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CHAP.

8
MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY

1.0 SULPHURIC ACID AND AMMONIA


Learning Outcome
1. Students able to write an equation for CONTACT PROCESS and HABER PROCESS
2. Able to mention the condition of reaction in CONTACT PROCESS and HABER PROCESS.
3. List out the uses of SULPHURIC ACID (H2SO4) and AMMONIA (NH3)
4. Explain how SULPHUR DIOXIDE (SO2) causes environmental pollution.

1.1 SULPHURIC ACID


1.1.2 MANUFACTURED OF SULPHURIC ACID (CONTACT PROCESS)

SULPHUR OXYGEN Stage 1 : PRODUCTION OF SO2


Molten sulphur is burnt in excess oxygen (dry air) to
produce SULPHUR DIOXIDE.
S + O2  SO2

SULPHUR DIOXIDE
(SO2)

Stage 2 : PRODUCTION OF SO3


Sulphur dioxide and oxygen are pass through
VANADIUM (V) OXIDE (catalyst) to produce SULPHUR
TRIOXIDE (SO3)
2SO2 + O2  2SO3
o o
Temp: 450 C – 500 C Pressure : 2 – 3 atm
SULPHUR TRIOXIDE Catalyst : vanadium (v) oxide
(SO3)

Stage 3 : PRODUCTION OF H2SO4


SO3 is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to form
OLEUM OLEUM.
(H2S2O7) SO3 + H2SO4  H2S2O7
OLEUM is mix with water (to dilute) to produce
concentrated sulphuric acid.
H2S2O7 + H2O  2H2SO4
SULPHURIC ACID
(H2SO4)

By Naguib Zakaria
1.1.3 THE USES OF SULPHURIC ACID

Metal Cleaning, 2% Acid, 2%


Dyes, 2%

Synthetic Fibre, 9% Fertilisers


Fertilisers , 32% Paint Pigment
Electrolyte, 10%
Other Chemicals
Detergents
Electrolyte
Synthetic Fibre
Dyes
Metall Cleaning
Detergents, 12% Acid
Paint Pigment, 15%

Other Chemicals, 16%

Fertilisers: Uses in school laboratories:


A large portion of sulphuric acid is used to As a strong acid
manufacture fertilisers such as: As a drying or dehydrating agent
Calcium hydrogen phosphate As an oxidising agent
Ammonium sulphate As a catalyst
Potassium sulphate

Detergent: synthetic cleaning agents.

Synthetic Fibres: Polymers (long chained


molecules), example: Rayon.

Electrolyte: use in car batteries

1.1.4 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

SULPHUR DIOXIDE (release from factories or power station) to atmosphere.


SO2 dissolves in rain to form sulphurous acid (ACID RAIN)

EFFECT OF ACID RAIN


Corrodes the building
Increasing acidity in lake or pond that can cause aquatic organism die
Increasing the acidity of soil.

HOW TO PREVENT EFFECT OF ACID RAIN


Gas released from factories sprayed with limestone (calcium carbonate)

By Naguib Zakaria
1.2 HABER PROCESS
1.2.1 MANUFACTURE D OF AMMONIA (HABER PROCESS)

1ST STAGE
One volume of Nitrogen gas, N2 and three volume of pure dry Hydrogen gas, H2 are compressed to a
pressure between 200 – 500 atmosphere

2nd STAGE
The gas mixture (N2 and H2) are passed through a powdered iron at temperature of 450-550oC

3rd STAGE
The gas mixture (N2 and H2) are passed through a powdered iron at temperature of 450-550oC
N2 + 3H2  2NH3
Condition of reaction: Iron as a catalyst, Temp : 450-550oC, Pressure 200 atm

4th STAGE
Ammonia gas turned to liquid when the mixture is cooled in condenser.
The unreacted N2 and H2 will pump back to reactor and pass through the catalyst again.

By Naguib Zakaria
1.2.1 USES AND PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA

USES OF AMMONIA PROPERTIES


1. Manufactured ammonium sulphate,
ammonium nitrate and urea. 1. Colourless and Pungent gas.
a. Ammonium sulphate
2NH3 + H2SO4  (NH4)2SO4 2. Dissolve in water to form weak alkali.
b. Ammonium nitrate NH3 + H2O  NH4+ + OH-
2NH3 + NH3  NH4NO3 Presence of OH- causes ammonia to
c. Urea become alkaline.
2NH3 + CO2  (NH2)2CO3 + H2O
3. Change moist litmus paper from red to
2. As a cooling agent in refrigerators. blue.

3. As raw material in OSTWALD PROCESS. 4. Neutralise any acid to form ammonium


OSTWALD Process is converted salt
ammonia into nitric acid using React with sulphuric acid to produce
PLATINUM as catalyst AMMONIUM SULPHATE
2NH3 + H2SO4  (NH4)2SO4
4. Can be converted to nitric acid for
making explosives.

5. To prevent coagulation of latex

6. Raw material in produce synthetic fiber


and nylon

By Naguib Zakaria