You are on page 1of 12

Electrical System

54.00
General Information
monitors the status of all switches (input devices) and sends messages over the shared-wire J1939 datalink to control outputs. The system communicates on two datalinks: the J1939 datalink and the J1708/J1587 datalink. J1939 is the primary datalink and is used for all control messaging and troubleshooting; J1708/J1587 is the secondary datalink and is used for limited troubleshooting. Fault codes are displayed on the instrument cluster display and they may also be viewed on ServiceLink. The multiplexed system uses the following controllers: Bulkhead Module (BHM) Chassis Module (CHM) optional Expansion Module (EXM) The most important part of the multiplexed electrical system is the BHM. The BHM is the brain of the entire system, and controls all of the outputs in response to changes in any of the inputs. The CHM and EXM are slaves to the BHM and respond to commands from the BHM and broadcast the status of the inputs and outputs connected to them. See Fig. 1. See Fig. 2 for an example of how the headlamp signal inputs and outputs are handled in the multiplexed system. When the headlamp switch is turned on, the BHM senses the input. The BHM is programmed to know which outputs it should activate for each input signal and where those outputs are located (such as on the BHM, CHM, EXM, or other controller). In this example, the outputs for the left headlamp low beam are located on the BHM and the outputs for the right headlamp low beam are located on the CHM. The BHM can directly activate the left headlamp low beam. However, because the right headlamp low beam outputs are located on the CHM, the BHM must send a message over J1939 to the CHM to tell it to activate those outputs. Once the CHM receives the message, it activates the correct outputs and sends a message back to the BHM reporting the new status of the outputs. This fail-safe design allows at least one headlight to work even if the BHM or CHM should fail. For an example of the ash-to-pass function, see Fig. 3. In this case, the input comes from the multifunction turn signal switch mounted on the steering column. It goes into the instrumentation control unit, or ICU3-M2, for processing. The instrumentation control unit (ICU) sends a message on J1939 to the BHM informing it of the multifunction turn signal switch status.

Introduction to Multiplexing
The term "multiplexing" describes how the Business Class M2 electrical system works. Multiplexing is dened as sending multiple electronic messages through the same signal path at the same timein this case, through the M2 wiring. Multiplexing allows the M2 electrical system to simultaneously perform tasks and to monitor components. A multiplexed system uses electronic control units (ECUs) to operate the system. The electrical system components, such as switches and lamps, are connected to the ECUs, which collect and control all information about the components by communicating on the data bus. A less formal description might be that multiplexing is much like the interstate highway system. Trucks and cars share the roadway, with each vehicle bound for a different destination. Every vehicle travels at different speeds, enters and exits at different places, and the occupants of every vehicle have different objectives. Whether it is a truckdriver hauling goods from a factory to a store or a saleswoman heading home from work, highway users are like the electronic signals ashing along the datalink. Multiplexing was introduced in vehicles in the 1980s with the rst electronically controlled engines and the initial use of the J1708/J1587 datalink. The concept was taken a step further in the early 1990s when transmissions were electronically connected to engines in order to control engine speed and torque output during shifting. Multiplexing has now been applied to the entire vehicle.

General Information
The multiplexed electrical system replaces traditional power distribution module (PDM) devices, such as relays and circuit breakers, with electronic devices that communicate over the vehicle datalinks. These electronic devices control power distribution to the electric loads on the vehicle. This is done by monitoring inputs (such as sensors and switches) and supplying power to outputs (such as lighting, displays, gauges, and indicators). This distributed approach to handling switch inputs and controlling electrical load outputs sharply reduces the number of wires on a vehicle. Rather than having individual wires transmitting voltage from switches to relays that then supply power to the components, the multiplexed system continuously

Business Class M2 Workshop Manual, Supplement 10, September 2006

050/1

54.00
General Information
The output for the right headlamp high beam is located on the BHM and the output for the left headlamp high beam is located on the CHM. The BHM directly ashes the right headlamp high beam and sends a message over J1939 to the CHM to tell it to ash the left headlamp high beam. Once the CHM receives the message, it ashes the headlamp high beam and sends a message back to the BHM reporting the new status of the output. To complete the loop, the BHM sends a message over J1939 to the ICU reporting that the command was completed. These messages are transmitted so quickly that the entire process takes only a fraction of a second. The nal example is the park brake telltale. See Fig. 4. To avoid driving away with the park brake set, the system is designed to warn the driver. When the driver pulls out the park brake switch on the dash to set the park brake, the CHM senses the air pressure input from the park brake switch in the air management unit (AMU). The CHM sends a J1939 message to the BHM, the BHM sends a J1939 message to the ICU, and the ICU turns on the park brake telltale dash light.

Electrical System

Inputs Inputs

Bulkhead Module (BHM)

Outputs Outputs

Inputs J1939 Inputs

Chassis Module (CHM)

Outputs Outputs

Inputs Inputs
01/16/2002

Expansion Module (EXM)

Outputs Outputs
f543943

Fig. 1, Multiplexed System Controllers

050/2

Business Class M2 Workshop Manual, Supplement 10, September 2006

Electrical System

54.00
General Information

Headlamps OFF H

P Parklamps

Bulkhead Module (BHM)

LH Headlamp Low Beam

J1939
LH Headlamp High Beam

Chassis Module (CHM)


RH Headlamp Low Beam

RH Headlamp High Beam

11/13/2001

f543944

Fig. 2, Headlamp Switch Example

Business Class M2 Workshop Manual, Supplement 10, September 2006

050/3

54.00
General Information
Multifunction Turn Signal Switch

Electrical System

Fault Code

J1939

Bulkhead Module (BHM)

HI/LO/PASS

ICU
LH Headlamp Low Beam

J1939

LH Headlamp High Beam

Chassis Module (CHM)

RH Headlamp Low Beam

RH Headlamp High Beam

03/14/2006

f543945

Fig. 3, Flash-To-Pass Example

Chassis Module (CHM)


Park Brake Pressure Switch

J1939

Bulkhead Module (BHM)

J1939
PARK BRAKE SWITCH

Park Brake

Air Management Unit (AMU)

ICU
02/17/2006 f543946

Fig. 4, Park Brake Telltale Example

050/4

Business Class M2 Workshop Manual, Supplement 10, September 2006

Electrical System

54.00
Abbreviations and Terms
FMEA Failure Mode Effects Analysis FMI Failure Mode Indicator. The part of a J1708/J1587 or J1939 fault code that identies how a part of or item on a device failed. FMVSS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard HSD High Side Driver HVAC Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning ICU Instrumentation Control Unit Input A device that feeds a signal into the system, or signal that feeds a message into the system. J1708/1587 An older vehicle communications network protocol intended to provide simple information exchange, including diagnostic data between electronic control devices. J1939 A high speed vehicle communications network using the CAN protocol, which permits any device to transmit a message on the network when the datalink is idle. Each message includes an identier that denes the message priority, who sent it, and what data is contained within it. Collisions are avoided due to the arbitration process that occurs while the identier is transmitted, permitting high priority messages to get through with minimal delay. LCD Liquid Crystal Display LCL Low Coolant Level LED Light-emitting Diode Legend The icon, symbol or text on a warning light cover illuminated by a telltale lamp. LSD Low Side Driver MID Message Identier. Identies any device that communicates on J1708/J1587. Multiplexing The process of combining several messages for transmission over the same signal path. Output The signal or message that comes out of a system component or device. Parameter A predetermined variable in a set, each of which restricts or denes the specic capabilities of the system as a whole. Used to customize the conguration of the system.

Abbreviations and Terms


Use the following list to determine the meaning of the abbreviations and terms used in Group 54. ABS Antilock Braking System Activate To begin operating. Address A unique location code for a device or data. AMU Air Management Unit API Application Programming Interface ATC Automatic Traction Control BHM Bulkhead Module CAN Controller Area Network CHM Chassis Module Congure To set up a program or system for a particular device or set of devices. Databus See datalink. Datalink A collection of wires connecting system components through which data is transmitted. DRL Daytime Running Lights DTC Diagnostic Trouble Code ECM Engine Control Module ECU Electronic Control Unit, a device that communicates on a datalink. EEPROM Electrically Erasable Programmable ReadOnly Memory EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility EMI Electromagnetic Interference EOL End of Line ESD Electrostatic Discharge EXM Expansion Module Fault Code A limited set of alphanumeric characters representing a corresponding error message. Fault codes are limited to a maximum number of characters by the display output and cross-referenced to a more descriptive message. On J1939, fault codes are made up of a SA, SPN, and FMI. On J1708/J1587, fault codes are made up of an MID, PID/SID, and FMI.

Business Class M2 Workshop Manual, Supplement 10, September 2006

060/1

54.00
Abbreviations and Terms
Pass-through Inputs and outputs on a device capable of allowing data to be transmitted through it without affecting the message or the device. PCB Printed Circuit Board PID Parameter Identier. The part of a J1708/J1587 fault code that identies what part of or item on a device that failed. PIDs are not MID specic. PLC Power Line Carrier PRD Product Requirements Document PWM Pulse Width Modulation SA Source Address. Identies any device that communicates on J1939. SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SID Subsystem Identier. The part of a J1708/J1587 fault code that identies what part of or item on a device that failed. SIDs are MID specic. Smart Switch Congurable input device, called "smart" because it is recognized by the system not by its position or physical characteristics but by its resistance value. SPN Suspect Parameter Number. The part of a J1939 fault code that identies what part of or item on a device that failed. Status Condition, position, or relative position of an input or output at a specic time. TDS Technical Development Specications Telltale Any of a number of colored warning lights on the ICU instrument cluster that illuminates an icon, symbol, or text covering it. UL Underwriters Laboratory VCU Vehicle Control Unit

Electrical System

060/2

Business Class M2 Workshop Manual, Supplement 10, September 2006

Electrical System

54.00
Changing Features and Options

Reference Parameters
Reference parameters program the BHM to know which outputs to activate for each input and where those outputs are located. The two types of reference parameters are default and optional. Every vehicle has one default reference parameter and zero to any number of optional reference parameters. The default reference parameter programs the BHM with features that come standard on each vehicle, such as headlights. Optional reference parameters program the BHM for vehicle-specic features, such as heated mirrors. Each reference parameter is given a part number just like any other hardware part on the vehicle. A reference parameter only programs the parameters of the BHM. Reashing or reprogramming the software is separate from programming the parameters, just as it is in an engine controller.

Changing Features and Options


Features can be changed with ServiceLink from the Features screen under the Bulkhead Module (BHM) icon. The Features screen displays the features that are installed in the BHM by listing the reference parameter numbers and their descriptions. From this screen, the user can reload all the currently installed features or make changes to the vehicle by entering new reference parameters.

Business Class M2 Workshop Manual, Supplement 10, September 2006

100/1

Electrical System

54.00
Adding Features
of parameters. Reference parameters are used to add multiplexed features to the BHM. There is a reference parameter for each multiplexed feature, such as heated mirrors. It is these reference parameters that a technician will work with through ServiceLink. Each reference parameter has been given its own part number with the prex 26-. Reference parameters can be found listed under their part number in bills of material (BOM) and in PartsPro.

General Information
When adding features to a Business Class M2 vehicle, some important issues need to be considered. Read the information in this subject before adding features to the vehicle. ServiceLink must be used to add features to the unique multiplexed electrical system in the M2 vehicle. 1. To access ServiceLink training, go to www.AccessFreightliner.com and click on Tools and Services. 2. Click on The Learning Center and log on. 3. Select More from the software training icon. 4. From the Web Based Training course list, select ServiceLink Web Based Training (I.D. number WBTSLN-1). 5. Once you have started the training, click on Features to access the training that pertains to adding features. If ServiceLink is not available, you will need to bypass the multiplexed electrical system and isolate circuits by connecting only to authorized vehicle interface points. The location of these interface points is explained in "Circuit Isolation."

Floating Pins
Floating pins means that a pin in a connector is not necessarily always assigned to the same circuit on every vehicle. For that reason, you must use the Conguration screen in ServiceLink to verify pin assignment. G06 drawings are general guides and are not vehicle specic.

Adding a Feature
Use the following instructions to add features to the vehicle. 1. Using the Freightliner Business Class M2 Data Book, select the applicable data code that applies to the requested add-on feature. For example, Daytime Running Lights, 311-001. 2. Contact Freightliner Parts Technical Support and provide the representative with the vehicle identication number (VIN) and the data code requested. The representative will advise of the availability of the feature. NOTE: Reference parameters, such as 26-XXXXXXXX, are needed to determine circuit availability for the desired feature. NOTE: The following step should be done at the parts counter to ensure that all parts required for the job, including any EXM, are identied before a quote is given to the customer and the work begins. Since the Business Class M2 makes use of oating pins, it is possible that one truck may require an EXM to add a feature, and a seemingly identical vehicle will not. 3. Log on to the Freightliner mainframe. From the SOS/MAX menu, press F11, Additional Features Multiplexing Inquiry. 3.1 Key in the vehicle serial number, or the last six digits of the VIN.

Control Modules
The control modules of the multiplexed electrical system are the Bulkhead Module (BHM), Chassis Module (CHM), and any optional Expansion Module (EXM). While every vehicle will have a BHM and CHM, Expansion Modules will be added as needed to increase the capacity of the electrical system. The BHM is the main controller, or brain, of the system and is in constant communication with the CHM and any EXM over the J1939 datalink. Think of the CHM and any EXM as extensions of the BHM. The BHM uses the CHM and EXM as its arms and legs. The BHM controls inputs to and outputs from itself, the CHM, and any EXM based on the reference parameters that are programmed into it.

Reference Parameters
As with other electronic control units (ECU) on the vehicle, the BHM is programmed through the use

Business Class M2 Workshop Manual, Supplement 10, September 2006

110/1

54.00
Adding Features
3.2 Key in the reference parameter numbers from all the bills of material that are being added at that time. The screen will indicate if the feature can be added with the existing control modules or if an additional EXM is needed. See Fig. 1 for a view of the response screen. See Table 1 for possible responses and necessary actions. 4. To add a reference parameter to the vehicle, use the Features screen in ServiceLink. It is best to have ServiceLink connected to the host and the vehicle at the same time. If this is not possible, connect ServiceLink to the host and add the reference parameter, then take the ServiceLink computer to the vehicle and update the vehicle. 5. When the reference parameters are applied to the BHM, ServiceLink will provide any necessary wiring instructions via a table with columns for device, connector, pin location, circuit number, and action. This table will be used to make circuit changes to the BHM, CHM, or EXM as necessary to add the features.

Electrical System

Data code 353-XXX provides various options for vehicle wiring interfaces, including back of cab, frontwall, and end-of-frame locations. Data code 148-XXX provides options for engine wiring, and data code 34C-XXX provides options for transmission wiring. Go to http:/ /www.AccessFreightliner.com/newsinformation/m2bodybuilder/default.asp for more information. Battery power connections must be made at the battery through one of the four available MEGA Fuses. Inside the cab, there are splice packs behind the center dash that provide interface points for ignition voltage, ground, and panel lamp illumination. IMPORTANT: When bypassing the multiplex electrical system, the interface points previously mentioned are the only authorized points. Do not splice in to any other electrical wiring.

Circuit Isolation
If features must be added outside of the multiplexed electrical system, there are a few options for obtaining authorized interface points.
SOS/MAX Additional Feature Inquiry Responses System Response Features can be added to the existing devices. Features cannot be added to existing devices. Feature requires additional engineering work. Reference parameter not dened. Action Required No other action is necessary to present a complete and accurate quote to the customer. Expansion module required. Contact your District Service Manager (DSM). From the bill of material supplied, rst verify and try reentering the 26-XXXXX-XXX number(s) again. If this fails, contact Freightliner Parts Technical Support for further assistance.

Table 1, SOS/MAX Additional Feature Inquiry Responses

110/2

Business Class M2 Workshop Manual, Supplement 10, September 2006

Electrical System

54.00
Adding Features

Vehicle Spec / Additional Feature Inquiry Serial Number : J81277 Lead Ser No. : J81277 Customer : TECHNICAL TR Y Reference Parameter 2601005000 Built ToDate : Build Location : 1 MT. HOLLY To Be Built: Fleet Size :

DSOVRI O 1

Description Engine Block Heater

PF1=Help PF3=Menu PF12=Exit PF20=Specs PF21=BOMs 08:33:31 06/07/02 Features can be added to the existing devices

PF23=DBCode

06/12/2002

f610616

Fig. 1, SOS/MAX Additional Feature Inquiry Response Screen

Business Class M2 Workshop Manual, Supplement 10, September 2006

110/3

Electrical System

54.00
Troubleshooting
TemplatesGives a directory of Datalink Monitor Templates available for troubleshooting the multiplexed electrical system. These templates allow the user to monitor and manipulate the inputs and outputs of the electrical system. The other control module icons, listed below, will have only a General Info screen, a Faults screen, and a Templates screen. Chassis Module (CHM) Expansion Module (EXM) The General Info screen displays information about the particular module such as make, model, hardware version, and software version. The Faults screen displays the active and historic faults for the particular module on the particular datalink. The Templates screen gives a directory of Datalink Monitor Templates available for troubleshooting the particular module. These templates allow the user to monitor and manipulate the inputs and outputs of the electrical system. NOTE: For more specic information about the Bulkhead Module see Section 54.12. For more specic troubleshooting information see Section 54.12, Subject 300.

Troubleshooting
With the multiplexed electrical system, traditional multimeter-based current, voltage and resistance measurements are supplemented, or in some cases replaced, by software tools that can read and control the electronic signals and devices of the system. ServiceLink is the tool that is used to troubleshoot the Business Class M2 electrical system. The modules of the multiplexed electrical system communicate on both J1939 and J1708/J1587. The primary datalink for the electrical system is J1939, and is used for all control messaging and troubleshooting. J1708/J1587 is the secondary datalink and is used for limited troubleshooting. Fault codes are displayed on the instrument cluster, and can also be viewed with ServiceLink. Since the modules of the electrical system communicate on both J1939 and J1708/J1587, ServiceLink shows information for both datalinks. Although each module connected to the multiplexed electrical system is represented by an icon within ServiceLink, the Bulkhead Module (BHM) icon is the main icon for troubleshooting the system. This is because the Bulkhead Module is the main controller of the multiplexed system. The other icons are secondary and contain generic screens. The following screens can be accessed under the Bulkhead Module icon: General InfoDisplays information about the BHM such as make, model, hardware version, and software version. FaultsDisplays the active and historic faults for all of the control modules on the multiplexed electrical system. CongurationDisplays the pinout for all of the control modules on the multiplexed electrical system compared to the host. FeaturesDisplays the features that are installed in the BHM. From this screen the user can reload all the currently installed features, or make changes to the vehicle by entering new reference parameters. FlashingAllows the user to update or reash the software of the BHM.

Business Class M2 Workshop Manual, Supplement 10, September 2006

300/1

Electrical System

54.00
Specications

Device Communications
For information on cross-referencing a J1587 Message Identier (MID) and a J1939 Source Address (SA), see Table 1.
Device Communications on J1587 and J1939 Device Description Engine Transmission Antilock Brakes Instrument Cluster Vehicle Security Unit (VSU) Data Logging Unit (DLU) Collision Avoidance System (Headway Controller) Bulkhead Module Chassis Module Expansion Module #1 Expansion Module #2 Expansion Module #3 Expansion Module #4 Expansion Module #5
* Message Identier Source Address

J1587 MID* 128 130 136 140 163 179 219 164 249 170 187 188 178 240

J1939 SA 0 3 11 23 251 42 33 71 235 236 237 238 239

Table 1, Device Communications on J1587 and J1939

Business Class M2 Workshop Manual, Supplement 10, September 2006

400/1