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Basic Project Management Training on PMI Framework

Organized by
Internal Support, Project Management Office
Compliance, Technology Division Robi Axiata Bangladesh

Trainer
Mufakharul Islam, PMP, MCITP

Basic Project Management Training on PMI Framework

Table of Contents
Module 01: Introduction to Project Management ......................................................................... 8 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 9 Do and Dons for this training ................................................................................................. 9 Global Standard of Project Management ............................................................................... 9 What is Project? .................................................................................................................... 10 What are Project Management, Program and Portfolio? ..................................................... 10 Project Management Office (PMO) ...................................................................................... 13 Projects and Strategic Planning ............................................................................................ 14 Operational Activity Vs Project Management ...................................................................... 14 Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEF) ............................................................................... 14 Organizational Process Asset (OPA) ...................................................................................... 14 Stakeholders ......................................................................................................................... 15 Organizational Structure ....................................................................................................... 15 PMI Standard Project Management ..................................................................................... 17

Module 02: Project Initiation ...................................................................................................... 20 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 21 Project Management Roles and Responsibility .................................................................... 21 How a project initiate ........................................................................................................... 22 Feasibility Study .................................................................................................................... 22 Project Charter ...................................................................................................................... 22 Project Kick off ...................................................................................................................... 23 Planning Project .................................................................................................................... 23 Team Activity for Project Initiation ....................................................................................... 24

Module 03: Project Scope Management ..................................................................................... 25 2.1 2.2 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 26 Collect Requirements ............................................................................................................ 26 Source of Requirements: .............................................................................................. 26 Tools and Techniques for collect Requirements: .......................................................... 26 Output from collect Requirements: .............................................................................. 27

2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.3

Identify Scope ....................................................................................................................... 28 Source of Scope............................................................................................................. 28 Tools and Techniques for identify scope ...................................................................... 28 Output from collect Requirements: .............................................................................. 29

2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3

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2.4

Defining Assignment from Scope .......................................................................................... 29 Source of Defining Assignment ..................................................................................... 29 Tools and Techniques for identify scope ...................................................................... 29 Output from Defining Assignment ................................................................................ 30

2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.5

Verify and Validate Scope ..................................................................................................... 30 Source of verification and Validation ............................................................................ 30 Tools and Techniques for verify and validate scope ..................................................... 30 Output from Verify and Validate Scope: ....................................................................... 30

2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.6

Control Scope ........................................................................................................................ 30 Source of Control Scope................................................................................................ 30 Tools and Techniques for identify scope ...................................................................... 30 Output from collect Requirements: .............................................................................. 30

2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.7

Team Activity for Project Management ................................................................................ 31

Module 04: Project Time Management ....................................................................................... 32 4.1 4.2 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 33 Define Activities .................................................................................................................... 34 Source of Define Activities: ........................................................................................... 35 Tools and Techniques for Define Activities: .................................................................. 35 Output from collect Requirements: .............................................................................. 35

4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.3

Sequencing and Grouping Activities ..................................................................................... 36 Source of Sequencing and Grouping Activities ............................................................. 36 Tools and Techniques for Sequencing and Grouping Activities .................................... 36 Output from Sequencing and Grouping Activities: ....................................................... 38

4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.4

Estimate Duration and Cost .................................................................................................. 38 Source of Estimate duration and Cost .......................................................................... 38 Tools and Techniques for Estimate duration and Cost ................................................. 38 Output from Estimate duration and Cost ..................................................................... 39

4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.5

Develop Schedule.................................................................................................................. 39 Consideration for a Complete Schedule ....................................................................... 39

4.5.1 4.6

Control Schedule ................................................................................................................... 39 Source of Control Schedule........................................................................................... 39 Tools and Techniques for Control Schedule: ................................................................ 40 Output from Control Schedule:..................................................................................... 40

4.6.1 4.6.2 4.6.3 4.7

Team Activity for Project Time Management ....................................................................... 40

Module 05: Project Quality Management ................................................................................... 41

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5.1

Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 42 Project Quality Issues .................................................................................................... 42

5.1.1 5.2

Plan Quality ........................................................................................................................... 42 Source of Plan Quality: .................................................................................................. 43 Tools and Techniques for Plan Quality: ........................................................................ 43 Output from Plan Quality: ............................................................................................. 44

5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.3

Perform Quality Assurance ................................................................................................... 44 Source of Perform Quality Assurance ........................................................................... 44 Tools and Techniques for Perform Quality Assurance .................................................. 44 Output from Perform Quality Assurance ...................................................................... 44

5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.4

Perform Quality Control........................................................................................................ 45 Source of Perform Quality Control ............................................................................... 45 Tools and Techniques for Perform Quality Control ...................................................... 45 Output from Perform Quality Control .......................................................................... 46

5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3

Module 06: Resource and Cost Management .............................................................................. 47 6.1 6.2 Introduction Human Resource Management .................................................................... 48 Develop Human Resource Plan ............................................................................................. 48 Source of Human Resource Plan: .................................................................................. 48 Tools and Techniques for Human Resource Plan: ........................................................ 48 Output from Human Resource Plan: ............................................................................. 49

6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.3

Acquire Project Team ............................................................................................................ 49 Source of Acquire Project Team.................................................................................... 49 Tools and Techniques for Acquire Project Team .......................................................... 49 Output from Acquire Project Team .............................................................................. 50

6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.4

Develop Project Team ........................................................................................................... 50 Source of Develop Project Team ................................................................................... 50 Tools and Techniques for Develop Project Team ......................................................... 50 Output from Develop Project Team.............................................................................. 51

6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.5

Manage Project Team ........................................................................................................... 51 Source of Manage Project Team ................................................................................... 51 Tools and Techniques for Manage Project Team.......................................................... 51 Output from Manage Project Team .............................................................................. 51

6.5.1 6.5.2 6.5.3 6.6 6.7

Collect and Utilization of Non-Human Resources................................................................. 51 Cost Management Estimate Cost ....................................................................................... 52 Source of Estimate Cost ................................................................................................ 52

6.7.1

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6.7.2 6.7.3 6.8

Tools and Techniques for Estimate Cost ....................................................................... 52 Output from Estimate Cost ........................................................................................... 52

Cost Management Determine Budget ............................................................................... 52 Source of Determine Budget......................................................................................... 52 Tools and Techniques for Determine Budget ............................................................... 53 Output from Determine Budget ................................................................................... 53

6.8.1 6.8.2 6.8.3 6.9

Cost Management Cost Control ......................................................................................... 53 Source of Cost Control .................................................................................................. 53 Tools and Techniques for Cost Control ......................................................................... 53 Output from Cost Control ............................................................................................. 54

6.9.1 6.9.2 6.9.3

Module 07: Communication Management .................................................................................. 55 7.1 7.2 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 56 Identify Stakeholder .............................................................................................................. 56 Source of Identify Stakeholder: .................................................................................... 56 Tools and Techniques for Identify Stakeholder: ........................................................... 56 Output from Identify Stakeholder: ............................................................................... 57

7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.3

Plan Communication ............................................................................................................. 57 Source of Plan Communication ..................................................................................... 57 Tools and Techniques for Plan Communication ........................................................... 57 Output from Plan Communication................................................................................ 58

7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.4

Distribute Information .......................................................................................................... 58 Source of Distribute Information .................................................................................. 58 Tools and Techniques for Distribute Information ......................................................... 58 Output from Distribute Information ............................................................................. 58

7.4.1 7.4.2 7.4.3 7.5

Manage Stakeholders Expectations ...................................................................................... 58 Source of Manage Stakeholders Expectations .............................................................. 58 Tools and Techniques for Manage Stakeholders Expectations .................................... 58 Output from Manage Stakeholders Expectations......................................................... 59

7.5.1 7.5.2 7.5.3 7.6

Report Performance.............................................................................................................. 59 Source of Report Performance ..................................................................................... 59 Tools and Techniques for Report Performance ............................................................ 59 Output from Report Performance ................................................................................ 59

7.6.1 7.6.2 7.6.3

Module 08: Risk Management .................................................................................................... 60 8.1 8.2 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 61 Plan Risk Management and Identify Risk .............................................................................. 61

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8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.3

Source of Plan Risk Management and Identify Risk...................................................... 61 Tools and Techniques for Plan Risk Management and Identify Risk ............................ 61 Output from Plan Risk Management and Identify Risk................................................. 62

Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis ......................................................................................... 62 Source of Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis ................................................................. 62 Tools and Techniques for Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis ........................................ 62 Output from Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis ............................................................ 62

8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.3 8.4

Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis....................................................................................... 62 Source of Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis .............................................................. 62 Tools and Techniques for Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis ..................................... 62 Output from Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis ......................................................... 62

8.4.1 8.4.2 8.4.3 8.5

Plan Risk Response ................................................................................................................ 63 Source of Plan Risk Response........................................................................................ 63 Tools and Techniques for Plan Risk Response .............................................................. 63 Output from Plan Risk Response .................................................................................. 63

8.5.1 8.5.2 8.5.3 8.6

Monitor and Control Risk ...................................................................................................... 63 Source of Monitor and Control Risk .............................................................................. 63 Tools and Techniques for Monitor and Control Risk .................................................... 63 Output from Monitor and Control Risk......................................................................... 64

8.6.1 8.6.2 8.6.3

Module 09: Closing a Project ...................................................................................................... 64 9.1 9.2 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 65 Project Closing What need to ensure ................................................................................ 65

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Copyright Robi Axiata Bangladesh Limited July 2012 All Right Reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Robi Axiata, Technology PMO
The names of all companies and characters used in these materials are purely fictional. Any resemblance to any existing or no longer existing company or living or dead person is not intended, and is purely coincidental. PMI is a service and trademark of the Project Management Institute, Inc., which is registered in the United States and other nations. PMBOK is a trademark of the Project Management Institute, Inc., which is registered in the United States and other nations. All materials used in this training guide, solely used for Robi Axiata Bangladesh Limited internal training. This material delivered as a part of non-financial internal competency development session. Project Management Office
Technology PMO, Compliance, Technology Robi Axiata Bangladesh Limited

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Module 01: Introduction to Project Management

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1.1

Introduction

The course is designed based on practical experience on Telecommunication / ICT project management best practices for Project Manager, Project Associate, Project Coordinator and Project Team Member to add the best value for the project and organization. This interactive training will deliver project management standards based on PMI USA, Global and Local best practices. Todays fast growing technology driven industry demand adequate knowledge on project management not only for project managers but also for all stakeholders. Faster time to market, efficient costing and quality product delivery are main challenges for todays competitive market. Having good project management skills does not mean we have no problems, but good project management discipline is the way to overcome these shortcomings.

1.2
Donts

Do and Dons for this training

a. We dont need laptops for this training; please do not open your laptop b. Please do not use your mobile phone on Training Premises c. Please do not panicked in case of Fire or Earthquakes, follow the safety instructions

Dos a. You can leave any time; based on your interest or urgency b. Please put your name and phone number clearly on Signature Sheet. c. You are allowed to ask any question regarding Project Management d. Participate and being active!!

1.3

Global Standard of Project Management

There are many standards for Project management based on industry, region and organizations, but few are accepted by all industry leaders. The following standards are not conflicting but complementary. a. Project Management Institute (PMI), USA affiliated standard I. CAPM (Certified Associate in Project Management) II. PMP (Project Management Professional) III. PgMP (Program Management Professional) IV. PMI-ACP (Agile Certified Practitioner) V. PMI-RMP (Risk Management Professional) VI. PMI-SP (Scheduling Professional) PRojects IN Controlled Environments (PRINCE2) [Used extensively by the UK Government] c. MPMM (Project Management Methodology Manager) d. UPMM (Unified Project Management methodology)
b.

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e. MITP Managing Information Technology Projects

1.4

What is Project?

As per PMBOK guide 4th edition A project is a temporary endeavor undertaking to create a unique product, service or result. Temporary means the project has a definite beginning and ending (finite duration). Temporary does not necessary indicate a project of short duration. Unique means the product or service is different in some distinguishing way from all similar products or services. The purpose of a project is to attain its objective and then terminate. Numerous project management guru agree on two additional characteristics for describing project Requires coordination of interrelated activities (Complex enough to require a team) Is Progressively Elaborated i.e. proceeds in steps or increments. The words progressively detailing and rolling wave planning is also used to describe the same phenomenon. As per PMBOK guide 4th edition, A project can create: A product that can be either a component of another item or an item itself A capability to perform a service (e.g. a business function that supports production or distribution) A result such as an outcome or document (e.g. a research project that develops knowledge that can be used to determine whether a trend is present or a new process will benefit society)

PMBOK = Project Management Body of Knowledge, a PMI authorised body for project management standardization.

1.5

What are Project Management, Program and Portfolio?


Project Management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements. Managing projects typically includes: a. Identify Requirements b. Addressing various needs, concerns and expectations of the stakeholders as the project is planned and carried out. c. Balancing the competing project constraints includes, but not limited to Scope Quality Schedule Budget

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Resource and Risk

A globally recognize Jargon for Project Management is Triple Constraints, is as follows.

It means a project manager / project team will satisfy stakeholders scope (requirement) within committed budget (cost) and in given timeline maintaining agreed quality. Program and Program Management As per PMI A Program is a group of projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually. Program Management is centralized, coordinated management to achieve a programs strategic objectives and benefits. Portfolio A Portfolio is a collection of projects, programs or other work that is grouped together to facilitated effective management and to meet strategic business objectives.

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Relationship among Project, Program and Portfolio

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1.6

Project Management Office (PMO)

Project Management Office (PMO) is an organizational body or entity assigned various responsibility related to the centralized and coordinated management of those projects under its domain. The responsibilities of a PMO can range from providing project management support functions actually being responsible for the direct management of a project. A primary function of a PMO is to support Project Manager in a variety of ways which may include, but not limited to: a. Managing shared resources across all projects administrated by PMO b. Identifying and developing project management methodology, best practice, and standard c. Coaching, Mentoring, Training, and Oversight d. Monitoring Compliance with project management standards, policies, procedures, and templates via project audits e. Developing and managing project policies, procedures, templates, and other shared documentations f. Coordinating communication across projects

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1.7

Projects and Strategic Planning

Projects are often utilized as a means of achieving an organizations strategic plan. Projects are typically authorized as a result of one or more of the following strategic considerations: a. b. c. d. e. Market Demand Strategic Opportunity / Business Need Customer Request Technology Advance Legal Requirements

1.8

Operational Activity Vs Project Management

Operations are an organizational function performs the ongoing execution of activities that produced the same product or provide a repetitive service. For Robi: Billing System Call Center Operation WIC operation Though temporary in nature, projects can help achieve the organizational goals when they are aligned with the organizational strategy. Projects required Project Management while Operation required business process management. Project can intersect with operation at various points during the product lifecycles. For Robi Projects are: OCS migration Regionalization

1.9

Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEF)

All projects occur within an environment that influences the potential for success. The factors in this environment may help or hinder project outcomes and may include, but are not limited to, the followings: - Organizational Culture, Structure and Processes - Government or industry standards (BTRC, BOI, Bangladesh Bank etc) - Infrastructure - Existing infrastructure and existing human resource - Personal administration - Company work authorization system - Market place conditions - Stakeholder risk tolerance - Political climate - Organizations established communication channels - Commercial database - Project Management Information Systems

1.10 Organizational Process Asset (OPA)


Any or all process related to assets, from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that are or can be used to influence the projects success. This process asset includes formal and informal

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plans, policies, procedures and guidelines. Process assets also include the organizations knowledge bases such as lesson learned and historical information. Following are example but not limited to: All past projects historical data Formally recorded Lesson Learned Any formal or informal experiences

1.11 Stakeholders
A project Stakeholder is anyone (Individual or organization) that is involved in a project, may be affected by the results of the project or may exert influences over the project. PMI emphasizes the importance of identifying and managing stakeholders. Key stakeholders are: a. Project Manager b. Customer / User c. Sponsor (Provides funding and other critical resources) d. Project team e. PMO f. Performing Organization

1.12 Organizational Structure


Functional Organization Classic functional organization shown below is a hierarchy where each employee has one clear superior. Stuff members are grouped by specialty, such as Technology, Market Operation, Finance, and Human Resource at the Top. Each department in a functional organization will do its project work independent of other departments.

Fig Functional Organization Matrix Organization Matrix organizations are blend of functional and projectized characteristics. Weak matrices maintain many of the characteristics of a functional organization and the project manager role is more of a coordinator or expediter than that of a true project manager.

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Strong matrices have many of the characteristics of the projectized organization, and can have full time project manager with considerable authority and full time project administrative staffs. Balance Matrices organization recognizes the need for a project manager; it does not provide the project manager with full authority over the project and project funding.

Fig Weak Matrices Organization

Fig Balance Matrices Organization

Fig Strong Matrices Organization Projectized Organization

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In the projectized organization, team members are often co-located, most of the organizations resources are involved in project work, and project managers have a great deal of independence and authority. Projectized organizations often have organization units called departments, but these groups either report directly to the project manager or provide support services to the various projects.

Fig Projectized Organization

Organizational Influence on Projects

1.13 PMI Standard Project Management


PMI defines project management in 5 Process Groups Initiating Planning Execution Monitoring and Controlling Closing

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Fig : Interaction with in Project Management Process Groups. There are 9 knowledge areas in PMI standard Project Management Integration Scope Time Cost Quality Human Resource Communication Risk Procurement This 9 knowledge area and 5 process group distributed among 42 processes.

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Module 02: Project Initiation

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2.1

Introduction

The purpose of Project Initiation is to begin to define the overall parameters of a project and establish the appropriate project management and quality environment required to complete the project. Development of the Project Charter is a pivotal starting point for the project, establishing the project definition that will serve as the foundation for all future efforts. The completion of this process is marked by the Project Kick-off Meeting, in which the Project Manager presents the Project Charter. Also during Project Initiation, a high-level Project Schedule is developed as the roadmap to more detailed Project Planning and Project Execution and Control. This high-level schedule will be refined over time, and will serve as the primary source of information regarding project status and progress. An accurate, realistic, and complete schedule, rigorously maintained, is essential to the success of a project. Sponsorship of the project must be confirmed or gained during Project Initiation. Having a Project Sponsor, and securing approval early in the project management lifecycle, helps to ensure a commitment to the project.

2.2

Project Management Roles and Responsibility

Executive Sponsor / Sponsor: is a manager with demonstrable interest in the outcome of the project who is responsible for securing spending authority and resources for the project Steering Committee / Management Committee: generally includes management representatives from the key organizations involved in the project oversight and control, and any other key stakeholder groups that have special interest in the outcome of the project Customer: comprise the business units that identified the need for the product or service the project will develop Stakeholder: are all those groups, units, individuals, or organizations, internal or external to our organization, which are impacted by, or can impact, the outcomes of the project. Project Team Member: are responsible for executing tasks and producing deliverables as outlined in the Project Plan and directed by the Project Manager, at whatever level of effort or participation has been defined for them Corporate/Enterprise PMO/PMO: A Project Management office is an organizational body or entity assigned various responsibilities related to the centralized and coordinated management of those projects under its domain. The responsibilities of a PMO can range from providing project management support functions to actually being responsible for direct management of Project.

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The projects supported or administered by the PMO may not be related, other than by being managed together. The specific form, function, and structure of PMO is dependent upon the needs of the organization that it supports.

2.3

How a project initiate

It depends, how a project will be initiate. Based on organizational culture and overall control on business environment, followings are some key areas from where the Project Initiate. a. Organizational Strategy: Is the most common way to initiate a planned project in corporate world. Depending on various criteria, organization prepares them for next year and decides on its investment areas. Business units support the organization with their proposal and Business control units identifies the best area to invest depending on organizations capability. b. Regulatory Directives: This is common for all organizations, some initiative from regulatory directives. Most of the cases these initiatives are mandatory to implement on a given period of time. c. Market Competitiveness: Competition is now everywhere and to accept the competitor challenges, organizations initiate projects. It could be price war, value proposition, product range or brad value. d. Risk Minimization: To reduce the business risk and for long sustainability, organizations initiates projects. It may be to secure the investment, reduce or minimize the regulatory penalty or legal issues. e. Any adhoc enhancement on the business

2.4

Feasibility Study

As per Wikipedia Feasibility studies aim to objectively and rationally uncover the strengths and weaknesses of the existing business or proposed venture, opportunities and threats as presented by the environment, the resources required to carry through, and ultimately the prospects for success. In its simplest terms, the two criteria to judge feasibility are cost required and value to be attained. As such, a well-designed feasibility study should provide a historical background of the business or project, description of the product or service, accounting statements, details of the operations and management, marketing research and policies, financial data, legal requirements and tax obligations. Generally, feasibility studies precede technical development and project implementation.

2.5

Project Charter

Project charter is a written document that formally recognizes and authorizes the existence of ne a

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project. It establishes a partnership between the performing organization and the requesting organization (or customer, in the case of external projects). The approved project charter formally initiates the project. A project manager is defined and assigned as early in the project as is feasible, preferably while the project charter is being developed and always prior to the start of planning. It is recommended that project manager participate in the development of project charter, as the project charter provides the project manager with the authority to apply resource to project activities. A Project Charter may have: Projects high level scope / Project statement Mention out of scope Identify Project Manager Identify key stakeholders Project Key information like ROI, TCO etc.

2.6

Project Kick off

The objective of a project kick off is to produce a plan which defines how to perform the Project Initiation Stage itself, in a way that ensures the involvement and commitment of the key people who see the need for the project and also of those who will fund it, takes account of the background to the project and of previous and related initiatives, establishes a team to carry out the Project Initiation Stage, so that a clear and explicit plan is available for setting up the project. Activities of project kick off: Introduce Project Manager and Project Team Briefing key resources regarding the project Share High Level Scope and Out of scope Identify high level stakeholders

2.7

Planning Project
Project Management Plan defines how the project will be executed, monitored, controlled and closed. It is a key integrative document that is usually developed by the entire team. Subsidiary Plans

Scope Management Schedule Management Cost Management Quality Management Staffing / Human Resource / Resource Management Communication Management Risk Management Procurement

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2.8

Team Activity for Project Initiation

Robi Axiata decided to launch 3G Services for its valued customer, design a simple project charter for this project. Only the information heads (No detail informations) It will be a : a. Team Work b. Expected time 10 min c. Discussion 10 min

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Module 03: Project Scope Management

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2.1

Introduction

Project scope management ensures that a project includes all the work required but only the work required to complete the project successfully. In other words, proper scope management carefully identifies what is and what is not included in the project. In the project context, the term Scope can refer to: Product Scope: The future and functions that characterize a product, service, or result Project Scope: The work that needs to be accomplished to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions.

Bubble Scope

Functional Scope

Non Functional Scope

SCOPE

Product Scope

Scope Creep

Requirem ent

Project Scope

Out of Scope

2.2

Collect Requirements

Collect requirements involves defining and managing customers, sponsors and other stakeholders expectations. These requirements must be captured in sufficient detail to be measured during project execution. Requirements become the foundation for many other vital project management activities. 2.2.1 Source of Requirements: a. Project Charter: The charter provides the high level project and product requirements. As such , it forms a starting point for the development if detail requirements b. Stakeholder Register: Stakeholder register identifies stakeholders who can provide information needed to develop detailed requirements. 2.2.2 Tools and Techniques for collect Requirements: a. Interviews: An interview is a formal or informal approach to discover information from stakeholder by taking to them directly. It is typically performed by asking prepared and spontaneous questions and recording the response. Interviews are often conducted Oneto-One, but may involve multiple interviews and/or multiple interviewers. b. Focus Group Discussion (FGD): Interactive conversational discussions guided by trained moderators with pre-selected stakeholders and subject matter experts.

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c. Facilitated Workshop: Requirements workshops are focused sessions that bring key cross functional stakeholders together to define product requirements. Workshops are considered a primary technique for quickly defining cross-functional requirements and reconciling stakeholder differences. Because of their interactive group nature, well-facilitated sessions can build trust, foster relationships, and improve communication among the participants which can lead to increase stakeholder consensus. Another benefit of this technique is that issues can be discovered and resolved more quickly than in individual sessions. d. Group Creativity Technique I. Brainstorming II. Nominal group discussion III. Delphi Technique: Experts answer questions anonymously and the summarized results are provided to the group IV. Idea/Mind mapping V. Affinity Diagram: A technique for sorting a large number of detailed, specific ideas into logical groups. e. Group Decision Making Techniques I. Unanimity II. Majority III. Plurality IV. Dictatorship Questionnaires and surveys: Questionnaires and surveys are written sets of questions designed to quickly accumulate information for a wide number of respondents. Questioners and/or surveys are most appropriate with broad audiences, when quick turnaround is needed, and where statistical is appropriate.

f.

g. Observation: Observations provide a direct way of viewing individuals in their environmental and how they perform their jobs or tasks and carry out processes. It is practically helpful for detailed processes when the people that use the product have difficult or are reluctant to articulate there requirements. h. Prototypes: Prototyping is a method of obtaining early feedback on requirements by providing a working model of the expected product before actually building it. Since prototypes are tangible, it allows stakeholders to experiment with a model of their final product rather than only discussing abstract relationship of their requirements.

2.2.3 Output from collect Requirements: a. Requirement Documentation: Requirement documentation describes how individual requirement meet the business need for the project. Requirements may start out at a high level and become progressively more detailed as more is known. Before being baselines, requirements must be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders.

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b. Requirement Management Plan: Requirement management plan documents how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed throughout the project. Components of the requirements management plan can be in include, but not limited to: - How requirements activities will be planned, tracked, and reported - Configuration management activities such as how changes to the product, service, or result requirements will be initiated, how impacts will be analyzed, how they will be tracked, traced and reported, as well as the authorization level required to approve these changes. - Requirement Prioritization Process - Product Matrices that will be used and rationale for using them - Traceability structure c. Requirement Traceability Matrix: Requirement traceability matrices are a table that links requirements to their origin and traces them throughout the project life cycle.

2.3

Identify Scope

Scope identification produces a written, detailed scope statement that is crucial to project success. This statement represents an agreement between the project team and the customer. The project team and appropriate stakeholders conduct a needs assessment and use it as the basis to develop written project requirements. Assumptions, constraints and risks are identified and validated as necessary. 2.3.1 a. b. c. Source of Scope Project Charter Requirements Documentation Organizational Process Assets

2.3.2 Tools and Techniques for identify scope a. Expert Judgment: Expert judgment is often used to analyze the information needed to develop the project scope statement. Such judgment and expertise is applied to any technical details. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge, training, and is available from many sources, includes: - Other units within organization - Consultants - Stakeholders, including customer or sponsors - Professional or Technical associates - Industry groups - Subject matter experts b. Product Analysis: Translating project objectives into measurable deliverables and requirements using techniques such as product breakdown, system engineering, value engineering, functional analysis and quality functions deployment. c. Alternative Identification: Techniques such as brainstorming, lateral thinking (Think outside the Box), pairwise comparisons are used to identify different possible approaches to the project. d. Facilitated Workshops

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2.3.3 Output from collect Requirements: a. Project Scope Statement: The Project scope statement typically includes: i. Product Scope Description ii. Product Acceptance Criteria iii. Project Deliverables iv. Project Out of Scope v. Project Constraints vi. Project Assumptions

2.4

Defining Assignment from Scope

Assignment of scope is a deliverables-oriented decomposition of the work to be accomplished commonly known as WBS. Various software used for create assignment of WBS, such as MS project or Primavera.

2.4.1 a. b. c.

Source of Defining Assignment Project Scope Statement Requirements Documentation Organizational Process Assets

2.4.2 Tools and Techniques for identify scope Decomposition: Is the process of breaking project deliverables into smaller and smaller pieces, in other words, finding the level of details at which tasks can be adequately planned and managed.

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2.4.3 Output from Defining Assignment a. Accepted Deliveries b. Change Request

2.5

Verify and Validate Scope

Scope verification is the process of obtaining formal acceptance of the project scope by the stakeholder. Scope validation is the process of obtaining formal acceptance of product delivery confirmation from stakeholder.

2.5.1 a. b. c. d.

Source of verification and Validation Project Management plan Requirement Documentation Requirement Traceability Matrix Validated deliveries

2.5.2 Tools and Techniques for verify and validate scope Inspection: Activities such as measuring, examining and testing undertaken to determine whether work results confirm to requirements. Alternative names for inspection includes review, product review, audits and walk through. 2.5.3 a. b. c. Output from Verify and Validate Scope: Work Breakdown Structure Work Breakdown Structure Dictionary Scope Baseline

2.6

Control Scope

This process monitors the status of the project and product scope and also manages any changes to the scope baseline. 2.6.1 a. b. c. d. e. Source of Control Scope Project Management plan Work Performance Information Requirement Documentation Requirement Traceability Matrix Organizational Process Assets

2.6.2 Tools and Techniques for identify scope Variance Analysis: Project Performance measurements are used to assess the magnitude of variation from the original scope baseline. Important aspects of project scope control include determining the cause and degree of variance relative to scope baseline and deciding whether corrective or preventive action is required. 2.6.3 Output from collect Requirements: a. Work Performance Measurement

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b. Change request c. Organizational Process Assets Updates

2.7

Team Activity for Project Management

Robi Axiata decided to launch 3G Services for its valued customer, Please identify 5 Project Scope and 5 Product Scope It will be a: d. Team Work e. Expected time 10 min f. Discussion 10 min

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Module 04: Project Time Management

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4.1

Introduction

Time management is the act or process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity. Time management may be aided by a range of skills, tools, and techniques used to manage time when accomplishing specific tasks, projects and goals complying with a due date. This set encompasses a wide scope of activities, and these include planning, allocating, setting goals, delegation, analysis of time spent, monitoring, organizing, scheduling, and prioritizing. Initially, time management referred to just business or work activities, but eventually the term broadened to include personal activities as well. A time management system is a designed combination of processes, tools, techniques, and methods. Usually time management is a necessity in any project development as it determines the project completion time and scope.

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Overview of Scheduling is as follows:

4.2

Define Activities

Define activity is the process of identifying the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables. The process decomposed lowest level of work package (WBS) to activity or schedule activities. Define activity involves identifying and documenting the specific activities that must be performed.

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4.2.1 Source of Define Activities: c. Scope Baseline: The information explicitly used at this step includes project deliverables, constraints and assumptions. d. Enterprise Environmental Factors e. Organizational Process Assets 4.2.2 i. Tools and Techniques for Define Activities: Decomposition: Subdividing project activities into smaller components. The lowest level shown in the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) in the work package; however work packages can be further decomposed into schedule activities, which are the steps required to produce the work package deliveries. Rolling Wave Planning: A form of progressive elaboration where work to be performed in the near term is planned at a low level of the WBS, i.e. a highly detailed plan. Work farther in the future is planned with much less detail.

j.

k. Templates l. Expert Judgment

4.2.3 Output from collect Requirements: b. Activity List: A comprehensive list of all activities that must be performed. The list should be include all activities, an activity identifier and a sufficient description of the work c. Activity Attributes: Normally an activity attributes includes following information: a. Activity ID, WBS ID and Activity Name b. Activity Description c. Predecessor and Successor activity d. Logical Relationship e. Leads and Lags f. Resource Required g. Imposed Dates and Constraints

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h. Assumptions i. Responsible resource j. Geographical Area (If work done in multiple locations) d. Milestone List: Milestones are important points in time and have zero duration (normally). Milestone may be requested or demanded by the customer, management, the team or may be required by the contract.

4.3

Sequencing and Grouping Activities

Activity sequencing and grouping involves identifying and documenting interactive dependencies (So called logical relationship). The process can be done manually, with software or with a combination of both. 4.3.1 a. b. c. d. e. Source of Sequencing and Grouping Activities Activity List Activity Attributes Milestone List Project Scope Statement Organizational Process Assets

4.3.2 Tools and Techniques for Sequencing and Grouping Activities a. Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM): This is one way to display a schedule in network fashion; it is also called activity-on-node. It was developed in early 1960s at Stanford University and the method that project management software uses today. The PDM approach uses the following four types of dependencies: Finish to Start (FS): Initiation of the successor activity depends on completing of the predecessor activity.

Finish to Finish (FF): Completion of the successor activity depends on completion of the predecessor activity.

Start to Start (SS): Initiation of the successor activity depends on initiation of the predecessor activity.

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Start to Finish (SF): Completion of the successor activity depends on initiation of the predecessor activity.

Precedence Diagramming Method All together

b. Dependency Determination: The followings three types of dependencies are used during activity sequencing: I. Mandatory Dependencies: Also referred as a hard logic, mandatory dependencies are inherent in the nature of the work and often involve physical or technical limitations of some kind. For example you cannot shingle the roof of a building until the roof has been built. II. Discretionary Dependencies: Known as Soft Logic or preferential logic, these optional dependencies are usually chosen because they represent best practices or there is a preferred approach even though other approaches would also be accepted. III. External Dependencies: These dependencies usually involve interfaces outside the project. c. Appling Leads and Legs: The project management team determinates the dependencies that may require a lead or a lag to accurately define the logical relationship. The use of lead and lags should not replace scheduling logic. Activities and their related assumptions should be documented. A lead allows an acceleration of the successor activity. For example, on a project to construct a new office building, the landscaping could be scheduled to start 2 weeks prior to

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the scheduled punch list completion. This would be show as a finish-to-start with a 2 week lead. A lag directs a delay in the successor activity. For example, a technical writing team can begin editing the draft of a large document 15 days after they begin writing it. The could be shown as a start-to-start relationship with a 15-days lag. d. Scheduling Network templates 4.3.3 Output from Sequencing and Grouping Activities: a. Project Schedule Network Diagram b. Project Document Updates

4.4

Estimate Duration and Cost

Estimate duration and cost depends resource require and duration of a task. Every single task required to be executed by some resources (Work, Material or Cost type), and depending of the duration or number of uses, cost is calculated.

4.4.1 a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

Source of Estimate duration and Cost Activity List Activity Attributes Resource Calendar Project Scope Statement Activity Resource Requirement Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets

4.4.2 Tools and Techniques for Estimate duration and Cost a. Expert Judgment: For estimation PMI recommends expert judgment based on historical information whenever the combination is possible. b. Analogous Estimation: A form of top-down estimating, this approaches uses the actual durations of previous, similar activities to estimate the duration if future activities. These estimates are usually adjusted by experts for differences in complexity, size and risk. Key Points: c. Parametric Estimation: For some tasks, duration estimates can be derived from the quantity needed multiply by the appropriate productivity rate. d. Three Point Estimation: Such estimates can improve accuracy by considering risk. This technique calculates an expected average duration from the following: Optimistic Pessimistic Most Likely In similar fashion, a well-known technique for doing the same thing is PERT [Program
Evolution and Review Technique].

e. Reserve Analysis: Contingency reserves (Sometimes referred as Time Reserve or Buffers) are sometimes added to duration estimates to account for risk or uncertainty.

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4.4.3 Output from Estimate duration and Cost a. Activity Resource Requirement b. Activity Duration Estimate

4.5

Develop Schedule

Put all previous time management data into a single scheduling tool (MS Project, Primavera or others) will establish planned schedule for each task. The approved schedule becomes the baseline for tracking progress.

4.5.1 Consideration for a Complete Schedule a. Schedule Network Analysis: Techniques that generate the project schedule using a schedule model and various analytical techniques such as Critical Path Method, What if Analysis etc. b. Critical Path Method: Calculates theoretical start and finish dates for all schedule activities without regard to resource limitations. The technique: a. Uses a forward and backward pass to determine early and late times b. Calculate available float or slack c. Determines the critical path (the longest path and has either zero float or the least float available. c. Resource Leveling d. What if Scenario Analysis e. Applying Leads and Legs f. Schedule Compression: Seeking ways to shorten the schedule without changing the scope. There are two primary techniques: a. Crashing: The technique essentially involves adding resources to critical path activities but will almost always increase project cost. b. Fast Tracking: Doing more activities in parallel. Note that fast tracking usually increase risk because it requires increased coordination of resource and may result in rework.

4.6

Control Schedule

Control schedule is the process of monitoring the status of the project to update project progress and manage changes to the schedule baseline. Schedule Control is the most critical task for Project Manager and concerned with: Determining the current status of the project schedule Influencing the factors that create schedule change Determine that the project schedule has changed Manage the actual changes as the occur 4.6.1 a. b. c. d. Source of Control Schedule Project Management plan Project Schedule Work Performance Information Organizational Process Asset

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4.6.2

Tools and Techniques for Control Schedule: Performance review Variance Analysis: Used to assess the magnitude of schedule variations against the planned baseline. Variance is defined as plan minus actual. Negative variances indicate that work took longer than expected. Resource Leveling What if Scenario Analysis Adjusting leads and legs Scheduling Compression Output from Control Schedule: Work Performance Measurement (Schedule Variance, Cost Variance) Change request Organizational Process Assets Updates

4.6.3 a. b. c.

4.7

Team Activity for Project Time Management

Create a network diagram based on following information and identify Critical Path Activity A B C D E F G Duration 5 Days 3 Days 2 Days 6 Days 1 Day 3 Days 2 Days Predecessor NA A B C A E D, F

It will be a: a. Team Work b. Expected time 15 min c. Discussion 15 min

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Module 05: Project Quality Management

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5.1

Introduction

PMI defines quality as the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements. A critical part of this is to identify stakeholders need clearly. Project quality management addresses the management of the project and the product of the project. It applies to all projects, regardless of the nature of the project. Product quality measures and techniques are specific to the types of product produced by the project. While quality management of software products uses different approaches and measure than building a nuclear power plant, project quality management approaches apply to both.

5.1.1

Project Quality Issues Quality and Grades: Grade is a category assigned to products or services having the same functional use but different technical characteristics. While a quality level that fails to meet quality requirements is always a problem, low grade may not be. Gold Plating: Gold plating is providing a solution that exceeds the original requirement and is bad to the extent that it may causes the project to cost more and take longer time. If the requirements are accurate, there is no reason to exceed them. Customer Satisfaction: Which is requires attention to conformance to specifications and fitness for use. Prevention over inspection: One of the fundamental tenets of modern quality management states that quality is planned, designed, and built in; not inspected in. The cost of preventing mistakes is generally much less than the cost of correcting them when they are found by inspection. Management Responsibility: Which is recognizes that participation of the entire organization is needed for success, but it is the responsibility of management to provide adequate resources and sound processes.

5.2

Plan Quality

Quality planning involves identifying quality requirements and standards for the project and the product and documenting how to demonstrate compliance. PMI emphasizes that quality should be planned in, not inspected in.

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5.2.1 Source of Plan Quality: a. Scope Baseline: The information explicitly used at this step includes project deliverables, constraints and assumptions. b. Stakeholder Register c. Cost performance Index d. Schedule Baseline e. Risk Register f. Enterprise Environmental Factors g. Organizational Process Assets 5.2.2 Tools and Techniques for Plan Quality: a. Cost Benefit Analysis: For quality planning purpose, benefit/cost tradeoffs refer to the cost engaging in quality management activities against the resulting benefit to the project. The potential benefits of meeting quality requirements include: I. Less rework II. Higher Productivity III. Lower Costs IV. Increased stakeholder Satisfaction b. Cost of Quality: Cost of quality includes all costs incurred by over the life of the product by investment in preventing nonconformance to requirements, appraising the product or service for conformance to requirements, and failing to requirement (rework). Failure costs are often categorized into internal and external. Failure costs are also called cost of poor quality.

c. Control Charts: Control charts are used to determine whether a process is stable (under control) and is therefore producing predictable results. Upper and lower control limit, Rule of Seven or Six Sigma rules are some example of Control chart application in project management.

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d. e. f. g. h.

Benchmarking Design of Experiments Statistical Sampling Flowcharting Proprietary Quality Management Methodology

5.2.3 a. b. c. d.

Output from Plan Quality: Quality Management Plan Quality Matrix Quality Checklist Process Improvement Plan

5.3

Perform Quality Assurance

Quality assurance involves auditing requirements and results from quality control measurements to ensure the project will use appropriate quality standards and processes. 5.3.1 a. b. c. Source of Perform Quality Assurance Project Management Plan Quality Metrics Work Performance Information: Actual performance outcomes collected at reporting intervals as the project progresses and includes: a. Technical Performance Measures b. Status of Project Deliverables c. Schedule Progress d. Costs Incurred d. Quality Control Measurements

5.3.2 Tools and Techniques for Perform Quality Assurance a. Quality Audit: Structured, independent reviews to identify inefficient processes reduce the cost of quality and increase the percentage of accepted products. The specific objectives of a quality audit may include: I. Identify and share best practice II. Identify Shortcomings III. Share the good practices from similar project IV. Proactive offer assistance to improve processes and raise productivity V. Document the lessons learned from each audit b. Process Analysis

5.3.3 a. b. c.

Output from Perform Quality Assurance Project Management Plan Update Change Request Project Document Updates

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5.4

Perform Quality Control

Quality control involves monitoring and recording specific project results to assess performance and recommends necessary changes. 5.4.1 a. b. c. d. Source of Perform Quality Control Project Management Plan Quality Metrics Quality Checklist Work Performance Measurement: Work performance measurements are used to produce project activity metrics evaluate progress as compared to planned progress. This metrics include, but not limited to: a. Planned vs Technical Performance b. Planned vs Actual Schedule Performance c. Planned vs Actual Cost Performance e. Approved Change Requests f. Deliverables g. Organizational Process Assets

5.4.2 Tools and Techniques for Perform Quality Control a. Cause and Effect Diagram: Cause and effect diagrams, also called Ishikawa diagram or fishbone diagram, illustrate how various factors might be lined to potential problem or effects. A possible root cause can be uncovered by continuing to ask why or how along one of lines.

b. Control Charts c. Flowcharting d. Histogram: A histogram is a vertical bar chart showing how often a particular variable state occurred. Each column represents an attribute or characteristics of a problem/situation. The height of each column represents the relative frequency of the characteristics.

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e. f. g. h. i. j. 5.4.3 a. b. c. d. e. f.

Pareto Chart Run Chart Scatter Diagram Statistical Sampling Inspection Approved Change Request review Output from Perform Quality Control Quality Control Measurements Validated Changes Validated Deliverables Organizational Process Assets Update Change Requests Project Management Plan Update

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Module 06: Resource and Cost Management

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6.1

Introduction Human Resource Management

Human resource management involves organizing, managing and leading the project team. The processes are aimed at making the most effective use of the people associated with the project, including all stakeholders (Sponsor, Customers, Team Members, Management and others). Managing and Leading includes: a. Influence the project team b. Professional and ethical behavior

6.2

Develop Human Resource Plan

Human resource planning involves identifying, documenting and assigning project roles and responsibilities and reporting relationships. These roles may be assigned to individuals or to group. It also creates the staffing management plan that addresses how team members will be acquired and released, training needs, reward system and safety issues.

6.2.1 Source of Human Resource Plan: a. Activities resource requirements b. Enterprise environmental factors: Factors that may influence human resource planning include: a. Organizational Culture b. Existing Human resource c. Personal Administration Policies d. Marketplace Condition c. Organizational Process Assets 6.2.2 Tools and Techniques for Human Resource Plan: a. Organizational Charts and Position Description

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b. Networking: Informal interactions for the purpose of understanding potential political and interpersonal influences on the project. An example includes informal conversations, lunch meetings, attendance at conferences and recreational activities. c. Organizational Theory 6.2.3 Output from Human Resource Plan: Human Resource Plan: Following information should be addressed: a. Roles and Responsibility b. Project Organizational Chart c. Staffing Management Plan

6.3

Acquire Project Team

Staffing acquisition is getting the right people assigned to the project. Failure to do so in a timely manner may affect schedules, costs, risks, quality and ultimately customer satisfaction. 6.3.1 Source of Acquire Project Team a. Project Management Plan b. Enterprise Environmental Factors : when recruiting team members, the following factors should be considered: a. Human Resource Information b. Personal Administration Policies c. Organizational Structures d. Location c. Organizational Process Assets

6.3.2 a. b. c. d.

Tools and Techniques for Acquire Project Team Pre-assessment Negotiation Acquisition Virtual Teams: Virtual teams spend little or no time working face to face. Given modern technology, virtual teaming makes the following approaches possible: I. Teams with members from different geographic areas II. Use people who work from home or work different shifts III. Add special expertise even though they are not in the same location IV. Pursue projects that would have been rejected due to travel costs. When using virtual teams, communication and conflicts management become more important than ever.

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6.3.3 a. b. c.

Output from Acquire Project Team Project Staff assignments Resource Calendars Project Management Plan Update

6.4

Develop Project Team

This process is aimed at improving the competencies, interactions among team members and the overall team environment to, in turn, improve project performance. Include the following: Team development involves o Improve the ability to team members to contributes as individuals o Improving the ability of the team to function effectively o Improving trust and cohesiveness among team members. PMI also recommends that team development occurs through the entire project life cycle.

6.4.1 a. b. c.

Source of Develop Project Team Project Staff Assignment Project Management Plan Resource Calendar

6.4.2 Tools and Techniques for Develop Project Team a. Interpersonal Skills I. Problem Solving II. Leadership III. Influencing IV. Negotiation and Conflict Management V. Communication VI. Motivation VII. Empathy VIII. Creativity IX. Group Facilitation Skills X. Team Building XI. Decision Making XII. Political Awareness b. Training c. Team Building Activity : It is required to be familiar with following model that identifies five stages of team development (Tuckman Model): I. Forming II. Storming III. Norming IV. Performing V. Adjourning Stages may be skipped, repeated, or never achieved depending on circumstances.

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d. Ground Rules e. Co-Location f. Recognition and Rewards 6.4.3 Output from Develop Project Team a. Team Performance Assessment b. Enterprise Environmental Factors

6.5

Manage Project Team

Managing the team involves tracking team performance, providing feedback, resolving issues and coordinating changes.

6.5.1 a. b. c. d. e.

Source of Manage Project Team Project Staff Assignments Project Management Plan Team Performance Assessments Performance report Organizational Process Assets

6.5.2 a. b. c. d. e.

Tools and Techniques for Manage Project Team Observation and Conversation Project Performance Appraisal Conflict Management Issue Log Interpersonal Skills

6.5.3 a. b. c. d.

Output from Manage Project Team Enterprise Environmental Factors Updates Organizational Process Assets Updates Change Requests Project Management Plan Updates

6.6

Collect and Utilization of Non-Human Resources

Most of the Technology Driven projects (Like in Telecommunications) handle various types of nonhuman resources, where proper management is critical for project success. Collect and Utilization of Non-Human Resource Activities Develop planning for materials (Non-Human resource) Ensure proper o Specification o Performance o Transportation o Usability

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o o o o

Spear parts or support service requirement Dumping Environmental issues Regulatory issues

6.7

Cost Management Estimate Cost

PMI observes that the ability to influence costs is greater in the early stages of a project by a Project Manager. Cost estimate involves developing an estimate of the costs of all resources needed to complete the project. 6.7.1 a. b. c. d. e. f. Source of Estimate Cost Scope Baseline Project Schedule Human Resource Plan Risk Register Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets

6.7.2 a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 6.7.3 a. b. c.

Tools and Techniques for Estimate Cost Expert Judgment Analogous Estimation Parametric Estimation Bottom Up Estimation Three Point Estimation Reserve Analysis Cost of Quality Vendor Bid Analysis Output from Estimate Cost Activity Cost Estimation Basis of Estimation Project Document Update

6.8

Cost Management Determine Budget

Cost budgeting involves aggregating estimated cost estimates for all individual activities or work packages so that a cost baseline can be established for measuring performance

6.8.1 a. b. c. d. e. f.

Source of Determine Budget Activity Cost estimates Basis of Estimate Scope Baseline Project Schedule Resource Calendars Contracts

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g. Organizational Process Assets

6.8.2 a. b. c. d. e. 6.8.3 a. b. c.

Tools and Techniques for Determine Budget Cost Aggregation Reserve Analysis Expert Judgment Historical Relationships Funding Limit Reconciliation Output from Determine Budget Activity Cost Estimation Basis of Estimation Project Document Update

6.9

Cost Management Cost Control

Cost control is part of integrated Change control and effective cost control requires management of the approved cost performance baseline and any changes to that baseline

6.9.1 a. b. c. d.

Source of Cost Control Project Management Plan Project Funding Requirements Work Performance Information Organizational Process Assets

6.9.2 Tools and Techniques for Cost Control a. Earned Value Management: Earned value is a method of performance measurement that provides current cost and schedule status at regular intervals. EV= Earned Value AC = Actual Cost PV=Planned Value CV=Cost Variance SV=Schedule Variance CPI=Cost Performance Index SPI=Schedule Performance Index BAC=Budget at Completion EAC=Estimate at Completion CV=EV-AC SV=EV-PV CPI=EV/AC SPI=EV/PV EAC=BAC/CPI EAC=AC+(BAC-EV)

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b. c. d. e. 6.9.3 a. b. c. d. e.

Forecasting To-Complete Performance Index Performance review Variance Analysis Output from Cost Control Work Performance Measurements Budget Forecasts Change Requests Project Management Plan Updates Project Document Update

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Module 07: Communication Management

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7.1

Introduction

PMBOK guide defines communication management as the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, retrieval and ultimate disposition of project information. Written and Oral Verbal and Non Verbal Internal and External Formal and Informal Vertical and Horizontal Official and Unofficial

7.2

Identify Stakeholder

This process identifies people and organizations that may be impacted by the project and determines their level of interest, involvement and potential impact on project success. 7.2.1 a. b. c. d. Source of Identify Stakeholder: Project Charter Procumbent Documents Enterprise environmental factors Organizational Process Assets

7.2.2 Tools and Techniques for Identify Stakeholder: a. Stakeholder Analysis: Stakeholders with sufficient influence should be managed carefully and partnerships or coalitions may be formed to maximize project success. PMI identifies the following three steps for stakeholder analysis: Step 1: Identify stakeholders and their roles, expectations and levels of influence

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Step 2: Assess the potential impact of each stakeholder and classify them using various models such as Power vs Interest Power vs Influence Influence vs Impact Salience model Step 3: Assess likely stakeholder responses and plan how to influence them for their support. b. Expert Judgment 7.2.3 Output from Identify Stakeholder: a. Stakeholder Register b. Stakeholder Management Strategy

7.3

Plan Communication

Communication planning involves determining the information needs of the stakeholders and devising an appropriate communication plan. The plan should address who needs what information, when they need it, how they will get it and who will give it to them

7.3.1 a. b. c. d. 7.3.2 a. b. c.

Source of Plan Communication Stakeholder Register Stakeholder Management Strategy Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets Tools and Techniques for Plan Communication Communication requirements Analysis Communication technology Communication Models

The above figure shows the communication model with following components: Encode Message and Feedback Message Medium Noise Decode

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d. Communication Methods I. Interactive Communication II. Push Communication III. Pull Communication 7.3.3 Output from Plan Communication a. Communication Management Plan b. Project Document Updates

7.4

Distribute Information

Information distribute is the process of getting information to project stakeholders in a timely manner by 1) implementing the communications management plan 2) responding to unplanned request for information 7.4.1 a. b. c. Source of Distribute Information Project Management Plan Performance Report Organizational Process Assets

7.4.2 Tools and Techniques for Distribute Information a. Communication Methods b. Informal Distribution Tools 7.4.3 Output from Distribute Information a. Organizational Process Assets Update

7.5

Manage Stakeholders Expectations

In the context of communication management, managing stakeholders involves identifying and satisfying their needs, and resolving any issues that arises.

7.5.1 a. b. c. d. e. f.

Source of Manage Stakeholders Expectations Stakeholder Register Stakeholder Management Strategy Project Management Plan Issue Log Change Log Organizational Process Assets

7.5.2 Tools and Techniques for Manage Stakeholders Expectations a. Communication Method b. Interpersonal Skills: Building Trust Resolving Conflict Active Listening Overcoming resistance to change

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c. Management Skills 7.5.3 a. b. c. d. Output from Manage Stakeholders Expectations Organizational Process Assets Updates Change Requests Project Management Plan Updates Project Document Updates

7.6

Report Performance

Performance reporting involves collecting and disseminating performance information for project stakeholders. Reports usually focus on scope, schedule, cost, quality, risk and procurement. 7.6.1 a. b. c. d. e. Source of Report Performance Project Management Plan Work Performance Information Work Performance Measurement Budget Forecast Organizational Process Assets

7.6.2 Tools and Techniques for Report Performance a. Variance Analysis b. Forecasting Methods: Predicting future performance based on actual performance to date. PMI identifies the following categories: Time Series Casual/Econometric Judgmental Other c. Communication Methods d. Reporting System 7.6.3 a. b. c. Output from Report Performance Performance Report Organizational Process Assets Updates Change Requests

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Module 08: Risk Management

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8.1

Introduction

Risk is defined as an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, can have either a positive or a negative effect on the project objectives. A risk may have one or more causes and one or more impacts if it occurs. Risk Management is identifying, analyzing and responding to project risk. Risk management involves minimizing potentially negative factors and maximizing potentially positive factors. Risk and Uncertainty PMI distinguishes uncertainty from risk. They (and others) content that uncertainty occurs when there is a Lack of information that makes it difficult to estimate the likelihood of an event

8.2

Plan Risk Management and Identify Risk

Risk management planning is the process of deciding how to conduct risk management activities for a project. Risk identification involves determining which risk events are likely to affect the project and documenting their characteristics. 8.2.1 a. b. c. d. e. 8.2.2 a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Source of Plan Risk Management and Identify Risk Project Scope Statement Cost Management Plan Schedule and Communication Management Plan Enterprise environmental factors Organizational Process Assets Tools and Techniques for Plan Risk Management and Identify Risk Planning Meetings and Analysis Document Review Information Gathering Techniques Checklist Analysis Assumption Analysis Diagramming Techniques SOWT Analysis Expert Judgment

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8.2.3 Output from Plan Risk Management and Identify Risk c. Risk Management Plan d. Risk Register

8.3

Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis

Qualitative risk analysis is the process of assessing the likelihood and impact of identified risks and prioritizing them according to their potential effect on project objectives. 8.3.1 a. b. c. d. 8.3.2 a. b. c. d. e. f. Source of Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Risk Register Risk Management Plan Project Scope Statement Organizational Process Assets Tools and Techniques for Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Risk Probability and Impact Assessment Probability and Impact Matrix Risk Data Quality Assessment Risk Categorization Risk Urgency Assessment Expert Judgment

8.3.3 Output from Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis a. Risk Register Update

8.4

Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis

Quantitative risk analysis numerically analyzes the probability of each risk and its consequences on project objectives. 8.4.1 a. b. c. d. e. Source of Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Risk Register Risk Management Plan Cost Management Plan Schedule Management Plan Organizational Process Assets

8.4.2 Tools and Techniques for Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis a. Data Gathering and Representation Technique a. Interviewing b. Probability Distribution b. Quantitative risk analysis and modeling techniques a. Sensitivity Analysis b. Expected Monetary Value Analysis c. Modeling and Simulation c. Expert Judgment 8.4.3 Output from Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis a. Risk Register Update

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8.5

Plan Risk Response

Risk response planning is the process of determining how to enhance opportunity or reduce risk threats. 8.5.1 Source of Plan Risk Response a. Risk Register b. Risk Management Plan

8.5.2 Tools and Techniques for Plan Risk Response a. Strategies for Negative risks of Threats Avoid Transfer Mitigate Accept b. Strategies for positive risks or opportunities Exploit Share Enhance Accept c. Contingent response strategies d. Expert Judgment 8.5.3 a. b. c. d. Output from Plan Risk Response Risk Register Update Risk Related contract decisions Project Management Plan Updates Project Document Updates

8.6

Monitor and Control Risk

Risk monitoring is the process of keeping track of identified risks, ensuring that risk response plans are implemented, evaluating the effectiveness of risk responses, monitoring residual risks and identifying new risks.

8.6.1 f. g. h. i. 8.6.2 e. f. g. h.

Source of Monitor and Control Risk Risk Register Project Management Plan Work Performance Information Performance report Tools and Techniques for Monitor and Control Risk Risk Assessment Risk Audit Variance and Trend Analysis Technical Performance measurement

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i. j. 8.6.3 d. e. f. g. h.

Reserve Analysis Status meeting Output from Monitor and Control Risk Risk Register Update Organizational Process Asset Updates Change Request Project Management Plan Update Project Document Update

Module 09: Closing a Project

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9.1

Introduction

Project closing is a process in PMI standard project management. This process finalizes all activities across all process groups to formally close phase or the entire project, as appropriate.

9.2

Project Closing What need to ensure

a. Final product, Service or Result Transition b. Contract Closing c. Update Organizational Process Assets a. Project Files b. Project or Phase Closure Documents c. Historical Information d. Recognize performing team e. Release resources

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