VFD, motor strategies for energy efficiency

John Yoon, PE, LEED AP, McGuire Engineers Inc., Chicago 02/03/2014

Learning objectives 1. n!ers"an! #hen "o s$eci%& '(Ds. 2. Learn #hich "&$es o% )o"ors re*uire '(Ds. 3. +no# ho# "o achie,e e%%icienc& #hen s$eci%&ing a '(D "o )ee" -oa! con!i"ions.

.he o$"i)is" sa&s "he g-ass is ha-% %u--, "he $essi)is" sa&s "he g-ass is ha-% e)$"&/ "he engineer sa&s "he g-ass is "#ice as -arge as i" nee!s "o 0e. .his 1o2e3s un!er-&ing "ru"h )a& see) s"raigh"%or#ar!, 0u" as engineers, #e o%"en -ose sigh" o% "hese "&$es o% 0asic gui!ing $rinci$-es #hen se-ec"ing e*ui$)en" %or a $ar"icu-ar a$$-ica"ion. 4o #hi-e #e #i-- o%"en s$eci%& ,aria0-e %re*uenc& !ri,es 5'(Ds6 %or )o"ors as a 7co,er8a--9 so-u"ion "o a-- our energ& e%%icienc& an! con"ro- consi!era"ions, "hose sa)e generic s"an!ar! $rac"ices o%"en ha,e a ra"e o% re"urn -ess "han e:$ec"e! or are 1us" $-ain ine%%ec"i,e in !oing #ha" #e "hough" "he& #ou-! !o. .o e%%ec"i,e-& s$eci%& a '(D, #e nee! "o go 0ac2 "o 0asics an! )e"ho!ica--& #or2 "hrough a %e# 2e& s"e$s;
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n!ers"an! "he -oa! 5o$era"ing $o#er, "or*ue, an! s$ee! charac"eris"ics6 n!ers"an! !u"& c&c-e 5#ha" $ercen"age o% o$era"ion a" 100< -oa!, =0< -oa!, e"c.6 >nce &ou ha,e a so-i! gras$ o% "he "#o i"e)s a0o,e, "a2e a s"e$ 0ac2 an! !e"er)ine #ha" &ou3re "r&ing "o acco)$-ish 0& using a '(D 5energ& sa,ings, so%" s"ar", con"ro--a0i-i"&, e"c.6 .he ,a-ue o% "he re-ia0i-i"& o% "ha" '(D 4$eci%&ing an! con"ro--ing "he '(D "o $ro!uce !esire! resu-"s

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su$$-& %re*uenc& is "he roo" conce$" o% '(Ds. (or e:a)$-e. %or a gi. )o"ors ha.i!ing $o#er "o a -oa! is a 38$hase ac in!uc"ion )o"or. De$en!ing on "he Da"iona."he e%%ec"i. . "he a)oun" o% s-i$ #i-. "he )o"or 0ase s$ee! is in."&$ica--& 0e 1< "o 3< o% "he s$ee!. In 0ui-!ing h&!ronic an! air s&s"e)s. . !esigns A "hrough E. .ersus a 1200 r$) )o"or re!uces "or*ue 0& a "hir!.his conce$" is 2no#n as 7s-i$. "he )os" co))on "&$e o% )o"or $ro.su$$-ies. "he ro"or s$ee! ne.Understand your load n!ers"an!ing &our -oa! is "he %irs" s"e$ "o !e"er)ining #ha" &ou can gain 0& a$$-&ing '(Ds. #e can "hen a!!ress "he $o#er an! "or*ue "ha" can 0e !e-i.er reaches s&nchronous s$ee!@"he ro"or a-#a&s s-igh"-& -ags "he %re*uenc& o% "he ro"a"ing %ie-!.ere! 0& "ha" )o"or. 0ase s&nchronous s$ee!s #i"hou" s-i$ are. G00 r$).he DEMA )o"or s"an!ar! MG81 !e%ines %i.ere! 0& "he )o"or is !e%ine! 0& "he %o--o#ing e*ua"ion. >nce #e un!ers"an! #ha" "he 0ase s$ee! o% a )o"or is.e $ri)ar& s"an!ar! in!uc"ion )o"or "&$es. a *uic2 re. se-ec"ion o% an 1E00 r$) . . "he s$ee! o% "he )o"or #i-.en $o#er ra"ing. .he a0i-i"& "o change s$ee! 0ase! on changes in "he e-ec"rica.a0-e 1.erse-& $ro$or"iona. 1E00 r$)/ AF$o-e. 3A00 r$)/ 48$o-e. 4o. .E-ec"rica. "he 0ase s$ee! o% a )o"or is !e%ine! 0& "he %o--o#ing e*ua"ion.ha" )o"or has a charac"eris"ic s&nchronous s$ee! 0ase! on "he *uan"i"& o% 7$o-es9 in i"s !esign an! "he %re*uenc& o% "he e-ec"rica.he -e""er !esigna"ion %or "hese !esign "&$es shou-! no" 0e con%use! #i"h )o"or #in!ing insu-a"ion "e)$era"ure ra"ing c-asses. 4-i$ #i-. Po#er !e-i. 28 $o-e. (or A0 BC Dor"h A)erican e-ec"rica.e !i%%eren" "or*ue8s$ee! re-a"ionshi$ charac"eris"ics. ?u" in an ac in!uc"ion )o"or.9 As such. I" shou-! a-so 0e no"e! "ha" 0ase! on "his e*ua"ion.he charac"eris"ics o% each !esign "&$e are sho#n in .a-so increase. 1200 r$)/ an! EF$o-e.su$$-& %re*uenc& change. (irs". .su$$-&. As -oa! on a )o"or increases.ie# o% )o"or 0asics.e "or*ue ra"ing %or "ha" )o"or.Manu%ac"urers Associa"ion 5DEMA6 !esign "&$e.change $ro$or"iona"e-& "o an& e-ec"rica.

"hrough "he a%%ini"& -a#s.-oa!.he change in re*uire! "or*ue is $ro$or"iona. "his 0asic un!ers"an!ing o% "he o$era"iona. #e recogniCe "ha" "here are signi%ican" $o"en"ia. 4o i% #e can !e%ine "he re*uire! change in )o"or s$ee! "o )ee" "he change in %-o# %or a cen"ri%uga.hese re-a"ionshi$s can 0e e:$resse! "hrough "he %o--o#ing e*ua"ions. or e-e.$u)$s6 2.energ& sa."o "he cu0e o% "he change in s$ee! %ro) one s&s"e) $oin" "o ano"her.i!e! in"o "#o $ri)ar& ca"egories.charac"eris"ics %or each )o"or !esign "&$e can $ro. 4o "o su$$or" a charac"eris"ic -oa!. . .e !is$-ace)en" -oa!s such as scre# co)$ressors. Bo#e. In 0ui-!ing s&s"e)s. reci$roca"ing co)$ressors. 1.a"ors6. >nce a -oa!3s s"ar"ing re*uire)en"s are !e"er)ine!. an! cen"ri%uga. "he ne:" s"e$ is -oo2ing a" "he -oa!Hs running re*uire)en"s. e:c-u!ing cons"an" horse$o#er an! cons"an" s$ee!/"or*ue -oa!s.aria0-e "or*ue 5%ans.er. cons"an" "or*ue 5$osi"i. . 0& associa"ion."o "he s*uare o% "he change in s$ee! %ro) one s&s"e) $oin" "o ano"her. 0-o#ers. "or*ue.-oa!s "ha" can "a2e a!. 'aria0-e s$ee!. 'aria0-e s$ee!.I% "he -oa!3s s"ar"ing "or*ue re*uire)en"s are 2no#n. an! s$ee!. horse$o#er. #e se-ec" a )o"or "o )ee" a s$eci%ic s"ar"ing re*uire)en" an! running ou"$u" $o#er.an"age o% '(Ds can genera--& 0e !i. "&$ica. . "he change in re*uire! $o#er is $ro$or"iona.ings associa"e! #i"h re!ucing a )o"orHs s$ee! an!.i!e 0asic gui!ance in se-ec"ing "he $ro$er )o"or DEMA !esign "&$e.

o i--us"ra"e "his. "he charac"eris"ic -oa! $ro%i-e %or "he )o"ors in an& gi. Du)erous co)$u"er $rogra)s are a.e "han o$era"ing a 100 h$ )o"or a" 40< -oa!J Ihi-e "he !i%%erence in energ& cos"s )a& 0e )argina-.hour-& energ& re*uire)en"s %or unusua--& co)$-e: s&s"e)s. "here3s ano"her si!e "o "ha" s"or&.erse-&. Bo#e.en $oin".ie# o% a s&s"e) siCing su))ar& an! reco))en!e! e*ui$)en" se-ec"ions.ings is no" necessari-& as grea" as "ha" %or a cen"ri%uga.$ercen"age o% "he o. "he $o"en"ia.e. Ii"h "hese "&$es o% -oa!s.sa. An! con.ai-a0-e "o siCe B'AC s&s"e) co)$onen"s an! )o!e. . "he change in re*uire! $o#er is !irec"-& $ro$or"iona. (igure 2 )ore c-ear-& i--us"ra"es "his re-a"ionshi$.ersiCe! e*ui$)en" "o re)ain %unc"iona-. "he -eas" e%%icien" )o"or is "he one "ha" !oesn3" "urn o%% #hen i" shou-! 0e o%%. In genera-.ar& !ra)a"ica--& !e$en!ing on 0ui-!ing usage an! #ea"her con!i"ions. As engineers. 0e&on! a cursor& re. Bo#e.ca$i"a.era-. Motor efficiency .he )os" e%%icien" )o"or is "he one "ha" ne."o signi%ican"-& increase energ& e%%icienc& 0& re!ucing )o"or s$ee!. "here is s"i-.e !is$-ace)en" -oa!s "ha" re*uire cons"an" "or*ue "hroughou" an o$era"ion s$ee! range.his non-inear re-a"ionshi$ 0e"#een $o#er an! s$ee! can 0e e:$-oi"e! %or signi%ican" energ& sa. here3s an e:"re)e e:a)$-e.ings resu-"ing %ro) re!uce! s$ee! is no" *ui"e as a""rac"i. #e recogniCe "ha" e:ce$" %or cons"an" s$ee!/cons"an" "or*ue -oa!..er.en s&s"e) can an! #i-. Bo# )an& $ro1ec"s ha.cos"s %or ins"a--a"ion is no". "his ca$a0i-i"& has a-so gi.a-ue engineering 0ecause "he !esign cou-! no" )ee" "he cons"ruc"ion 0u!ge"J .er.o$era"ing hours %or an& gi.e-& s)a-. "he #ors"8case !esign scenario usua--& re$resen"s a re-a"i.e 0een sen" 0ac2 %or . '(Ds ha. "he !i%%erence in ini"ia.$o"en"ia.sa. ho# )uch "i)e is rea--& s$en" "r&ing "o un!ers"an! "he e:ac" -oa! $ro%i-e an! ho# "o o$"i)iCe "he e*ui$)en" se-ec"ions "o $ro."o "he change in s$ee!.en us "he ca$a0i-i"& "o change "o "he ou"$u" o% our )o"ors "o )ore c-ose-& )a"ch "he -oa! a" an& gi.e gi.en 0ui-!ing s&s"e).i!e "he 0es" e%%icienc& a" "he -oa! #here "he s&s"e) s$en!s )os" o% i"s "i)eJ Ihi-e i"3s recogniCe! "ha" "here3s .a-ue "o "he s"an!ar! $rac"ice o% inc-u!ing sa%e"& %ac"ors an! re!un!anc& in a s&s"e) !esign.en us a cru"ch in a--o#ing s&s"e)s 0ase! on o.-oa!. Is o$era"ing a =0 h$ )o"or a" E0< -oa! going "o 0e )ore or -ess cos"8 e%%ec"i. Ihi-e "he $o"en"ia. (or $osi"i..er "urns on.ings i% "he s$ee! o% "he )o"or can 0e change!.

As !e)ons"ra"e! in our o. Co)$are! "o $re8 EPAc" )o"ors.-oa! e%%icienc& re*uire)en"s %or a-. Mo"ors are no" 100< e%%icien".he Energ& Po-ic& Ac" o% 1GG2 5EPAc" 1GG26 an! "he su0se*uen" Energ& In!e$en!ence an! 4ecuri"& Ac" o% 200K 5EI4A6 )an!a"e )ini)u) %u-.e "o !e)ons"ra"e as an or!er o% )agni"u!e es"i)a"e. "hese s"an!ar!s re$resen" incre)en"a--& increase! e%%icienc& across "he 0oar!.cos" co)$are! "o e*ui$)en" cos".genera.ie# o% "he a%%ini"& -a#s. a re!uce! energ& usage an! o$era"iona. .in$u" energ& "o use%u.er.o% "he "i)e a" a %i:e! s$ee! "o )ee" a )ini)u) co!e e:haus" re*uire)en".he $ri)ar& 0ene%i" o% using a '(D is 0eing a0-e "o o$era"e a )o"or a" a re!uce! s$ee!. Ihi-e "hese e:a)$-es use genera-iCe! cos"s %or e-ec"rici"& an! e*ui$)en".here are cer"ain si"ua"ions #here using a '(D )a& no" resu-" an& energ& sa.$ur$ose 38$hase )o"ors %ro) 1 "o 200 h$ ra"e! u$ "o A00 ' "ha" are )anu%ac"ure! or i)$or"e! in"o "he ni"e! 4"a"es. "he )agni"u!e o% #hich is "&$ica--& in "he )i!8 "o highFsing-e8!igi" $ercen" range. "he& ser. #ha" energ& sa.ings $o"en"iae:is"s in re!ucing )o"or s$ee! an! $o#er.he grea"es" e%%icienc& gains are "&$ica--& rea-iCe! in s)a--er8siCe! )o"ors 0e-o# =0 h$. i% a )o"or is ser. ?u" #as "his "he "rue .ings 0ene%i" !oes a '(D o%%er i% i" on-& o$era"es a" 100<J Mo"or e%%icienc& is a si)$-e ra"io o% "o"a. "re)en!ous energ& sa.a-ue o% "ha" re!uce! $o#er usageJ .e "o increase "he cos" an! co)$-e:i"& o% an ins"a--a"ion. Bo#e.a0-e 2 sho#s so)e si)$-i%ie! e:a)$-es o% e-ec"rica. .e%%icienc& s"an!ar!s ha.er.cos".e resu-"e! in no"icea0-& increase! e%%iciencies %or )o"ors across "he 0oar!.ings an! )a& on-& ser.ing a -oa! -i2e a "oi-e" e:haus" %an "ha" o$era"es a-..ou"$u" $o#er. o$era"ing a" a re!uce! s$ee! resu-"s in a !ra)a"ica--& -o#er $o#er re*uire)en". 0u" recen" %e!era. . Ihi-e "he e:ac" e*ui$)en" cos" an! "he u"i-i"& . an! 0& associa"ion. "ha" "he &ear-& cos" %or e-ec"rici"& can easi-& a$$roach !ou0-e "he cos" o% "he )o"or i"se-%. Per "he a%%ini"& -a#s.

er-oo2e! in "his e)$hasis on ensuring "he re-ia0i-i"& o% "he )o"or is "ha" "he cos" o% "he '(D can a$$roach "he cos" o% "he )o"or.en #i"h $ro$er "her)a. an! insu-a"ion.er"er !u"& )o"ors "ha" con%or) "o DEMA MG18200A Par" 31.er.es")en"J Jus" -i2e )o"ors. Man& cri"ica.era.e "o re$-ace "he en"ire '(D ra"her "han a""e)$" "o re$-ace in!i.'(D co)$onen"s . Ihi-e higher carrier %re*uencies in a $u-se#i!"h )o!u-a"ion sche)e genera--& resu-" in 0e""er '(D ou"$u" #a.'(D co)$onen"s@an& o% #hich can cause "ha" '(D "o %ai-. .er"er !esign o% a "&$ica. "he in"erna. . De$en!ing on "he siCe an! age o% a '(D. Mos" e-ec"ric )o"ors are !esigne! "o o$era"e a" =0< "o 100< o% ra"e! -oa!.ser. Pea2 e%%icienc& %or )os" )o"ors a" a %i:e! s$ee! is ac"ua--& a" a0ou" K=< -oa! ra"her "han a" ra"e! horse$o#er.i!ua.er.ice -i%e %or a genera. Bis"orica--&. '(D con!uc"i. 0& use o% "rue in. co$$er #ire. Gi. )o"ors are 0ig.er.he -osses in a '(D are $ri)ari-& a""ri0u"e! "o con!uc"ion 5e-ec"rica. Iha" !o #e !o "o ensure "he re-ia0i-i"& o% "ha" '(D an! $ro"ec" "ha" in. !oes a!!ing a '(D )a2e senseJ Does "he '(D ha.his is no" unusua-.ice -i%e o% a '(D is !irec"-& re-a"e! "o "he re-ia0i-i"& o% "he in!i.0e signi%ican"-& -ess "han "ha" %or "he )o"or i" ser. I" shou-! ne. "he ser. "here is a !o#nsi!e.e -osses are %air-& consis"en".ser. an! 2ee$ing )o"or %ee!er -eng"hs shor".in"erac"ion 0e"#een "he )o"or an! '(D.en "he nu)erous horror s"ories o% )o"or %ai-ure a%"er shor" $erio!s o% "i)e !ue "o a -ac2 o% consi!era"ion "o $ossi0-e har)%u. a %ac" "ha" is o%"en o. A signi%ican" $or"ion o% "he in$u" $o#er "o "he '(D is #as"e! as hea".en "he -oa! $ro%i-e. '(Ds are no" 100< e%%icien". i" is o%"en )ore cos"8e%%ec"i.ha" sa)e hea" an! "he a0i-i"& "o $ro$er-& )anage i" has a !irec" e%%ec" on "he aging o% "he '(D3s e-ec"ronic co)$onen"s.!u"& "o"a--& enc-ose! %an8coo-e! 5. "he !i%%erence in e%%icienc& 0e"#een K=< an! 100< -oa! is neg-igi0-e. Mos" '(D e%%icienc& ra"ings are in "he )i!8G0< range. ho#e.%ai-e! co)$onen"s.'(D is no" "o"a--& -oss8-ess.ice -i%e o% a )o"or is !e$en!en" $ri)ari-& on "he con!i"ion o% "he ro"or sha%" 0earings an! insu-a"ion s&s"e) %or "he #in!ings.er 0e %orgo""en "ha" '(Ds are %air-& so$his"ica"e! $o#er e-ec"ronics consis"ing o% nu)erous !iscre"e co)$onen"s.hese issues o% re!uce! )o"or -i%e cause! 0& '(D o$era"ion can 0e $ar"ia--& )i"iga"e! "hrough se."o see u$ "o a =< "o 10< !i%%erence in e%%icienc& 0e"#een 2=< an! K=< -oa!. VFDs aren’t black boxes Co)$are! "o a '(D. As "he )o"or siCe ge"s s)a--er.es."o "he carrier %re*uenc& a" #hich "he "ransis"ors o$era"e. Bo#e. "his e%%icienc& !ro$ o%% #i"h -o#er -oa! ra"ings )a& 0e so)e"hing "o consi!er. . con!uc"i. gi.e%or) sha$ing. Ihi-e "he ser.)anage)en".ice6 an! s#i"ching -osses 5"he $o#er "ransis"ors on "he rec"i%ier in$u" an! in.)e"ho!s.curren" %-o#ing "hrough "he !e. sha%" groun!ing rings. !u)0 hun2s o% iron. ?u" e. 0u" s#i"ching -osses are !irec"-& $ro$or"iona.er"er ou"$u"6.E(C6 )o"or is a$$ro:i)a"e-& 20 &ears.e 0earing -u0rican"s. Bo#e. "&$ica--& 0e-o# 1<. "he %ocus has 0een on )ini)iCing )o"or %ai-ures #hen !esigning an! s$eci%&ing e*ui$)en" #i"h '(Ds.es")en"J '(Ds asi!e.ice -i%e %or a '(D can s"i-.e an acce$"a0-& shor" -eng"h o% "i)e %or re"urn on in. i" shou-! 0e re)e)0ere! "ha" "he "&$ica. Ii"h )o"ors 0e-o# 2= h$. "he use%u.he rec"i%ier8!c 0us8in.e%%icienc& o% a )o"or changes #i"h -oa!.ra"es can a%%ec" "he resu-"s in ei"her !irec"ion. i"3s no" unusua.i!ua. . .

era-. con"ro.i!ua.re-ia0i-i"& o% "he s&s"e) can 0e !ra)a"ica--& i)$ac"e! 0& so)e"hing as si)$-e as ensuring "ha" "here is a!e*ua"e air%-o# aroun! "he '(D 5see (igure 46. . Co)$onen"s can corro!e !ue "o high hu)i!i"&.o% .his ser.)a& re*uire re$-ace)en" in a "i)e s$an as shor" as = "o 10 &ears. . Poor $o#er *ua-i"& issues can %r& con"ro0oar!s.he 2e& "o re-ia0-e '(D o$era"ion is "o )a:i)iCe "he -i%e e:$ec"anc& o% "he in!i. "he -i%e o% "he !e. . (ans an! %i-"ers can c-og #i"h !us" an! !ir". .e. hu)i!i"&. "he o$"i)u) a)0ien" "e)$era"ure %or $o#er e-ec"ronics is =G "o EA (.erhea" #i"h no air circu-a"ion in high a)0ien" "e)$era"ures. $o#er ca$aci"ors.es "o e)$hasiCe "ha" "he $er%or)ance an! o. Ie o%"en $u" )o"ors an! '(Ds in -oca"ions "ha" are $oor-& sui"e! "o ensuring "heir re-ia0-e o$era"ion. . Le$-ace)en" o% so)e co)$onen"s )a& re$resen" a !is$ro$or"iona--& -arge $ercen"age o% "he cos" o% "he '(D.his )a& )ean $u""ing a '(D in an uncon!i"ione! $u)$ house. 0u" "he $ri)ar& en. '(D %ai-ure )o!es cause! 0& $oor o$era"ing con!i"ions are nu)erous. Ihi-e '(Ds are !esigne! "o o$era"e in u$ "o a 104 ( a)0ien" "e)$era"ure. on "he roo% in a $ac2age! air han!er. an! )ore.co)$onen" 0& con"ro--ing "e)$era"ure. !ue "o "he na"ure o% "he -oa!s "ha" #e a$$-& '(Ds "o.0oar!s. an! !ir"/!us" in "he -oca"ion #here "he '(D is ins"a--e!.consi!era"ion is a-#a&s hea" 5see (igure 36.he !ri.er& 1K ( re!uc"ion in o$era"ing "e)$era"ure.ru-e o% "hu)0 is "ha" %or e. Ihi-e "hese "&$es o% si"ua"ions )a& re$resen" a co)$ro)ise! !esign.he -is" goes on. i" shou-! 0e un!ers"oo! #ha" e%%ec" "his has on "he re-ia0i-i"& o% "he !esign an! #ha" a!!i"iona-e.e-s o% re!un!anc& in "he !esign are a$$ro$ria"e "o accoun" %or "his re!uce! -e.e can o. .hese co)$onen"s inc-u!e coo-ing %ans.he "&$ica. n%or"una"e-&. . "here are o%"en -i)i"e! o$"ions as "o #here "he '(D can 0e -oca"e!.ice !ou0-es.iron)en"a.

use "he sa)e 0asic conce$".o-"age 0oos" is re)o.AK6.e!. Is a #ra$8aroun! 0&$ass across8"he8-ine con"ac"or.re-ia0i-i"&. "his #ou-! 0e "he -i2e-& con"ro. s$ee! an! "or*ue regu-a"ion %or a -oa! 0eco)es 70es" guess. c-ose! -oo$ 5%ee!0ac26 an! o$en -oo$ 5sensor-ess6.an"ages inc-u!e re!uce! a0i-i"& "o o. In genera-.o-"age a$$roache! Cero.o-"age 5.ec"or co)$onen"6 an! "or*ue $ro!ucing curren" 5re%erre! "o as . 4ca-ar is "he si)$-er 5an! chea$er6 con"ro.o-"age an! %re*uenc&. A-.)e"ho!o-og& is "ha" i" is .e is a-so one o% i"s $ri)ar& !isa!..ou"$u" can 0e use! "o change no" on-& %re*uenc& 0u" a-so . "hese !o#nsi!es can o%"en 0e !ea. i% "he . .)e"ho!o-og&. ho# !o #e con"ro."ha" '(DJ .ers$ee! a )o"or.er "he en"ire o$era"ion s$ee! range o% a )o"or.here are "#o %or)s o% . I% )u-"i$-e )o"ors are connec"e! "o a sing-e '(D.o-"age 0oos" %ea"ures. "he "or*ue ou"$u" o% "he )o"or #ou-! a-so a$$roach Cero. or a se$ara"e s"an!0& '(D %or e)ergenc& s"ar"ing a$$ro$ria"e %or "he a$$-ica"ionJ Scalar and vector control Assu)ing "ha" #e $ro$er-& charac"eriCe! our -oa! "&$e.er& si)$-e an! !oes no" re*uire !irec" )o"or %ee!0ac2. . Bo#e.g.ec"or con"ro-.sche)es. As "he s$ee! is increase!. )ain"aining "he '(D ou"$u" a" a %i:e! . Ii"h .er. sing a se" '/BC ra"io an! no !irec" )o"or %ee!0ac2.an"ages. #e can se$ara"e-& a!!ress "he )agne"iCing curren" 5re%erre! "o as "he 7!9 . "he .9 4ca-ar !ri.o-"age 0oos"6 is a!!e! "o "he $rescri0e! '/BC ra"io "o )ain"ain "or*ue. "he $ri)ar& 0ene%i" o% "his con"ro.aria0-e s$ee!/cons"an" "or*ue -oa! "&$es.o-"age "o %re*uenc& ra"io "heore"ica--& can a--o# consis"en" "or*ue o.)e"ho!.0rea2ers. M'o-"s $er Ber"CM 5a-so 2no#n as '/BC. 4A0 '/A0 BC N K. a %i:e! .he $u-se #i!"h )o!u-a"ion use! 0& )o!ern '(Ds "o s&n"hesiCe a sinusoi!a. ?& sha$ing "he '(DHs ou"$u" . %oun! "he righ" )o"or %or "he -oa!.1.here are "#o $ri)ar& "&$es o% '(D con"ro.o-"age "o %re*uenc& is 2no#n 5e. I% "he ra"io o% in$u" . $oor 0rea2a#a& "or*ue charac"eris"ics.ec"or con"ro-. A" .o-"age. an! !e"er)ine! "ha" "he -oa! $ro%i-e o% "he -oa! )a2es a '(D use%u-.here are "#o su0se"s o% in!irec". "his -ac2 o% %ee!0ac2 "o "he !ri. >"her !isa!.er& -o# )o"or s$ee!s/%re*uencies.es are genera--& reco))en!e! %or "urn!o#n ra"ios o% no )ore "han A. or sca-ar con"ro-6 an! . !irec" an! in!irec". an! $oor -o# s$ee! "or*ue@e. . .o a!!ress "his.en #i"h .

&ou #ou-! #an" "o !irec"-& )easure "he )o"or air ga$ %-u: #i"hin "he )o"or. Ihereas sca-ar con"ro-s use a %i:e! '/BC ra"io.er. Ihere a )o"or is re*uire! "o $ro!uce ra"e! "or*ue a" Cero s$ee! an! 7ho-!9 a -oa! %or a $erio! o% "i)e.ec"or con"ro-.e. "here is no sensor on "he )o"or. s$ee! regu-a"ion.)e"ho!o-ogies are "&$ica--& use! "o acco))o!a"e high "urn!o#n ra"ios 5. Ihen %ee!0ac2 is $ro. In c-ose! -oo$ in!irec" . In !irec" .o% "he )o"or "o !e"er)ine i% a!1us")en"s "o "he ou"$u" are re*uire!. "he '(DHs )icro$rocessor nee!s so)e %ee!0ac2 re%erence signa.i!ing s"a0-e s$ee! an! "or*ue "o "he -oa!."o ensure "ha" "he )o"or is $ro. i" can ca-cu-a"e changes on "he %-& "o "he '(D ou"$u" "o 0e""er regu-a"e "he )o"or s$ee! an! "or*ue. John Yoon is the senior staff electrical engineer for McGuire Engineers.e en! o% "he )o"or. In o$en -oo$ in!irec" .ec"or co)$onen"6 in "he )o"or3s s"a"or. 4ha%" enco!ers are "&$ica--& )oun"e! on "he non8!ri.era-.ec"or con"ro-.o% accurac& an! cos" associa"e! #i"h "he a!!i"iona. 4ince "his is on-& an a$$ro:i)a"ion o% s$ee! 0ase! on a )o!e."he '(D e:ac"-& #ha" "he $osi"ion an! s$ee! o% "he )o"or sha%" is. as "he )o"or in"erac"s #i"h a !&na)ic -oa!. 'ec"or con"ro. "he a0i-i"& "o !ecou$-e "hese co)$onen"s an! in!e$en!en"-& a!!ress "he) o$ens a grea"er $ossi0-e range o% "or*ue an! s$ee! con"ro-.ec"or con"ro-. La"her. "his is no" . "he '(D co)$ares i"s ou"$u" curren" "o "he )o"or an! co)$ares "his "o a )a"he)a"ica.er& #i!e o$era"iona.e. is no" as goo! as #i"h c-ose! -oo$ con"ro-.s$ee! range6 or #here $recise "or*ue con"ro.sensors nee!e!.an! no" a !irec" )easure)en".s$ee! range. Bo#e.er& co))on !ue "o "he -e.)o!e.ec"or !ri. a sha%" enco!er is a!!e! "o "he )o"or "o "e-."he 7*9 .is re*uire!.o$era"iona. Bo#e. .er. an! o. "here is "&$ica--& no choice 0u" "o use a . He has nearly 20 years of experience in the design of electrical distribution systems.i!e! "o "he )icro$rocessor. His project experience co ers a broad spectrum! including high"rise building infrastructure rene#al programs! tenant build"outs! mission critical data centers! good manufacturing practice $GM%& cleanroom facilities! and industrial facilities.

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