"ort e6uation are also discretised using the second order CDS. )he con*ection ter$ of the "assi*e scalar trans"ort e6uation is discretised using a third order CG;CK with GL)R, flu( li$iter 71A8 to ensure that the solution re$ains $onotonic. )he te$"oral integration of the "assi*e scalar is achie*ed using the Crank+5icolson sche$e. )he $o$entu$ e6uations are integrated in ti$e using a second order ,da$s+ 1ashforth sche$e. )he "ressure correction $ethod of 0an Kan 7#B8 and 1ell et al. 7#18 which in*ol*es sol*ing an e6uation for "ressure correction rather than the "ressure is used for the "resent work. )he solution to this e6uation is then used to "ro/ect the a""ro(i$ate *elocity field that results fro$ the integration of the $o$entu$ e6uations onto a su'set of di*ergence free *elocity fields. )he ti$e ste" is *aried to ensure that the $a(i$u$ Courant nu$'er (o = tui 4i re$ains a""ro(i$ately constant where 4i is the cell width, t is the ti$e ste" and u i is the *elocity co$"onent in the 4i direction. )he solution is ad*anced with ti$e ste"s corres"onding to a Courant nu$'er in the range of (o =B.: to B.=. , 9auss+Seidel sol*er is used to sol*e the syste$ of alge'raic e6uations resulting fro$ the nu$erical discretisation of $o$entu$ and "assi*e scalar trans"ort e6uations. )he 1iC9Sta' $ethod with a He'ra 9auss+Siedel "reconditioner using successi*e o*errela(ation %S4R& and Che'yshe* acceleration is used to sol*e the alge'raic e6uations resulting fro$ the

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discretisation of "ressure correction e6uation. #.:. Co$"utational do$ain and 'oundary conditions

.igure 1D 9eo$etry of the configuration .igure 1 shows the sche$atic of the co$'ustor used for this study. )he co$'ustor length fro$ the du$" "lane to the e(it "lane is 1.=$ with a dia$eter of 1A<$$. )he central /et has a dia$eter DI:#$$ surrounded 'y s$all 'luff 'ody ty"e wall with DI:@$$. )his is surrounded 'y an annular /et with dia$eter DI><$$. , solid wall co*ers the re$aining region of the inlet with DI1A<$$. )he centre of the central /et is taken as the geo$etric centre line of the flow where r = B and 4 = B . Eere we e$"loyed a Cartesian grid and the e(tension of the co$"utational do$ain in (,y and - directions are1A< 1A< 1BBB33 . )he co$"utational do$ain resol*ed with 1BB 1BB 1<B 1.< $illion grid "oints. ,lthough we e$"loyed a Caretian grid, the centre /et, annular /et, surrounding solid rings e(ist at the inlet and the co$'ustor wall used a cylindrical geo$etry si$ilar to the e("eri$ental configuration. Case ; ;; ;;; 1ulk a(ial *elocity of the central /et %$Js& 1#.= 1#.= 1#.= 1ulk a(ial *elocity of the annular /et %$Js& 1@.B 1@.B 1@.B 1ulk tangential *elocity of the annular /et %$Js& 1:.B 1A.= #>.B

)a'le 1D ;nflow 'oundary conditions. ;n case ;, the 'ulk tangential *elocity is 1: $Js corres"onds to the swirl nu$'er of B.<?. )he inflow a(ial *elocity for the central and annular /ets and the inflow swirl *elocity for the annular /et were s"ecified using the "ower low *elocity "rofile such that
+ <) > = ( B) j 1 r
1J ?

%?&

where ) j is the 'ulk *elocity, + the radial distance fro$ the /et centre line and r the radius of the /et. We ha*e used the constant ( B =1.1 to assign a correct $ass flow rate as used 'y

K. Hanjalic et al.

e("eri$ental grou" 71#871:8. )he tur'ulence fluctuations are generated fro$ a 9aussian rando$ nu$'er generator and added to the $ean *elocity "rofiles. 5o+sli" 'oundary conditions are used at the side walls and a -ero nor$al gradient 'oundary condition is used at the outflow. .or the "assi*e scalar, a to" hat "rofile is used at the inlet such that the "assi*e scalar *alue is 1.B at central /et B elsewhere and a -ero nor$al gradient condition is used at the outlet. #.<. !arallel si$ulations details ;n order to $ake LES an acce"ta'le "ractical design tool with $ore efficient turnaround ti$e, efficient sol*ers with "arallel co$"uting syste$s and large co$"utational resources $ust 'e e$"loyed. Eere a do$ain deco$"osition techni6ue is e$"loyed in which the do$ain di*ided into se"arate 'o(es. Each 'o( is the sa$e si-e, so the total nu$'er of cells $ust 'e di*isi'le 'y the nu$'er of "rocesses that the /o' will di*ided into. )o $ake the LES algorith$ "orta'le, the standardised essage+!assing ;nterface % !;& "rotocol is used for "arallel co$$unication. ,ll three si$ulations were carried out for a long ti$e "eriod 'efore 'eginning the data collection for statistical calculations. )he si$ulations are carried out for a""ro(i$ately @ flow "asses transiently 'efore collect the statistics for another < flow "asses. Each si$ulation used #B "rocessors and the corres"onding wall clock ti$es for case ;, ;; and ;;; are 1:.=, 1@.: and #<.# hours. We note that the total C!G ti$e increases with increasing swirl nu$'er as a result of the Courant nu$'er condition on the $a(i$u$ ti$e ste" si-e.

3. Results and Discussion


)his section is di*ided into fi*e su'sections containing se"arate discussions. )he first to"ic discusses the code *alidation. )his is followed 'y sections descri'ing analysis of *elocity field, coherent structures and *orte( 'reakdown 'u''les. )he last section addresses the details of "assi*e scalar $i(ing and its *ariation with swirl nu$'er for the three cases. :.1 Code *alidation .or *alidation of the LES results, we ha*e used the e("eri$ental data of So$$erfeld and Ciu 71#871:8 which is e6ui*alent to case ; in this work. .igure # shows the detailed $easured and co$"uted radial "rofiles of the ti$e a*eraged $ean a(ial *elocity KGL $Js and swirl *elocity KWL $Js at different "ositions along the a(is. )he co$"arison is shown at eight different a(ial locations ranging fro$ (I:$$ to (I:1=$$. , "ositi*e to negati*e change in the $ean a(ial *elocity indicates flow re*ersal and hence recirculation. ,lthough a few discre"ancies are a""arent the LES results agree well with e("eri$ental data in 'oth near and far field a(ial locations. )he LES slightly o*eresti$ates the "eak *alues a'o*e the annular region at (I#=$$ slightly underesti$ates the centre region *alues *elocity at (I@=$$. )he e(istence of the swirl *elocity also eases the higher a(ial $o$entu$ generated 'y the inlet a(ial *elocities and hence increases the s"read rate of the a(ial *elocity in the radial direction.

Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer 6

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.igure #D Co$"arison of the $ean a(ial KGL $Js and swirl *elocity KWL $Js, lines indicate the LES data and circles indicate the e("eri$ental data )he agree$ent is e(cellent for the $ean swirl *elocity KWL $Js at $ost a(ial locations. )he "redictions slightly o*eresti$ate the "eak *alues at (I#=$$ and =#$$ and this is the only discre"ancy a""ears for the $ean swirling *elocity. )he calculations are a'le to "redict the correct trend for the $ean swirling *elocity, which is generally challenging in nu$erical si$ulations. Since the swirl *elocity co$"onent is introduced fro$ the annular /et with swirl nu$'er B.<?, the radial "rofiles of the $ean swirl *elocity ha*e higher *alues a'o*e the annular inlet. .igure : shows the co$"arisons of $easured and co$"uted root $ean s6uare %r$s& fluctuations of a(ial and swirling *elocities. )he LES calculations "redict the "eak r$s a(ial *elocity *alues at $ost a(ial locations and ca"ture shar" changes of the a(ial *elocity fluctuations "articularly well. Eowe*er, the calculations slightly underesti$ate the "eak *alues at (I:$$ and =#$$ a'o*e the annular inlet. ;n addition, the LES results under "redict the centerline region *alues at (I@=$$, 11#$$ and 1==$$. )he radial "rofiles of the r$s a(ial fluctuations at downstrea$ a(ial locations closely follow the radial sha"e of the $ean a(ial *elocity at far+field a(ial locations %(I1==$, 1A=$$ and :1=$$&. )he agree$ent 'etween the calculations and $easure$ents for the r$s swirl *elocity is good at $ost a(ial locations. ;t can 'e o'ser*ed that 'oth the a(ial and swirl fluctuations *alues are *ery si$ilar at downstrea$ a(ial locations. )he r$s swirl fluctuations also follow the sa$e "rofile sha"e as a(ial fluctuations in the far field %(I1A=$$, :1=$$&. )he $agnitude of the all three r$s fluctuations and their distri'utions show significant anisotro"y of tur'ulence inside the central recirculation and corner recirculation regions and the "resent LES co$"utations "redict the

K. Hanjalic et al.

"eak *alues as well as "rofile sha"es. 9i*en the co$"le(ity of the coannular swirling flow field, LES results are "articularly useful for identifying shar" changes in regions where we can e("ect inter$ittent tur'ulent 'eha*iour. )he tur'ulence *alues are generally high along the 'oundary of the 01 'u''le while $ean *elocities are 6uite low inside the *orte( 'u''le and the "resent calculation confir$s this finding for the si$ulated coannular swirl /et.
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.igure :D Co$"arison of the r$s a(ial fluctuations, r.$.s.%u& $Js and r$s swirl fluctuations, r.$.s.%w& $Js ,lines indicate the LES data and circles indicate the e("eri$ental data :.# ,nalysis of the *elocity field .igure < shows sna"shots of the filtered a(ial and swirling *elocities for case ;, ;; and ;;;. ,s seen in .ig. < close to the inlet the a(ial *elocity shifts radially with increased swirl *elocity as a result of increased centrifugal force. )he centreline *elocity decays $ore ra"idly with increasing swirl nu$'er and hence the central recirculation -one $o*es towards the inlet. )he structure of the swirling /ets changes with increasing swirl nu$'er. )he inlet swirl *elocities for case ;, ;; and ;;; are 1:.B $Js, 1A.= $Js and #>.B $Js res"ecti*ely. ,s the swirl nu$'er increases, the $o$entu$ of the annular /et $o*es $ore ra"idly away fro$ the centreline de$onstrating that the /et s"reads $ore ra"idly with increasing swirl nu$'er. .igure = show instantaneous *elocity *ectors for case ;, ;; and ;;; res"ecti*ely. )hese "lots indicate the increasing co$"le(ity of the flow with the increased swirl nu$'er.

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.igure <D Sna"shots of filtered a(ial *elocity for case ; %left&, case ;; %$iddle& and case ;;; %right& )he *elocity *ector field for the case ; is noticea'ly different fro$ case ;; and ;;;. Eowe*er, si$ilarities can 'e seen in the *elocity fields for case ;; and ;;;. ;n .ig. =, the *ector field shows a relati*ely s$ooth decay for low swirl case and only starts to "ertur' significantly in the inter$ediate region. ,t higher swirl *elocities the swirl causes ra"id a(ial $o$entu$ decay and also creates $ore rotational *ortices in the near field region. )hese rotational *ortices interact with the swirl *elocities to $ake co$"le( flow "atterns as seen in high swirl case. )he *elocity *ector fields also show different *orticity structures in the central and corner recirculation -ones which indicate a high le*el of tur'ulence in the regions where we e("ect "recession 'eha*iour.

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.igure =D 0elocity *ector fields for case ; %left&, case ;; %$iddle& and case ;;; %right& :.: ,nalysis of the coherent structures

.igure >D !recessing *orte( cores for case ; %left&, case ;; %$iddle& and case ;;; %right& .igure > show the coherent structures known as !recessing 0orte( Cores %!0C& associated with local $ini$a of the "ressure field. ,lthough the "ressure fluctuation is $ore suita'le to de$onstrate !0C structures 7##8, here we used instantaneous "ressure. Des"ite slight differences a""earing in the !0C structures, helical ty"e *ortices are o'ser*ed for all three cases. )he "lots also re*eal that an increased swirl nu$'er widens the angle of the !0C structure with res"ect to the central a(is. 9arcia et al. 7#:8 found that $ore than one structure

K. Hanjalic et al.

can a""ear at certain instants in ti$e in a !0C such that one for$s in the inner region of the /et and another for$s in the outer region. Eowe*er, $ost of the ti$e a single *orte( is do$inant as a""ears in .igs. A%a+c&. ore in*estigations on !0C structures a""earing in confined coannular co$'ustors is needed and is now ti$ely, as key "ro'le$s associated with co$'ustion insta'ilities in lean 'urn gas tur'ine syste$s are directly linked with !0C structures and their dyna$ical 'eha*iour in the near field region %"ri$ary -one of the co$'ustor&.
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:.< ,nalysis of the *orte( 'reakdown 'u''les %011&


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%a&
0.1

%'&
<U> m/s

r(m)

0 -1 -2 -3

0.1

X(m)

0.2

0.3

0.4

%c& .igure ?D 0orte( 'reakdown 'u''les for case ; %left&, case ;; %$iddle& and case ;;; %right& .igure ? shows the contour "lot of $ean a(ial *elocity o'tained fro$ the ti$e a*erage $ean a(ial *elocity for case ;, ;; and ;;; res"ecti*ely. Eere dashed lines indicate negati*e contour lines and the solid line indicates the contour line for the -ero $ean a(ial *elocity which has 'een used to identify the e(tent of the 01 'u''le "osition in the a(ial and radial directions. ,s seen in .ig. ? %case ;& central recirculation -one known as the *orte( 'reakdown 'u''le %011& for$s in the central region and the -ero contour line starts at a""ro(i$ately =B$$ a(ially fro$ the inlet "lane. .igure ? case ;; and ;;; indicate that the -ero contour line of the 01 'u''le shifts towards the inlet "lane with increased swirl nu$'er. )his ha""ens due to the increase in swirl $o$entu$ and thus increases in centrifugal force which effecti*ely increases the ad*erse "ressure gradient. )he increase in swirl also reduced the a(ial *elocity on the centreline and hence $ore se"arate layers can 'e for$ed. )he -ero contour lines start at a(ial distances of a""ro(i$ately #B$$ and =$$ for case ;; and ;;; res"ecti*ely. ;n addition, the swirl has a lesser effect on the radial e(tent of the 011 co$"ared with the a(ial e(tent. ;n fact the radial e(tent is largely unchanged with res"ect to swirl nu$'er. )his $ight 'e attri'uted to the "resence of the co$'ustor wall which "re*ents further radial e("ansion of the 01 'u''le. 1oth the r$s a(ial and swirling *elocity fluctuation *alues are high on the 'oundary of the 01 'u''le and hence we can e("ect ra"id changes of the *elocity fluctuations in this surrounding area which $ay 'e attri'uted to s$all scale inter$ittency. Eence further in*estigations on *ariation of the tur'ulence structures around the 01 'u''les with res"ect to increased swirl nu$'er $ay useful to detect s$all scale inter$ittency for swirl 'ased a""lications.

Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer 6

:.= !assi*e scalar field


1 1 0.8 0.6

x=10mm

x=40mm
0.8

0.4

x=10mm

0.4

x=40mm

0.2

0.2

Frms

0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.4

-0.2 0.2 -0.4 -0.05 0 0.05 0 -0.05 0 0.05 -0.05 0 0.05

-0.2

-0.4 -0.05 0 0.05

0.3

x=60mm
0.8 0.25 0.2 0.6

x=100mm
0.4

x=60mm
0.4 0.2

x=100mm

0.2

0.4 0.1 0.2 0.05 -0.05 0 0.05 0

F rms

0.15

-0.2

-0.2

-0.05

0.05

-0.4 -0.05 0 0.05

-0.4

-0.05

0.05

0.2

x=120mm

0.14 0.12

x=150mm

0.6

x=120mm
0.4 0.2

0.6

x=150mm

0.15

0.1 0.08

0.4

Frms

0.1

0.2

0.06 0.04 0.02

0.05

-0.2 -0.05 0 0.05 -0.05

-0.2 0 0.05 -0.05 0 0.05

-0.05

r(mm)

0.05

r(mm)

r(mm)

r(mm)

.igure @D Radial "lots of $ean "assi*e scalar %.& and scalar *ariance r.$.s %f& .igure @ show radial "rofiles of the ti$e a*eraged $ean "assi*e scalar and its *ariance at different a(ial locations. )he "rofiles were "roduced to co*er the near field, inter$ediate region and far field a(ial locations. )he "lots contain three data sets such that the dashed+dot+ dashed, dashed and solid lines indicate results for the case ;, ;; and ;;; res"ecti*ely. ,s seen in .ig. @, the radial "rofiles of ti$e a*eraged $ean "assi*e scalar show the $i(ing "attern for different swirl strengths at si( a(ial locations. Des"ite the differences of the "eak *alues, the "rofiles of the $ean "assi*e scalar are 6uite si$ilar at the first two a(ial locations %(I1B$$, <B$$&. .urther downstrea$, the "assi*e scalar is seen to $i( $uch $ore ra"idly in the higher swirl cases, due to the increased intensity of 'oth the swirl and the 01 'u''le. )he "lots of the "assi*e scalar *ariance show high "eaks in the near field for the highest swirl case due to the e(istence of high tur'ulence structures along the 'oundary of the 'reakdown 'u''le. Eowe*er, at further downstrea$ the radial s"read of the "assi*e scalar *ariance are si$ilar for all three cases and the highest swirl case has s$allest centreline *ariance *alue which is close to -ero at downstrea$ locations %(I1BB$$, 1#B$$, 1=B$$&.

4. Conclusions
)he "ri$ary focus of this work was to e(a$ine the effects of swirl on the flow field and $i(ing in a confined coannular swirl co$'ustor using Large Eddy Si$ulation %LES&. )he co$'ustor $odel here was a "article laden swirl co$'ustor e("eri$entally in*estigated 'y So$$erfeld and Ciu 71#871:8. Eere we used 'oth instantaneous and ti$e steady %ti$e+a*eraged& data to descri'e the structure and to"ology of flow fields and also $i(ing in swirl sta'ilised coannular co$'ustor. We found that an increasing swirl nu$'er leads to an increase in the rate of decay of a(ial $o$entu$ due to 'oth *iscous and in*iscid effects. )he si$ulations also identified the !0C structures for all three cases and an increased swirl *elocity was seen to shift the 01 'u''le towards the inlet.. ,n increase in the "assi*e scalar $i(ing is also *isi'le at higher swirl

K. Hanjalic et al.

nu$'ers and the scalar *ariance is seen to contain high "eaks in the region of the 01 'oundaries. Since we o'ser*ed highly anisotro"ic tur'ulence regions in the near field, identification of insta'ility $echanis$s associated with "recession $otion in this swirl co$'ustor would hel" to e("lore co$'ustion dyna$ics of gas tur'ine ty"e co$'ustors es"ecially for lean 'urn co$'ustion situations.

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Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer 6

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