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IEEE PEDS 2005

Eighteen-Pulse AC-DC Converter for Harmonic


Mitigation in Vector Controlled Induction Motor
Drives
Bhim Singh, Senior Member, IEEE, G.Bhuvaneswari, Vipin Garg, Member, IEEE
Senior Member, IEEE Electrical Engg. Department, Indian Railways
Department of Electrical Engg, I.I.T.Delhi, Northem Railway
New Delhi, India New Delhi, India
E-mail: bhimsinghr@gmail.com, bhuvan225@gmail.com E-mail: vipinl23123@gmail.com

Abstract-This paper presents a novel autotransformer based example. But the kVA rating of the transformer is 1.03 PO,
eighteen-pulse ac-dc converter with reduced kVA rating, feeding where PO is the active power drawn by the converter [6]. To
vector controlled induction motor drives (VCIMD's) for power reduce the transformer rating, autotransformer based
quality improvement at the point of common coupling (PCC). multipulse ac-dc converters of reduced rating have been
The proposed 18-pulse ac-dc converter is suitable for retrofit reported in the literature [3]. For applications where the
applications, where presently a 6-pulse diode bridge rectifier is demand for harmonic current reduction is more stringent, an
being used. The proposed harmonic mitigator eliminates 5"h, 7" 18-pulse ac-dc converter is enerall referred. This converter
11 and 13th harmonic currents, thereby improving the power ps gene y preferred.Thisconverter
quality at ac mains. A set of different power quality parameters is more economical than the 24-pulse ac-dc converter, while
for a VCIMD fed from the proposed 18-pulse ac-dc converter are being more effective than the 12-pulse ac-dc converter.
computed to observe its performance. The effect of load variation Autotransformer based 18-pulse ac-dc converters have been
on VCIMD is also studied to observe the effectiveness of the reported in [7] for reducing the THD of ac mains current.
proposed harmonic mitigator. The simulated results are verified However, the dc-link voltage is higher, making the scheme
on the prototype autotransformer designed and developed in the non applicable for retrofit applications. Hammond [8] has
laboratory. A comparative performance of different ac-dc proposed a new topology, but the transformer design is very
converters based on eighteen-pulse rectification have also been c T s
presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed AC- complex Toswtoplofy the t1ansformer design. Paice [9] has
DC converter feeding VCIMD. reported a new topology for 18-pulse converters. But the THD
Keywords- Autotransformer, MATLAB, multipulse AC-DC of ac mains current with this topology is around 8% at full
converter, power quality improvement, VCIMD. load. Kamath et.al. [11] have also reported an 18-pulse
converter, but THD of ac mains current is high even at full
I. INTRODUCTION load (6.9%) and as load decreases the THD increases further
(13.1%THD at 50% load).
applications duedueto
applications motheirshadvans suchased improvedu
The use of induction motors has increased in industrial
to their advantages such as improved
a In this paper, a novel autotransformer based 18-pulse ac-dc
converter (Topology 'D'), which is suitable for retrofit
efficiency, ruggedness, reliability and low cost. For variable applications, where presently 6-pulse converter is being used,
speed drives, dc motors have been used until now because of referred as Topology 'A', shown in Fig. 1, have been proposed
their flexible characteristics. To incorporate the flexible tofeed VCIMD. T hops a- converter resus
characteristics of a dc motor into an induction motor, vector elimination of 5th, 7th, 11fi and 13d harmonics. A set of
control technique is adopted [1] as a widely accepted choice. tabulated rsl givin th comp arion ifferetpower
tabulated results giving the comparison of different ow
Normally ac-dc
Normally power converter
ac-dc pwer converter feding
feeding power
power to the
to th quality parameters is presented for a VCIMD fed from an
VCIMD consists of a 6-pulse diode bridge rectifier, an energy existing 6-pulse ac-dc converter and different 18-pulse ac-dc
storage element at dc link, a 3-phase voltage source inverter convertersMro ,te ffe riat on ariou
(VSI) and an induction motor. The diode bridge rectifier pow terqualit id es is a o suid vtiod ostra the
suffers from operating problems such as poor power factor, effectiveness of proposed 18-pulse ac-dc converter feeding
injection of harmonic currents into the ac mains etc. In order VCIMDv
to prevent the harmonics from affecting the utility lines A of
A laboratory pt o
prototype of the proposed autotransformer iS
negatively, an IEEE Standard 519 [2] has been reissued in designed and developed ansd different tests have been carried
1992 giving clear limits for voltage and current distortions. otovaitehewrng ftepoosd amnc
Several methods based on the principle of increasing the mitigator. The test results are found to be in close agreement
number of rectification pulses in ac-dc converters have been wt h iuae eut ne ifrn prtn n
reported in the literature [3-12]. The conventional wye-delta loading conditions.
transformer based 12-pulse rectification scheme is one such

0-7803-9296-5/05/$20.00 © 2005 EEE 1514


IGBT Based Inverter i

d~~~~~~~ ~ ~TreePhse

ids iqC C s 26LbbelJodeBridgeRahiliem


_ Fig.2 Autotransformer (with phase shift of ± 4O°) based 18-pulse harmonic
Spee Cotroler'r stimrlator Fil mnitigator fed VCI4D (Topology 'B').

Fig.l Six-pulsediode bridge rectifier fed


vector controlled
i nduction
motor drive (Topology 'A'). V. d

II. DIFFERENT CIRCUrr CONFIGURATIONS OF EIGHTEEN-C II , CIV. + l


PULSE AC-DC CONVERTERS 3b9ZDs ||>||4v|t
An autotransformer based n-pulse ac-dc converter operates 4= :~ iL I ¢ IGBTBaiedhveIB dr
on the principle of harmonic elimination. The minimum order
of harmonics are nK±+1, where K is a positive integer and n is A
the number of rectification pulses per cycle of fundamental AZNIGI
voltage. For harmonic elimination, the required mnimum r L
phase shift is given by [3]: P u b e D E d e Bridge Ris
Phase shift = 600/ Number of six-pulse converters Fig.3 Autotransforner (with phase shift of±200) based 18-pulse
To achieve an 18-pulse rectification, three sets of balanced 3- harmonic mitigator fed VCIMD (Topology 'C').
phase line voltages are to be produced, which are either 20 or
400out of phase with respect to each other. Fig.2 shows the VX a! V
schematic diagram of an 18-pulse ac-dc converter with a phase 8
shift of +400 and -4p0, referred as Topology 'B'. The voltages 'A. 7
produced by the autotransformer Va' , Vb' , Vc' are at +400 ,
with respect to supply voltages Va, Vb and Vc, where as the V a > b
other set of voltages Va" , Vb", Vj' are at ~40° with respect to C< (]
supply voltages. Similarly, Fig.3 shows the schematic diagramvv
of an 18-pulse autotransformer based ac-dc converter with a
phase shift of +200 and -20o. This topology is referred as Vb
Topologyf'C'. are n
A. Proposed Eighteen Pulse AC-DC Converterb
Here, ± 200 phase shift is used to reduce the size of Fig. 4 Proposed autotransformer winding connection diagram.
magnetics and the magnitude of these line voltages should be
equal to each other to result in symmetrical pulses and reduced produced. The number of turns required for +200 and -20°
ripple in output dc voltage. The design of the suitable phase shift are calculated as follows. Consider phase 'a'
autotransformer for the proposed eighteen-pulse ac-dc voltages as:
converter, referred as Topology 'D' is given here. Va' = Va +KiVca - K2 VbC (1)
Fig.4 shows the winding diagram of the proposed ac-dc Va"=Va+ KiVab + K2VbC (2)
converter. Fig.5 shows the phasor diagram of different phase Assume the following set of voltages:
voltages of the proposed autotransformer for achieving an 18- vv=vz0, Vb=VZ-1200, = VZ1200,
pulse rectification. From the supply voltages, two sets of 3- Vab= 1.732VZ300,vb = V-900,Vc5=VZ-300
phase voltages (phase shifted through +200 and -20) are Va' = V Z20, Vb' = VZa000, VJ = VZ1400

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Va" = V Z-200, Vb" = VZ -1400, Vc" = VL 1000 where, T*(n) and T(n-l) are the output of the PI controller (after
where, V is the rms value of phase voltage. limiting it to a suitable value) and 4e(n) and 4e(n-1) refer to speed
Using above equations K1 and K2 can be calculated. These error at nth and (n-l)ff instants. Kp and KI are proportional and
equations result in K, = 0.0402 and K2 = 0.177 for the desired integral gain constants.
phase shift in autotransformer. The phase shifted voltages for The vector controller computes the flux producing
phase 'a' are as: component of current (id,), torque component of current (iqs*),
Vat = Va + 0.0402 Vca - 0.177 Vbc (3) slip speed (co2*) and the flux angle ('v) as given below:
Va =Va + 0.0402Vab + 0. 177 Vbc (4) ids* = imr + tr (Ajimr/AT) (6)
Thus the autotransformer uses two auxiliary windings per iqs* = T*/(k imr) (7)
phase. A phase shifted voltage (e.g.Va') is obtained by tapping (02* = iqs*/(Tr imr), P(n) =T(n-l) +((02* + (or) AT (8)
a portion (0.0402) of line voltage Vca and connecting one end k= (3/2)(P/2){M/(1+ Gr)} (9)
of an approximately (0.177) of line voltage (e.g. Vk) to this where i,,r is the magnetizing current, P, M and Or are the
ap. Fig.6 shows the proposed 18-pulse converter feeding number of poles, mutual inductance and rotor leakage factor
VCIMD, which is referred as Topology 'D'. respectively, P(n) and P(n-l) are values of rotor flux angles at
Va nth and (n-i)th instants respectively and AT is the sampling
X
Va' % Va' time, taken as 100,u secs.
\/ / a These currents (ids, iqs*) are in synchronously rotating
V /6\200 200)<\ frame, these are converted to stationary frame three phase
ca / > _/ \ currents (i.S, ibs, i,, ) as given below:
/ \/\ Vab iaS
las =-1-i~ q
= si sinT + id5cos'P ((10)
VcX \ L \ Vb' ibs=[-cosT+43sinW]ids*(1/2)+[SinP+i3cosT]iqs*(1/2) (11)
bi / / \\ 9 ics = -(ias + ibs) (12)
, / \\y These three phase reference currents ias, ibs and iCs
V - \7 Vbc \)/ b generated by the vector controller are compared with the
sensed motor currents (ias, ibs and ics) and the current errors are
C b amplified and fed to the PWM current controller, which
Fig.5 Vector diagram of phasor voltages for 18-pulse based proposed controls the duty ratio of different switches in VSI. The VSI
harmonic mitigator. generates the PWM voltages being fed to the motor to develop
E +z 4 the required torque to maintain rotor speed equal to the
reference speed.

II IV. SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTATION


The proposed harmonic mitigators feeding VCIMD are
+ simulated in MATLAB environment alongwith SIMULINK
vb' and power system blockset (PSB) toolboxes. Fig.7 shows the
3fi
ll l sub block of MATLAB model of a vector controlled induction
v1 1 1S -c
rS 0<1 A VcIM
t motor drive. The VCIMD consists of an induction motor drive
controlled using indirect vector control technique.
3 Pfws6s Be46RV,
I
60HIZ a! +

Fig.6 Pro dAutotransfom fh e Ddy


bd 1ul harGc mtigator
6 ~ ~ ~ ~ f PusDkeBig efi f
VCIMD (Topology 'D').
III. VECTOR CONTROLLED INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE kr l l l
Here, indirect vector control technique has been used for Ret Spe wr
0iRfI
-0Wfs
realization of vector controlled operation of an induction motor P

Oe
drive (VCIMD), as shown in Fig. 1. Two curfents of motor S5p
|c T
phases namely iaS and ib, and the motor speed signal (x) are ret Cum wwtX
sensed for running the drive in vector control mode. The closedII
loop PIspeed controller generates reference torque T5a:LI2
Tn = T5(n-l) + Kp { (Oe(n) - (O)e(n-1)1} + KI °~e(n) (5) Fig.7 MATLAB block diagram of VCIMD.

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Autotmmnfor.uer Diode Rectifiers s-106s

Inter pk.e trausformner


Fig.8 MATLAB block diagram of proposed harmonic mitigator fed VCIMD.
Fig.8 shows the MATLAB model of the proposed harmonic A.Atrasomrwh+40nd4OPaeShfBsd
mitigator based on 18-pulse rectification feeding a VCIMD to AC-DC Converter (Topology 'B')
simulate its performance. To validate the simulation results, a The simulation results of an autotransformer (with phase
prototype model of the proposed 18-pulse ac-dc converter shift of +400 and -40°) based ac-dc converter fed VCIMD are
consisting of an autotransformer suitable to produce the phase shown in Table-I. The THD of supply current at full load as
shifted voltages, interphase tranlsformer and diode rectifiers shown in Table-I. The voltage at dc link is 713V at full
has been developed in the laboratory and different tests have loadagainst 604V in a 6- pulse diode bridge rectifier fed
been conducted. VCIMD. Thus this topology cannot be used in retrofit
c iDettPI IM~c applications. L I m
V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The performance of the proposed harmonic mitigator 0
alongwith the VCIMD have beenAsimulated for the systemlof 20-
which the data are given in Appendix. Fig. 9 shows the
startinlg performance and load perturbation on the VCIMD fed -
by a 6-pulsediode bridge rectifier (Topology 'A'). It shows the -20k------ 8-----,
supply voltage v0, supply current is, rotor speed 'ox' (in elect. -4QI
,v,4,4 OW09 0905 091 0915 092ieaa
rad /sec), three-phase motor currents isab, motor developed
-
0925 093 0935 094 0945
torque Te' (in N-in) and DC link voltage vdc (V). Fig.10 shows = T T
time(s) l
the supply current waveform alongwith its harmonic spectrum °. 80Lj ....
at full load. The THD of ac mains current at full load is £ 6011, THDf 31.6/0.
ben codctd VCMD Thus this toplog canno 144 used inreroi
Fig. 11. Moreover, the power factor at full load is 0.935, which SO40
deteriorates to 0.85 as the load on VCIMD is reduced, thus IMD
requiring the need of power quality improvement at ac mains. e 0 4l 8 i 10 1200
Frequency (Hz)
E MTA blc h^ ^Ahn o A:fi
Adiagrai A fe
prAoAposedhhamonicA mgAtr aaMDFig. 10 AC mains current waveform of VCMD fed by 6-pulse
F:i8swsM MATLAB
startingim
perormnc
the Modeloftheproposed
loa petrbto anth VCM on r fed
i dioderectifieralong
20 -
withits4haonic spectrm
)
_l at ful load.
.....
l
------

ons200 fan aoa? -nsfor Asuale to" _ u te ps sw in T The D of p ly e at


ted vlt h r d Io If sow i_ e a t c n s 7 a

- -20a tirne (s)


1 42 g nTs nA n n n7
z200 .aX1....!]
X -0 ... ...,. . --i-----------

>~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
t0.2
0a30.4 0i. 0.6 0.7
o 20
I ..L
0
s .

Fig.9 Dynamic response of 6-pulse diode rectifier fed VCIMD


with load perturbation. - Fig. 11 AC mains current waveform of VCIMD fed by 6-pulse diode
rectifier along with its harmonic spectrum at 20% of full load.

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TABLE I
Comparison of power quality indices of a VCIMD fed from different converters
Sr. Top Ti) THD DF DPF PF CF DC Link Voltage(Vd,)
No. olog Vs Average (V) RF(%)
Y (%)
Full Full Light FuU I-igh Full Light FuU Light Full Light Ful Light Full Ligh Full Light
load load load load t load load load load load load load load load t load load
20%l load 20% 20% 20%1c 20% | load 20,%
__ _ ___ _ _ 20% __ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ 20% _ __

1. A 6.84 57.3 17.2 31.4 58.1 .95 .866 .982 .979 .935 .85 1.48 1.84 606 616 .225 .211
2. B 2.25 55.5 15.1 4.64 7.54 .99 .997 .992 .996 .991 .994 1.45 1.48 713 728 .103 .022
3. C 2.00 54.3 14.5 3.62 6.11 .99 .973 .998 .988 .973 .987 1.41 1.45 619 635 .103 .039
4. D 3.42 55.3 15.0 4.17 5.56 .99 .998 .974 .974 .973 .973 1.45 1.50 599 620 .132 .016
Autotransformer with
B. B.Autotransfonveer +20° and
'C -20°
wiThopologynd Phase Shift Based
0'Phase Based power quality indices. It can be seen from these results that the
AC-DC Converter (Topology 'C') proposed harmonic mitigator is able to perform satisfactorily
To achieve reduction in magnetics rating, eighteen-pulse upto 40% load on VCIMD with power factor always higher
rectification based ac-dc converters using autotransformers than 0.97 and THD of supply current always less than 5%
with +200 and -200 shift have been designed, modeled and
simulated to compare their relative performance in terms of 100
different power quality indices. It is observed that the THD of 5o --- ------ . ---
supply current at full load is 3.62%, and that under light load o
(20% of full load is 6.11%,as shown in Table-I. The power
factor under full load condition is 0.973 and under light load - -- -
condition is 0.987. The voltage at dc link is 619V at full load 19.1 110s 1.11 1.115 1.12 1.125 1.13 1.135 1.14 1.145 1.15
against 606V in a 6-pulse diode bridge rectifier fed VCIMD. E time (s)
Moreover the rating of the magnetics is 15.92kVA, which is 8
34.9% of the drive rating. CD
THDi- 4.17%
C. Proposed Harmonic Mitigator (Topology 'D') i 2 L-
Fig.12 shows the dynamic performance of the proposed 400 6
harmonic mitigator at starting and load perturbation. The ° 200 400 Goo 00 1000 1200
supply current waveform at full load alongwith its harmonic Frequency (Hz)
spectrum is shown in Fig. 13, which shows that the THD of ac Fig. 13 AC mains current waveform alongwith its harmonic spectrum at
full load in proposed 18-pulse ac-dc converter fed VCIMD (Topology 'D').
mains current is 4.17%
mains
and the power factor obtained is 0.973.
is 417%ad
the oweractorobtaindis973

Fig. 14 shows the supply current waveform alongwith its


harmonic spectrum under light load condition (20%). At light 20 ------ - - --- - ------------
load condition, the THD of ac mains current is 5.56% and the 10
power factor is 0.973. The rating of the autotransformer is 0
10.29kVA, which is only 22.55% of the drive rating.
-20 ------ --
.---------- ----
1

1.5 1 505 1.51 1.515 1.52 1 525 1.53 1.535 1.54 1.545 1.65
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~time(s)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

n_ n_ n_ n_n__nz_n___n
A 8100

'°° _2 I-----------------------------------L-----------*--------*.
50

a)o 01 ~
-50 ~~
I) ~ ~ ~ 01 ~ II ~
0I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~
* n*840
t0 200 01 n2v 0n
1 0s fls 0,n67 08 E °0 200 400 0-0
60- 1---00 -1---20-0*
~~x,v~)vvv~v.,. Frequency (Hz)

;*
400
/
n 7 0nn w 0
___________
07 n Fig. 14 ACmainscurrentwaveformalongwithitsharmonic spectrumnat
light load (20%) in (Topology
q 'D').
E700 (1 01 02 gA^ s n, 0,7 0l8 |TABLEII
600 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Comparison
of power quality indices of proposed 1 8-pulse ac-dc converter
0.1 0.2
> eiw 0.3
' j ffi 0.4 0. 06 07 08 ~~~~~~~~~~fed
VCIIMD under varying loads.
Time(Sec) |Load | Till | CF |DF |DPF |PF |RF |Vdc
Fig.12 Dynamic response ofl18-pulse ac-dc converter based proposed |(%) |~Is|V,1 (%) |(V)|
hamonic mitigator fed VCIMD with load perturbation.|n556 20 131 150 998 |.974 .973 .016 620
Further, the load on VCIMD has been varied and its effect |40 |5.10 1.96 |1.48 |.998 .970 . 970 . 036 |611|
on various power quality indices has also bee nstudied.Table
TY load
* s variation
* v on VCIMD on vaous
.
Fg50
1 m4.92
| ~~~~~~~~~~60
2.24 1e.48 m.998
a i
.971 .970 .041 l608
2.47 1.1 47 1.999 1.97 11 .9701 .048 618l
4.751|288
ISows the effect of |80 1|444 146 .999 .974 .973 |.101 603
100 4.17 3.42 1.45 L.999 974 .973 .132 599

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Table I shows a comparative study of different power VI. CONCLUSIONS
quality indices of a VCIMD fed from a 6-pulse converter and A novel autotransformer based eighteen-pulse ac-dc
different 18-pulse converters. The eighteen-pulse converter converter has been designed and modeled with a VCIMD
with +400 and -400 phase shift, gives a higher dc link voltage load. The proposed harmonic mitigator has been observed
than a six-pulse diode bridge rectifier. So this topology can not suitable for retrofit applications with variable frequency
be used in retrofit applications. The autotransformer with +200 induction motor drives operating under varying load
and -20° phase shift can be used in retrofit applications, but the conditions. The performance of the proposed harmonic
rating of the magnetics is 34.9% of the drive rating. The mitigator fed VCIMD under varying load conditions is found
proposed autotransformer based eighteen-pulse ac-dc to be satisfactory. The proposed harmonic mitigator has
converter gives the same dc link voltage as of a six-pulse resulted in reduction in rating of the magnetics leading to the
diode bridge rectifier, making it suitable for retrofit saving in overall cost of the drive. The observed performance
applications. Moreover, in the proposed converter (Topology of the proposed harmonic mitigator has demonstrated the
'D'), the rating of the autotransformer is 8.75kVA. It also capability of this converter to improve the power quality
needs a small rating interphase transformer of 1.536kVA, indices at ac mains in terms of THD of supply current, THD of
resulting in total magnetics of 10.29kVA rating, which is only supply voltage, power factor and crest factor. On the dc link
22.55% of the drive rating. side too, there is a remarkable improvement in ripple factor of
dc link voltage.
D. Experimental Validation ofProposed AC-DC Converter
Eighteen-pulse rectification has been achieved by the VII. APPENDIx
designed and developed autotransformer. Different tests have Motor and Controller Specifications:
been carried out to verify the simulated results. The test results Three-Phase Squirrel Cage Induction Motor -SOhp
have been recorded using Fluke make power analyzer model (37.3kW), 3-Phase, 4 Pole, Y- connected, 460 V, 60 Hz, R, =
43B on the developed prototype. The harmonic spectrum of ac 0.087 ohms, R, = 0.228 ohms, XIS = 0.3016 ohms, Xlr =
mains current alongwith the waveform of supply voltage (V5) 0.3016 ohms, Xm =13.0819 ohms, J= 1.662 kg-m2.
and supply current (Is) at full load is shown in Fig. 15. The PI Controller: Kp = 45.0, Ki = 0.1, DC Link parameters: Ld =
THD of supply current at full load is 5%. These results show 0.1mH, Cd = 3200jsF.
an agreement with the simulated results Magnetics ratings: Autotransformer Rating 8.75kVA,
Interphase Transformer 1.53kVA
r_ cnI%r
THD1 411
l_.J 4_20 Hz *VIm. REFERENCES
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HRH
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Al-Bekhit, "Solving the


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5Mtljw|
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............................................................................................
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......
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* ......... ...
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4: --,-:
\ ... si>5,,/ \/ * $
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iOO It-lOtiis5d / I10 tAtfd iEi 1127.


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Fig. 15 Harmonic spectrum of supply current alongwith supply voltage and
current waveform at full load in proposed 18-pulse based ac-dc converter.

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