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IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation

Vol. 13, No. 3; June 2006

539

Temperature Dependent Dielectric Spectroscopy in Frequency Domain of High-Voltage Transformer Oils Compared to Physicochemical Results
1

School of Electrical and Computer Eng., 2School of Chemical Eng., National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str, Zografou Campus, Athens 157 80, Greece.

C.D. Paraskevas1, P. Vassiliou2 and C.T. Dervos1

ABSTRACT
The temperature dependent dielectric spectroscopy in frequency domain is compared to physicochemical and electrical tests that are periodically applied on highly insulating transformer oils. Complex permittivity and tan data are obtained as a function of frequency and operation temperatures, to demonstrate the polarization phenomena and the induced loss intensification by the thermally stimulated currents. The acquired dielectric data of oil samples collected from 201 operating High Voltage (HV) power transformers, were correlated to their corresponding physicochemical ones in order to demonstrate the future potential employment of the proposed measuring technique in the field of high voltage engineering, towards reliability monitoring of oil filled electrical equipment (OFEE). Index Terms Dielectric spectroscopy, Dielectric liquids, Dielectric losses, Dielectric polarization, Permittivity measurement, Oil insulation, Insulation testing

1 INTRODUCTION
TRANSFORMER life aging is mainly related to the degradation of the insulation, caused mainly by the thermal stress of the insulating paper [1], together with the electrochemical decomposition of the paper. The generated byproducts within the insulating liquids are water and other substances of partly polarizable and ionizable character [2]. For example, the life of insulating cellulose paper at 110C is calculated to be only 10 years [3] but it may significantly be extended for lower operating temperatures. Aging depends not just on loading, but is also significantly influenced by the type of paper, pulp composition, humidity and oxygen contents, as well as the acidity level of the insulating liquid. Occasionally failures occur in Ultra High Voltage (UHV) and HV transformers whilst in service, creating significant cost implications for the power supplier and, in extreme cases, explosion with a consequent threat to workers with severe injury or death and as well as environmental impacts. This work investigates experimentally the aging induced phenomena in high voltage transformer mineral oils during their operational fatigue in oil filled electrical equipment. The thermally stimulated dielectric spectroscopy is explored in the frequency domain [4], to demonstrate the evolution of various polarization mechanisms with induced aging. The acquired experimental results from 201 power transformers are
Manuscript received on 12 September 2005, in final form 18 October 2005.

compared to their physicochemical and electrical tests that are usually applied industrially to characterize transformer mineral oils [5].

2 COMPLEX PERMITTIVITY
The complex permittivity describes the dielectric properties of materials (solids and liquids). A material is classified as a dielectric if it has the ability to store electrical energy during an external field application. When a voltage source is applied across a parallel plate capacitor incorporating a dielectric material, the material will polarize at different frequencies to a varying extend. Polarization of insulating liquids depends on the incorporated contaminants and their related relaxation mechanisms. Polarization increases energy storage by neutralizing charges at electrode interfaces. As a result, more charge will flow when a dielectric is positioned between the plates of a capacitor. When an ac sinusoidal voltage source, u(t) = V.sin( t), is applied across the capacitor, the resulting current will be made up of two components: the charging current and the loss current, both being related to the complex permittivity. The equivalent circuit of a lossy capacitor incorporates a conductance (G) in parallel with an ideal capacitance (C). The current flowing through the capacitor is the charge current (Icharge) while the current flowing through the conductance is

1070-9878/06/$20.00 2006 IEEE

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C.D. Paraskevas et al.: Temperature Dependent Dielectric Spectroscopy in Frequency Domain

the loss current (Iloss), Figure 1. For an ideal insulator the ac current should only flow through the capacitor.

Figure 2. Vector diagram of complex relative permittivity. Angle definition according to the equation 3. Figure 1. The equivalent circuit of the parallel plate capacitor incorporating the device under test (liquid or solid).

In the event of highly insulating materials i.e. having very low losses, as is the case of insulating transformer oils, vector and tan +0. However, when theerror , Figure 3, * r r of the measuring set-up becomes greater than the r of the material under test, the overall angle (error) may become negative, i.e. tan -0 [6]. This is the major parameter that has to be considered in selecting the appropriate measuring sensor for the case of complex permittivity measurements of highly insulating oils. To overcome this difficulty, the sensor geometry and material selection will have to intensify the signal of the Iloss component in order to be measured by a high precision LCR bridge in a wide frequency range. This may be practically attained either by enhanced electrode areas, or appropriate material and geometry selection of the measuring cell.

The total current flowing through the insulator will be given by:
I = I charge + I loss = V(j C + G)

(1)

where C is the capacitance with the material under test between the electrodes and C0 is the vacuum capacitance (i.e. without the material). Let C = r C 0 and G = C 0 r , then,
I = V (j C 0 r + C 0 r) = = V (j C 0 ) (r j r) = V (j C 0 ) * r
* where * and * r = r j r r = / 0

(2)

The relative complex permittivity ( * ) is a dimensionless r quantity, which compares the complex permittivity of a material ( * ) to the permittivity of the free space ( 0 = 8.854.10-12 F/m). It describes the interaction of a material with the electric field and consists of a real part ( r ), which represents the storage, and an imaginary part ( r ), which represents the losses. The real part of the relative permittivity ( r ) is a measure of how much energy from an external electric field will be stored by the material and it is frequently referred as the dielectric constant. For most solids and liquids: r >1. The imaginary part of the relative permittivity ( r ) is called the loss factor. It is a measure of how dissipative or lossy a material can be to an external electric field. According to the theory, r is always > 0 and is usually much smaller than r . When relative complex permittivity is drawn as a simple vector diagram, the real and imaginary components are 90 out of phase, (Figure forms an angle with the real axis ( r ). 2). The vector sum * r The relative lossiness of the material is the ratio of the energy lost to the energy stored. tan = Iloss/I charge = r / r = / (Energy lost per cycle) / (Energy stored per cycle) (3) The tan is also mentioned as loss tangent, or dissipation factor.

Figure 3. During permittivity measurements an error vector (error), related to the experimental set-up, is always added to the relative complex permittivity vector. This vector becomes significant only for highly insulating materials becauser 0 and becomes comparable to error .

The complex permittivity is both, frequency and temperature dependent. In the low frequency regime (f 1 MHz) the ionic and molecular polarization processes are expected to dominate (Figure 4). A temperature rise of the material intensifies losses and the thermally stimulated charge transport processes provide additional current components, thus affecting the overall electrical properties. The investigation of dielectric response as a function of frequency and temperature is known as temperature dependent dielectric spectroscopy [2]. The advantage of this approach is that this method can be used as a stand-alone criterion to provide insight information of the insulation status of the HV transformers. Most of the generated byproducts are either polar or ionic; therefore the dielectric spectroscopy data take

IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation

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under consideration all possible undergoing degradation mechanisms within the component [4].

thus affecting their surface cleanliness intensifying surface leakage currents). The aforesaid statement was experimentally confirmed.
1 3 4 2

(a)
6 7

A
1 2

Figure 4. Polarisation processes at the frequency spectrum.


1

3 4

The theoretical model describing the relative complex permittivity ( * ) of materials vs. frequency and r = r j r temperature implies that any good quality oil sample will be characterized by a low relative dielectric constant value ( r 1) and a low loss factor value ( r 0) hence r / r = tan 0 at all frequencies. For the purpose of this study the permittivity measurements were performed under four oil temperatures: 20, 40, 60 and 80 oC.

2 6 3

(b)
4

3 EXPERIMENTAL
3.1 MEASURING SET-UP A high precision LCR meter has been used to measure complex permittivity variations at a frequency range between 20 Hz and 1 MHz. A coaxial cylindrical cell was used to host the oil under test. The cell consisted of two electrically isolated stainless steel cylindrical electrodes, A and B, thus forming the cylindrical capacitor shown in Figure 5. Parts 1 to 6 form the inner electrode A. Part 7, also utilized as the oil reservoir, forms the outer electrode B. The incorporated two insulators in electrode A (parts 2 and 4) are used to allow for a grounded guard-ring formation (part 3). The conical metal ring (part 5) was used for precise height positioning of the inner electrode, thus offering a stable overall assembly of the entire test fixture. It was confirmed experimentally that the above cylindrical test fixture offers certain practical advantages over the usually proposed parallel plate fixtures for dielectric measurements of highly insulating liquids. These are mainly attributed to the following fact: for the two different measuring geometries, i.e. cylindrical versus parallel, under a given electrode spacing and oil volume, the cylindrical geometry obtains stable conductance values for the corresponding C-G parallel equivalent circuit. This is possibly attributed to geometric restrictions of the parallel plate capacitor assemblies (i.e. their solid insulators have to be in contact with the oil under test,
6 7

Figure 5. Liquid test fixture proposed for measuring complex permittivity of highly insulating petrochemical products. (a) The overall assembly of the inner coaxial electrode A and the outer electrode B. (b) The cross-section of the electrodes and various incorporated parts of the cylindrical capacitor. 1: Part 1 of Electrode A, 2: PTFE insulator, 3: Guard Ring, 4: XLPE conical insulator, 5: Conical metal ring, 6: Part 2 of Electrode A, 7: Electrode B oil container.

The sample holder contained 15 ml of the examined oil and it was electrically connected by a four terminal configuration to the LCR measuring unit, under temperature control. Prior to sample insertion, the overall capacitor assembly was cleaned with wet chemistry process (trichloroethylene, acetone, methanol, washed in deionized water) and dried in a high vacuum environment. The overall experimental setup is shown in Figure 6. For the purpose of this work, measurements were performed on oil samples, obtained from 201 power distribution transformers of the 150 kV and 400 kV network of the Public Power Corporation of Greece. The followed sampling procedure is described by ASTM D117-02 Standard

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Guide for Sampling, Test Methods and Specifications for Electrical Insulating Oils of Petroleum Origin and ASTMD923-97 concerning Practices for Sampling Electrical Insulating Liquids.

possible reconditioning, or disposed. Components may require frequent inspection and decision may have to be taken in order to undergo servicing, depending on economic considerations.
Group II 43 oil samples

Group I 90 oil samples

Group III 68 oil samples

Figure 7. Distribution of oil samples to each category.

r'
2.22

Figure 6. The experimental setup used for measuring multi-frequency temperature dependent complex permittivity values of highly insulating transformer oils: (1) high precision LCR unit, (2) the coaxial cylindrical test fixture, and (3) the temperature controlled environmental chamber. All units were computer controlled (4).

2.20 2.18 2.16 2.14 2.12


(20 C) o (40 C) o (60 C) o (80 C)
o

3.2 TYPICAL DIELECTRIC SPECTROSCOPY RESULTS The results of the investigated samples were categorized in terms of their permittivity response in three distinct Groups (Figure 7): Group-I: Highly insulating liquids: They exhibit (i) very low dissipation factor values (tan) for all frequencies and operating temperatures, i.e. typical values below 0.005, (ii) remarkable thermal stability of complex permittivity, exhibiting variation rate of the order of r /T 0.02/C. (iii) Also, tan is temperature independent. The oil samples of this Group are 90/201 and are in satisfactory condition for continued usage. Group-II: Oils exhibiting low-losses. Oil samples that are categorized in this Group may exhibit slight disorders for at least one of the measured dielectric quantities. They may exhibit either (i) higher tan values (compared to Group-I) rising up to 0.02 at all frequencies and examined temperatures, or (ii) reduced thermal stability of complex permittivity values, having variation rate of the order of r /T 0.04/C, or (iii) exhibit minor dependence of tan on the operating temperatures. The oil samples of this Group are 43/201 and they may need reconditioning to eliminate aging induced effects, i.e. by dehydration or filtration, in order to ensure prolonged and reliable service. Group-III: Oils exhibiting high-losses and/or developing thermal instabilities. Oil samples from this Group may exhibit either (i) very high dissipation factor values (tan) rising beyond 0.02 with typical values around 0.08, i.e. loss intensification by a factor of 10 or more, compared to Group-I oil samples, or (ii) thermal instability of complex permittivity, i.e. r /T 0.8/C typical value, or (iii) temperature dependent tan values. The oil samples of this Group (68/201) are in poor condition. Such oils should be either reclaimed for

2.10 2.08 10 100 1000 10000

Group-I
f (Hz)

100000

1000000

r'
2.22 2.20 2.18 2.16 2.14 2.12 2.10 2.08 10 100 1000 10000 100000
(20o C) (40 C) o (60 C) o (80 C)
o

Group-II
f(Hz) 1000000

r'
2.22 2.20 2.18 2.16 2.14 2.12 2.10 2.08 10 100 1000 10000 100000
(20 C) (40 C) (60 C) (80 C)
o o o o

Group-III
f(Hz) 1000000

Figure 8. Dielectrometry results of transformer-oil relative permittivity at frequencies 20Hz-1MHz and temperatures 20, 40, 60 and 80 C. Averaged values of relative permittivity (r), for all samples within each Group, as a function of temperature and frequency.

Complex permittivity data have been further analyzed to provide for every dielectric classification Group the average

IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation

Vol. 13, No. 3; June 2006

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values of r as a function of operating frequency and temperature (Figure 8), the tan values as a function of temperature in the low frequency regime (Figure 9), and the tan values as a function of temperature at higher frequencies up to 1MHz, where impulse voltages may interact with electrical insulators. According to the results of Figure 8, the reduction of the relative permittivity with temperature at all frequencies can possibly be attributed to the thermally assisted depolarization process. It cannot be related in any way to the volume extension of the oils with temperature due to the following two reasons: (i) If the oil volume were increased the measured capacitance value C with the liquid material between the electrodes would also increase due to the effective electrode area enhancement. Therefore, r should also be
0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 10 100 f(Hz) 1000 tan

outlet for overflowing liquids to ensure the same amount of liquid under test. At the very low frequency regime (20 Hz100 Hz) the relatively large increase of the permittivity with frequency may indicate that the slow polarization mechanisms dominate and there are lots of them in organic liquids, i.e stretching of the long carbon chains and twisting of the attached molecules to the main chain, or space charge distribution effects. The low frequency regime of Figure 8 should be related to the low frequency regime of Figure 9. The increased losses with temperature shown in Figure 9 can be attributed to the thermally stimulated currents in liquids with suspended charged particles or contaminants. The aforesaid categorization of oils collected from High Voltage Transformers has also been utilized to classify the examined 201 oil filled electrical equipment in terms of their oil service life (Figure 10) and type of equipment, thus providing interesting information concerning components reliability.
Group-I 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Group-II Group-III

Group-I

19% 14%

27% 9%

31% 19%

Oil permittivity clasification

38%

47%

56%

31% 67% 64% 50% 31%

27% 33% 27% 11%

0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00

tan

0-5

6 - 10

11 - 15

16 - 20

21 - 25

26 - 30

Group-II

Years of operation

Figure 10. Differentiations of dielectric characteristics of oil samples as a function of their operating time. A gradual decrease of the number of samples in Group-I is observed with a simultaneous gradual increase of the samples in Groups II and III.
(80 C)
o o o

(60 C) (20 C)

3.3. THE CORRESPONDING PHYSICOCHEMICAL RESULTS


f(Hz) 100 1000

10
tan 0.05 0.04
(60 C)
o

(80 C)

Group-III

0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 10 100

(40 C)
o

(20 C)

In addition, the physicochemical tests of Table 1 were also performed in every sample, according to the corresponding ASTM procedure. The investigated physicochemical quantities were the breakdown voltage, the interfacial tension, the acidity, the water content, the relative density and the color. Physicochemical results were compared to the ones obtained by the temperature dependent dielectric spectroscopy in the frequency domain. Due to the great amount of acquired data, the physicochemical results in each Group (I, II, and III) have been processed to provide averaged values and standard deviations, which are collectively presented in Table 2. According to the Table 2 data, the following remarks can be supported: Despite of the dielectrometry classification (i.e. Groups I, II and III), the average breakdown voltage values for all oil samples in each Group exceeds the 26 kV threshold, which is frequently considered as the minimum requirement for used oils in electrical equipment [7]. However, there is a clear tendency for the reduction of breakdown voltage for oil samples with deteriorating permittivity classification Group.

f(Hz) 1000

Figure 9. Dielectrometry results of transformer-oil tan, at frequencies 20 Hz1 kHz and temperatures 20, 40, 60 and 80 C. Averaged tan values given for all samples within each Group. Same scales used for comparison.

increased with the operating temperature since r = C/Co. But as the results of Figure 8 point out, r is reduced with increasing temperature. (ii) The cells for liquids have an

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Table 1. Physicochemical tests, ASTM methods and acceptable values for mineral oils operating in Oil Filled Electrical Equipment (OFEE). Used Mineral oils in OFEE Operating voltage* Physicochemical Test ASTM Between Below Above method 69 and 69 kV 345 kV 288 kV Breakdown Voltage D877 26 26 26 (kV min.) Interfacial Tension D971 24 26 30 (dynes/cm min.) Acidity D974 0.2 0.2 0.1 (mg KOH /oil g max) Water Content, D1533 35 25 20 (ppm max.) Relative Density D1298 0.840 0.900** Color D1500 0.5 8 * After [7]. **Limits given by various manufacturers.

color by itself is not always a reliable guide to product quality and should not be used indiscriminately in product characterization (ASTM D1500). The physicochemical results of oils selected from distinct Groups I, II and III clearly indicate the degradation of the examined physicochemical parameters. On the other hand, when the dielectrometry results are processed as a function of years of operation of the OFEE they exhibit good correlation as indicated by the results of Figure 10. This response is also in accordance with the interfacial tension (Figure 11), and color (Figure 12) and almost the acidity data (Figure 13) but is not in accordance with all other physicochemical quantities examined, i.e. breakdown voltage (Figure 14), relative density (Figure 15), and water content (Figure 16) as a function of operating time of the transformer.
34

Surface tension (Dynes/cm)

Table 2. Average values and standard deviations for the examined physicochemical quantities of insulating oils. Group categorization has been based upon their permittivity results. Physicochemical Test Breakdown voltage (kV) Interfacial tension (dynes /cm) Acidity (mg KOH /oil g) Water content (ppm) Relative density Color Group categorization 31.48 5.9 34.60 6.18 0.10 0.016 13.4 7.5 0.87180.0011 1.37 0.56 28.70 6.9 24.33 3.8 0.124 0.048 14.6 7.7 0.87200.0087 2.13 0.71 27.49 7.24 20.13 3.65 0.19 0.091 17.4 11.0 0.8752 0.0098 3.19 0.83

32 30 28 26 24 22 20 0-5 6 - 10 11 -15 16 - 20 21 - 25 26 - 30 33.95 32.92 26.29

25.13 22.67 21.43

Years of operation

Figure 11. Averaged values of the interfacial tension for all oil samples as a function of years of operation of the originating transformer.

2.8

The interfacial tension decreases as the permittivity characteristics of the oil samples deteriorate, i.e. Group-III oil samples exhibit lower interfacial tension compared to oil samples in Group-II and Group-I. Oil samples in Group-I have values within the acceptable limits, while samples of Group-II have values close to the minimum requirement of 24 dynes/cm. Group-III samples exhibit unacceptable interfacial tension values. The acidity values are steadily increased as the permittivity characteristics of the oil samples deteriorate, i.e. Group-III oil samples show higher acidity levels compared to the oil samples in Group-II and Group-I. The quoted average acidity values satisfy the maximum threshold requirement of 0.2 mg KOH/ oil g, but distinct samples exist in Group-III where the acidity exceeds 0.3 mg KOH/ oil g. The relative density increases as the permittivity characteristics of the oil samples deteriorate. Though the experimentally obtained relative density values of all samples fall within the acceptable range for aged insulating oils, (according to the various manufacturers) it can be seen that the density values in Group-III oil samples are strongly increased. The oil color number rises as the oil permittivity properties tend to deteriorate. However, it should be emphasized that

2.6 2.4 2.2

Color

2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0-5 6 - 10 11 -15 16 - 20 1.403 1.878 2.462 2.500

2.767

2.741

21 - 25

26 - 30

Years of operation

Figure 12. Averaged oil sample color values, as a function of years of operation of the originating transformer.

0.20 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0.00

Acidity (mg KOH/ oil g)

0.187 0.107 0.136 0.135 0.137

0.172

0-5

6 - 10

11 -15

16 - 20

21 - 25

26 - 30

Years of operation

Figure 13. Averaged acidity values for all oil samples, as a function of years of operation of the originating transformer.

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4 CONCLUSIONS
The experimental work presented in this paper points out that though most of the examined mineral oils collected from field operating power transformers may fulfill the commonly adopted requirements for the physicochemical tests, there appear to be significant differentiations when the temperature and frequency effects are considered on the oil complex permittivity vector. Dielectrometry tests may provide inside information concerning the state of insulation within the components. The formation of databases recording polarization effects in a wide frequency and temperature range may be used effectively as a working tool for service engineers. Reliable insulation monitoring will diminish accidents in aged H.V. transformers, some of them being in operation since the 60s, thus imposing an environmental threat due to possible accidental leaks or fire events especially when containing traces of PCBs. Therefore, the proposed methodology can be utilized as an additional high-sensitivity low-cost diagnostic tool for the lifetime expectancy of OFFE that are usually operating for several decades with significant environmental impacts and economical considerations.

Breakdown voltage (kV)

32 31 30 29 28 27 26 0-5 6 - 10 11 -15 16 - 20 21 - 25 26 - 30 29.54 30.33 28.70 32.11 30.89 29.95

Years of operation

Figure 14. Averaged values of the breakdown voltage for all oil samples, as a function of years of operation of the originating transformer.

0.877 0.876 0.875 0.874 0.873 0.872 0.871 0.870 0.869 0.868 0.867 0.866

Relative density

0.876 0.875 0.872 0.872 0.870 0.872

0-5

6 - 10

11 -15

16 - 20

21 - 25

26 - 30

Years of operation

Figure 15. Averaged relative density values for all oil samples, as a function of years of operation of the originating transformer. [1]
16.0 15.5 15.0 14.5 14.0 13.5 13.0 12.5 12.0 0-5 6 - 10 11 -15 16 - 20 21 - 25 26 - 30 14.633 13.298 14.796 15.631 15.227 14.274

5 REFERENCES
V. T. Morgan Effects of Frequency, Temperature, Compression, and Air Pressure on the Dielectric Properties of a Multilayer Stack of Dry Kraft Paper, IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., Vol. 5, pp 125-131, 1998. W. S. Zaengl, Dielectric Spectroscopy in Time and Frequency Domain for HV Power Equipment, Part I: Theoretical Considerations IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. Vol. 19, No 5, pp 5 19, 2003. H. Borsi, Esterfluessigkeit Midel 7131 als Ersatz fuer Mineraloel in Transformatoren, Elektrizitaetswirtschaft, Jg. 93, Vol. 24, pp. 15231528, 1994. CIGRE Task Force 15.01.09: Dielectric response methods for diagnostics of power transformers, IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag., Vol. 19, No.3, pp.12-18, 2003. C.T. Dervos, C. D. Paraskevas, P. Skafidas and P. Vassiliou, Dielectric Characterization of Power Transformer Oils as a Diagnostic Life Prediction Method, IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag., Vol. 21, No 1, pp.11-19, (2005). Agilent 16452A Liquid Test Fixture, Operating and Service Manual, 3d Edition, Japan, 2000. International Electrical Testing Association (NETA), Maintenance Testing Specifications for Electrical Power Distribution Equipment and Systems, 2001. Ferguson, A. Lobeiras, and J. Sabau, Suspended Particles in the liquid insulation of aging power transformers, IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag., Vol. 18, No.4, pp.17-23, 2002.

Water content (ppm)

[2]

[3]

[4]
Years of operation

[5]

Figure 16. Averaged water content values for all oil samples, as a function of years of operation of the originating transformer. [6]

Though most of the examined mineral oil samples collected from field operating power transformers fulfill the ASTM requirements of the physicochemical tests given in Table 1, there exist significant variations among their permittivity characteristics. Permittivity differentiations emanate by the polarizable / ionizable aging byproducts within the insulating liquid [8]. Therefore, the proposed temperature dependent dielectric spectroscopy, acquires direct information concerning the electrical energy loss and storage by the liquid insulation, thus allowing for systematic differentiation monitoring among the operational transformer oils. The advantage offered by the temperature dependent dielectric spectroscopy is that, by one set of automated measurements, the contribution of all possible oil contaminants and/or aging byproducts on the overall electrical performance can be globally monitored, whilst physicochemical tests aim towards the pre-specified parameters only.

[7]

[8]

Christos D. Paraskevas was born in Athens Greece in 1974. He received his electrical engineering degree in 1997 from the Technological Educational Institute of Piraeus and his diploma in electrical and computer engineering in 2001 from the National Technical University of Athens. In 2005 he received his Ph.D. from the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Division of Information Systems and Materials Technology (NTUA, Greece). His thesis covered the field of the insulation diagnosis of oil filled HV transformers, using the temperature dependent dielectric spectroscopy. Dr. Paraskevas is a member of the Technical Chamber of Greece

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Panayota Vassiliou received the B.Sc. degree in chemical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1975, and the M.Sc. degree in Chem. Eng. and the Ph.D. degree from the School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Athens, Greece in 1977 and 1981, respectively. She is a Professor in the School of Chemical Engineering, NTUA. She consults on the selection of materials for industrial applications and performs failure analysis after accidental catastrophes. The main themes of research activities are coating materials, degradation mechanisms, anticorrosive coatings, effects of working conditions on materials and components, effects of acid deposition on historical structures, and restoration of surfaces of monuments. She is responsible for testing materials to be used for the restoration of monuments and especially of the Acropolis of Athens. Professor Vassiliou is a member of the Technical Chamber of Greece and of the Academic Board of NTUA Press Publications. She is the national representative of Greece in the International Corrosion Council.

Constantine T. Dervos (M94) received the B.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Athens, Greece, in 1980 and the M.Sc. degree in solid state electronics and the Ph.D. degree in physics and electronics from the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (U.M.I.S.T.), Manchester, UK, in 1982 and 1985, respectively. He is currently a professor in the Department of Information Transmission Systems and Materials Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NTUA. His research activities cover metal semiconductor contacts, electrical contacts, interfacial transport processes, surface physics, material aging and destruction mechanisms, high field effects, high voltage insulators, dielectrics, and partial discharge diagnostic techniques. He has developed real-time monitoring techniques employed for power switch and GIS technology power, based on gas analytics. Professor Dervos is a member of the Technical Chamber of Greece, and the International Organizing Committee of Gaseous Dielectrics.