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INDEX

S.No.
1

Description
CALCULATIONS FOR BUSBAR & CONDUCTOR SIZING

Rev
A

REV A

INPUT LIST FOR CALCULATION OF CONTINUOUS CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY


OF PANTHER CONDUCTOR.
S.No. Description
1

Conductor Type

The value of DC resistance RT at 200 C is

Symbol

Value

Unit

Panther

RT

0.136

/km

k-1

(As per IS 398(P-II)


3

Temperature coefficient of electrical resistance


(As per IEC 1597 clause 4.2-Page-23)

0.00403

Initial temperature

T1

20
293

Final temperature

T2

75
348

Frequency

50

Factor determined by conductor construction


1 for circular, stranded, compacted and sectored.

The solar radiation absorption coefficient

0.5

Diameter of conductor

0.021

10

Intensity of solar radiation

Si

900

W/m2

11

Stefan - Boltzmann constant

5.67E-008

W.m-2.K-4

12

Emissivity coefficient in respect to black body

Ke

0.45

T1

50
323

C
K
C
K

Hz

1.0 for Black body


0.5 for average oxidized copper
0.35-0.45 for naturally weathered (i.e. dulled surface)
Increase with aging
0.15-0.25 for extruded surface
Increase with aging
13

Ambient Temperature

14

Cross Wind speed (minimum-90' to the Line)

m/s

15

Thermal conductivity of the air film in contact with the conductor

0.02585

W.m-1.K-1

(As per IEC 1597 clause 3.7)

C
K

CALCULATION FOR CONTINUOUS CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY


OF PANTHER CONDUCTOR.
4.1

General
The current carrying capacity (CCC) of a conductor is the maximum steady state current inducing a given temperature
rise in the conductor , for given ambient conditions.

4.2

The heat balance equation is :


The steady state temperature rise of a conductor is reached whenever the heat gained by the conductor from various
sources is equal to the heat losses. This is expressed by equation (1)
Pj + Psol = Prad + Pconv
----------------- (1)
(As per IEC 1597 equation no (1))
Where,
Pj is the heat generated by joule effect
Psol is the solar heat gain by the conductor surface
Prad is the heat loss by radiation of the conductor.
Pcov is the convention heat loss.

4.3

Joule effect
Power losses Pj (W) , due to Joule effect are given by equation (2)
Pj = RT I2
----------------- (2)
(As per IEC 1597 equation no (2))

Where,

RT is the electrical resistance of conductor at a temperature T (/m)


I is the conductor (A)
1.36E-04 /m

The value of DC resistance RT at 20 0C is


The DC resistance of a conductor at a temperature T2 is given by :

RT2

4.4

----------------- (3)
(As per IEC1597 equation (9) )

RT2 =RT1 [ 1+ (T 2T 1 )]

Hence ,

1.66E-04 /m
2.67E-01 /miles

Calculation of AC resistance.
If the conductor is composed of one or more concentric circular elements, then the centre portion of the conductor will be
enveloped by a greater magnetic flux than those on the outside. Consequently the self induced back-emf will be greater
towards the centre of the conductor, thus causing the current density to be less at the centre than the conductor surface.
This extra concentration at the surface is known as skin effect, and results in an increase in the effective resistance of the
conductor.

Now for the calculation of skin effect coefficient ,a factor X is defined as

X S =0 . 063598

r f
R dc

----------------- (4)

Hence,
Xs

8.70E-01

For this value of Xs the skin effect coefficient obtained from Table
X

0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5

1.00000
1.00000
1.00001
1.00004
1.00013
1.00032

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

1.00519
1.00758
1.01071
1.01470
1.01969
1.02582

2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5

1.07816
1.09375
1.11126
1.13069
1.15207
1.17538

3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

1.31809
1.35102
1.38504
1.41999
1.45570
1.49202

0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

1.00067
1.00124
1.00212
1.00034

1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9

1.03323
1.04205
1.05240
1.06440

2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9

1.20056
1.22753
1.25620
1.28644

For X =1.2

1.01071

For X =1.3

1.01470

For X =
K
=

8.70E-001
1.01271

Therefore AC resistance at T2 temperature

Rt2

K X RT2
=

4.5

1.68E-04 /m

The Solar heat gain


Solar heat gain ,Psol is given by equation
Psol = D Si
(As per IEC1597 equation (3) )

----------------- (5)

Where ,
is the solar radiation absorption coefficient
D is the diameter of the conductor
Si is the intensity of solar radiation
Hence
Psol =
4.6

9.45 W/m

Radiated heat Loss


Heat loss by radiation , Prad (W) is given by equation
Prad = s D Ke (T24 - T14)
(As per IEC1597 equation (4) )

----------------- (6)

Where ,
s is the Stefan - Boltzmann constant ( 5.67 X 10 -8 W.m-2.K-4)
D is the conductor diameter (m)
Ke is the emissivity coefficient in respect to black body
T is the temperature (K)
T1 is the ambient temperature (K)
T2 is the final temperature
Hence ,
Prad
4.7

3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9

6.3624522 W

Convention heat loss


Only forced convention heat loss, Pconv (W) , is taken into account and is given by equation
Pcov = Nu (T2-T1)
(As per IEC1597 equation (5) )

----------------- (7)

Where,
is the thermal conductivity of the air film in contact with the conductor, assumed constant .
Nu is the Nusselt number , given by equation
Nu = 0.65 Re 0.2+0.23.Re 0.61

----------------- (8)
4

1.52879
1.56587
1.60314
1.64051

(As per IEC1597 equation (6) )


Where,
Re is the Reynolds number given by equation
Re = 1.664 . 109 v D [(T1+0.5(T2-T1)]-1.78
(As per IEC1597 equation (7) )

----------------- (9)

Where,
v is the wind speed in m/s
D is conductor diameter (m)
T is the temperature (K)
T1 is the ambient temperature (K)
T2 is the final temperature
Hence,
Re

1115.9376

By putting Re value in equation No 8


Nu

19.271111

By putting Nu value in equation no 7


Pconv =
4.8

39.105421 W

Steady state current carrying capacity (CCC)


The steady -state current capacity can be calculated by :
Imax = [ (Prad+Pconv-Psol)/RT2]0.5

----------------- (10)

Where,
Prad =

6.36245223 W

Pconv=

39.1054207 W

Psol =
Rt2

9.45 W/m
1.68E-04 /m

Hence single Panther conductor can carry continuous current I =

4.9

i
ii
iii

462.67

3.2
3.2
33

MVA
MVA
kV

56

Required continuous current rating of 33 KV Bus


For Trafo Bay
Maximum Power Output of Two Trafo
Net Power Output of Two Trafo.
Secondary Rated Voltage
Total current =

MVA RATING X 1000


RATED VOLTAGE X 1.73

4.10 Conclusion
As per Above calculation the required continous current for bus is 56Amps. And Single PANTHER conductor can take
462Amps current so the conductor size is sufficent to take such load.

SHORT TIME WITHSTAND CAPABILITY


1) SHORT TIME WITHSTAND CAPABILITY FOR PANTHER CONDUCTOR
Reference Document : (IEC 865 PART-I)
Short time withstand capability for aluminium conductor (ACSR) can be calculated by equation

S thr =

K
I
=
T kr A

(As per IEC 865 part-I clause A9 figure 13 page no.113)


Where ,
Sthr is rated short -time withstand current density (r.m.s.) for 1 sec.
Tkr is Rated short time.
K is factor for calculating Sthr which is given by equation

20 C 1+ 20( c20 0 C )
K=
In
0
20
1+ 20 ( b20 C )
Where,
b is the conductor temperature at beginning of short circuit.

75

c is the conductor temperature at end of short circuit.

200

Where , As per IEC 865 part-I clause A9 figure 13 page no.113 table for aluminium conductor)
7

20

3.48 x 10

/m

20

910 J/kg0C

2700 kg/m3

Specific Mass

20

0.004 1/0C

Temp. Coefficient

hence K is

3.48E+07 1/m

Specific Conductivty at 20 deg.C.


Specific Thermal Capacity

8.57E+07 A*s/m2

For Single Panther


Cross-sectional Area for Single Panther

2.61E-04 m2

Short time withstand capability for single Panther

2.24E+04 A

for 1 sec

Short time withstand capability for Single Panther

22373

for 1 sec

Conductor Fail In Short Circuit


Required Short time withstand capability 25kA for 1 sec. (As per Tech. Specification)