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Panther Conductor Sizing

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S.No.

1

Description

CALCULATIONS FOR BUSBAR & CONDUCTOR SIZING

Rev

A

REV A

OF PANTHER CONDUCTOR.

S.No. Description

1

Conductor Type

Symbol

Value

Unit

Panther

RT

0.136

/km

k-1

3

(As per IEC 1597 clause 4.2-Page-23)

0.00403

Initial temperature

T1

20

293

Final temperature

T2

75

348

Frequency

50

1 for circular, stranded, compacted and sectored.

0.5

Diameter of conductor

0.021

10

Si

900

W/m2

11

5.67E-008

W.m-2.K-4

12

Ke

0.45

T1

50

323

C

K

C

K

Hz

0.5 for average oxidized copper

0.35-0.45 for naturally weathered (i.e. dulled surface)

Increase with aging

0.15-0.25 for extruded surface

Increase with aging

13

Ambient Temperature

14

m/s

15

0.02585

W.m-1.K-1

C

K

OF PANTHER CONDUCTOR.

4.1

General

The current carrying capacity (CCC) of a conductor is the maximum steady state current inducing a given temperature

rise in the conductor , for given ambient conditions.

4.2

The steady state temperature rise of a conductor is reached whenever the heat gained by the conductor from various

sources is equal to the heat losses. This is expressed by equation (1)

Pj + Psol = Prad + Pconv

----------------- (1)

(As per IEC 1597 equation no (1))

Where,

Pj is the heat generated by joule effect

Psol is the solar heat gain by the conductor surface

Prad is the heat loss by radiation of the conductor.

Pcov is the convention heat loss.

4.3

Joule effect

Power losses Pj (W) , due to Joule effect are given by equation (2)

Pj = RT I2

----------------- (2)

(As per IEC 1597 equation no (2))

Where,

I is the conductor (A)

1.36E-04 /m

The DC resistance of a conductor at a temperature T2 is given by :

RT2

4.4

----------------- (3)

(As per IEC1597 equation (9) )

RT2 =RT1 [ 1+ (T 2T 1 )]

Hence ,

1.66E-04 /m

2.67E-01 /miles

Calculation of AC resistance.

If the conductor is composed of one or more concentric circular elements, then the centre portion of the conductor will be

enveloped by a greater magnetic flux than those on the outside. Consequently the self induced back-emf will be greater

towards the centre of the conductor, thus causing the current density to be less at the centre than the conductor surface.

This extra concentration at the surface is known as skin effect, and results in an increase in the effective resistance of the

conductor.

X S =0 . 063598

r f

R dc

----------------- (4)

Hence,

Xs

8.70E-01

For this value of Xs the skin effect coefficient obtained from Table

X

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

1.00000

1.00000

1.00001

1.00004

1.00013

1.00032

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.00519

1.00758

1.01071

1.01470

1.01969

1.02582

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

1.07816

1.09375

1.11126

1.13069

1.15207

1.17538

3.0

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

1.31809

1.35102

1.38504

1.41999

1.45570

1.49202

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.00067

1.00124

1.00212

1.00034

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

1.03323

1.04205

1.05240

1.06440

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

1.20056

1.22753

1.25620

1.28644

For X =1.2

1.01071

For X =1.3

1.01470

For X =

K

=

8.70E-001

1.01271

Rt2

K X RT2

=

4.5

1.68E-04 /m

Solar heat gain ,Psol is given by equation

Psol = D Si

(As per IEC1597 equation (3) )

----------------- (5)

Where ,

is the solar radiation absorption coefficient

D is the diameter of the conductor

Si is the intensity of solar radiation

Hence

Psol =

4.6

9.45 W/m

Heat loss by radiation , Prad (W) is given by equation

Prad = s D Ke (T24 - T14)

(As per IEC1597 equation (4) )

----------------- (6)

Where ,

s is the Stefan - Boltzmann constant ( 5.67 X 10 -8 W.m-2.K-4)

D is the conductor diameter (m)

Ke is the emissivity coefficient in respect to black body

T is the temperature (K)

T1 is the ambient temperature (K)

T2 is the final temperature

Hence ,

Prad

4.7

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.9

6.3624522 W

Only forced convention heat loss, Pconv (W) , is taken into account and is given by equation

Pcov = Nu (T2-T1)

(As per IEC1597 equation (5) )

----------------- (7)

Where,

is the thermal conductivity of the air film in contact with the conductor, assumed constant .

Nu is the Nusselt number , given by equation

Nu = 0.65 Re 0.2+0.23.Re 0.61

----------------- (8)

4

1.52879

1.56587

1.60314

1.64051

Where,

Re is the Reynolds number given by equation

Re = 1.664 . 109 v D [(T1+0.5(T2-T1)]-1.78

(As per IEC1597 equation (7) )

----------------- (9)

Where,

v is the wind speed in m/s

D is conductor diameter (m)

T is the temperature (K)

T1 is the ambient temperature (K)

T2 is the final temperature

Hence,

Re

1115.9376

Nu

19.271111

Pconv =

4.8

39.105421 W

The steady -state current capacity can be calculated by :

Imax = [ (Prad+Pconv-Psol)/RT2]0.5

----------------- (10)

Where,

Prad =

6.36245223 W

Pconv=

39.1054207 W

Psol =

Rt2

9.45 W/m

1.68E-04 /m

4.9

i

ii

iii

462.67

3.2

3.2

33

MVA

MVA

kV

56

For Trafo Bay

Maximum Power Output of Two Trafo

Net Power Output of Two Trafo.

Secondary Rated Voltage

Total current =

RATED VOLTAGE X 1.73

4.10 Conclusion

As per Above calculation the required continous current for bus is 56Amps. And Single PANTHER conductor can take

462Amps current so the conductor size is sufficent to take such load.

1) SHORT TIME WITHSTAND CAPABILITY FOR PANTHER CONDUCTOR

Reference Document : (IEC 865 PART-I)

Short time withstand capability for aluminium conductor (ACSR) can be calculated by equation

S thr =

K

I

=

T kr A

Where ,

Sthr is rated short -time withstand current density (r.m.s.) for 1 sec.

Tkr is Rated short time.

K is factor for calculating Sthr which is given by equation

20 C 1+ 20( c20 0 C )

K=

In

0

20

1+ 20 ( b20 C )

Where,

b is the conductor temperature at beginning of short circuit.

75

200

Where , As per IEC 865 part-I clause A9 figure 13 page no.113 table for aluminium conductor)

7

20

3.48 x 10

/m

20

910 J/kg0C

2700 kg/m3

Specific Mass

20

0.004 1/0C

Temp. Coefficient

hence K is

3.48E+07 1/m

Specific Thermal Capacity

8.57E+07 A*s/m2

Cross-sectional Area for Single Panther

2.61E-04 m2

2.24E+04 A

for 1 sec

22373

for 1 sec

Required Short time withstand capability 25kA for 1 sec. (As per Tech. Specification)

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