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ARCHITECTING A DATA WAREHOUSE:

A CASE STUDY
Project: zBis
Carl Zeiss Vision North America

SPEAKER: ELIZABETH DIAMOND


SAN FRANCISCO SQL SERVER USER GROUP
SEPTEMBER 9, 2009
MARK GINNEBAUGH, USER GROUP LEADER

www.bayareasql.org
The Journey
 Determined Need for Enterprise Data Warehouse
 Worked with Business Users to Understand Business
Requirements
 Determined Software Requirements
 MS SQL Server 2005 & 2008
 MS SSIS (ETL Tool)
 MS SSAS (Analytic Cube Tool)
 MS SSRS & Excel (Reporting Tools)
 SharePoint for Deploying Reports over Company
Intranet
 Designed and Developed zBis Data Warehouse
Z BIS = What We Will Deliver

This project team will deliver the following:


X
 Consolidated reporting for Carl Zeiss Vision
North America
X
 Reporting that is consistent and from one
data warehouse
X
 Reporting that is easy to use and easy to
access
X
 Toolset will be flexible and able to grow and
change with our business
X Phase I rock solid download from ERP/Manf

– Providing ability to review lab information
as a lab network – not individual silos – with
accurate reporting across all products and
services
We will deliver the best product possible based on the information we
can place in our data warehouse!
• Reporting from cubes – off source systems only –
No data warehouse

• Disparate data systems with different results from


each

• Most systems not balanced to GL

• Reporting for each business unit only

• No reporting across all business units


Transactional Cube of Approach
Sales Queries Other Reports Sales Reports

Corporate

Download
Data Mart Data Mart Data Mart
Finance Inventory Sales & Marketing

ETL Loads

ETL Load

ODS/Staging
Operational Data Store

ETL Load

ERP Manufacturing Other


BI Tools/Analytics Active
Excel Static Reports
Reports

PerformancePoint Server

SharePoint

SQL
SQL Analytics
Reporting
Server (SSAS)
Server

Aggregated Finance Inventory


Sales
Data Mart Data Mart Data Mart
Data Mart
TBD

ETL Load (SSIS)

Data Warehouse

ETL Load (SSIS)


ODS/Staging
Operational Data Store

ETL Load (SSIS)

ERP Manufacturing SW Other Data Sources


Introduction to Data Warehousing
 What is a Data Warehouse System
 Why a Data Warehouse Vs. Cubes on Source Systems
 Star Schema Vs. Transactional Data Warehouses
 Star Schemas ease of system integrating
 Star Schemas provide substantial performance gains
 Star Schemas hierarchy capabilities or Drill Down
Capabilities
 Ralph Kimball Developed Current Industry Standards for Star
Schema – Dimensions and Facts
Data Warehouse Project Lifecycle
Technical Product
Architecture Selection &
Design Installation
Project
Business Data Staging Testing
Planning Dimensional Physical
Requirement Design & ETL & Deployment Maintenance
Modeling Design
Definition Development DW/DM

Report Report Report


Specifications Development Testing

Project Management
4 + 1 – Steps
Dimensional Design Process
Ralph Kimball’s Process for Developing Star Schemas
1. Determine Business Process
 Model business Processes
 Each Process will determine 1 or more Facts
 Design DW by Business Process Not Business Unit
2. Identify the Grain of the Fact
• What does 1 row in Fact table represent
• Transactional or Summary
3. Design the DW Dimensions
4. Design the DW Facts
+1 Determine Hierarchies
Business Driven vs. Data Driven
 Design DW/BI System via Business Process

 Develop DW/BI System via Data from Source Systems


 Profile Data as early as possible
 Understand data and design DW using existing data

 Design & Develop using both Business Process and available


Data if possible
Understanding Your Business
 Identify key business sponsors for DW project
 Use Corporate Org Chart

 Setup initial interviews with key sponsors

 Develop Business Process diagrams

 Develop high level Use Case Diagrams

 Determine Business Hierarchies


The Business Executive Interview
• What are the objectives of your organization?

• What Business goals do you want to accomplish with the


development of zBis data warehouse System?

• How do you measure success? How do you know you are doing
well? How often do you measure your corporate performance?

• What are your key business issues that you are trying to solve
from the zBis system? If these issues are not justified what is the
impact to your department and organization?
The Business Executive Interview
• How do you identify problems or know when you might be
headed for trouble?

• How do you spot exceptions in your business? What


opportunities exist to dramatically impact your business based
on improved access to information? What is the financial
impact

• If you could….., What would it mean to your business?

• What is your vision to better leverage information within your


organization?

• How do you anticipate that your staff will interact directly with
this information?
The Business Manager Interview
• What are the objectives of your department?

• What are you trying to accomplish? How would do you go


about achieving your objectives?
• What are your success metrics?

• How do you know you are doing well?

• How often do you measure your department/team?

• How do you anticipate that your staff will interact directly with
this information?
Business Process Diagrams
 Understand Business Requirements for building
DW/BI system.

 Defines the Measures and Dimensions for data


warehouse
Determine Hierarchies
 Customer Hierarchies – Sales Channels
 Distribution Channels
 Business Channels
 Customer Channels
 Product Divisions
 Sales Organizations
 Sales Office
 Buy Groups/Directly Purchase
Determine Hierarchies
 Product Hierarchy
 Manufacturer
 Brand
 Product Type – Each product type had own Hierarchy
Lens
 Service
 Equipment
 etc…
 Design
 Make/Model
Determine Hierarchies
 Geo Hierarchy
 Sales Division
 Sales Region
 Sales Territory
Conformed Dimensions
 Standardized dimensions across data warehouse
 Dimensions are associated with multiple business
processes
 Determine by using Bus Matrix & enforced in ETL
 Conformed Dimensions are shared and consistent
across fact tables
Use Data Warehouse BUS Matrix
 Use Data Warehouse BUS Matrix for
 Understanding & mapping of Business Processes and
Dimensions
 Ongoing DW/BI planning efforts
 Team & Management Communications
 Understand Business Process unions across the enterprise
Data Warehouse BUS Matrix
Date Company Customer Product Geo Dist Ctr Promo
Company X X X X X X
Sales
Customer X X X X X X
Discounts
Product X X X X X X X
Cost
Company X X X
Inventory
Dist Ctr X X X
Inventory
Develop Dimensional Schema
Slow Changing Dimensions
 Type 1 – Overwrite existing Dimension Row
 Use when don’t need to keep history data row
 Can be used to correct bad data
 Type 2 – Create a new Dimension Row
 Use date and/or active non-active fields to identify current
and inactive data rows
 Type 3 – Keep old and add new attributes in Dimension Row
 Allow Alternate realities to exist simultaneously in one
Dimension Row
 Slow Changing Dimensions are handled in the ETL
Type of Dimensions
 Mini-Dimension
 Junk Dimensions
 Outrigger Dimensions
 Small Static Dimensions
 Lookup tables
Type of Facts

 Transaction Fact Tables


 Snapshot Fact Tables
 Accumulating Snapshot Fact Tables
 Consolidated or Aggregated Fact Tables
Bridge Tables
Bridge Tables
Recommended Reading list
 The Data Warehouse Toolkit: The Complete Guide to Dimensional
Modeling (Second Edition) by Ralph Kimball and Margy Ross

 The MicrosoftData Warehouse Toolkit: With SQL Server2005 and the


MicrosoftBusiness Intelligence Toolset by Joy Mundy, Warren
Thornthwaite, and Ralph Kimball

 Building a Data Warehouse: With Examples in SQL Server (Expert's Voice)


by Vincent Rainardi

 The Data Warehouse Lifecycle Toolkit by Ralph Kimball, Margy Ross,


Warren Thornthwaite, and Joy Mundy

 The Data Warehouse ETL Toolkit: Practical Techniques for Extracting,


Cleanin by Ralph Kimball and Joe Caserta
Elizabeth Diamond

LSI Data Management / Partner with DesignMind


Sr. Data Warehouse Architect
lizd@techrecover.com
Phone: 415-990-8204
www.bayareasql.org

To attend our meetings or inquire about speaking opportunities,


please contact:

Mark Ginnebaugh, User Group Leader mark@designmind.com