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Architecture with the Brain in Mind By John P.

Eberhard and Brenda Patoine April 01, 2004 A soaring cathedral, a brightly lit classroom, a dim maze of hospital corridors: Most of us associate certain emotions, energy levels, and even mental states with the various spaces in which we spend our lives. What underlies these responses? How important are they? Architects and neuroscientists now beginning to grapple with those uestions are coming up with discoveries that have important implications for how we design spaces as diverse as neonatal care units, schools, and residences for people with Alzheimer!s disease. "he bene#ts of collaboration between brain science and architecture are sure to increase, writes architect $ohn %berhard, founding president of the new Academy of &euroscience for Architecture. 'ome researcheven suggests that certain designed environmentsencourage the proliferation of new brain cells. ( )f we allow discoveries in neuroscience and cognitive science to butt up against old philo sophical problems ... we will see intuitions surprised and dogma routed.* Patricia Churchland, Ph.D. For centurie , architect ha!e reco"ni#ed that the buildin" in $hich $e li!e, learn, $or%, and $or hip in&uence ho$ $e 'eel and act, ettin" the ta"e 'or (uiet re&ection, in!i"oratin" interaction, or in piration. )ecently, neuro cienti t be"an to e*tend that intuiti!e under tandin" by ho$in" ho$ our brain are +ne,tuned to our en!iron-ent and ho$ they re pond and adapt to in'or-ation includin" a$arene o' our orientation in pacethat reache u throu"h our en e . A the e t$o path to under tandin" inter ect, $hat are neuro cienti t and architect learnin" 'ro- one another. Can the tool o' brain cience de-on trate a neurobiolo"ical ba i 'or $hat architect ha!e belie!ed intuiti!ely. Con!er ely, can brain re earch learn about $hat -o!e and deli"ht u 'ro- the challen"e o' de i"nin" e*ceptional pace . Jud"in" 'ro- the re pon e to a ne$ Acade-y o' /euro cience 'or Architecture 0the Acade-y1, pro'e ional in both +eld are ea"er to an $er the e and other (ue tion . A-on" architect , reco"nition i

"ro$in" that de i"n ha the -a*i-u- e''ect $hen it re&ect our under tandin" o' ho$ the brain react to di''erent en!iron-ent . A-on" neuro cienti t , a readine e*i t to apply their tool and %no$led"e to plannin" pace that liberate the potential o' people $ho u e the-. 2he 3an Die"o chapter o' the A-erican 4n titute o' Architect launched the Acade-y o' /euro cience 'or Architecture in 2005 to ti-ulate re earch that could connect the di parate $orld o' neuro cience and architecture. 2he architect , en"ineer , and brain cienti t in!ol!ed belie!e that ociety can be better er!ed by architectural de i"n that ta%e into account the i--en e %no$led"e that neuro cience ha "enerated. Buildin" de i"n can beco-e -ore con ciou ly ba ed in e!idence o' ho$ and $hy the brain re pond to particular 'eature o' architectural pace. Far 'ro- ti&in" the creati!e proce o' architectural de i"n, in i"ht 'ro- brain re earch hould yield richer, -ore re$ardin" outco-e . 6e already ha!e "ood e*a-ple o' thi re$ard 'ro- health care. For e*a-ple, $e %no$ no$ that certain le!el o' li"ht and noi e in neonatal care unit can inter'ere $ith critical en ory de!elop-ent in pre-ature in'ant . 6e %no$ that healthy beha!ior a-on" people $ith Al#hei-er7 di ea e in "roup hou in" can be upported by peci+c 'eature o' their phy ical en!iron-ent. 4n other ituation , $e -u t ee% -ore de+nite "uidance 'ro- cience on thin" $e belie!e to be true8 that ad9u tin" natural li"ht and air &o$ in cla roo- can i-pro!e tudent learnin", 'or e*a-ple, or that certain pace perhap cathedral or ite o' natural $onder induce a en e o' acredne in beholder . 4t $ill be neither (uic% nor ea y to reca t the intuition o' architect a te table cienti+c hypothe e . :ue tion o' tudy de i"n, identi+cation o' the outco-e to be -ea ured, !alidation, and 'undin" all -u t be addre ed. But %no$in" ho$ a "i!en de i"ned pace a''ect our brain i a $orth$hile lon",ter- "oal, and $e -u t at lea t be"in. MARRYING DISPARATE DISCIPLINES Architect o' the ancient $orld under tood intuiti!ely ho$ de i"n in&uence people7 tate o' -ind, but the tool and techni(ue to te t $hat "oe on in the brain a it re pond to a particular architectural en!iron-ent are, at -o t, a 'e$ decade old. Polio !accine in!entor Jona 3al%, ;.D., $a a-on" the +r t to ad!ance the idea that neuro cience re earch could bene+t architecture. 3al% tell a 'a cinatin" tory. 4n the early 1<=0 , +ndin" hi- el' tuc% intellectually in hi re earch to cure polio, he

decided to ta%e a %ind o' per onal abbatical at 4taly7 'a-ou Abbey at A i i. 3o-ethin" about the abbey7 architecture $a o ti-ulatin" to hi i-a"ination, he later recalled, that he had a crucial in i"ht into the i-pa e that had bloc%ed hi pro"re . >e le't the abbey $ith the "er- o' the olution that $ould beco-e the li'e, a!in" !accine. 3ub e(uently, 3al% ad!ocated 'or a partner hip bet$een architect and neuro cienti t that $ould probe the type o' e*perience he had in A i i and-ore broadlyu e the in i"ht o' neuro cience to +nd out ho$ architectural ettin" in&uence our e*perience. Fittin"ly, 3al% 4n titute neuro cienti t Fred >. ?a"e, Ph.D., pre ented the %eynote addre at the A-erican 4n titute o' Architecture7 2005 annual -eetin". A neurobiolo"i t $ho tudie 0a-on" other thin" 1 ho$ the brain chan"e in re pon e to enriched en!iron-ent , ?a"e ha been at the 'ore'ront o' recent re!elation that the brain continue to "enerate ne$, 'unctional neuron throu"hout li'e, a proce called neuro"ene i . >e de-on trated that ti-ulatin" en!iron-ent can increa e de!elop-ent o' ne$ neuron by a -uch a =0 percent in the brain o' -ice. For the e ani-al , the en!iron-ent $a a ca"e +lled $ith toy that en"a"e the en e and pro-ote acti!e play and e*periential learnin". 6hen re earcher increa ed the rate o' neuro"ene i throu"h rearin" ani-al in the e enriched en!iron-ent , the cienti t 'ound co--en urate i-pro!e-ent in the ani-al 7 ability to learn. 2a%e a$ay the ti-ulatin" en!iron-ent and the neuro"ene i decrea e @ learnin" 'ail to i-pro!e. Ar, a ?a"e put it, BChan"e the en!iron-ent, chan"e the brain, chan"e the beha!ior.C 2he e di co!erie put into (ue tion neuro cience do"-a about ho$ neuron act in the adult brain. 4 it rea onable to e*pect that enrichin" the en!iron-ent in $hich $e $or%, li!e, learn, or heal -i"ht induce brain and beha!ioral chan"e in u . 2hi i part o' $hat the Acade-y $ant to learn. People cannot be %ept in ca"e 'ull o' toy to -a%e controlled e*peri-ent po ible, nor can cienti t count di!idin" cell in the li!in" hu-an brain. But brain,i-a"in" techni(ue and other tool o' neuro cience can help u -ea ure a pect o' brain phy iolo"y and beha!ior that o''er clue to the an $er $e ee%. For e*a-ple, heart rate, per piration, and le!el o' certain hor-one and che-ical can be u e'ul a -ar%er o' e-otional re pon e, and i-a"in" -odalitie uch a 'unctional -a"netic re onance i-a"in" 0';)41 and po itron e-i ion to-o"raphy 0PE21 can #ero in on the brain re"ion that could be in!ol!ed in "i!en re pon e . De!ice that trac% eye -o!e-ent -i"ht be u e'ul in +ndin" out $here people7 attention i 'ocu ed $hen they enter a pace and $hat

type o' architectural ele-ent ha!e endurin" intere t, a oppo ed to initial no!elty. 4n the not,too,di tant 'uture, it could be po ible to a % the e type o' (ue tion in tudie that u e !irtual reality technolo"ie to replicate !ariou architectural pace , i--er in" the ub9ect in a three,di-en ional repre entation that can -ore accurately re,create the real,li'e e*perience o' architecture. 4denti'yin" u e'ul hypothe e and $ay to te t the- $a the "oal o' a $or% hop in 6a hin"ton, DC, in Dece-ber 2005, brin"in" to"ether architect and neuro cienti t to 'a hion a road -ap 'or collaborati!e re earch. 2he participant a"reed that rele!ant %no$led"e i a!ailable in e!eral cienti+c di cipline to u""e t direction 'or in!e ti"ation. For in tance, -uch ha been tudied and $ritten about $hat contribute to a BhealthyC buildin", and $e ha!e be"un to learn ho$ a $or%place7 patial or"ani#ation and en!iron-ental attribute can a''ect producti!ity. 2he /ational 4n titute o' >ealth and the Public Buildin" 3er!ice o' the ?eneral 3er!ice Ad-ini tration 0the "o!ern-ent7 landlord1 are plannin" to tudy ho$ o'+ce en!iron-ent a''ect phy ical and -ental tre le!el . Participant in the tudy $ill $ear portable -onitor that trac% their heart rate o!er a 24,hour period. Durin" that ti-e, they $ill care'ully note their acti!itie , o re earcher can loo% 'or correlation bet$een en!iron-ent, acti!ity, and phy iolo"ic re pon e. Dnder tandin" the condition that can induce 0or alle!iate1 $or%place tre hould enable architect to de i"n en!iron-ent that are healthier and, at the a-e ti-e, could i-pro!e producti!ity. Doe one de i"n ti-ulate e-otional center in the core o' the brain, $herea another li"ht up the deep,thin%in" corte*. 3uch in!e ti"ation are the +r t tep o' an in'ant di cipline concei!ed in the -arria"e o' architecture and neuro cience. 2he Acade-y initiated a tudy at the Dni!er ity o' 6i con in, ;adi on that $ill u e ';)4 can to co-pare pattern o' brain acti!ity that occur $hen !olunteer loo% at i-a"e o' di tinct architectural tyle . ;i"ht a cla ical de i"n, uch a the Eincoln ;e-orial, acti!ate a di''erent area o' the brain than, ay, the darin" conte-porary line o' the ?u""enhei- ;u eu- Bilbao. 6hat -i"ht $e deduce 'ro- that acti!ity, ba ed on $hat cienti t %no$ about the 'unction o' !ariou brain re"ion . Doe one de i"n ti-ulate e-otional center in the core o' the brain, $herea another li"ht up the deep,thin%in" corte*. 3uch in!e ti"ation are the +r t tep o' an in'ant di cipline concei!ed in the -arria"e o' architecture and neuro cience. HOW SCIENCE SHAPES ARCHITECTURE

Althou"h the application o' neuro cience to architectural de i"n i ne$, it 'ollo$ a $ell,%no$n pattern. 4n 1F<=, $hen he accepted a challen"e to turn an acou tically i-po ible lecture hall at >ar!ard Colle"e into a u able roo-, phy ic pro'e or 6allace 3abine e-bar%ed on hi pioneerin" 9ourney into architectural acou tic by utili#in" %no$led"e 'ro- hi +eld. For e!eral year , 3abine and hi a i tant tudied the ound characteri tic o' the roo-. 3o-e ni"ht , they borro$ed hundred o' eat cu hion 'ro- 3ander 2heater, a lecture hall %no$n 'or it acou tic e*cellence, and, playin" or"an pipe , -ea ured the ti-e it too% 'or di''erent 're(uencie o' ound to decay to inaudibility $hen re&ected o'' the ur'ace o' !ariou -aterial . 3abine7 e*peri-ent produced the e-pirical data 'or the concept and -ea ure-ent o' re!erberation ti-e 0the ti-e re(uired 'or a ound to di-ini h to one -illionth o' it ori"inal inten ity1, no$ tated in unit called B abine .C An appreciable re!erberation ti-e i-pro!e acou tical e''ect , e pecially o' -u ic. A loud ound in an auditoriu- hould be barely audible only one to t$o econd a'ter the ource o' the ound ha topped. 4n a pri!ate ho-e, a horter 0but till di cernible1 re!erberation ti-e i de irable. 2o en ure the be t acou tic (ualitie , architect no$ de i"n roo- to achie!e a re!erberation ti-e that co-e a clo e a po ible to producin" natural ound. 3abine7 &ed"lin" re earch $a a-on" the +r t to u e ne$ di co!erie in phy ic to create architectural de i"n tool . 2oday, phy ic under"ird not only acou tic de i"n but tructural de i"n, li"htin" de i"n, and ther-al de i"n 0heatin" and coolin"1. For the -o t part, the e tool $ere de!eloped not by phy ici t but by en"ineer $ho under tood phy ic and a$ $ay to apply it to ol!e de i"n proble- . Ather de!elop-ent in cience or en"ineerin" al o "a!e ri e to 'ar, reachin" chan"e in architecture. 6hen teel beca-e -ore plenti'ul and a''ordable $ith the in!ention o' the Be e-er 'urnace in 1F==, architect could u e teel bea- in buildin" de i"n. 2he e bea-ade u in" e*terior -a onry $all 'or tructural upport unnece ary and e!entually led to the de i"n o' %y craper . Eli ha Ati 7 in!ention o' the ele!ator in 1F=G -ade it practical 'or people to -o!e up and do$n in taller and taller buildin" . And 2ho-a Edi on7 in!ention o' the electric li"ht bulb in 1FG< par%ed a ne$ era in li"htin", 'reed 'ro- the dan"er o' +re 'ro- "a la-p . Each o' the e brea%throu"h continue to hape architectural de i"n today.

4n their boo% +iars, +overs, and Heroes, 3te!en ). :uart#, Ph.D., and 2errence J. 3e9no$ %i, Ph.D., $rite that BPro"re in cience i -ade by 'ocu ed e*peri-ent under hi"hly controlled condition , u ually co--unicated in brie' article to cienti+c peer . A po$er'ul an en"ine o' %no$led"e creation a thi enterpri e ha been, there i al o !alue in occa ionally teppin" bac% and atte-ptin" to -a%e connection acro di ciplinary boundarie .C Eet u con ider e!eral ca e in $hich the boundarie bet$een brain cience and architecture are already bein" cro ed and $hich ha!e e*citin" i-plication 'or in&uencin" the $ay architect de i"n pace in the 'uture. 6e al o e*plore e*a-ple o' de i"n (ue tion that neuro cience -i"ht help to an $er. But all o' the e to"ether are only the be"innin" o' thi ne$ +eld. NEONATAL INTENSI E CARE UNITS A tri%in" e*a-ple o' the applicability o' neuro cience re earch to architecture i the $or% o' pro'e or o' pediatric 3tanley ?ra!en, ;.D., $ho tudied the i-pact on pre-ature in'ant o' en!iron-ental condition in neonatal inten i!e care unit 0/4CD 1.H Dntil ?ra!en be"an hi $or%, no e!idence 'ro- brain cience $a a!ailable to "uide de i"n deci ion in plannin" an /4CD to upport and 'acilitate in'ant 7 nor-al, healthy de!elop-ent. ?ra!en7 pre-i ethat li"htin", noi e le!el , and ta'' acti!itie that inter'ered $ith in'ant 7 leep cycle could ha!e lon",tercon e(uence 'or their de!elop-ent$a rooted in the "ro$in" under tandin" o' ho$ the brain de!elop be'ore and i--ediately a'ter birth. ?ra!en7 pre-i ethat li"htin", noi e le!el , and ta'' acti!itie that inter'ered $ith in'ant 7 leep cycle could ha!e lon",tercon e(uence 'or their de!elop-ent$a rooted in the "ro$in" under tandin" o' ho$ the brain de!elop be'ore and i--ediately a'ter birth. 4n the early ta"e o' 'etal li'e, the "enetic code direct creation o' the ba ic tructure o' the central ner!ou y te-, includin" core brain re"ion , pri-ary ner!e , en ory or"an , and a ca''oldin" o' ynap e and path$ay that lin% the-. )udi-entary eye and ear tructure ta%e 'or- and 'or"e path$ay into the brain7 interior and corte*. A ociated area in the !i ual and auditory cortice "ro$ in the ab ence o' out ide ti-ulation, their pro"re dri!en purely by "ene turnin" on and o''. 4t i a i' the 'etal brain u e the blueprint encoded in it D/A to con truct a 'ra-e$or%, li%e the hell o' a buildin", 'or it o$n 'uture "ro$th. E!entually, ho$e!er, out ide ti-uli beco-e critical a 'etal brain de!elop-ent ad!ance . 2he e ti-uli pro'oundly in&uence ho$ the en ory or"an de!elop

and $hat they $ill be capable o' re pondin" to in later li'e. At thi ta"e, the 'etu 7 e*ternal en!iron-ent dri!e the neurode!elop-ent proce e already et in -otion by prepro"ra--ed "enetic $itche . 4n other $ord , en!iron-ental in&uence -odi'y $hat "enetic ha laid do$n. Ei%e any inten i!e care unit, an /4CD tend to be noi y. Air,handlin" unit , -onitorin" e(uip-ent, and co--unication y te- can rai e a-bient noi e le!el , $hich, in turn, pro!o%e ta'' -e-ber and !i itor to pea% -ore loudly to be heard. )e earcher 'ound that con tant hi"h le!el o' bac%"round noi e can inter'ere $ith nor-al auditory de!elop-ent in pre-ature in'ant . 4n a noi y en!iron-ent, the ear7 band$idth 'or the reception o' ound increa e or $iden , o-eti-e leadin" to a li'e,lon" inability to di cri-inate bet$een di''erent ound 're(uencie . 2he e band$idth abnor-alitie can lead to learnin" and lan"ua"e di'+cultie year later. 2he !i ual y te- o' an in'ant in a traditional /4CD can al o be a''ected. >ealthy de!elop-ent o' a 'etu 7 !i ual y te- re(uire no !i ual ti-ulation 0a in the $o-b1. 2he eye , retina, neural trac% , and !i ual corte* all de!elop $ithout e*po ure to li"ht. At about 52 $ee% into the 'etu 7 li'e, the brain pontaneou ly acti!ate neural path$ay connectin" the eye to a ociated cortical re"ion , apparently durin" period o' rapid eye -o!e-ent 0)E;1 leep. 2hi auto-atic +rin", $hich occur in the ab ence o' out ide ti-uli, ee- to prepare the corte* 'or the in'ant7 +r t !i ual encounter $ith the en!iron-ent. A child $ho i born pre-aturely and i--ediately e*po ed to bri"ht uncontrolled li"ht can lo e o-e o' the optic y te-7 potential acuity and be -ore prone to de!elopin" -yopia later in li'e. ?ra!en7 $or% and other ad!ance in de!elop-ental neurobiolo"y ha!e pro!ided architect and en"ineer $ith a 'oundation 'or e!idence,ba ed de i"n o' neonatal care unit . GROUP HOMES !OR PEOPLE WITH AL"HEIMER#S DISEASE Ju t a di co!erie 'ro- neuro cience can in pire idea 'or architectural application , a better under tandin" o' the peci+c need that architectural pace -u t -eet can in pire neuro cienti t to in!e ti"ate ne$ area . An e*a-ple i the de i"n o' re idence 'or people $ith Al#hei-er7 di ea e, $ho 'ace pro"re i!e and ine*orable 0thou"h hi"hly !ariable1 co"niti!e decline. 6ith the under tandin" o' ho$ the brain chan"e in Al#hei-er7 and ho$ perception and beha!ior are a''ected, it hould be po ible to de i"n better pace 'or the e patient . 6hat are the

architectural de i"n i hypothe e .

ue that can "enerate te table neuro cience

John Iei el, Ph.D., $ho e trainin" include both ociolo"y and architecture, re earched nur in" ho-e pecial care unit , correlatin" particular en!iron-ental de i"n 'eature $ith chan"e in y-pto- uch a p ycholo"ical proble- , a"itated or a""re i!e beha!ior, ocial $ithdra$al, depre ion, -i identi+cation, and hallucination . )eportin" hi re earch in the ,erontologist in 2005, Iei el $rote that it Bde-on trate the "reat opportunity y te-atic attention to en!iron-ental 'actor open 'or i-pro!in" Al#hei-er7 y-pto- .C 4ndeed, he a ert that in treat-ent o' patient $ith Al#hei-er7 di ea e, en!iron-ental -odi+cation are o'ten -ore e''ecti!e than phar-acolo"ic and beha!ioral therapie . Iei el a ert that in treat-ent o' patient $ith Al#hei-er7 di ea e, en!iron-ental -odi+cation are o'ten -ore e''ecti!e than phar-acolo"ic and beha!ioral therapie . Althou"h the (ue tion o' ho$ chan"in" the en!iron-ent i-pro!e Al#hei-er7 y-pto- re-ain lar"ely une*plored, the re earch o 'ar o''er clue . BEn!iron-ent con!entionally de i"ned 'or the co"niti!ely able appear to put tre on the co"niti!e abilitie o' tho e $ith Al#hei-er7 ,C Iei el note , u""e tin" that en!iron-ental -odi+cation can alle!iate tre , $hich could reduce an*iety and a""re i!ene in the patient. Ather de i"n 'eature could a''ord people $ith Al#hei-er7 "reater control o!er their li!e , reducin" ocial $ithdra$al and 'eelin" o' helple ne . 6e %no$ that people $ith Al#hei-er7 di ea e lo e the ability to 'or- and u e co"niti!e -ap o' their en!iron-ent, becau e o' da-a"e in the hippoca-pu . 2hey -ay not be able to di cri-inate ob9ect in the 'ore"round 'ro- the bac%"round or to 'ocu on detail li%e door o' certain color , o a con!entional corridor -i"ht 'ru trate the-. 2o addre the e i ue , de i"ner could li-it e"re 'ro- a pace by u in" trate"ically placed $all , 'ence , or door , $hich hould be a'ely loc%ed but a unobtru i!e a po ible, perhap by ca-ou&a"in" the- $ith paint or in other $ay . E*it $ithin corridor hould be on ide $all , not at the end. 4n'or-ed architectural de i"n can al o alle!iate the co--on proble- o' $anderin" a-on" people $ith Al#hei-er7 by pro!idin" pace that 'acilitate purpo e'ul $al%in", $here patient can ea ily reco"ni#e de tination and re-ain a'e and en"a"ed. Ab9ect that pro!ide orientation at trate"ic point alon" path$ay and $all can 'ocu attention on particular area and pro!ide a en e o' place identity.

By co-binin" the !ie$point o' architecture and neuro cience to e*plore de i"n (ue tion in ne$ $ay , $e can be"in to de!elop -odel and hypothe e that can be te ted and !alidated by cience. An e*a-ple o' thi approach co-e 'ro- Iei el7 e*perience u in" therapeutic "arden in "roup ho-e 'or people $ith Al#hei-er7 . 2he "arden pro!ide a a'e, acce ible, and intere tin" pace, and, $hen re ident are appropriately uper!i ed, they can care 'or plant and -aintain a$arene o' the ti-e o' day and the chan"in" ea on . Althou"h phy ician and care"i!er in Al#hei-er7 care unit anecdotally atte t to the po iti!e re ult 'ro- uch "arden , it $ould be u e'ul to deter-ine ho$ "arden in&uence peci+c beha!ior and $hat the underlyin" brain -echani - -i"ht be. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CLASSROOMS Architect ha!e de i"ned ele-entary chool 'or -ore than a century, durin" $hich idea about ho$ to li"ht the cla roo- ha!e chan"ed 're(uently. Early in the 20th century, $hen arti+cial li"htin" $a +r t introduced, cla roo- tended to ha!e hi"h ceilin" and tall $indo$ to pro!ide ade(uate !entilation, e pecially in $ar- cli-ate . A'ter 6orld 6ar 44, $hen both -echanical e(uip-ent 'or pro!idin" 're h air and &uore cent li"htin" +*ture ca-e into $ider u e, ceilin" hei"ht $ere lo$ered and $indo$ i#e $a reduced. Durin" the ener"y cri i o' the 1<G0 , -any chool di trict re(uired the eli-ination o' $indo$ alto"ether to reduce the load on air conditionin" e(uip-ent and to a!e ener"y. 2oday, the ad!ent o' lar"e urban chool on -all parcel o' land o'ten dictate that cla roo- be located in the core o' a buildin", $ith no acce to dayli"ht or natural air circulation. A a re ult, e!en i' an architect ha the be t intention about pro!idin" natural li"ht and 're h air in a cla roo-, chool,board de i"n "uideline and -echanical en"ineerin" con ideration are li%ely to tru-p the-. ;ean$hile, ocial and beha!ioral cienti t ha!e tudied the e''ect o' li"htin" on children in cla roo- and al-o t uni!er ally report that learnin" i-pro!e $hen arti+cial li"ht i reduced and dayli"ht increa ed. 2he bene+t include better "rade and 'e$er ab ence 0pre u-ably correlated $ith enhanced learnin"1 and i-pro!e-ent in tudent beha!ior a reported by teacher . But notably -i in" i de+niti!e re earch that in!e ti"ate ho$ li"htin" le!el correlate $ith co"niti!e 'unctionin" in children o' !ariou a"e . 2he a u-ption i that cla roo- are interchan"eable, at lea t 'ro- +r t "rade throu"h i*th "rade. 4t $ould be u e'ul 'or cienti t to a certain the e''ect o' li"htin", i' any, on co"niti!e acti!itie o' children at di''erent a"e .

)e earch on ho$ the brain de!elop o!er the +r t t$o decade o' li'e could hold clue . 3uch re earch ho$ that the di''erent brain re"ion and y te- de!elop on di''erent chedule . For in tance, po tnatal de!elop-ent in the hippoca-pu continue until about 4 to = year o' a"e, but de!elop-ent o' the !i ual corte* continue until a"e G to 11. 2he pre'rontal corte*, $here hi"her co"niti!e 'unction uch a plannin" and rea onin" occur, i not 'ully -ature until youn" adulthood. A"e,appropriate en!iron-ent that ta%e into account the e di''erent de!elop-ental ta"e could be bene+cial, but +r t $e need -ore in'or-ation and $ay to te t the e''ect o' peci+c en!iron-ental 'eature on learnin". 2oday, no e!idence e*i t to "uide architect in de i"nin" cla roo- $ith di''erent le!el o' li"htin" that -i"ht enhance learnin" in !ariou a"e "roup . 2he a u-ption i that cla rooare interchan"eable, at lea t 'ro- +r t "rade throu"h i*th "rade. 4t $ould be u e'ul 'or cienti t to a certain the e''ect o' li"htin", i' any, on co"niti!e acti!itie o' children at di''erent a"e . An the ba i o' re earch $ith ne$born , $e al o %no$ that children7 brain re pond di''erently to a-bient noi e at !ariou ta"e o' de!elop-ent. 3tudie te tin" the e''ect o' li"htin" on learnin", there'ore, -u t ta%e into con ideration ho$ the en e other than !i ion de!elop al o, includin" hearin" and po ibly proprioception. SACRED ARCHITECTURE 4n hi t$o,!olu-e erie "he Hermeneutics of 'acred Architecture, Eind ay Jone , Ph.D., propo e a -ethod o' tudyin" acred pace not a architectural ob9ect 0that i , a buildin" 1, but a ettin" 'or ritual occa ion , o that $e can under tand ho$ the e pace are intended to be e*perienced. 6hat are o-e o' the applicable (ue tion . 3hould $e eparate the concept o' $or hipin" 'ro- the concept o' Bha!in" an e*perienceC in a acred place. ;any !i itor to European cathedral $ould a"ree that they ha!e e*perienced a acred place, $hether or not they participated in a $or hip er!ice. 2he cathedral could be acred becau e a con"re"ation ha et it a ide a their place o' $or hip, but there could al o be certain attribute o' the architectural ettin" that i-bue the pace $ith an air o' acredne . Architectural ettin" that are con idered acred can inten i'y the e*perience o' tho e $ho hold reli"iou belie' . But o-e acred e*perience ee- to be co--on to all hu-an , e!en people $ho do not ha!e reli"iou belie' . ;o t people $ho ha!e !i ited the Eincoln ;e-orial in 6a hin"ton, DC, $ould a"ree that they had a pecial e*perience, one that ee-ed acred in o-e $ay. Ather $ould ay the a-e about the Jietna- ;e-orial, or a clearin" deep in the

'ore t, or any one o' a hundred other natural or created pace . Could brain re earch illu-inate ho$ and $hy !i itor ha!e the e ee-in"ly uni!er al i-pre ion about certain pace . Becau e neuro cienti t ha!e di co!ered o -uch about ho$ the brain proce e a$arene , thou"ht , and 'eelin" , it ee- natural 'or the- to e*a-ine $hat -i"ht help e*plain the hu-an re pon e to acred pace . 2hi in!e ti"ation al o o''er another approach to the (ue tion o' con ciou ne , currently o' "reat intere t to -any neuro cienti t . 2he cienti+c tudy o' con ciou ne ha "enerated re earch 'ro- p ycholo"y, -edicine, biolo"y, philo ophy, arti+cial intelli"ence, anthropolo"y, ociolo"y, reli"ion, education, and e!en (uantu- phy ic , but neuro cience no$ o''er it o$n uni(ue per pecti!e. ;i"ht e*plorin" the reli"iou e*perience o' indi!idual and co--unitie $ithin peci+c architectural or natural ettin" be a 'ruit'ul $ay to learn -ore about o-e o' the -ore ubtle -ani'e tation o' hu-an con ciou ne . 4n April 2004, about 50 architect , brain cienti t , reli"iou leader , and other "athered in Colu-bu , 4ndiana, ho-e to a tunnin" collection o' churche and other architectural "e- , to de!elop an a"enda 'or re earch u in" neuro cience to e*a-ine the e''ect o' architectural ettin" that are, or are intended to be, acred pace . A central (ue tion 'or di cu ion, a $ith pre!iou con'erence on architecture and the brain, $a ho$ to de!elop "uidance ba ed on hard cienti+c e!idence that can be applied to architectural de i"n. 2he Colu-bu $or% hop in pired ne$ approache to under tandin" the e-oti!e po$er o' acred architecture and identi+ed -any area o' con!er"ence a-on" theolo"ical re&ection, architectural de i"n, and neuro cience in!e ti"ation that can no$ be de!eloped into a road -ap 'or re earch. For e*a-ple, the perception o' !ertical pace re(uire the eye to be rai ed. Doe thi !ertical -o!e-ent tran late, throu"h the !i ual y te-, into an e-otional e*perience. ;o!in" 'ro- a dar% entry$ay $ith a lo$ ceilin" 0the part o' a cathedral %no$n a the narthe*1 into a lar"e e*pan e $ith li"ht and a hi"h ceilin" produce a en e o' a$e. D in" !irtual reality i-a"e , can thi e*perience be -ea ured $ith ';)4. MO ING BEYOND INTUITION 6e could be eein" here only a -all be"innin" o' the bene+t that could re ult 'ro- acti!e collaboration bet$een re earcher $ho tudy the brain and architect $ho de i"n buildin" and pace . 2he po ibilitie ee- endle , li-ited only by our i-a"ination. A architect /or-an Koonce a %ed in the A4A Journal in 20058 B6hat $ould it -ean 'or architect to -o!e beyond an intuiti!e and anecdotal rationale in their de i"n. >o$ -uch better could $e er!e

our client and the public i' $e under tood ho$ their brain enable perception o' their phy ical en!iron-ent and "enerate phy iolo"ical re pon e to it.C B6hat $ould it -ean 'or architect to -o!e beyond an intuiti!e and anecdotal rationale in their de i"n. >o$ -uch better could $e er!e our client and the public i' $e under tood ho$ their brain enable perception o' their phy ical en!iron-ent and "enerate phy iolo"ical re pon e to it.C De!elopin" and e tabli decade, perhap -ore. education that are not de!elop-ent in neuro hin" thi richer %no$led"e ba e $ill ta%e a 4t $ill ta%e chan"e in architectural i-ple to i-ple-ent. And, it $ill li%ely ta%e cience -ethodolo"y not no$ conte-plated.

A intellectual lin% are 'or"ed and u'+cient re earch i acco-pli hed, chan"e in architectural practice are li%ely to be dra-atic. Ane i re-inded o' the Btippin" pointC that $a reached in -edicine at the be"innin" o' the 20th century, $hen a erie o' di tinct e!ent the articulation o' the "er- theory o' di ea e, the de!elop-ent o' the -icro cope, the 'or-ation o' a phar-aceutical indu try, and the e-er"ence o' a clinical ba i 'or -edical education, a-on" other con!er"ed to propel the +eld 'or$ard. Althou"h architect $ill bene+t 'ro- the ne$ collaboration $ith brain cienti t , the ulti-ate bene+ciarie $ill be e!ery chool child, e!ery patient in a ho pital, e!ery o'+ce $or%erindeed, all people, becau e all our li!e are a''ected by our phy ical en!iron-ent.