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EE334: Communication Systems

BE-VI LECTURE 4 11th Feb, !14

"e#ie$
Signals Complex Waves and Harmonics
Sine %a#e S&ua"e %a#e Sa$ tooth %a#e

Conversion/Signal Formatting
Cha"acte" Co'in(

Fo"mattin(
Cha"acte" co'in( Sam)*in( +uanti,ation -u*se Co'e .o'u*ation/-C.0

Fo"mattin( an' T"ansmission o1 baseban' si(na*

In)ut Si(na*
13 Te4tua* 3 5i(ita* 33 6na*o(

5i11e"ent Con#e"sion Scheme

13 5i(ita* to 5i(ita* con#e"sion


'one

2. Analog to Digital Conversion (Codec)

First Step: Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)


According to Nyquist theorem, the sampling rate must be at least two times the frequency to ensure the accurate reproduction of the original signal.

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Secon' ste): Quantized PAM Signal

Quantizing Using Sign and Magnitude

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Thi"' Ste): -u*se Co'e .o'u*ation /-C.0

-emember this
Out of each sample, Telephone companies only uses the upper 7 bits. The lower bit (bit 0 is always assumed to be 0. !or e"ample, sampling #alues$ %0&' %0&* %0&', %0() %0&', %0(+ %0(), %0()

This is not affecting sampling #alues much.

,n transmission, the most significant bit is used for control purposes, as we will see later.

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F"om 6na*o( to -C. 'i(ita* si(na*

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Sam)*e Theo"em
Need or sampling: In ana*o( si(na*, 'isto"tion is )"o'uce', an' it is 'i11icu*t to "eco#e" the si(na*, 9o$e#e" it is easy to 'o so in 'i(ita* si(na*3

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Sam)*in( Theo"em/cont'30

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Sam)*in(/cont'30

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Im)u*se Sam)*in(
!se o "mpulse: 6t a )a"ticu*a" )oint, $e (et a sam)*e3 %hen any 1unction is mu*ti)*ie' by im)u*se 1unction at t:4sec, $e (et a sam)*e o1 that 1unction at 4 sec3 I1 $e $ant to "eco#e" com)*ete si(na* $e ha#e to mu*ti)*y by im)u*se t"ain3
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Im)u*se sam)*in(/cont'30

1;

Im)u*se sam)*in( : Usin( con#o*ution )"o)e"ty

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1=

>atu"a* Sam)*in(

Sam)*in( Theo"em usin( 1"e&uency shi1tin( )"o)e"ty o1 Fou"ie" T"ans1o"m

Un'e" an' o#e" sam)*in(

?#e" an' un'e" sam)*in(

6*iasin(
Aliasing "e1e"s to an e11ect that causes 'i11e"ent si(na*s to become in'istin(uishab*e /o" aliases o1 one anothe"0 $hen sam)*e'3 It a*so "e1e"s to the 'isto"tion that "esu*ts $hen the si(na* "econst"ucte' 1"om sam)*es is 'i11e"ent 1"om the o"i(ina* continuous si(na*3

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6*iasin(

3!

Use o1 Fi*te"s

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Use o1 Fi*te"s

Con#e"tin( bit into sam)*es


+uanti,in( Simi*a" conce)t to )i4e*i,ation3 B"ea@s $a#e into )ieces, assi(ns a #a*ue in a )a"ticu*a" "an(e <-bit "an(e a**o$s 1o" 27 )ossib*e sam)*e *e#e*s .o"e bits means ("eate" 'etai*, 1e$e" bits means *ess 'etai*

+uanti,ationA5i(iti,in(A-C.
Uni1o"m +uanti,ation >on uni1o"m +uanti,ation

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6na*o( to 5i(ita* Con#e"sion /Sam)*in(0

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37

3;

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-C.

-C.

-C.

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Non#!ni orm

!ni orm

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>on Uni1o"m +uanti,ation

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Com)an'in(

4;

+uanti,ation Le#e*s

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-C.
-C. uses a sam)*in( "ate o1 <!!! sam)*es )e" secon'3 Each sam)*e is an < bit sam)*e "esu*tin( in a 'i(ita* "ate o1 74,!!! b)s /< 4 <!!!03

n:numbe" o1 )u*ses/bit0 L:.:numbe" o1 *e#e*s: Bn Ste) si,e: 6A. s!:mB /t0

2!

+uanti,ation E""o"
6na*o( #oice 'ata must be t"ans*ate' into a se"ies o1 bina"y 'i(its be1o"e they can be t"ansmitte'3 %ith -u*se Co'e .o'u*ation /-C.0, the am)*itu'e o1 the soun' $a#e is sam)*e' at "e(u*a" inte"#a*s an' t"ans*ate' into a bina"y numbe"3 The 'i11e"ence bet$een the o"i(ina* ana*o( si(na* an' the t"ans*ate' 'i(ita* si(na* is ca**e' &uanti,in( e""o"3

33 5i(ita* to 6na*o( .o'u*ation /.o'em0

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43 6na*o( to ana*o( Con#e"sion

6m)*itu'e .o'u*ation

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F"e&uency .o'u*ation

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St"uctu"e o1 Te*e)hone System

En' o11ice, @no$n a*so as *oca* cent"a* o11ice Loca* *oo)s /t$iste' )ai"s, ana*o( si(na*in(0 T"un@s /1ibe" o)tics o" mic"o$a#e, most*y 'i(ita*0 Inte"me'iate s$itches
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>ee' 1o" 6A5 an' 5A6 con#e"sions

.o'em con#e"ts 5A6 si(na*s Co'ec con#e"ts 6A5 si(na*s


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+uestion o1 Lectu"e
%hat is the 'i11e"ence bet$een time an' 1"e&uency 'omainC 6ny com)*e4 $a#e1o"m is com)ose' o1C 6 s&ua"e $a#e is com)ose' o1C 6 sa$ tooth $a#e is com)ose' o1C -"o#e that sine $a#e is com)ose' o1 main 1"e&uency an' a** ha"monics usin( Fou"ie" se"iesC -"o#e that s&ua"e $a#e is com)ose' o1 main 1"e&uency an' a** o'' ha"monics usin( Fou"ie" se"iesC Rea' $hat is 6SCII co'in(C %hat is .-a"y )u*se mo'u*ation
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6sssi(nmentD1
5ue 5ate: 1Feb, !14 13 -"o#e th"ou(h Fou"ie" se"ies that sine $a#e1o"m is a 1un'amenta* $a#e1o"mC 3 %hat is the ha"monic com)osition o1 a s&ua"e $a#eC 33 5"a$ an' e4)*ain the basic communication system ta@in( -ST> as an e4em)*a"y net$o"@C 43 %hat is m-a"y )u*se mo'u*ationC
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