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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

ArcGIS system is an intergrated geographic information system (GIS) consisting of
three key parts are an intergrated suite of advanced GIS application, interface for managing
geodatabase in a database management system (DBSM), Internet-based Gis for distributing
data and services.ArcGIS provides a framework for implementating GIS for a single user or
for many users. It can be extended with additional software such as AcrPad for Windows CE
devices.There are two ways in performing on screen digitizing; on ArcMap and on Arc Tools
(Arc Info Workstation).A geodatabase is a "container" for holding datasets, tying together the
spatial features with attributes. The geodatabase can also contain topology information, and
can model behavior of features, such as road intersections, with rules on how features relate to
one another. When working with geodatabases, it is important to understand about feature
classes which are a set of features, represented with points, lines, or polygons. With
shapefiles, each file can only handle one type of feature. A geodatabase can store multiple
feature classes or type of features within one file. Geodatabases in ArcGIS can be stored in
three different ways including as a "file geodatabase" and "personal geodatabase

AIM
Student is able to know how to digitize the map and to produce topographic map

OBJECTIVES

This practical will open up students capabilities in trying GIS software rather than the
conventional AutoCAD in doing digitizing.
By using the most current GIS software, it is hope that by the end of this practical,
student will be familiar with the software and be able to do an on screen digitizing work.
Know about editing on topological data to make sure that they follow the required
topological relationships
Learn how to use ArcCatalog and georeferencing tools to digitize raster and vector data.
To produce topography map.


CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Geodatabase

An ArcGIS geodatabase is a collection of geographic datasets of various types held in a
common file system folder, a Microsoft Access database, or a multiuser relational database
(such as Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, PostgreSQL, Informix, or IBM DB2). A key
geodatabase concept is the dataset. It is the primary mechanism used to organize and use
geographic information in ArcGIS. The geodatabase contains three primary dataset types:
Feature classes
Raster datasets
Tables

Creating a collection of these dataset types is the first step in designing and building a
geodatabase. Users typically start by building a number of these fundamental dataset types.
Then they add to or extend their geodatabase with more advanced capabilities (such as by
adding topologies, networks, or subtypes) to model GIS behavior, maintain data integrity, and
work with an important set of spatial relationships.

Georeferencing/ image registration

There is a great deal of geographic data available in formats that cannot be immediately
integrated with other GIS data. In order to use these types of data in GIS it is necessary to
align it with existing geographically referenced data, this process is also called
georeferencing. Georeferencing is also a necessary step in the digitizing process. Digitizing in
GIS is the process of tracing, in a geographically correct way, information from
images/maps. The process of georeferencing relies on the coordination of points on the
scanned image (data to be georeferenced) with points on a geographically referenced data
(data to which the image will be georeferenced). By linking points on the image with those
same locations in the geographically referenced data you will create a polynomial
transformation that converts the location of the entire image to the correct geographic
location. We can call the linked points on each data layer control points. The selection of
control points is important.
Some guidelines:

1) They should be easy to confirm as representing the same geographic location (street
intersection, political boundary, landmark, etc.).
2) They should be spread across the image to be registered, one suggestion is to select a
control point near each of the corners of the image and few throughout the interior will
often work well.
3) Good overlap between the two dataset is also important.
4) Make sure to click as close as possible to the same geographic location, zooming in can
help in this process.

Digitizing

Digitizing is the transformation, of information from analog format such as paper map, to
digital format, so that it can be stored and displayed with a computer. Digitizing can be
manual, semi-automated (automatically recorded while manually following a line), or fully
automated (line following). During digitizing we will create layer to separate the type of
feature for Example River, road, housing and others. After end of digitizing process we must
insert the entire of attribute into every layer.

Topology

Vector data can be topological or non-topological depending on the weather topology is built
into the data. The term topology refers to the study of those proprieties of geometric object
that remain invariant under certain transformation such as bending or stretching (Massey
1976). For example, a rubber band can be stretched and bent without losing its intrinsic
property of being a closed circuit, as long as the transformation is within its elastic limits. All
the topology can only be done when the layer into feature class.




CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

























Then, open Arc Catalog and follow the instructions below:

1. Right click on your own folder or space choose new and Personal Geodatabase.
2. Specify name to your Personal Geodatabase, and then create new feature datasets.
3. Specify name to your Feature Dataset and assign the coordinate system X and Y
Now that we have already managed our Geodatabase, we need to proceed on the image
registration. Check back the .txt file that is provided. For image registration, open Arc
Map and follow the instruction accordingly.

1. Click file and choose add Data. After that click add XY Data. Choose the .txt file
that represent the control points of the image file and then assigned the coordinate
system.

2. Then, display the H_Langat.jpg. If the image is not displayed, click on the
Georeferencing and choose Fit to Display.

3. Then, click on add control point, start registering the image to the reference
coordinate of control points. Click at update georeferencing and Rectify the new
image.

4. To maintain the properties of the control points we have to convert the .txt file to
geodatabase, so that it will be compatible at any session of working. So, right click at
the CtrlPt.txt event and choose Data and Export Data. The control points will now be
appearing in the .shp.
To register the topo map, click add control points icon. Then click the map first and then
click the control point. To click the other point, follow the clockwise direction. Now each
topographic map grid point control was registered to each control points



























Click View link table icon and view the RMSE value. There are four control points and
the acceptable residual value should be less than 0.004. Notice that the equation is using
a 1st Order Polynomial, or Affine transformation. This is the least complicated
transformation that can perform translation, scaling and rotation of our raster image
Click add data icon and add the features class that was created before. Then add the
editor tools.
For digitize, first drag the created feature classes from your personal geodatabase to Arc
Map. These layers are empty as we havent start digitize yet. From here we can start
digitize according to the following steps:

1. Click on Editor, and choose Start Editing. Choose type Personal Geodatabase

2. Check on the available layers and tasks provided by the vendor. We now have to
change the snapping options to minimize the error during the digitizing process. To do
that, choose Editor, and Snapping.

3. Then, start digitizing. To start digitize, click on the Editor and Start Editing. Digitize
all the features with specified layer. Use sketch tool to digitize the features. The target
layer should be the layer that we want to digitize. If, for some reason, that layer is not
the listed target layer, click on the down arrow to the right of the target box and select
the layer. Double click to finish each digitizing work.

After digitize, for example, after finish digitizing the contour, open Atrribute Table by
clicking right-click. Add Field to the attributes of contour and specify the type of contour
for every single line. Perform with other layer to if there are more than one type in the
layer.



























To add the types to the data frame, and to edit the features with suitable colur and shape,
point to Properties by Right-Click at the layer and go to Symbology tab. Then, click Add
Values. Edit the colour with suitable one. After that, click Ok. Now it will be displayed at
Display Tab for the contour layer.
After finish the digitizing process, double click contour at table of content and then
change the symbol selector. Differentiate the features by the color and thickness of the
line. Digitized the road layer, and specify the type of roads. Next, digitize river, building,
land use and add the type in the attribute table.

After that, open arcCatalog. Right click choose new and point to topology. Next rename
the file for topology, select the feature classes that participate in the topology. Enter the
rule for polygon and line then ok.
Following the rule for polygon and line
Polygon : must not overlap , must not have gap
Line : must not overlap, must not intercept, must not have dangles, must be single
part and must not intercept and touch interior

Open arcMap and add data topology. Click at blank toolbar and point to topology. Go to
editor and start editing. At topology toolbar, click error inspector and all the error from
the rules will appear. Edit all the error by follow the rule.

After that mark the error as exception and the error will dissapear. The map will free
from all error.
After finish digitizing and editing map, turn to Layout View and insert the components
of a good map such as legend, title, north arrow and scale bar. It can be added by
pointing to Insert in the menu bar and click legend and other elements. Then, export the
map and save as suitabe format as a product
CHAPTER 4

RESULT AND ANALYSIS

The figure below show the result and analysis for Hulu Langats map.


As the result analog map of Hulu Langat can be converted to digital map by using the ArcGIS
software. This method can be saves time because very easy to get information or data. The
map contains the legend, arrow narration, scale, title and so on that should provide in map.
The error during the locate of control points must be considered. The error called Root Mean
Square Error (RMSE). The tolerance for RMSE is not more than 0.004.In digitizing, the
symbol and colour are important because that show based on the images. Topology also
implements topological relationships as rules between features and stores these rules as tables
in the database.



CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION AND COMMENT

In this project I had learn how to produce a map start with creation of geodatabase, select
potential features data set, georeferencing or image registration and start digitizing to produce
the output. Firstly, I have used Arc Catalog to create new geodatabase and feature class . After
that, move to the ArcMap to register the image. During the image registration, I have to
locate four control points on the image. Other than that, the error during the locate of control
points must be considered. The error called Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The tolerence
for RMSE is not more than 0.004. The RMSE that I get is 0.00382. Then, do the
georeferencing and rectified the image. The next step is i need to digitize the potential
features like contours, building, river and so on. Than , I need to define topology rules and
edit the all error from map that had been digitize. Lastly , prepare the map with the complete
format. On the final product, it must contain the legend, title, map, scale bar, north indicator,
boarder, and other item that want to display on the map.

After I have done this project, I learn much by used the ArcGIS software. To produce the
map, it is more easier to digitize compared with the Autocad software. ArcGIS also can
produce the best and high quality of map.



















APPENDIX