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Portal Frames notes Major component is parallel portal shaped frames as the major framing element Portal frames

are rigid and resist wind loads and gravity loads in plane by flexure action

Wind loads that are perpendicular at the frame are resisted by triangulated roof and wall bracing which prevent the frame to fall over Braced bay

Clear spans of 40m can be achieved using Universal beams (UB) or welded beams (WB) as rafters Columns bigger than the rafters because the rafters are haunched near the columns to cater for the peak bending moments at the columns

Larger spans we may use trusses in lieu of UB or WB rafters. As the span increases the eight saving of the truss is more important. However the turning point where to use trusses is difficult to determine Nevertheless, the cost saving of using truss portalised frame instead of a portal frame should be investigated if the span is over 30m

PURLINS General: Purlins are the immediate supporting members of the roof sheeting

Strength is not the only important thing for purlins. The distance between them is really important. Sometimes due to the type of the roof sheeting and ceiling.

Roof sheeting First step in the design of the purlins is to consider the spanning of the roof sheeting. I can find them from the manufacturer.

Portal spacing There are too many variables which may influence the portal spacing (portals, purlins, dimensions of roof bracing struts and tension ties, footing) Limited sizes for purlins. When the dimensions of purlins increase, the cost dramatically increases also.

For most economical frame spacing

PURLIN capacity

Single spans are used most frequently, particularly where purlins are set down between the rafters. Deections may govern on larger spans. End and continuous congurations may be used where lower de ections are required Lapped end and lapped internal con gurations are more economical on large purlin spans where better strength and lower deections are required.

http://www.dimond.co.nz/FilesCont/downloads/PurlinDesignGuide.pdf

SOS

Due to outward loads, we ay use bringing to reduce the effective length of the span to control flexuraltorsional buckling END SPAN the critical area of the purlin design

ROOF BRACING Roof bracing transfer the longitudinal loads from wind using roof bracing to the side walls or transverse braces.

How the forces are transmitted The end beams transfer the force to the transverse braces by creating tension for them. So, the force push the the beam to compression and the beam creates the tension at the transverse brace. So the lateral force is transmitted to the foundations. Main concept is that only the interior forces are transmitted to the transverse braces through compression of beams and tension of the horizontal braces.

In NZ, they most likely use pretensioned robs as roof bracing. The have negligible compression capacity, and only one of two parts will work in tension depending on the direction of the wind Also it has to curry its own weight by cable action

Forces

Portal frames 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Roof main goal to resist wind load Clear spans of 40m can be achieved by using UB rafters Over 40 meters should be used trusses From economical point of view trusses may be better for >30m spans UK study showed that for less than 20m span 4.5m frame spacing is the most economical one

Things to learn: -

Portal frames resist cross wind forces by in-plane flexure

Materials that my roof will be constructed Cold-formed section of structural steel

Elastic Critical Load (ECL) Analysis, mictostran