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The Nara Grid: An Evaluation Scheme Based on the Nara Document on Authenticity Author(s): Koenraad van Balen Reviewed

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The

Nara the Nara

Grid: An Document

Evaluation Scheme on Authenticity

Based

on

KOENRAADVAN BALEN

This paper describes

an experiment on

Introduction
In the continental European context the

maximization

of values

over

all

layers

to turn the Nara Document Authenticity

into a tool to under aspects of

stand the various authenticity

of built heritage.

discussion on defining authenticity may differ significantly from the debate on authenticity in the southeast Pacific, in the United States, and probably also from the way the concept is being used in the United Kingdom. Debates in
institutes and organizations have identi

should be sought. Such an approach therefore requires being able to define those different perspectives, which today
seem to encompass more than the artis

tic and historic values defined in the


Venice tative Charter. way There is no these strict quanti to maximize different

fied the difficulty in enlarging and en riching the concept of authenticity beyond its definition in the Venice Charter. This debate has been particu larly important to the faculty at the Raymond Lemaire International Center at the Katholieke for Conservation Universiteit Leuven in Belgium, which
owes its existence to one of the main

has been values, but a methodology proposed that would assist in disentan gling the different layers that define the ? the authenticity of the built heritage Nara Grid. The Nara Document and the Nara Grid
Conservation International tion and practice Charter Restoration

on Authenticity

uses for

the

1964

the Conserva

authors of the Venice Charter,


Professor Raymond Lemaire. We

the late
are

of Monuments

familiar with

the difficulty he faced at


the Nara the concept document of heritage

the meeting where was as accepted,

and Sites, also known as the Venice Charter, as a basis for defining the treatment of historic buildings and sites.
Many later charters and documents

was much widened


very material-oriented

compared
concept

to the
of her

itage that is embedded


Charter he co-authored.1

in the Venice
We have

attempted
starting On

to enrich the discussion


Lemaire's occasions tradition. authenticity has

from earlier

been defined as a layered concept: when


different perspectives a certain (or ways can to under

stand) can be applied to judge the values


of an object, or value be

assigned within
tives, layers.2

each of those perspec


Those values can be

developed at the international level have been gradually clarifying the interpreta tion of that charter for different sites or considering the need for applying its concepts in different cultural contexts: the Australia ICOMOS Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance (the Burra Charter, 1999), the Charter for the Protection and Man agement of the Archaeological Heritage (1990), and the Nara Document on (1994). Authenticity Central to the debate is the under standing of the different cultural con cepts of heritage and of the variety of
values attributed to that heritage.3 How

assigned

independently,

and each action


can have

of preservation values. When

or management a choice must

an impact on each of those assigned


be made

between different possible actions, it is necessary (or at least interesting) to be able to understand how different alter
natives Fig. 1. The central staircase of the Grand Ch?teau. Images by the author, unless other wise noted. impact each layer. Assuming can be compared, that

ever, the applications of those insights should not be limited to the cultural
context that generated them. For exam

the relative values for each of the layers


are understood and a

ple, the broadened or layered concept of authenticity as recorded in the Nara Document helped to introduce the her itage value of craftsmanship (which has

39

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Table

1. The Nara Grid based


Dimensions

on the Nara Document


Artistic Historic

on Authenticity
Social Scientific

Surveying
dissertation

and documentation.
on the use of

In his

Aspects i

three-dimen

Form Materials Use Tradition,

and design

and substance and function and

sional techniques of documentation and in studying built heritage, dissemination Mario Santana started with identifying the link between documentation and
authenticity.7 tecting, Studies or that aim promoting, conserving at pro a

techniques,

workmanship Location and setting

Spirit and feeling

monument are based on the identifica tion and evaluation of the heritage
values inherent to it, i.e., understanding

long been considered an important part of heritage in Eastern societies, as in Japan, where craftspeople could be
"protected" the Western as national preservation treasures), approach, to in

Application
The craftsman's

of the Nara Grid


contribution to pre

the authenticity
as a layered

of it and considering
of values.8

it is

concept

Documentation
therefore important,

of this information
and Santana's study infor

serving authenticity. After a few years of research on the repair of masonry, it


was still puzzling to us that in preserva

demonstrated
be used

that the Nara Grid could


of that

as a "container"

which the value of the conservation of the original material and fabric pre
vailed.4 to define This Eastern approach was under used a more appropriate

the outcome of a project will greatly depend on the execution of the tion work
work not and thus on craftsmanship, on the technical and con analysis only In of material siderations preservation.

standing of the input of craftspeople's skills in the preservation of tangible and intangible aspects of the heritage than
was the case in the Venice Charter.5

order to relate that discussion


ments an that are was relevant made attempt

to judg

However, the artistic and historic dimen in the Nara Grid corre sions mentioned with the criteria used in spond closely article (iii) of the Venice Charter: "The intention in conserving and restoring monuments is to safeguard them no less
as works dence." of art than as historical evi

to preservation, a to develop

that would present the relationship between this material technical approach with one that would also include the impact of craftsman ship. The result was the Nara Grid. framework
When out by a preservation craftsperson, further work it should is carried con

mation, as it can be disentangled follow ing the aspects and dimensions. The result is that the actual authenticity value can be documented considering the different layers, based on the state of the fabric, and that simulations could be that done considering modifications could affect the aging process and the natural development of the object in its
setting.

of the Grand Ch?teau Authenticity Water Tower


The example of the water tower in the

The Nara Document


states that

on Authenticity

tribute to the preservation


different ways:

of heritage
degrada

in

material

on the nature of the cultural heritage, context, and its evolution through time, authenticity judgments may be linked to the worth of a great variety of sources of infor mation. Aspects of the sources may include form and substance, use and and design, materials Depending its cultural location and traditions and techniques, setting, and spirit and feeling, and other internal and external factors. The use of these sources of the specific artistic, permits elaboration of the social, and scientific dimensions historic, cultural heritage being examined.6 function, In an attempt to develop an instru

tion should be stopped; craftsmanship


should be preserved; the post-preserva

Bois de la Cambre in Brussels demon strates the use of the Nara Grid for the evaluation of the values of a historic industrial building (Table 2).9 It is part
of a larger complex of two water towers

tion appearance of the building should enhance its historic and artistic value; and the work should contribute to the improvement of the setting of the build ing in its historic environment. Thus, the
craftsperson's contribution is crucial to

built between the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twenti eth century in the Bois de la Cambre, a nineteenth-century public park in the southeast section of capital district of
Brussels. The small water tower, known

ment

help better grasp this of authenticity, we used layered concept this description from the Nara Docu ment to develop a grid inwhich aspect that would
and dimension each represent an axis

the way that authenticity will be evalu ated after the work is carried out. The Nara Grid was completed as a checklist to help identify different di
mensions and aspects that cover the

values attributed to the architectural


heritage.

(Table 1). In this way a relationship can be visualized between the above-defined aspects and dimensions that help to make authenticity judgments.

The above example shows that the use of the grid can yield a more complex understanding of authenticity. Conserva
tors can use it as a tool to promote

discussion and wider understanding of heritage values by filling it out like a checklist.

as the Petit Ch?teau, has been com pletely renovated in order to be reused as an office building, while the larger tower, the Grand Ch?teau, has been abandoned since itwas taken out of service in the 1980s. The history of the two water towers is connected to that of the Bois de la Cambre and of the water-supply system in Brussels in the nineteenth century. The park preserved its original landscap
pressures resisting ing characteristics, streets the and increasing broadening The of structures. number excep only tion was for the the city's construction water-supply of equipment which for

system,

THE NARA

GRID

41

Table 2. Nara Grid for the Repair of Masonry


Dimensions Aspects of the sources to documentation Form related Artistic Skilled artistic contribution expression to

or Rendering

of the heritage Historic is influenced Appearance of historic understanding skills by Social Contribution of society's to visible members of heritage expression preservation Scientific Scientific-based support is required for skilled execution the influencing appearance_ Scientific investigation of

and Design

Materials

and

substance

Choice

of materials

and

influenced the procedures but also original expression the new work

and Understanding historic skills and mastering to the materials contribute conservation of material and the skills themselves X

materials gives craftspeople input into choice of materials and practices X are Groups of craftspeople to the proud to contribute of heritage preservation with workmanship Involvement of craftspeople in conservation and maintenance makes the to setting more accessible public_ X investigation gives and insight into procedures and allows workmanship evaluation of the contribu tion to preservation_ X Scientific

Use Tradition,

and

function Some artistic expressions call for traditional workmanship that require transfer of skills over generations Artistic quality of crafts influences the between the relationship object and its environment X Research manship survival heritage

and techniques, workmanship

on historic work to its contributes as intangible

Location

and

setting

manship

Preservation of historic skills is a way to preserve the option of renewing historic settings

Spirit

and

feeling

included the water towers. The decline of the area began with World War II: illicit tree cutting, negligence, increasing traffic, the burning down of the pavil
ions, and new construction character

early

interior of

structure the water

and

exterior were

appearance

towers

altered in 1908, on the occasion of the Universal Exposition that took place in the Bois de la Cambre. To increase the
water raised, pressure and the Grand its pumping The water Ch?teau was system was acces tank was

ized the history of the park until present day. In 1976 the Bois de la Cambre was protected by law as a heritage land
scape, and during recent years several

adaptation, either public or private, had to deal with a limited number of win dow openings added or, preferably, none at all. Proposals that aimed at inserting floors in the inner space posed problems, as well, because they would alter the
perception pumping of system the complex or would staircase require par

modernized.

urban planning decisions encouraged a restoration project of the site under the supervision of the Commission Royale et des Sites. des Monuments The route of the aqueduct built in Brussels in the first half of the nineteenth century determined the need for and the
position towers in the of the water towers in the park: pressure essential form to and provided system and the necessary thus were system. Their

sible through a staircase constructed around the central pipe. Consequently the inner space and the bottom of the tank could be seen from downstairs at a
glance. Some structural changes also

tial or total removal of the hydraulic system. During this study, undertaken in 2004, the water tower was still empty, unused, and neglected (Figs. 1 and 2). Preservation The study, problems. carried out by architect Nicandra No
cera, cal aimed approach at a showing methodologi to the preservation of in order to of the

occurred to the Petit Ch?teau, and a small bridge was built to connect the
two water gravity-pressure towers. functioned They a new tanks until as water

system was supply introduced, time they were out of taken made to renovate water

at which service.

water

tower. It tried to give detailed and


information that tower the heritage values its preserva justified it presented several in relation The results of to restora that re

exhaustive demonstrate In the water

the water-supply such

function evolved with


systems.

Starting in the 1980s plans were


both towers.

the evolution of built in 1877, had


tank. Its capacity

The Petit Ch?teau,


a flat-bottomed iron

1995 the Petit Ch?teau was completely


renovated inside, after the tank was

tion. Moreover, possible tion and solutions reuse.

was 600 cubic meters, and itwas the only example of that type of tank in Belgium. The increasing demand for water led to the construction of the second water tower in 1891, the Grand tank Ch?teau; it has a concave-bottomed of riveted iron sheets with L-shaped profiles and a capacity of 800 cubic meters. In both cases the building mate
rials were brick, bluestone, and mortar,

removed in order to house offices (al though itwas not in use during this study). However, for different reasons,
proposals for interventions and transfor

search can be considered as a starting point and as support for the develop
ment other of a restoration the analysis project. also On reveals the the hand,

mations of the Grand Ch?teau have not been accepted by the Commission et des Sites. One Royale des Monuments
very exterior important reason of was the that tower the could appearance

need for further, more detailed

studies.

not be altered, as itwas part of the Bois


de la Cambre protected site. Conse

values with the Nara Grid. Assessing After collecting the information in the analysis and transferring it into the Nara Grid, the evaluation of the her
itage values of the structure was aimed

with elements of metal and wood.

The

quently, itwas argued that any kind of

at demonstrating

that the building

is

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Saint Barbara Church was built at the end of the seventeenth century as the convent church of the Augustinian Monastery of Diest, approximately 25 miles (40 kilometers) east of Brussels. It replaced a fifteenth-century Gothic chapel, which had been assigned to the in 1614 and belonged to a Augustinians
wider complex that was finally conse

crated in 1725. Like many other reli


gious communities, the Augustinians

were

forced to leave Diest in 1796. The church and monastery survived the French Revolution thanks to one of
most prominent Catholic fami

Diest's

In 1845 the lies, the Di Martinellis. the sold family complex to the Dutch of Crosiers, which used it congregation
again Crosiers Fig. 2. The exterior of the Grand Ch?teau. Fig. 3. Saint Barbara Church, facade. Brussels, west as a monastery. live the Today, in a modern convent build

worth

preserving.

Several

factors

under

line its value:


The nected interesting water complex towers of two con

The landscape inwhich they stand is a public park and protected site. The complex
historic sels and

the present condition of the building and the site is favorable to the application of the principle of minimal intervention, which could be combined with the reversibility of any intervention. This
conclusion tion proposed was different by the owner from ? the solu to con

ing, which replaced the old convent in 1962. However, except for the weekly celebrations of the Eucharist, they still use the adjacent Saint Barbara Church. So far, the future of Saint Barbara Church in terms of its conservation does
not many bers appear to be an issue. But as in communities, religious of the Crosiers community the mem are

is a testimonial

to the
in Brus

system water-supply its evolution. shows

vert the Grand Ch?teau into an office building as was done with the Petit
Ch?teau.

aging, and it is likely that, at least in its present form, itwill come to an end and will pose serious consequences for the
conservation The question it can of Saint arises Barbara as Church. the site to how

The Petit Ch?teau is transformed, but the Grand Ch?teau has its original
interior The intact. techniques and the construction

Saint Barbara Church: A Global Conservation Approach The aim of the master's thesis of Bert Lemmens on Saint Barbara Church in
Diest, Belgium, about of was to produce a case

can be managed
whether ship. Transforming churches partially art or religious on mon a regular practice.

in the future and


remain a place monumental of wor

technology used for the hydraulic system are typical of the nineteenth
century.

into museums

for concerts a com examples

accommodating basis has become There are some

In Table 3 the information on the towers is integrated into the Nara Grid. In this case the scientific dimension turned out to be prevailing. The Grand
Ch?teau appears to be a "container" of

study about ecclesiastical


particular a result Belgian churches convent the growing

heritage,
churches.10 secularization of become

in
As of

of smaller, ordinary churches that have been successfully reused as exhibition or


performance places. artistic Most are churches

the conservation society, and monasteries has

many different heritage values of scien


tific importance: the craftsmanship and

great challenge
ment. The churchgoers, human and

for all levels of govern


in the number as of priests resources of and

with an indisputable art-historical


tation and landmarks.

repu this

In the case

decrease as well

the ingenuity of the technical installation led to the identification of the water
tower heritage. Many aspects and dimensions under as an important piece of industrial

of Saint Barbara Church, however,


cach? is less evident. The art-historical

nuns, has caused a significant


financial

loss of
that are

literature puts it quite plainly: because


the original decoration interior seventeenth-century a drastic went nine through Bar Saint restoration, teenth-century a second-rate is considered bara Church church. of the value to cast assessment a new

line the authenticity of the Grand Ch?teau. The description based on the grid helps clarify the reason for the
preservation of the water tower. Not

indispensable for the conservation of this heritage. Although there is no dispute about the indelible influence of
monastic life on Western society, the

future of this patrimony


society, where many

in a secularized
communi

Baroque The of

religious

challenge was the church

first

only does the grid clarify the site's au thenticity, but it also helped to evaluate the best approach for its preservation:

ties no longer exist, is unsure and 4).

(Figs. 3

light on the artistic qualities of the church, judging the nineteenth-century


interventions on their own artistic mer

THE NARA

GRID

43

Table 3. Completed
Aspects of the sources to documentation Form

Nara Grid for the Grand Ch?teau


Dimensions related Artistic It has a very specific design, combines typical details of the architectural end of the nineteenth century, e.g., neo-Gothic details in the entrance door. used are Original materials in visible and are mainly they enhance good condition; the beauty and architectural of the two expression towers connected with the passerelle. Historic The water tower is one of left in the the few examples Brussels region and without It is any evident alteration. the last example of its type. Social It illustrates the small-scale Scientific The remains of the original forms permits the study of the typology and the special structure inside represent the engineering typology of the nineteenth century ...)._ in industrial heritage: evidence of materials and technology used for this type of Interests "building machines". (bricks, limestone, of the heritage of the Grand Ch?teau Water Tower

and design

building process using for small-scale materials and for the masonry installations (tank, piping, canalizations).

Materials

and

substance

used come regions of Belgium. They show their traditional use. Some are not produced materials The materials from different anymore. The water tower is a part of the system of water it shows how distribution; at a particular that worked moment in the nineteenth century.

It illustrates

the small-scale

building process using small-scale materials for and for the masonry installations canalizations). Today the case of a private property (the water tower) in a public space (Bois de la Illustration of Cambre). urban development and relation between population and services. It illustrates the small-scale building process using the nineteenth century: its and craftsmanship techniques. The position of the tower is strategic to the past urban of the development neighborhood; today it is strategic for the valorization of the Bois de la Cambre cultural landscape. (tank, piping,

Use

and

function

of water Specific expression tower of the nineteenth of two century; combination towers; forms follow function but with certain expression typical of the nineteenth century engineering constructions.

The presence of the original pump system and the use of the space represent scientific evidence of the of technology development in close relationship with form. to study ancient Possibility techniques and craftsman ship (e.g., the iron tank).

Tradition, techniques, and workmanship

Work has been carried out as work of art. Demonstration of the skills in construction of the nineteenth century.

Some techniques used to show carry out the works the traditional

Location

and

setting

nineteenth-century practices. Their position on the top of a The water tower was a part of the water-supply small hill, related to their system to in the Brussels region, and function, draws attention it is now one of the few the highest point of the Bois de la Cambre and underlines their connection. surviving area. examples in this

The position itself relates to its use and shows evidence the development of the in the nineteenth technology can century; this information be investigated with scientific methods through this structure. X

Spirit

and

feeling

The beauty of the construc tion in context with the Bois de la Cambre is aimed at pleasing the visitors to the neighborhood.

It shows the approach in the nineteenth century of how to deal with semi public places in relation to a cultural landscape.

its. Secondly, the value assessment had


to provide case and of Saint an understanding Barbara the of the so

oped for the Administration


ments ment and Sites of the Flemish an in order to make

of Monu
govern and in inventory churches

of the site. For each of these aspects, an


open qualification can in terms of unique In the case

called sacral value of the church. In the


the Crosiers mentioned churchgoers sacredness

ness or completeness
aspect be developed.

of the discussed for

assessment

of neo-Gothic

as the main quality of the site. In the


spiritual sense of the word, sacredness

Flanders (theM&S method). Each method has a fundamentally different


approach of assessing in results significance, of the assess and

study a coherent
both plary,

set of qualifications

refers to the capacity to embody the idea of the "House of God," providing a place for the faithful to meet God. In the
aesthetic sense of the word, it refers to

rare, exem uniqueness (unique, and remarkable) and complete

the following paragraphs discuss both


the differences

ness (complete, disturbed) was defined. Finally, the defined aspects of architec
ture, interior, and context were assigned

ment and the similarities of both meth


ods.

the quality of the setting and the atmo sphere of the church, providing the
monumental space with sacredness has ity. In the assessment, as a separate been valued of dimension the site. interior serene

The M&S method. The M&S method is conceived as a checklist that evaluates the building on a fixed series of charac teristics.10 The checklist is divided into
three parts, interior evaluating the and architecture, the environ the mental aims at decoration, context of the providing

an overall grade of A, B, or C (with A being the highest) to determine the desired level of protection. This pro vided a performance policy tool. For
example, tecture but does a BCA of the not grade meant has the archi value as such, church require a certain

Eventually,
were used for

two different methods


the assessment. One was

protection

the grid derived from the Nara Docu


ment. The other was a method devel

site. Thus, the list an overview of the

values conveyed by the material

fabric

while the interior decoration might be of no interest, but the distinct urban value of the building requires protection
as part of the urban landscape.

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risty,

and

oratory

on

one

longitudinal

axis. A scientific dimension of this study focuses on the changing significance of


the ment. ration choir as a repository In a similar way of the church has of the the Sacra deco interior

an artistic

dimension, which particularly values the ensemble of three retables in the choir and the sculptural quality of the herms
on the confessionals. But from a scien

tific point of view, Saint Barbara might also be an interesting object of study for
raphy seventeenth-century Augustinian and nineteenth-century iconog restora

tion philosophy
churches.

regarding Baroque

Most
the use,

of the intangible values refer to


setting, and spirit of the church.

?G-r-^^^s?=-e^f

When people speak of the atmosphere of a celebration in Saint Barbara, they


often refer to the "sacral value" of the

church. The setting of the celebration


the church gives the dimension, making As mentioned "holiness" or an ceremony it an authentic above, "sacredness" extra place al

in

^
s^V^-^-^^ IT

of worship. though

i_r

might be reduced to a mere architectural quality, it also has an obvious spiritual dimension, which refers to the capacity of the church building to embody the
Survey by B. Lemmens. status of the or "House of God." Since is so com "sacral" "holiness" plex "sacredness" an additional

Fig. 4. Saint Barbara Church,

floor plan and north elevation.

an attribute,

This method was applied to Saint Barbara Church with the aim of making
a new statement about the heritage

The Nara Grid. In the search for a value


assessment that goes beyond restricting an

dimension was added to the grid in order to disentangle the origins from
this value.

the adaptation
the assessment was evaluation

of the site and includes


intangible made using of values, the Nara

value of the fabric and of its environ ment. The checklist turned out to be a useful tool to assess the findings of the
architectural and art-historical analysis

Grid.

It aims at identifying the different heritage dimensions of the church.


to the evaluatory of as a approach of

and to translate them into criteria for


the conservation of the site.

Contrary

theM&S
been statement decora value

method,

the Nara Grid has


"playground" to actualize

Finally, one dimension that the Nara Grid recognizes, which appeared to be of great importance when considering the value of the site and its possible is the social dimension. developments, Most of the faithful who visit the cele
brations at Saint Barbara come from

The overall AAB grade for Saint


Barbara that tion the Church made a clear and a architecture represent interior heritage

conceived

for identifying values, a way of investi


gating meaning the opportunities of the site. the

clearly

and that the church requires the highest


of protection. comes to reinforcing resources financial proach guidance does not level However, the of the any social when and ap or it

give

site, this assessment

Also, the findings of the architectural and art-historical analysis have been integrated here, but in a different way than in theM&S method. Instead of assigning a grade to the fabric of the
site, values architectural were and art-historical in their respec disentangled

abroad. The church does not have a strong link with the quarter inwhich it is located. The poor integration within the social fabric of Diest points to a weakness of the site. It is a problem of
which the Crosiers In the value are also aware. of the church, assessment

theM&S method
turned cause out to be serve they to determine

and the Nara Grid

by which

to consider

a mean

ingful new use. Since the checklist is deliberately based on the tangible fabric of the site, the method overlooks many
intangible aspects of the local practices uses, tions, an source for the important mensions site. of a heritage site ? ? tradi which social di are

tive artistic and scientific dimensions. In this way, the architectural value of the church as an exemplary "worshipping machine"
artistic perposition

be complementary, In different order goals. criteria for the conserva

tion of the fabric of the site, theM&S method has proved to be a performance
tool, comes which accounts for the multilay

has been separated from its


referring a single nave, to the choir, su sac of

dimension,

ered character of the fabric. But when


to understanding the complexity

it

THE NARA

GRID

45

and

sometimes

even

opposing

character

tween

two

types

of

evaluation

schemes

3. Article

11 of the Nara

Document

on Authen

of heritage values, the Nara Grid has


provided a an assessment that made the

identity of the Saint Barbara Church as


heritage site more clear. It revealed the

artistic and scientific dimensions of the architecture and interior decoration of the church building and sacredness as a major intangible value, but it also re vealed the weak social integration of the
church within the quarter.

that can be used for churches, of which one was based on the Nara Grid. It appeared that theM&S method and the Nara Grid were complementary and that the open character of the Nara Grid allowed for integrating issues which were beyond theM&S method. This paper tries to illustrate how the Nara Grid has been and could be used
as a mental report on scheme aspects to and investigate dimensions and of

ticity, www.international.icomos.org/naradoc _eng.htm. 4. This is how article (iii) of the Venice Charter them ... as historical evidence" was

"safeguard interpreted.

5. Van Balen, Materialization," 6. Article ticity.

"From Conservation 1-7. Document

Principles on Authen

to

13 of the Nara

Evaluation

of the Use of the Nara Grid

authenticity of the built heritage.


therefore be used as a transparent as a

It can
inter

7. Mario Santana Quintero, "The Use of Three Dimensional of Documentation and Techniques Dissemination in Studying Built Heritage" Lemaire Interna (PhD dissertation, Raymond tional Center for Conservation, K. U. Leuven, 379. 2003), 8. Koenraad Van Balen, R. Hayen, S. Naldini, L. Van Der Klugt, R. Van Hees, M. P. Luxan, F. and L. Binda, "Mortar Characteriza Dorrego, to Compatibility," inMainte tion, From Values nance of Pointing in Historic Buildings: Decay and Replacement, Final Report, ed. R. Van S. Naldini, and L. Van der Klugt Hees, (EC Environment contract ENV4-CT98 Program, 75-84. 706,2001), 9. Nicandra "AWater Tower in the Nocera, Bois de la Cambre, Brussels, le Grand Ch?teau: to its Preservation" Contribution (master's Lemaire Center International thesis, Raymond for Conservation, K. U. Leuven, 2004), 98. This thesis provided the framework for the towers. analysis of the Bois de la Cambre water Bert Lemmens, Nicandra and Koen Nocera, raad Van Balen, "Understanding and Evaluat the Nara Document," in ing Authenticity Using Conservation in Changing 85-96. See Societies, this report for a more detailed of description this case study. 10. Bert Lemmens, "St. Barbara Church Diest: Initiating a Global Conservation Approach" Lemaire Interna (master's thesis, Raymond tional Center for Conservation, K. U. Leuven, et al., and 2005). Lemmens "Understanding the Nara Docu Evaluating Authenticity Using ment." See this report for a more detailed of this case study. description 11. Thomas Coomans, in Neostijlen Kerken in en implementatie Vlaanderen, Ontwikkeling van een voor de en m?thodologie bescherming de monumentenzorg van het negentiende eeuwse kerkelijk architecturaal in patrimonium Vlaanderen in revival styles in [Churches and implementation Flanders, Development of a and preserva for the protection methodology tion of the religious in heritage Flanders] (Leuven: unpublished report KADOC, 2003).

The first case study is at the origin of the development of the Nara Grid. It
demonstrated how considering "as

disciplinary
however,

communication

tool. It is,

not meant

quantitative

pects" and "dimensions" allowed for a much richer evaluation of heritage values to be considered when dealing with masonry preservation, including the role of craftsmanship. While it is a tool for analysis, the Nara Grid allows us to gain insight on how different
strategies may straightforward tion promotes The impact authenticity. and simple representa communication and

that would allow "mea methodology suring" the level of authenticity. The reader is therefore invited to use it rather as a checklist and to understand the limits of its use.
KOENRAAD VAN BALEN graduated as an architectural engineer, received a postgraduate and has a PhD in engi degree in conservation, at the Katolieke neering. He is a professor Universiteit in Belgium Leuven in the civil and is currently direct engineering department Lemaire International Center ing the Raymond for Conservation.

exchange of ideas on the topic. The latter aspect is also demonstrated in the
other tracted case from studies that have works. been ex students' In doc

Notes
of 1. Christina "Conservation in Cameron, Societies: World Heritage Indicators Changing in Conservation," in Conservation in Changing Societies: Heritage and et Soci?t?s en Development/Conservation et D?veloppement, Patrimoine Transformation: ed. Teresa Patricio, Koenraad Van Balen, and Krista De Jonge (Leuven: Raymond Lemaire International Center for Conservation, K. U. 39-47. Leuven, 2006), Van Balen, "From Conservation to Materialization Principles (Or the Other IsMaterialization Guided Way Around: How in Consolidation by Principles?)," of Masonry: Advances inMaterials Science and Restoration, vol. 1, ed. D. Van Gemert (Freiburg: Aedifica tion Publishers, 135-144. 2003), 2. Koenraad

toral dissertations
used where to structure and how

the Nara Grid was

the understanding con documentation

tributes to defining the authenticity of the built fabric. The Nara Grid was also
offered framework. to the students In their as a reports conceptual the students

used the grid to show their analysis and


to evaluate gies. possible preservation strate

In the case of the study on the church


in Diest, a comparison was made be