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Construction: Manual and Computer-Aided Construction Drawing (Higher).

Study Guide 3
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CONSTRUCTION
MANUAL AND COMPUTER-AIDED
CONSTRUCTION DRAWING
HIGHER
STUDY GUIDE 3
Construction drawings
Construction: Manual and Computer-Aided Construction Drawing (Higher). Study Guide 3
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Construction: Manual and Computer-Aided Construction Drawing (Higher). Study Guide 3
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STUDY GUIDE 3: CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS
INTRODUCTION
Outcome 2
Prepare site layouts and general arrangement drawings for construction projects.
On completion of this Outcome you should be able to:
describe the types of drawing used for construction projects
accurately prepare a scale site layout
accurately prepare a general arrangement drawing for a small building project.
Most of the drawing work you will undertake for the Outcome will be that required
for the assessment assignments of the unit. Additional drawing work may be based
on drawings required for assessment of the other two units of Higher Construction
and for the external assessment project of the Higher course.
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TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION DRAWING
This section deals with the various types of drawing required for a building project,
from the conceptual design stage to the preparation of production drawings. These
range from small scale drawings showing the location of a site in relation to local
geographic and infrastructure features, to very large scale production drawings
showing small details of the construction.
Drawings produced in construction are used by various parties, for example:
Structural Engineer
Services Engineer
Architect
Planning
Building Control
Quantity Surveyor.
Range of construction drawings
Working from the smallest scale to the largest scale used the range may be
summarised as follows:
1 Site Location Plans
2 Site Layout Plans
3 Sketch Drawings
4 General Arrangement Drawings (plans, sections and elevations)
5 Construction Details.
There are also other pieces of information, some of which require drawings, these are:
1 Schedules for windows, doors, etc.
2 Specifications materials and construction.
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The scales used for the five main types of construction drawing have been given in
Study Guide 1 but are repeated again here.
Use Scale Ratio
Maps 1:1000000 l mm to l000m
1:500000 l mm to 500m
1:200000 l mm to 200m
1:100000 l mm to 100m
1:50000 l mm to 50m
Town surveys 1:50000 1 mm to 50m
1:20000 l mm to 20m
1:10000 l mm to l0m
1:5000 l mm to 5m
1:2500 1 mm to 2.5 m
Survey Location Plans 1 :2500 1 mm to 2.5 m
1:2000 l mm to 2m
Location Plans 1:1250 l mm to l25m
1:1000 l mm to lm
Site Layout Plans 1:500 l mm to 0.5m
Site and key plans 1:1250 1 mm to 1.25m
1:1000 l mm to lm
1:500 l mm to 0.5m
Sketch schemes, etc. 1:200 1 mm to 0.2 m
1:100 l mm to 0.lm
Location drawings 1:200 1 mm to 0.2 m
(General Arrangement) 1:100 l mm to 0.lm
1:50 l mm to 0.05m
Component and 1:20 1 mm to 0.02 m
assembly detail 1:10 1 mm to 0.01m
drawings 1:5 1 mm to 0.005m
1:1 Full size
Other Drawings Plans and sections (longitudinal and cross) for roads
Fabrication drawings for steelwork
Drainage drawings
Record drawings showing the building As Built
The following pages show examples of the main types of construction drawings.
NOTE: The drawings do not relate to the same construction project
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Location Plan
This plan shows where the site is in relation to main roads.
It gives directions to officials who may need to visit the site.
Town Head
Roundabout
Proposed House Site
The usual scale for this type of drawing is 1:2500 or 1:5000
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Construction: Manual and Computer-Aided Construction Drawing (Higher). Study Guide 3
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FREEHAND SKETCH PLAN AND FRONT ELEVATION
This type of sketch might be done by the Architect (or by the Client) as a way of
working out the positions and approximate sizes of rooms, etc.
It is easy to trace over and finalise the details though some adjustments are usually
necessary when sizes are worked out and the sketches are drawn to scale.
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Room Dimensions
Lounge 4.50m by 4.05
Dining Room 3.45m by 3.60m
Kitchen 2.95m by 3.20m
Family Room 4.50 by 3.60m
Utility Room 1.80 by 3.20m
W.C. 0.90m by 2.60m
Bed Room 1 4.10m by 4.90m
Bed Room 2 4.10m by 2.75m
Bed Room 3 2.25m by 2.75m
Bed Room 4 3.00m by 3.35m
Bathroom 1.45m by 2.75m
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TYPICAL SCALED SKETCH PLAN
This type of drawing would be part of a set of designs shown to the Clients for them
to make up their minds on which scheme to accept.
The scale used for these is usually 1:100 as the amount of detail required is not critical
Typical House Ground Floor Plan
The scale for this standard of detail would be 1:50
This is not re-produced to scale but will be approx. 1:70
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Typical Elevation Sheet for a two storey house
The usual scale for these is 1:100 but if more detail is required a scale of 1:50 can be
used with perhaps only two elevations on each sheet.
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Typical Cross-section Through a Two-Storey House
These sections are usually drawn at a scale of 1:50 and show heights and vertical
angles which are not possible on plan views.
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Typical Construction Detail
The detail shows the cross-section through an external wall from foundation to above
window head.
The scale for his drawing would normally be 1:5 but if more detail was required this
may go to 1:2 (Half full size) or even 1:1 (Full size).
Reinforced
Concrete
Lintel
Expanded
Polystyrene
Insulation
Casement
Window
Concrete
Sill
Concrete Floor
with Polythene
Damp Proof Membrane
Concrete
Strip
Foundation
SECTION THROUGH WALL