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PhasorMeasurementUnit

Project7
ECE445Spring2013
DesignReview
KentaKirihara,BogdanPinte,AndyYoon
TA:JustineFortier
February26,2013

TableofContents
1. Introduction
1. Overview
2. Objectives
3. Functions
4. Benefits
5. Features

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3
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3
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2. Design
1. BlockDiagram
2. BlockDescriptions
3. AC/DC,DC/DCConverter,PreliminarySimulationResults
4. GPSSimulation
5. NILabVIEWProgrammingSimulation

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6
6
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3. RequirementsandVerification
1. TestingProcedures
2. ToleranceAnalysis

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4. Cost/Schedule
1. Cost
2. Schedule

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5.
6.
7.
8.

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EthicalIssues
SafetyPrecautions
References
Appendix

1INTRODUCTION
1.1Overview
ThisprojectwasdeemedappropriateduetocurrentstatusofPhasorMeasurementUnits
(PMU)existingPMUshaveproventobeveryexpensiveandbulky.Oneofthereasonsforthe
highcostandlargesizeisduetotheirabilitytotakethreephasemeasurements.Anotherfactor
comesfromthefactthatexistingPMUsaremadetobecompatiblewithrelaystobeableto
automaticallycorrectforerrorswithinthegrid.
Thisproject,however,focusesonmakingaunitthatcanbemuchcheaperandsmaller,
withfunctionalityoptimizationinsteadofthreephasemeasurements,byimplementingonly
onephaseandvoltagemeasurement,theimportantfunctionalityofthePMUiskeptwhile
keepingthecostlow.
Withlowerpriceandmorecompactsize,thedistributionofPMUunitsacrosstheU.S.
powergridcangreatlyincrease.Ultimately,relevantindustrieswillbeabletomonitorthe
statusofthegrid,potentiallyincreasingthestabilityofthegrid.
MostusefuldatacollectedbythePMUwillbewhatiscalledasynchrophasordata.A
synchrophasorisdefinedasthemagnitudeandangleofasinusoidalfunctionasreferencedto
anabsolutepointintime.Thedifferenceinwavemagnitudesatdifferentpointsdownthe
transmissionanddistributionsystemindicateslosses.Furthermore,thephasedifference
betweenvoltagewaveswithrespecttoanabsolutepointintimeindicatespowertransfer.There
isabreakdownvaluewhichthephasedifferencemustnotreachinordertokeepthesystem
stable.Also,thedifferenceinthefrequenciesbetweenvoltagewavesindicatesinstability.
1.2Objective
Successfullyacquirevoltageandcalculatefrequencyandsynchrophasordatawith
GPStimestamp
DeployPMUsacrossthecountry
Costtobelessthan$14,000,whichisthecostofexistingPMUs
Sizetobenobiggerthan300mmx100mmx100mm
1.3Functions
Samplevoltageandcalculatephase,frequency,andRMSvoltagemagnitudewith
GPStimestampprecisetoasecond
Output/savedatatoawebserver
LEDtoshowstatusofthePMU
1.4Benefits
RealtimemonitoringthestateoftheU.S.powergridwillenableavoidanceof
blackouts
Abilitytobedeployedworldwideduetocostandsizebenefits.
WillassistwithhigherlevelPMUresearchduetoitsopenboxnature
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1.5Features
Compactsize
CheaperthancurrentPMUs
Userfriendly
Datacanbeobservedanywherewithcomputeraccess

2DESIGN
2.1BlockDiagram
Figure1showstheblockdiagramofthePMU.

Figure1.BlockDiagram

Figure2andFigure3showsthedataflowandpowerflow,respectively.

Figure2.Dataflow

Figure3.Powerflow

2.2BlockDescriptions
2.2.1WallOutlet
Anywalloutletisaviablesourceofdatasampling.Itwillconnecttoatransformervia
modifiedNEMA515(ACpowerplugs).
2.2.2Transformer
Atransformerwillbeusedtostepdownthewallvoltagetoavoltagethatcanbe
sampledfromtheSingleBoardRIO.Desiredtransformerwillstepdown120VRMSto5VRMS.
Anothertransformerwillbeusedforthepurposeofsteppingdownthewallvoltage
from120VRMSto22VRMStoactasaninputfortheAC/DCconverter.
2.2.3GPS
TheGPSwilloutputNationalMaritimeElectronicsAssociation(NMEA)GPRMCdata
sentence,alongwitha5Vpulseeachsecond.BothdatawillbeinputstotheSingleBoardRIO.
2.2.4SingleBoardRIO(sbRIO)
SingleBoardRIOwilltakeGPSdata,GPSpulse,andsteppeddownwallvoltageto
calculateRMSvalue,frequency,andphasewithprecisetimestamp.Thedatawillbeoutputasa
textfile.
2.2.5LED
AnLEDwillshowthestatusofthePMU.Ifdataiscorrectlybeingoutputfromthe
sbRIO,LEDwillbelit.
2.2.6WebServer
DatageneratedfromthesbRIOwillbeuploadedtoawebserver.Thiswillallowforthe
datatobeobservedanywhere.
2.2.7AC/DC/DCConverter
Thisblockwillconvert22VRMSfromatransformertoa24VDCand5VDCtopowerthe
sbRIOandtheGPS.

2.3AC/DC,DC/DCConverter,PreliminarySimulationResults
2.3.1Schematics

Figure4.PowerSupply

2.3.2Calculations
Therearethreepartstothepowersupply.TheV_Sample,V_FPGA,andV_GPS.Each
componentwascalculatedoutwithcertainrequirements.
First,theV_Samplewhichisusedforsamplingmustbebetween10to10Vin
amplitudefromtherequirements.SincetheVwallis120VRMS,a24:1transformerisusedto
stepthevoltagedownto5VRMS.Sincetheanaloginputoftheconverterishighimpedance,in
theschematicitisreplacedbya100kresistor.
V_FPGAistheconstraintforthemainpartofthedesign.Initially,thevoltageatthe
FPGAwaschosenas24V.Sinceat60Hz,capacitivefilteringwouldrequireaverylarge
capacitorforatrueripplelessvoltage,a4.7mFcapacitorwasdecidedtobeusedalongsidewith
theUA7824voltageregulator.Bydoingthis,theV_rippleisfoundtobefairlylarge,asshown
in(1),butsmallenoughforthisapplication.Thelinearregulatorinputcanbefoundby(2)with
theconstraintof(3)and(4).

V regin = V secondary

7.75
2 24 4700 10

1.2

= .59V

V ripple

P
2V f C

(1)

I load
2f C

V ripple =

(2)

27V < V regin < 37V

(3)

V regin = V cap < 35V

(4)

Usingtheseproperties,theV_secondaryissolvedforasarangein(5).
30.9V < V secondary < 31.5V

(5)

Fromthiscalculatedresult,V_secondaryischosenas31Vtosolveforthetransformerturns
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ratioas11:2.
Fromastable24VattheFPGA,a5VoutputwasnecessarytopowertheGPS.Tocreate
thisoutput,alinearregulatorwasusedagain.Usinga47uFcapacitortostabilizetheinput
voltage,UA7805wasusedtocreatethe5Vsupply.
2.3.3Simulation

Figure5.Simulationresults

Figure5showsthesimulationresults.TheresultsshowthatV_FPGAandV_GPSisstableat
24Vand5V,andV_Sampleisanundistortedsinewave.Thiswouldpowertheboard,gps,and
allowsamplingtobemade.
2.4GPSSimulation

TheGarmin18xLVCprovidestiminginformationthatenablesdatasynchronization
fortheproject.AsampleoftheGPS1pulsepersecondsignalisshownintheoscilloscope
screenshotatFigure6.Thesignalhighis5Vandlowis0V.Thedistinctpulseleadingedge
marksthestartofeachsecondaccurateupto1s.AsampleoftheNationalMaritime
ElectronicsAssociation(NMEA)standardsentenceGPRMCisshowninFigure7,which
providesthedateandtimestamp.ThetwotogetherformsthetimereferenceforthePMU.

Figure6.GPSPulseSignal

Figure7.GPSDataSentenceforDateandTime

2.5NIlabVIEWProgrammingSimulation
2.5.1ControlVI
Figure8showsthecodewrittenforthesbRIO.ThisVIcontrols2subVIs:FPGAVIand
GPSVI.ControlVIcontrolstheoveralloperationforthePMU.IttakesdatareadbyFPGA
subVIalongwithGPSsubVItocalculatefrequency,RMSvoltage,andphaseofthewaveform
andoutputscorrectdatawithprecisetimestamp.Timestampdatacollectedeverysecondis
dividedinto6partsandareassignedtocorrespondinggroupofvoltagemeasurementsand
calculations.Inthissimulation,calculateddataisoutputaswaveformeachtimetheFIFOfills
up,asshowninFigure11.LEDandwebservercontrolwillbeaddedtothismainVI.

Figure8.ControlVI

2.5.2FPGAsubVI
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FPGAsubVIisoperatedbycontrolVItocollectdataatthestartofpulsegivenbythe
GPS.CollecteddatapointsareputintoaFIFOforcontrolVItoutilize.

Figure9.FPGAsubVI

2.5.3GPSsubVI
ThissubVIcollectsGPSsentenceinastringformandoutputsyear,month,date,and
timeexacttoasecond.TheoutputisusedbythecontrolVItostamptimetoacquiredvoltage
data.

Figure10.GPSsubVI

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2.5.4FrontPanel
Figure11showsthefrontpanelofthemaincontrolVI.Asseeninthefigure,correct
representationofthewallvoltageisconfirmedwithfrequencyandphase.Withafinalized
product,thedatawillbeoutputasatextfiletoawebserver.

Figure11.FrontPanel

2.5.5WebServer
ThewebserverdatastorageofthePMUwillbeimplementedusingthesbRIO.Aslong
asthesbRIOisconnectedtotheinternetviaEthernetcable,sbRIOcanbeprogrammedusing
LabVIEWFPGAcodetostoredataontheserver.

3RequirementsandVerification
3.1TestingProcedures
Requirements

Verification

WallOutlet
1. Sinusoidalvoltagewavewith120V
RMS6.667%providedbytheutility
company.

1. Testedusingavoltageprobeandan
oscilloscope.

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Transformer
1. 120VRMS6.667%ontheprimary,
willgive5VRMS6.667%onthe
secondary.Thisgivesasteppeddown

1. Anoscilloscopewillbeusedto
ensurethesteppeddownvoltageis
withintheanaloginputrangeoverthe

voltageamplituderangeof6.60~7.54
V,whichiswithinthe10Vmaximum
analoginputofthesbRIO.

entirewallvoltageallowedrange:
a. Connect112VRMStothe
primaryofthetransformer.
Theamplitudeonthe
secondarymustnotexceed
10V.
b. Connect128VRMStothe
primaryofthetransformer.
Theamplitudeofthe
secondarymustnotexceed
10V

2. 2mVconversionerrorwhenstepping
downwallvoltage.Thistranslates
intoawallvoltageerrorof48mV
givinganassumedrangebetween
119.952~120.048VRMSwhenthe
wallvoltageis120.000VRMS.Greater
numberofturnsgiveasmaller
conversionerror.

2. Theprimaryandsecondary
transformerRMSvoltageswillbe
measuredwithamultimeterfor
differentinputvalues:
a. Put112VRMSontheprimary
ofthetransformer.Measure
theRMSvalueonthe
secondary.Calculatethe
conversionfactorbydividing
theprimaryRMStothe
secondaryRMSvalue.
b. Repeatfor1VRMS
incrementsuntil128VRMS
c. Iftherangeintheconversion
factorislessthan0.0192when
theprimaryisvariedfrom112
VRMSto128VRMS,the
transformerworksasrequired
andthenextstepcanbe
ignored.
d. Iftheerrorisbigger,increase
thenumberofturnsoneach
sideofthetransformerwhile
keepingtheirratiothesame
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untiltheconversionfactor
erroriswithinrange.
GPS
1. Itmustaccuratelygenerateasquare
wavewitharisingedgeatthe
beginningofeachsecond.Thepulse
has5+0.6VDC..

1. TheGPSsignalwillbeverifiedusing
anoscilloscope

2. Therisingedgerepresentsthe
beginningofeachsecondandis
accuratetowithin1saccordingto
itsspecifications.Theaccuracytakes
intoaccounttheeffectsofrisetime.

2. Theaccuracywillnotbetestedsince
thespecificationsareassumedtobe
true.

SingleBoardRIO
1. TheFPGAinsidethesbRIO
multipliestheanaloginputbythe
transformerstepdownconversion
factor.

1.
a. Programmaticallymultiply
theanalogsignalbythe
transformerconversionfactor
b. Plottheresultingwaveformin
LabVIEW
c. CalculateitsRMSvalue
d. Itmustbewithin48mVofthe
wallvoltage.

2. Writecodetocalculatethefrequency
ofthevoltagewave.

2. Theresultingfrequencymustbethe
sameasthefrequencyofthewave
displayedontheoscilloscope.

3. Thevoltagewavewillthenbe
sampledandeachpointwillbe
timestampedusingtheGPSsignal.

3.

4. Ittransmitsdatatoawebserver

4.

a. Displaytimestampeddata
b. Comparetimestampwith
officialtime
c. Checktheaccuracytobe
within1us.

a. Writecodetotransmitdatato
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aserver
b. Testthecodebygivingitdata
tostoreonline
c. Checkthewebservertomake
suredatawassuccessfully
stored
5. SignaltoturnontheLEDwillbesent
whenthereisnoerrorindatabeing
storedontheserver

5.
a. WritecodetoturnLEDoff
whenerrorispresentinthe
webserverdatastorage
application
b. Introduceanerrorinthedata
storagecode,suchas
removingtheGPSsignal
whilecodeisrunning
c. LookattheLED
d. Checkthatitturnedoff
e. Removetheerrorfromthe
codebyreintroducingtheGPS
signal
f. WatchtheLED
g. Checkthatisturnedonand
dataisbeingstoredonthe
server

WebServer
1. Continuouslyreceiveddatafromthe
sbRIO,aslongassbRIOispowered
onandnoerrorinthecodeappear

1.
a. Turneverythingon
b. Checkthewebservertoseeif
dataisstoredonthewebsite
c. Introduceanerrorby
removingtheGPSsignal
d. Checkthewebservertomake
surenodataisstoredwiththe
GPSsignalmissing.

LED
1. LEDisonwhendataistransmittedto
theserverotherwise,LEDisoff.

1.
a. Transmitdatatotheweb
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b.
c.
d.
e.
AC/DC/DC
1. TheAC/DC/DCconverteruseswall
voltagetopowerthesbRIOandGPS
unit,thereforeitmustbedesignedto
operateovertheentirewallvoltage
range.

server
LEDmustbeon
Introduceanerrorinthedata
storagecode
Trytotransmitdatatotheweb
server
LEDmustturnOFF

1.
a. Powertheconverterusing112
VRMS
b. MeasuretheconverterDC
voltageusinganoscilloscope
c. Itmustbe25VDC+20mV
d. Incrementthevoltageintothe
converterby1VRMS.
e. MeasuretheconverterDC
voltage
f. Itmustbe25VDC+20mV
g. Repeatstepsd.ande.until
128VRMSisattheinputof
theconverter
h. Asteadyconverteroutput
overtheentireinputvoltage
rangewillverifyitscorrect
operation

2. sbRIOinputvoltagefromconverter
mustbe25VDCwitharipplelessthan
20mVandcurrentof0.31Awitha
rippleof25mA

2.
a. Adda70ohmloadatthe
outputoftheAC/DC
converter.Thiswilldraw0.36
A,whichisovertherequired
limitof0.31A.
b. Measurethevoltageandits
rippleusinganoscilloscope
c. Checkifvoltageiswithin
requiredlimits
d. Measurecurrentintotheload
usinganoscilloscope
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e. Checkcurrenttomakesureit
is0.36A
f. Letitrunningforhalfanhour
g. Voltageandcurrentvalues
andripplesmustnotchange
valueovertime
h. Makesurecomponentsdonot
meltorbecomehotwhile
operatingforalongperiodof
time
3. GPSmustbepoweredby5VDCwith
anallowedripplebetween4.05.5V
DVand90+2mA

3.

4. Thecurrentprovidedbytheconverter
is0.4A+25mA.Sincetherewillbe
atransformerinourconverterwith
0.4Arepresentingthecurrentonthe
lowside,thehighsidewillhaveless
currenttherefore0.4Arepresentsthe
maximumcurrentinourconverter.

4. Thisstepverifiedimplicitlybystep3
becausetheDC/DCconvertercurrent
issuppliedthroughtheAC/DC
converter

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a. Adda50ohmloadatthe
outputoftheDC/DC
converter.
b. Thiswilldraw0.1A
c. Measurevoltageandcurrent
attheloadusingan
oscilloscope
d. Checkthatthesearethe
desiredvalueswiththe
correspondingdesiredripples
e. Leaveitpoweredforhalfan
hour
f. Checkthatcurrentandvoltage
valuesandrippledonot
changeovertime
g. DC/DCconvertercomponents
mustnotgethotormelt
duringprolongedoperation

3.2ToleranceAnalysis
TheNationalElectricalCode(NEC)saysthestandardforthewallvoltageis120V5%.
Thisgivesarangeof114Vto126V.However,inordertoaccommodateoutliers,wewill
designourpowerconvertertooperatefromavoltagesourcerangeof112Vto128V.The
sbRIO9632userguidedictatesthatthepowersupplyripplemustbelessthan20mV.
Sincethereisastepdownofvoltagefromthewalloutlettotheanaloginputofthe
FPGA,anerrorfactornaturallyexist.Theaccuracyofthevoltagemeasurementisessential.
However,sincetheFPGAisaccurateupto6220Vatthehighestvoltagerange(10Vto10V),
thiswouldmeanthattheFPGAcantheoreticallybeaccurateupto0.06%.Tobringtheerror
factortolowaspossible,anAgilentTechnologiesoscilloscopewillbeusedtomakesurethat
thisvoltageisaccurateupto0.1%.

4CostandSchedule
4.1Cost
4.1.1Labor
Name

Rate

Hours

Total

Totalx2.5

AndyYoon

$40/hr

100

$4,000

$10,000

BogdanPinte

$40/hr

100

$4,00

$10,000

KentaKirihara

$40/hr

100

$4,000

$10,000

Total:$30,000
4.1.2Parts
Description

Manufacturer

Vendor

Cost/Unit

TotalCost

SingleBoardRIO9632

National
Instruments

National
Instruments

$940

$0
(Donated)

LinearRegulator
UA7824

Texas
Instruments

Digikey

$0.91

$0.91

LinearRegulator
UA7805

Texas
Instruments

Digikey

$0.99

$0
(University)

Capacitor
UUD1V470MCL1GS

Nichicon

Digikey

$0.82

$0.82

Capacitor
F931V475KCC

Nichicon

Digikey

$1.04

$0
(University)

Diode
1N4007

VishayS.D.D.

Digikey

$0.43

$0
(University)

266M6ND
Transformer
(Fordata)

Hammond
Manufacturing

Digikey

$32.08

$32.08

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PC20500
TransformerCore
(forconverters)

Signal
Transformer

Digikey

$11.25

$11.25

1100038Cable
(NEMA515)

Tensility
International
Corp.

Digikey

$2.60

$2.60

GPS18xLVC

Garmin

gpscity

$60.00

$0
(donated)

4.1.2TotalProjectCost
TotalLaborCost

TotalPartsCost

TotalProjectCost

$30,000

$47.66

$30,047.66

*Totalprojectcostistobe$31,051.41(countingdonatedandexistingparts)

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4.2Schedule

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5EthicalIssues
OurteamagreestoadheretotheIEEECodeofEthicsincludedinAppendix[A].
Furthermore,thefollowingportionsoftheIEEECodeofEthicsaredirectlypertinenttoour
project:
1. tobehonestandrealisticinstatingclaimsorestimatesbasedonavailabledata
OurPMUmustnotoperateoutsideoftheclaimederrors.Itsdatamustbeasreliableas
weclaimittobe.
2. toimprovetheunderstandingoftechnologyitsappropriateapplication,andpotential
consequences

OnemainreasontobuildthePMUwastoaidinacademicresearchbyimprovingthe
understandingoftheiroperation.

6SafetyConsiderations
Sincetheprojectdealswithhighvoltage,severalsafetymeasuresaredeemed
important.
Makesuretheconvertercircuitiswiredcorrectlybeforeturningonpower
Donotmakecircuitchangeswhenpowerison
Donotwearloosefittingclothing
Becautiouswhenhandlingequipmentsafterithasbeenoperating,astheymaybehot
Makesureparts(especiallycapacitors)arewiredcorrectlywithcorrectpolarity
Donottestwithwethands

7Reference
[1]"IEEECodeofEthics."IEEE.Web.25Feb.2013.

<http://www.ieee.org/about/corporate/governance/p78.html>.
[2]"UserGuide."NationalInstruments.Web.25Feb.2013.

<http://www.ni.com/pdf/manuals/375052c.pdf>.
[3]FairchildSemiconductor,GeneralPurposeRectifiers,1N4001datasheet,May2009
[4]Sparkfun,PositiveVoltageRegulators,LM7805datasheet,May1976[RevisedMay2003]

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[5]Reinhard,Karl.FinalProjectReport:PhasorMeasurementUnit,Dec9,2011

7Appendix
[A]Section7.8IEEECodeofEthics
We,themembersoftheIEEE,inrecognitionoftheimportanceofourtechnologiesinaffecting
thequalityoflifethroughouttheworld,andinacceptingapersonalobligationtoour
profession,itsmembersandthecommunitiesweserve,doherebycommitourselvestothe
highestethicalandprofessionalconductandagree:
1. toacceptresponsibilityinmakingdecisionsconsistentwiththesafety,health,and
welfareofthepublic,andtodisclosepromptlyfactorsthatmightendangerthepublic
ortheenvironment
2. toavoidrealorperceivedconflictsofinterestwheneverpossible,andtodisclosethem
toaffectedpartieswhentheydoexist

3. tobehonestandrealisticinstatingclaimsorestimatesbasedonavailabledata
4. torejectbriberyinallitsforms
5. toimprovetheunderstandingoftechnologyitsappropriateapplication,andpotential
consequences

6. tomaintainandimproveourtechnicalcompetenceandtoundertaketechnological
tasksforothersonlyifqualifiedbytrainingorexperience,orafterfulldisclosureof
pertinentlimitations
7. toseek,accept,andofferhonestcriticismoftechnicalwork,toacknowledgeand
correcterrors,andtocreditproperlythecontributionsofothers

8. totreatfairlyallpersonsregardlessofsuchfactorsasrace,religion,gender,disability,
age,ornationalorigin

9. toavoidinjuringothers,theirproperty,reputation,oremploymentbyfalseor
maliciousaction

10. toassistcolleaguesandcoworkersintheirprofessionaldevelopmentandtosupport
theminfollowingthiscodeofethics.
ChangestotheIEEECodeofEthicswillbemadeonlyafterthefollowingconditionsaremet:
ProposedchangesshallhavebeenpublishedinTHEINSTITUTEatleastthree(3)monthsin
advanceoffinalconsiderationbytheBoardofDirectors,witharequestforcomment,and

AllIEEEMajorBoardsshallhavetheopportunitytodiscussproposedchangespriortofinal
actionbytheBoardofDirectors,and

AnaffirmativevoteoftwothirdsofthevotesofthemembersoftheBoardofDirectors
presentatthetimeofthevote,providedaquorumispresent,shallberequiredfor
changestobemade.

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