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BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

LAYOUT AND EXCAVATION


SPIRIT LEVEL - INSTRUMENT OR TOOL CAPABLE OF VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL
LINE CHECK.
PLUMB BOB - ITS USES FOR VERTICAL LINE CHECK.
PLASTIC HOSE FILLED W/ WATER A METHOD OF LEVELLING (HORIZONTAL)
BATTERBOARDS WITHOUT TRANSIT.
3-4-5 MULTIPLES W/ THE USE OF STEEL TAPE MEASURE A MANUAL METHOD OF
SQUARING THE CORNERS OF BUILDING LINES IN BUILDING LAYOUT.
SHEET PILLING A BARRIER FORMED TO PREVENT THE MOVEMENT OF SOIL TO
STABILIZE FOUNDATION.
LAYOUT AND EXCAVATIONS
LAYOUT IS SOMETIMES CALLED STAKING OUT! WHICH MEANS THE PROCESS
OF RELOCATING THE POINT OF BOUNDARIES AND PROPERTY LINE OF THE SITE WHERE
THE BUILDING IS TO BE CONSTRUCTED.
IT INCLUDES CLEARING" STAKING" BATTER BOARDS AND ESTABLISHES THE
E#ACT LOCATION OF THE BUILDING FOUNDATION AND WALL LINE ON THE GROUND.
STAKE ARE WOODEN STICKS USED AS POSTS SHARPENED AT ONE END DRIVEN
INTO THE GROUND TO SERVE AS BOUNDARIES OR SUPPORTS OF THE BATTER
BOARDS.
BATTER BOARD WOOD STICK OR BOARD NAILED HORIZONTALLY AT THE STAKE
WHICH SERVE AS THE HORIZONTAL PLANE WHERE THE REFERENCE POINT OF THE
BUILDING MEASUREMENTS ARE ESTABLISHED.
STRING IS EITHER PLASTIC CHORD OR GALVANIZED WIRE ACROSS THE BATTER
BOARDS USED TO INDICATE THE OUTLINE OF THE BUILDING WALL AND
FOUNDATION.
LAYOUT METHODS AND PROCEDURES
$. BEFORE THE CONSTRUCTION BEGINS" SEE TO IT THAT A BUILDING PERMIT IS
FIRST SECURED FROM THE LOCAL AUTHORITIES CONCERNED.
%. RELOCATE THE BOUDARIES OF THE CONSTRUCTION SITE. IT IS SUGGESTED
THAT THE RELOCATION OF THE PROPERTY LINE SHALL BE DONE BY GEODETIC
ENGINEER SPECIALLY FOR THOSE LOTS WITHOUT E#ISTING REFERENCE
POINTS OR AD&OINING STRUCTURES.
'. CLEAR THE SITE OF ANY E#ISTING STRUCTURE" TREES" AND OTHER ELEMENTS
THAT WILL OBSTRUCT THE CONSTRUCTION WORK.
(. CONSTRUCT AND ALLOCATE A SPACE FOR LABORERS QUARTERS"
CONSTRUCTION OFFICE" BODEGA FOR THE MATERIALS AND WORKING TOOLS
AND TEMPORARY WASTE DISPOSAL.
). APPLY FOR A TEMPORARY CONNECTIONS OF ELECTRIC AND WATER SUPPLY.
ELECTRIC CURRENT IS IMPORTANT FOR THE POWER NEEDS OF THE TOOLS AND
EQUIPMENT AND IS NECESSARY ON OVERTIME SCHEDULES ESPECIALLY IN THE
TIME OF CONCRETING. WATER IS ALSO A PRIME NEED IN CONSTRUCTION.
*. CONSTRUCT A TEMPORARY FENCE AROUND THE CONSTRUCTION.
+. VERIFY THE MEASUREMENT IN THE PLAN IF THE DISTANCES INDICATED ARE
FORM,
CENTER TO CENTER
OUTER TO CENTER
OUTER TO OUTER
INSIDE TO INSIDE
-. FI# THE BATTER BOARD TO ITS HORIZONTAL POSITION WITH THE AID OF LEVEL
INSTRUMENT PREFERABLY PLASTIC HOSE WITH WATER.
.. AFTER ESTABLISHING THE REFERENCE POINT AND LINE OF THE FOOTING"
TRANSFER THE INTERSECTING POINTS OF THE STRING ON THE GROUND BY THE
AID OF PLUMB BOB AND INDICATE THE SIZE AND WIDTH TO BE E#CAVATED.
EXCAVATION
E#CAVATION WORK IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IS CATEGORIZED INTO TWO
TYPES, THE MINOR AND MA&OR E#CAVATION DEPENDING UPON THE SIZE AND NATURE
OF THE FOUNDATION TO BE CONSTRUCTED. E#CAVATION FOR A SMALL CONSTRUCTION
WITH INDEPENDENT WALL" OR COMBINED FOOTING IS CLASSIFIED UNDER THE MINOR
E#CAVATION" WHILE THE REST WHICH REQUIRES SIZEABLES OR TOTAL E#TRACTION OF
THE EARTH FALL UNDER THE CATEGORY OF MA&OR CONSTRUCTION.
MINOR EXCAVATION
E#CAVATION UNDER THIS CATEGORY ARE THOSE CONSTRUCTION HAVING
INDEPENDENT FOOTING AND HOLLOW BLOCK WALL FOOTING WHERE THE DIGGING OF
THE SOIL FOR THE FOOTING E#TEND TO A DEPTH FROM $.// TO $.)/ METER AND ABOUT
HALF A METER DEPTH FOR THE WALL FOOTING.
MAJOR EXCAVATION
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION THAT REQUIRES WIDE E#CAVATION OR TOTAL
E#TRACTION OF THE SOIL ARE CLASSIFIED INTO TWO CATEGORIES DEPENDING UPON
THE CONDITION OR LOCATION OF THE SITE. WHEN THE AREA OF THE CONSTRUCTION
SITE IS BIG THAT THERE IS ENOUGH SPACE TO ACCOMMODATE WORKING ACTIVITIES"
STORING OF MATERIALS AND DUMPING GROUND FOR THE E#CAVATED SOIL.
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ON A BUSY COMMERCIAL CENTER WITH AD&ACENT
E#ISTING STRUCTURE IS CONSIDERED TO THE MOST COMPLICATED AMONG THE
VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION WORKS SINCE THIS REQUIRES CAREFUL STUDY AND ANALYSIS
OF THE RIGHT APPROACH.
PROBLEMS MIGHT BE ENCOUNTER:
$. THE MANNER OF THE E#CAVATION TO BE EMPLOYED WHICH WILL NOT AFFECT OR
DAMAGED THE AD&OINING STRUCTURE.
%. THE KIND OF EQUIPMENT TO BE USED IN THE DIGGING AND E#TRACTING THE
GROUND MAY NOT BE A PROBLEM BUT THE PLACE WHERE TO STATION THE
EQUIPMENT DURING THE OPERATION.
'. HOW AND WHERE TO DISPOSE THE E#TRACTED SOIL INVOLVES THE EFFECTIVE
MANNER OF MANEUVERING THE PAYLOAD AND DRUMPTRUCKS IN HAULING
WITHOUT OBSTRUCTING THE PEDESTRIAN AND VEHICULAR TRAFFIC FLOW.
(. WHERE TO DISPOSE THE UNDERGROUND WATER TO BE DRAINED BY THE WATER
PUMP DURING THE PROCESS OF CONSTRUCTION WHICH MIGHT CAUSE MUDDY
ROAD AND CREATE INCONVENIENCE TO TRAFFIC.
). THE KIND OF SHEETING AND BRACING TO BE USED IN SHORING OR UNDERSPINNING
TO PROTECT THE AD&OINING STRUCTURE MUST BE CONSIDERED.
FOUNDATION AND FOOTING
THE FUNCTION OF A FOUNDATION IS TO TRANSFER THE STRUCTURAL LOADS
FROM A BUILDING SAFELY INTO THE GROUND.
ALL FOUNDATIONS SETTLE TO SOME E#TENT AS THE SOIL AROUND BENEATH
THEM AD&UST ITSELF TO THESE LOADS.
UNIFORM SETTLEMENT IS USUALLY OF LITTLE CONSEQUENCES IN A BUILDING"
BUT A DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT CAN CAUSE SEVERE STRUCTURAL DAMAGE.
3 MAJOR PARTS OF A BUILDING:
SUPERSTRUCTURE WHICH IS THE ABOVE GROUND PORTION OF THE BUILDING.
SUBSTRUCTURE WHICH IS THE HABITABLE BELOW-GROUND PORTION.
FOUNDATION WHICH ARE THE COMPONENTS OF THE BUILDING THAT TRANSFER
ITS LOAD INTO THE SOIL.
' TYPES OF SUBSTRUCTURES,
SLAB ON FILL
CRAWLSPACE
BASEMENT
BASIC TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS:
SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS ARE THOSE THAT TRANSFER THE LOAD TO THE EARTH AT
THE BASE OF THE COLUMN OR WALL OF THE SUBSTRUCTURE.
DEEP FOUNDATIONS TRANSFER THE LOAD AT A POINT FAR BELOW THE
SUBSTRUCTURE.
FOUNDATION IS THAT PORTION OF THE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS THAT CARRY OR
SUPPORT THE SUPERSTRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING.
FOOTING IS THAT PORTION OF THE FOUNDATION OF THE STRUCTURE WHICH
DIRECTLY TRANSMIT THE COLUMN LOAD TO THE UNDERLYING SOIL OR ROCK" FOOTING
IS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE FOUNDATION STRUCTURE.
FOUNDATION BED - REFERS TO THE SOIL OR ROCK DIRECTLY BENEATH THE
FOOTING.
PILE FOUNDATION WHEN A FOUNDATION BED IS TOO WEAK TO SUPPORT A RAFT
FOOTING" THERE IS AN URGENT NEED TO PROVIDE A SUITABLE MATERIALS WHERE TO
TRANSFER THE E#CESS LOAD TO A GREATER DEPTH WHEREIN PILES IS THE ANSWER.
PILE IS A STRUCTURAL MEMBER OF SMALL CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA WITH
REASONABLE LENGTH DRIVEN DOWN THE GROUND BY MEANS OF HAMMERS OR
VIBRATORY GENERATOR.
PILE IS DISTINGUISHED FROM A CAISSON BY BEING DRIVEN INTO PLACE RATHER
THAN DRILED 0 POURED.
PILES ARE GENERALLY DRIVEN CLOSELY TOGETHER IN CLUSTERS CONTAINING
FROM TWO TO TWENTY-FIVE PILES. EACH CLUSTER IS LATER &OINED AT THE TOP BY A
REINFORCED CONCRETE PILE CAP.
PILE CAP DISTRIBUTES THE LOAD OF THE COLUMN OR WALL EQUALLY AMONG
THE PILES.
CAISSONS IS SIMILAR TO A COLUMN FOOTING IN THAT IT SPREADS THE LOAD
FROM A COLUMN OVER A LARGE ENOUGH AREA OF SOIL.
FOUNDATION WALL THAT PART OF THE BUILDING FOUNDATION WHICH FORMS
THE PERMANENT RETAINING WALL OF THE STRUCTURE BELOW GRADE.
GRADE BEAM THAT PART OF A FOUNDATION SYSTEM W1C SUPPORTS THE
E#TERIOR WALL OF THE SUPERSTRUCTURE AND BEARS DIRECTLY ON THE COLUMN
FOOTING.
RETAINING WALL A WALL OR LATERALLY BRACED" THAT BEARS AGAINST AN
EARTH OR OTHER FILL SURFACE AND RESISTS LATERAL AND OTHER FORCES.
CANTILEVER WALL A REINFORCED CONCRETE WALL WHICH RESIST
OVERTURNING BY THE USE OF CANTILEVER FOOTING.
GRAVITY WALL A MASSIVE CONCRETE WALL THAT RESIST OVERTURNING BY
VIRTUE OF ITS OWN WEIGHT.
BEARING WALL A WALL CAPABLE OF SUPPORTING AN IMPOSED LOAD.
FOOTING ARE CLASSIFIED INTO TWO TYPES:
WALL FOOTING OR STRIP FOOTING IS A STRIP OF REINFORCED CONCRETE WIDER
THAN THE WALL WHICH DISTRIBUTES THE LOAD TO THE SOIL.
A STEEL PERCENTAGE EQUALS TO /.% TO /.'2 OF THE CROSS SECTIONAL AREA
OF CONCRETE IS SAID TO BE ADEQUATE E#CEPT ON UNUSUAL CASES.
COLUMN FOOTING IS CLASSIFIED INTO THE FOLLOWING TYPES,
$. ISOLATED OR INDEPENDENT FOOTING IS A KIND OF FOOTING REPRESENTS THE
SIMPLEST AND MOST ECONOMICAL TYPE" IN THE FORM OF,
SQUARE BLOCK FOOTING
SQUARE SLOPE FOOTING
SQUARE STEPPED FOOTING
%. COMBINED FOOTING IS USED WHEN TWO OR MORE COLUMNS ARE SPACED
CLOSELY TO EACH OTHER THAT THEIR FOOTING WILL ALMOST OR COMPLETELY
MERGE. ITS EITHER ,
RECTANGULAR
TRAPEZOIDAL
'. CONTINUOUS FOOTING IS SOMETIMES CLASSIFIED AS WALL FOOTING WHICH
SUPPORT SEVERAL COLUMNS IN A ROW. ITS EITHER,
INVERTED SLAB FOOTING
INVERTED TEE FOOTING
(. RAFT OR MAT FOOTING ITS OCCUPIES THE ENTIRE AREA BENEATH THE
STRUCTURE AND CARRY THE WALL AND THE COLUMN LOADS.
UNIFORM SLAB
THICKENED SLAB
BEAM 0 GIRDER
CONCRETE
CONCRETE IS AN ARTIFICIAL STONE MADE OUT FROM THE MI#TURE OF
CEMENT" SAND" GRAVEL AND WATER. THIS IS KNOWN AS SOLID MASS OR PLAIN
CONCRETE. CONCRETE IN WHICH REINFORCEMENT IS EMBEDDED IN SUCH A MANNER
THAT THE TWO MATERIALS ACT TOGETHER IN RESISTING FORCES IS CALLED
REINFORCED CONCRETE!
SLUMP TEST A READY MEANS OF DETERMINING THE CONSISTENCY OF FRESHLY
MI#ED CONCRETE.
DESIGNING OF CONCRETE MI#TURE IS BASED ON THE WATER-CEMENT RATIO.
/.*- 34. OF WATER 1 34. OF CEMENT WILL PRODUCE CONCRETE CAPABLE OF
DEVELOPING %")// PSI IN %- DAYS.
LESS WATER PRODUCE STRONGER CONCRETE.
MORE WATER PRODUCE LESSER STRENGTH.
ADMI#TURE ACCELERATES OR RETARDS CONCRETE SETTING.
SIZES OF MEASURING BO# FOR ,
(/ 56. CEMENT '//77 # '//77 # '//77
)/ 56. CEMENT - '%/77 # '%/77 # ''/77
CONCRETE MIXTURE:
CLASS MI#TURE (/56. )/56. SAND GRAVEL
AA! $,$$1%, ' $% ..) /.)
89.7. $./ 89.7.
A! $,%,( . +
/.) $./
B! $,%$1%,) +.) *
/.) $./
C! $,',* * )
/.) $./

MORTAR MIXTURE:
CLASS MI#TURE (/56. )/56. SAND
A! $,% $- $(.) $./
89.7.
B! $,' $% ..) $./
C! $,( . + $./
D! $,) +.) * $./
POST AND COLUMN
POST REFERS TO A PIECE OF TIMBER OF EITHER CYLINDRICAL" SQUARE OR OTHER
GEOMETRICAL CROSS SECTION PLACED VERTICALLY TO SUPPORT A BUILDING.
COLUMN REFERS TO VERTICAL STRUCTURE USE TO SUPPORT A BUILDING MADE OF
STONE" CONCRETE" STEEL OR COMBINATION OF THE ABOVE MATERIALS.
STOREY IS THE SPACE IN A BUILDING BETWEEN FLOOR LEVELS OR BETWEEN A FLOOR
AND A ROOF ABOVE.
REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN ARE CLASSICIFICATION
SHORT COLUMN WHEN THE UNSUPPORTED HEIGHT IS NOT GREATER THAN TEN
TIMES THE SHORTEST LATERAL DIMENSION OF THE CROSS SECTION.
LONG COLUMN WHEN THE UNSUPPORTED HEIGHT IS MORE THAN TEN TIMES THE
SHORTEST LATERAL DIMENSION OF THE CROSS SECTION.
TYPES OF COLUMNS
TIED COLUMN HAS REINFORCEMENT CONSISTING OF VERTICAL OR
LONGITUDINAL BARS HELD IN POSITION BY LATERAL REINFORCEMENT CALLED
LATERAL TIES.
SPIRAL COLUMN IS THE TERM GIVEN WHERE A CIRCULAR CONCRETE CORE IN
ENCLOSED BY SPIRALS WITH VERTICAL OR LONGITUDINAL BARS. THE VERTICAL
REINFORCEMENT IS PROVIDED WITH EVENLY SPACED CONTINUOUS SPIRAL HELD
FIRMLY IN POSITION BY AT LEAST THREE VERTICAL BAR SPACERS.
COMPOSITE COLUMN WHERE STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMN IS EMBEDDED INTO
THE CONCRETE CORE OF A SPIRAL COLUMN.
COMBINED COLUMN WITH STRUCTURAL STEEL ENCASED IN CONCRETE OF AT
LEAST + 87. THK. REINFORCED WITH WIRE MESS SURROUNDING THE COLUMN AT A
DISTANCE OF ' 87. INSIDE THE OUTER SURFACE OF THE CONCRETE COVERING.
LALLY COLUMN IS A FABRICATED STEEL PIPE PROVIDED WITH A FLAT STEEL
BARS OR PLATE WHICH HOLD A GIRDER" GIRTS OR BEAM. THE STEEL PIPE IS
SOMETIMES FILLED WITH GROUT OR CONCRETE FOR CORROSION.
METAL REINFORCEMENT
THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF STRESSES THAT MAY ACT ON THE STRUCTURE ARE:
$. COMPRESSION STRESS
%. TENSION STRESS
'. SHEAR STRESS
(. TORSION STRESS
REINFORCEMENT NEED TO PROVIDE ON BEAM TO RESPONSE TO POSITIVE AND
NEGATIVE BENDING WHICH MAY CAUSE FAILURE OR COLLAPSE OF THE
STRUCTURE.
REINFORCED CONCRETE IS A COMBINATION OF CONCRETE AND STEEL.
CONCRETE IS STRONG IN SUPPORTING COMPRESSION LOAD BUT WEAK IN
RESISTING TENSION FORCES.
STEEL POSSESSES THE STRENGTH TO RESIST BOTH COMPRESSION AND TENSION.
BALANCE BEAM WHEN THE AREA OF THE CONCRETE AND STEEL ARE &UST
ENOUGH TO CARRY THE COMPRESSION AND TENSION FORCES SIMULTANEOUSLY.
INFLECTION POINTS REFER TO THE PORTION OF A BEAM WHERE BENDING
MOMENT CHANGES FROM POSITIVE TO NEGATIVE.
NO BENT BARS WHEN BARS ARE NOT BENT" AN ADDITIONAL STRAIGHT
REINFORCING BARS ARE PLACED ON THE TOP OF THE BEAM ACROSS THE SUPPORTS
E#TENDED TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH.
BENT REINFORCING BARS ARE BENT UP ON OR NEAR THE INFLECTION POINT
AND ARE E#TENDED AT THE TOP OF THE BEAM ACROSS THE SUPPORT TOWARDS THE
AD&ACENT SPAN.
4"#. ALLOWANCE PROTECTIVE COVERING OF STEEL BARS FROM THE OUTSIDE OF
THE MAIN REINFORCEMENT.
ADVANTAGE OF THE BEND BARS" ITS RESIST THE DIAGONAL TENSION.
BUILDING CODE REQUIRED THAT A BALANCE BEAM SHALL PROVIDE" THAT THE
CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF STEEL REINFORCEMENT SHALL BE EQUAL TO .//) TIMES
THE CROSS SECTIONAL PRODUCT OF THE WIDTH AND THE DEPTH OF THE BEAM.
USED LATERAL TIES
$/77 :;<. IF LONGITUDINAL BARS '%77 SMALLER
$%77 :;<. IF LONGITUDINAL BARS '*77 BIGGER
THREE FACTORS FOR SPACING OF THE LATERAL TIES:
SHOULD NOT BE MORE THAN $* TIMES THE DIA. OF THE LONGITUDINAL
OR MAIN REINFORCING BARS.
SHOULD NOT BE MORE THAN (- TIMES THE DIA. OF THE LATERAL TIES.
NOT MORE THAN THE SHORTEST DIMENSION OF THE COLUMN.
WOOD CONSTRUCTION
SCAB A SHORT FLAT PIECE OF LUMBER WHICH IS BOLTED" NAILED OR SCREWED
TO TWO BUTTING PIECES IN ORDER TO SPLICE THEM TOGETHER.
FISH PLATE A WOOD OR METAL PIECE USED TO FASTEN TOGETHER THE ENDS OF
TWO MEMBERS WITH NAILS OR BOLTS.
SPLICE PLATE A METAL PLATE USED FOR FASTENING TWO OR MORE MEMBER
TOGETHER.
COGGED JOINT A CARPENTRY &OINT BY TWO UNEVEN TIMBERS" EACH OF WHICH
IS NOTCHED AT THE PLACE WHERE THEY MEET.
NOTCHING &OINING OF TIMBERS" USUALLY MEETING OR CROSSING AT RIGHT
ANGLES" BY CUTTING A DAP IN ONE OR BOTH PIECES.
CROSSLAP JOINT A &OINT CONNECTING TWO WOOD MEMBERS WHICH CROSS
EACH OTHER" HALF THE THICKNESS OF EACH IS CUT SO THAT THE THICKNESS WILL
THE SAME AS THAT OF EACH MEMBER.
S$UARE SPLICEA TYPE OF HALF LAPPED USED TO RESIST TENSION.
BRIDLE JOINT A &OINT IN WHICH TWO TONGUES PRO&ECT FROM THE SIDES OF
THE TENONED MEMBER" THESE TONGUES FIT INTO CORRESPONDING SLOTS IN THE
MORTISED MEMBER.
TENON THE PRO&ECTING END OF A PIECE OF WOOD" OR OTHER MATERIALS WHICH
IS REDUCED IN CROSS SECTION" SO THAT IT MAY BE INSERTED IN A
CORRESPONDING CAVITY IN ANOTHER PIECE IN ORDER TO FORM A SECURE &OINT.
YACAL LUMBER PREFFERED WHEN IN CONTACT WITH CONCRETE.
BOARD FOOT THE VOLUME OF A PIECE OF WOOD ONE INCH. THICK" ONE FOOT
WIDE AND ONE FOOT LONG.
BOLIDEN SALT TREATMENT IN WOLMANIZED LUMBER.
DAP A NOTCH IN A TIMBER FOR RECEIVING ANOTHER TIMBER.
DADO A RECTANGULAR GROOVE CUT ACROSS THE FULL WIDTH OF A PIECE OF
WOOD TO RECEIVE THE END OF ANOTHER PIECE.
SOLIGNUM TRADE NAME FOR ANTI-TERMITE SURFACE APPLICATION ON WOOD.
FLOOR STRUCTURE
WOOD FLOOR SYSTEM
FLOOR FRAMING IS THAT PLATFORM STRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING
SUSPENDED BY POSTS" COLUMNS" WALLS AND BEAMS.
THE DESIGN OF A PLATFORM FLOOR SYSTEM DEPENDS UPON THE FOLLOWING
CONSIDERATIONS,
$. LIVE LOAD REFERS TO THOSE MOVABLE LOADS IMPOSED ON THE
FLOOR.
%. DEAD LOAD REFERS TO THE STATIC LOAD SUCH AS THE WEIGHT OF
THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS WHICH GENERALLY CARRY THE
LIVE LOAD.
'. TYPES OF MATERIALS TO BE USED THE CHOICE FROM THE
VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS SUCH AS LUMBER" CONCRETE"
AND STEEL.
(. THE SI%ING AND SPACING OF THE STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
DEPENDS UPON ITS STRENGTH AND CAPABILITY TO CARRY THE LOAD
AT A CERTAIN SPACING.
). SPAN OF THE SUPPORTS PERTAINS TO THE DISTANCES BETWEEN
THE POSTS" COLUMNS OR SUPPORTING WALLS.
THE PLATFORM - FLOOR FRAMING STRUCTURE IS CLASSIFIED INTO THE FOLLOWING
TYPES:
A. THE PLANK AND BEAM FLOOR TYPE
B. THE PANELIZED-FLOOR SYSTEM
C. THE CONVENTIONAL FLOOR FRAMING SYSTEM
THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF A PLATFORM FLOOR SYSTEM ARE,
GIRDER IS A PRINCIPAL BEAM E#TENDING FROM WALL TO WALL OF A BUILDING
SUPPORTING THE FLOOR &OISTS OF FLOOR BEAMS.
SILL THAT PART OF THE SIDE OF A HOUSE THAT RESTS HORIZONTALLY UPON THE
FOUNDATION.
FLOOR JOISTS ARE THOSE PARTS OF THE FLOOR SYSTEM PLACED ON THE
GIRDERS WHERE THE FLOOR BOARDS ARE FASTENED.
HEADER AND TRIMMER HEADER IS A SHORT TRANSVERSE &OISTS THAT SUPPORT
THE END OF THE CUT-OFF &OIST AT A STAIR WELL HOLE. TRIMMER IS A SUPPORTING
&OIST WHICH CARRIES AN END PORTION OF A HEADER.
FLOORING & THE TONGUE AND GROOVE WHICH ARE POPULARLY KNOWN AS T 0 G
IS GENERALLY SPECIFIED FOR WOOD FLOORING!
TAIL BEAM OR TAIL PIECE A SHORT BEAM" &OIST OR RAFTER WHICH IS
SUPPORTED BY A HEADER &OIST AT ONE END AND A WALL AT THE OTHER.
LEDGER STRIP A STRIP OF LUMBER WHICH IS NAILED TO THE SIDE OF THE BEAM"
FORMING A SEAT FOR THE &OISTS.
DRAFTSTOP PLATE IS A PIECE OF LUMBER USES TO DRESS UP THE EDGE OF THE
&OISTS.
SOLE PLATE A HORIZONTAL TIMBER WHICH SERVES AS A BASE FOR THE STUDS IN
A STUD PARTITION.
SILL PLATE A HORIZONTAL TIMBER" AT THE BOTTOM OF THE FRAME OF AWOOD
STRUCTURE WHICH REST ON THE FOUNDATION.
TOP PLATE A HORIZONTAL TIMBER AT THE UPPER PORTION OF THE STUDS IN
ASTUD PARTITION.
CRIPPLE STUD IN ABUILDING FRAME" A STRUCTURAL ELEMENT THAT IS SHORTER
THAN USUAL" AS A STUD ABOVE AND BELOW OPENING.
BLOCK OR SOLID BRIDGING SHORT MEMBERS WHICH ARE FI#ED VERTICALLY
BETWEEN FLOOR &OISTS TO STIFFEN THE &OISTS.
CROSS BRIDGING DIAGONAL BRACING IN PAIRS" BETWEEN AD&ACENT FLOOR
&OISTS TO PREVENT THE &OISTS FROM TWISTING.
HANGER OR STIRRUP A METAL SEAT" ATTACHED TO A GIRDER TO RECEIVE AND
SUPPORT A &OIST.
BALLOON FRAMING CONSTRUCTION HAS STUDS CONTINOUS TO ROOF
SUPPORTING SECOND FLOOR &OISTS.
WESTERN FRAMING THAT HAS SUBFLOOR E#TENDED TO THE OUTER EDGE OF
THE FRAME AND PROVIDE A FLAT WORK SURFACE AT EACH FLOOR.
REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEM
BEAM - IS A STRUCTURAL MEMBER THAT SUPPORTS THE TRANSVERSE LOAD
WHICH USUALLY REST ON SUPPORTS AT ITS END.
GIRDER IS THE TERM APPLIED TO A BEAM THAT SUPPORTS ONE OR MORE
SMALLER BEAM.
BEAM ARE CLASSIFIED AS ,
A) SIMPLE BEAM
B) CONTINUOUS BEAM
C) SEMI CONTINUOUS
SIMPLE BEAM REFERS TO THE BEAM HAVING A SINGLE SPAN SUPPORTED AT
ITS END WITHOUT A RESTRAIN AT THE SUPPORT. SIMPLE BEAMS IS SOMETIMES CALLED
AS SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM.
RESTRAINT MEANS A RIGID CONNECTION OR ANCHORAGE AT THE SUPPORT.
CONTINUOUS BEAM IS A TERM APPLIED TO A BEAM THAT REST ON MORE
THAN TWO SUPPORTS.
SEMI-CONTINUOUS BEAM REFERS TO A BEAM WITH TWO SPANS WITH OR
WITHOUT RESTRAINT AT THE TWO E#TREME ENDS.
WEB REINFORCEMENT
WEB REINFORCEMENT IS THE SAME AS THEIR STIRRUPS USED IN THE BEAM TO
HOLD THE REINFORCEMENT IN ITS DESIGNED POSITION. THE WEB REINFORCEMENT IS
NOT ONLY INTENDED TO HOLD THE REINFORCEMENT AND PROVIDE LATERAL SUPPORT
BUT ALSO SERVES TO RESIST DIAGONAL TENSION AND COUNTERACT THE SHEAR ACTION
ON THE STRUCTURE. THE VERTICAL STIRRUPS SHOULD ENCIRCLE THE MAIN
REINFORCEMENT AND HOOK BENT WITH A DIAMETER NOT LESS THAN ) TIMES THE
DIAMETER OF THE STIRRUPS AT ITS END AND SECURED PROPERLY TO PREVENT SLIPPING
OF THE MAIN REINFORCEMENT IN THE CONCRETE.
REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB:
REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SLABS ARE CLASSIFIED INTO THE FOLLOWING
TYPES,
$. ONE WAY SOLID SLAB AND BEAM.
%. TWOWAY SOLID SLAB BEAM.
'. RIBBED FLOORS.
(. FLAT SLAB OR GIRDERLESS FLOORS SOLID OR RIBBED.
EACH TYPE OF THE FLOOR SYSTEM HAS ITS OWN ADVANTAGES IN APPLICATION
DEPENDING UPON THE FOLLOWING FACTORS,
$. SPACING OF THE COLUMNS.
%. THE MAGNITUDE OF THE LOADS TO BE SUPPORTED
'. LENGTH OF THE SPAN
(. THE COST OF THE CONSTRUCTION
ONE WAY SLAB ONE WAY SLAB IS THE COMMON TYPE OF REINFORCED
CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEM WHICH THE REINFORCEMENTS RUNS ONLY IN ONE
DIRECTION. MADE OF SOLID SLAB SUPPORTED BY TWO PARALLEL BEAMS. IT IS
COMPARATIVELY ECONOMICAL FOR A MEDIUM AND HEAVY LIVE LOADS ON SHORT
SPANS RANGING FROM %.// TO '.)/ METERS LONG. ALTHOUGH THE REINFORCEMENTS
ARE ALSO PLACED IN THE SLAB PARALLEL WITH THE BEAMS PERPENDICULAR WITH THE
MAIN REINFORCEMENTS CALLED TEMPERATURE REINFORCEMENTS!. USUALLY NO. '
STEEL BAR IS USED TO COUNTERACT THE EFFECT OF SHRINKAGE AND CHANGES IN
TEMPERATURE. IT ALSO DISTRIBUTES POSSIBLE CONCENTRATION OF LOADS OVER A
LARGER AREA.
TWO WAY SLAB SLAB WHICH ARE SUPPORTED ON FOUR SIDES WHERE THE
FLOOR PANEL IS NEARLY SQUARE IS GENERALLY ECONOMICAL TO EMPLOY THE TWO
DIRECTIONS OF REINFORCING BARS PLACED AT RIGHT ANGLE WITH EACH OTHER.
THE CODE SPECIFIES THAT THICKNESS OF THE SLAB SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN
( INCHES OR $/ CM. NOR LESS THAN THE PERIMETER OF THE SLAB DIVIDED BY $-/. THE
SPACING OF THE REINFORCEMENT SHALL NOT BE MORE THAN ' TIMES THE SLAB
THICKNESS.
RIBBED FLOOR SLAB IS AN ECONOMICAL TYPE OF FLOOR CONSTRUCTION
BUT IS APPLICABLE ONLY TO MEDIUM SPAN LENGTH WITH LIGHT OR MEDIUM LOAD.
A RIBBED FLOOR SLAB CONSISTS OF SMALL AD&ACENT T-BEAM WHEREIN THE
OPEN SPACES BETWEEN THE RIBS ARE FILLED BY CLAY TILES" GYPSUM TILES OR STEEL
FORMS. THE TILES ARE GENERALLY '/ # ./ CM. WITH DEPTH OF $/ TO (/CM. O.C.
PLACED = )CM. O.C. MAKING THE RIBS $/ CM. WIDE.
THE CONCRETE SURFACE LAYER PLACED ON TOP OF THE TILES RANGES FROM )
TO *.) CM. THICK. THE REINFORCEMENT OF A RIBBED FLOOR SYSTEM CONSIST OF TWO
BARS PLACED AT THE LOWER PART OF THE RIB WHERE ONE IS BENT AND THE OTHER
REMAINED STRAIGHT" OR SOMETIMES" STRAIGHT BARS ARE PALCED AT THE TOP AND
BOTTOM OF THE RIB. TEMPERATURE BARS ARE EITHER NO. % BARS OR * MM. OR WIRE
MESH WHICH RUNS AT RIGHT ANGLE WITH THE RIBS.
FLAT SLAB IS A RECTANGULAR SLAB DIRECTLY SUPPORTED BY COLUMNS
WITHOUT BEAMS OR GIRDERS. THESLAB IS EITHER UNIFORM IN THICKNESS OR
PROVIDED WITH SQUARE SYMMETRICAL AREA DIRECTLY ABOVE THE COLUMN
REINFORCED WITH BARS RUNNING IN TWO DIRECTIONS. THE INCREASED AREA
DIRECTLY ABOVE THE COLUMN CALLED DROP PANEL OR SIMPLY DROP. ON THE OTHER
HAND" A FLARED HEAD IS EMPLOYED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF A FLAT-SLAB FLOOR
MAKING A CAPITAL OF THE COLUMN.
WHEN THE COLUMN DESIGN IS NOT PROVIDED WITH CAPITAS" A STRAIGHT
FLAT UNDERNEATH IS PROVIDED IN THE SLAB THROUGHOUT THE SYSTEM" WHICH IS
CALLED FLAT PLATE CONSTRUCTION!
THIS FLOOR SYSTEM IS ECONOMICAL IN TERMS OF MATERIALS AND LABOR.
CONSTRUCTION JOINT A &OINT WHERE TWO SUCCESSIVE PLACEMENT OF
CONCRETE MEET.
CONTRACTION JOINT OR EXPANSION JOINT A &OINT BETWEEN AD&ACENT PARTS
OF A STRUCTURE WHICH PERMITS MOVEMENT BETWEEN THEM.
CONTROL JOINTS EMPLOYED TO REDUCE RESTRAINT BY ACCOMODATING
MOVEMENT OF MASONRY WALL.
BLOCK OUT IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES UNDER CONSTRUCTION" A SPACE WHERE
CONCRETE IS NOT TO BE PLACED.
COLD JOINT A &OINT FORMED WHEN A CONCRETE SURFACE HARDEN BEFORE THE
NE#T BATCH OF CONCRETE IS PLACED AGAINST.
CREEP PERMANENT DEFORMATION OF A MATERIAL UNDER A SUSTAIN LOAD.
CAMBER CONVE# CURVATURE IN BEAM OR TRUSS
LAYING OUT OF STAIRS
THE METHOD OF LAYING OUT STAIRS ARE,
$. DETERMINE THE CLEAR HEIGHT OF THE RISE IN METER.
ORDINARILY" THE RISE PER STEP IS $+ TO $- CM AND THE MINIMUM TREAD
WIDTH IS %) CM.
%. DIVIDE THE RISE ( HEIGHT IN METER) BY .$+ OR .$- TO DETERMINE THE
NUMBER OF STEPS.
'. DIVIDE THE RUN DISTANCE IN METER BY .%) OR .'/7.
(. IF THE RESULT" FOUND IN STEP THREE IS LESS THAN THE NUMBER FOUND IN
STEP TWO" THE RUN LENGTH HAS TO BE E#TENDED.
). THERE SHOULD BE NO FUNCTIONAL VALUE OF A RISER. SHOULD THERE BE
FROM THE RESULT OF STEP TWO" AD&UST A FUNCTIONAL VALUE IN EQUAL
PROPORTION TO THE NUMBER OF RISER HEIGHT" BUT IN NO CASE SHALL THE
RISE PER STEP BE GREATER THAN $. CM OR LESS THAN $+ CM OTHERWISE" THE
STAIRS WILL NOT BE AN IDEAL ONE.
IT IS IMPORTANT TO MAKE A CROSS SECTIONAL SKETCH OF A STAIR BEFORE
MAKING THE FINAL PLAN LAYOUT INDICATING THE NUMBER OF STEPS TO
AVOID AD&USTMENTS OF THE RUN DURING THE ACTUAL CONSTRUCTION.
TYPE OF STRINGERS
THERE ARE SEVERAL FORMS OF STRINGER CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE
METHOD OF ATTACHIND THE RISERS AND THE TREADS.
$. CUT
%. CLEATED
'. BUILT-UP
(. RABBETED (HOUSE)
BALUSTER ONE OF A NUMBER OF SHORT VERTICAL MEMBERS OFTEN CIRCULAR
IN SECTION" USED TO SUPPORT A STAIR HANDRAIL.
BALUSTRATE AN ENTIRE RAILING SYSTEM INCLUDING A TOP RAIL" VERTICAL
MEMBERS AND BOTTOM RAIL.
BULL-NOSED STEP A STEP USUALLY LOWEST IN AFLIGHT" HAVING ONE OR BOTH
ENDS ROUNDED TO A SEMI-CIRCLE AND PRO&ECTION BEYOND THE FACE OF THE
STAIR STRING1S.
BANISTER HANDRAIL FOR A STAIRCASE.
RISER A VERTICAL FACE OF ASTAIR.
KICKER PLATE STAIR ANCHOR TO CONCRETE.
TYPES OF ROOF
THERE ARE SEVERAL FORMS OF ROOF AND NUMEROUS VARIETY OF SHAPES
THAT ONE HAS TO BE FAMILIAR WITH,
SHED OR LEAN-TO ROOF- IS CONSIDERED AS THE SIMPLEST FORM OF ROOF
CONSISTING OF ONE SINGLE SLOPE.
GABLE OR PITCH ROOF- THE MOST COMMON TYPE AND ECONOMICAL FORM
OF ROOF MADE OF TRIANGULAR SECTIONS CONSISTING OF TWO SLOPES MEETING AT
THE CENTER OF THE RIDGE FORMING A GABLE.
SAW TOOTH ROOF- IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SHED MADE INTO A SERIES
TO LEAN-TO ROOF COVERING ONE BUILDING. THIS IS COMMONLY USED ON FACTORIES
WHERE E#TRA LIGHT IS REQUIRED THROUGH THE WINDOW ON A VERTICAL SIDE.
DOUBLE GABLE ROOF- IS A MODIFICATION OF A GABLE OR A HIP AND VALLEY
ROOF.
HIP ROOF- IS ALSO A COMMON FORM USED IN MODERN HOUSES HAVING
STRAIGHT SIDES ALL SLOPING TOWARD THE CENTER OF THE BUILDING TERMINATING AT
THE RIDGE.
HIP AND VALLEY ROOF- IS A COMBINATION OF THE HIP ROOF AND AN
INTERESTING GABLE ROOF FORMING A T OR L SHAPED BUILDING. THIS TYPE OF ROOF
FORM HOWEVER" HAS A VARIETY OF MODIFICATION WHICH ARE NOT ILLUSTRATED.
PYRAMID ROOF- IS A MODIFICATION OF THE HIP ROOF WHEREIN THE FOUR
STAIGHT SIDES ARE SLOPING TOWARDS THE CENTER TERMINATING AT A POINT.
GAMBREL ROOF- IS A MODIFICATIN OF THE GABLE ROOF WITH EACH SIDE
HAVING TWO SLOPES.
BUTTERFLY ROOF- IS A TWO SHED ROOF WHERE THE SLOPE MEET AT THE
CENTER OF THE BUILDING.
MANSARD ROOF- WHERE THE SIDES OF THE ROOF SLOPE STEEPLY FROM EACH
SIDE OF THE BUILDING TOWARDS THE CENTER FORMING A FLAT DECK ON TOP.
FRENCH OR CONCAVE MANSARD ROOF- IS A MODIFICATION OF THE
MANZARD ROOF WHERE THE SIDES ARE CONCAVE.
DOME- IS A HEMISPHERICAL FORM OF ROOF USUALLY USED ON
OBNSERVATORIES.
CONICAL ROOF OR SPHIRE- IS A STEEP ROOF OF CIRCULAR SECTION THAT
TAPERS UNIFORMLY FROM THE CIRCULAR BASE TO A CENTRAL POINT
TYPES OF ROOF FRAME
THE THREE TYPES OF ROOF FRAME COMMONLY USED ARE,
$. RAFTERS TYPE
%. TRUSS TYPE
'. LAMINATED TYPE
THE VARIOUS KINDS OF RAFTERS FOR ROOF CONSTRUCTIONS ARE,
COMMON RAFTERS- ARE RAFTERS E#TENDED AT RIGHT ANGLES FROM THE PLATE
OR GIRTS T THE RIDGE.
HIP RAFTERS- ARE RAFTERS LAID DIAGONALLY FROM THE CORNER OF A PLATE OR
GIRTS TO THE RIDGE.
VALLEY RAFTERS- RAFTERS PLACED DIAGONALLY FROM THE PLATE OR GIRTS AT
THE INTERSECTION OF GABLE E#TENSION WITH THE MAIN ROOF.
OCTAGONAL RAFTERS- ARE RAFTERS PLACED ON AN OCTAGONAL SHAPED PLATE
AT THE CENTRAL APE# OR RIDGE POLE.
JACK RAFTERS- ANY RAFTER WHICH DOES NOT E#TEND FROM THE PLATE OR
GIRTS TO THE RIDGE.
&ACK RAFTERS ARE CLASSIFIED INTO,
$. HIT &ACKS
%. VALLEY &ACKS
'. CRIPLE &ACKS
&ACK RAFTERS FRAMED BATWEEN HIP RAFTERS AND GITS ARE CALLED HIP JACKS! THE
FRAME BETWEEN THE RIDGE AND VALLEY RAFTERS ARE CALLED VALLEY JACKS"
WHILE THOSE FRAMES BETWEEN THE HIP AND THE VALLEY RAFTERS ARE CALLED
CRIPPLE JACKS!
TRUSS IS A BUILT-UP FRAME COMMONLY EMPLOYED ON A LONG SPAN ROOF
UNSUPPORTED BY INTERMEDIATE COLUMNS OR PARTITIONS. TRUSS IS A DESIGN OF A
SERIES OF TRIANGLES USED TO DISTRIBUTE LOAD" STIFFEN THE STRUCTURE AND
FLE#IBILITY FOR THE INTERIOR SPACING AS WELL AS STRENGTH AND RIGIDITY.
THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRUSSES ARE,
LIGHT TRUSSES:
PITCHED HOWE
SCISSORS RAISED CHORD
SAWTOOTH $ > STORY FRAME
FLAT UTILITY
BOWSTRING
HEAVY TRUSSES:
HOWE TRUSS BELGIAN
FINK PRATT
SCISSORS CAMBERED FINK
WARREN FLAT HOWE
SAW TOOTH FLAT PRATT
PURLINS THE STRUCTURAL MEMBER PLACED ON TOP OF A RAFTER OR TOP CHORD OF
A TRUSS THAT SUPPORTS THE ROOF SHEATING.
PURLINS SIZE AND SPACING,
SPAN, %.// SIZE, )/77 # +)77
'.// )/77 # $//77
'.)/ )/77 # $)/77
(.)/ )/77 # %//77
ROOF AND ROOFING MATERIALS
THE TERM ROOF USED HERE MEANS THE TOP COVERING OF A BUILDING THAT
SERVES AS A PROTECTIVE COVERING FROM THE WEATHER.
ROOFING CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO THE MATERIALS USED,
FIBER
WOOD
METAL
SLATE
TILES
REINFORCED CONCRETE
PLASTICS
FIBERGLASS
METAL ROOFING IS THE MOST COMMON MATERIALS IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION"
THIS ARE CLASSIFIED AS FOLLOWS,
GALVANIZED IRON
ALUMINUM
TIN
TITANIUM COPPER ZINC
COPPER
STAINLESS STEEL
LEAD
AMONG THE METAL ROOFING ENUMERATED" GALVANIZED IRON SHEET IS THE
MOST COMMONLY SPECIFIED CONSIDERING THE ADVANTAGES THAT IT OFFER.
GALVANIZED IRON ROOFING IS EITHER PLAIN OR CORRUGATED. THE
THICKNESS ARE MEASURED IN TERMS OF GAUGE! FROM 6<. $( TO 6<. '/. G<96? %* IS THE
MOST COMMONLY USED FOR ROOFING.
THE STANDARD COMMERCIAL SIZE WIDTH IS /.-/ 7. WITH LENGTH THAT
RANGES FROM $.)/ TO '.*/ 7.
PLAIN G.I. SHEET COMMERCIAL STANDARD SIZE IS /../7. # %.(/7. ITS ALSO
USED FOR ROOFING" GUTTERS"FLASHING"RIDGE"HIP AND VALLEY ROLLS" DOWNSPOUT"
AND STRAP FOR RIVETING.
CORR. G.I.ROOFING FASTENERS,
NAILING
RIVETING
PANTILE A ROOFING TILE WHICH HAS THE SHAPE OF S! LAID ON ITS SIDE.
MISSION TILE A CLAY ROOFING TILE" APPRO#. SEMI-CYLINDRICAL IN SHAPE LAID
IN COURSES WITH THE UNIT HAVING THEIR CONVE# SIDE ALTERNATELY UP AND
DOWN.
ROMAN TILE A CHANNEL SHAPED" TAPERED" SINGLE LAP ROOPING TILE.
GALVANI%ED ZINC COATED MATERIALS.
A FRAME A '-PIECE RIGID STRUCTURAL FRAME IN THE SHAPE OF THE UPRIGHT
CAPITAL A!.
CHORD A PRINCIPAL MEMBER OF A TRUSS.
BATTEN WOOD STRIPS TO SUPPORT ROOF TILES.
SPLIT RING CHORD SPLICE CONNECTORS FOR TRUSSES.
FORM' SCAFFOLDING AND STAGING
FORM IS A TEMPORARY BOARDING" SHEATING OR PANS USED TO PRODUCE
THE DESIRED SHAPE AND SIZE OF CONCRETE. FORMS ARE USED IN CONCRETE
CONSTRUCTION. STRUCTURAL MEMBERS OF A BUILDING ARE BUILT-UP INTO ITS
SPECIFIED DIMENSIONS BY THE USE OF FORMS THAT SERVES AS MOULD FOR THE MI#ED
CONCRETE.
FORMS SHOULD BE WATERTIGHT" RIGID AND STRONG ENOUGH TO SUSTAIN
THE WEIGHT OF CONCRETE. IT SHOULD BE SIMPLE AND ECONOMICALLY DESIGNED TO
BE REMOVE EASILY AND REASSEMBLED WITHOUT DAMAGE TO THEMSELVES OR TO THE
CONCRETE.
FACTORS CONSIDERED IN THE SELECTION OF FORMS ARE,
COST OF MATERIALS
THE CONSTRUCTION AND ASSEMBLING COST
THE NUMBER OF TIMES IT COULD BE USED
STRENGTH AND RESISTANCE TO PRESSURE AND THE TEAR 0 WEAR
WOOD BOARD AND PLYWOOD FORMS
WOOD FORM IS THE MOST COMMON AND WIDELY USED FORMS IN MINOR OR
MA&OR CONSTRUCTION.
PLYWOOD AS FORM IS GENERALLY ECONOMICAL BOTH IN LABOR AND MATERIALS.
PLYWOOD HAS PLAIN EVEN SURFACE WITH UNIFORM THICKNESS.
IT OFFERS FITTED &OINTS" ELIMINATE DRESSING" PLANING OF THE SURFACE WHICH
IS NORMAL TO WOODEN BOARDS FORMS.
THE LAMINATED CROSS-GRAINED OF PLYWOOD HAS MADE THE BOARD STRONGER
AND FREE FROM WARPING.
PLYWOOD IS LIGHT-WEIGHT" HANDY AND FAST TO WORK ON.
PRODUCE SMOOTH FINISHES OF CONCRETE THAT SOMETIMES NEED LITTLE OR NO
PLASTERING AT ALL.
METAL FORM ARE SELDOM USED IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION BECAUSE OF
THE VARIED DESIGNS AND SHAPES OF THE STRUCTURES. ALTHOUGH METAL FORMS ARE
E#TENSIVELY USED ON ROAD CONSTRUCTION. METAL FORMS ARE GENERALLY MADE
OUT OF G.I. SHEET" OR BLACK IRON SHEET" SUPPORTED BY FLAT AND ANGLE BARS
DESIGNED TO BE ASSEMBLED AND LOCKED BE MEANS OF CLAMP" BOLTS AND NUTS.
CONSTRUCTION OF FORMS
CONCRETE WEIGHS ABOUT %"%// TO %"(// 56.189.7. FORMS SHALL BE GUARDED
AGAINST BULGING AND SAGGING FAILURE THAT OCCUR DURING THE PROCESS OF
POURING. THE THICKNESS OF THE FORM AND THE SIZES OF THE FRAME AND RIBS
DEPENDS UPON THE NATURE OF THE STRUCTURE TO BE SUPPORTED CLASSIFIED AS
SMALL" MEDIUM AND MASSIVE STRUCTURE.
SMALL STRUCTURE CONSISTING OF SMALL FOOTINGS" COLUMNS AND BEAM FOR
ONE OR TWO STOREY BUILDING WHEREIN *77. THK. PLYWOOOD IS SATIFACTORILY
USED SUPPORTED BY )/77 # )/77 WOOD FRAME AND RIBS.
MEDIUM STRUCTURE ARE THOSE HAVING CONCRETE COLUMNS" BEAMS" AND
CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB GENERALLY OF % TO ' STOREY HIGH. WHEREIN *77 OR
$%77 THK. PLYWOOD IS USED AS FORM SUPPPORTED BY )/77 # )/77 OR )/77 #
+)77 WOOD FRAME AND RIBS.
MASSIVE STRUCTURE ARE THOSE HAVING HEAVY LOADS USES FORMS OF VARIOUS
THICKNESS THAT RANGE FROM *77 TO $.77 THK. PLYWOOD SUPPORTED BY )/77
# )/77 TO )/77 # $//77 WOOD FRAME AND RIBS.
TWO TYPES OF FRAMING:
LONGITUDINAL RIB TYPE
PERPENDICULAR RIB TYPE
TYPES OF COLUMN FORMS:
SQUARE
RECTANGULAR
CIRCULAR
BEAM FORMS CONSIST OF ONE BOTTOM FORM AND A PAIR OF SIDE FORMS.
TYPES OF WALL FORMS,
CONTINUOUS
FULL UNIT
LAYER UNIT
GREASING OF FORMS
THE PURPOSE OF GREASING THE FORM IS TO MAKE THE WOOD WATER PROOF"
THUS PREVENTING ABSORPTION OF WATER IN THE CONCRETE WHICH CAUSES SWELLING
AND WARPING. ITS ALSO PREVENTS ADHERENCE OF CONCRETE TO THE PORES OF THE
WOOD.
YOKE IS A HORIZONTAL FRAMEWORK AROUND THE FORMWORK FOR A COLUMN.
SCAFFOLDING WORKERS PLATFORM
PRECAST AND PRESTRESSED CONSTRUCTION
INTRODUCTION
THE INTRODUCTION OF PRECAST-CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION WAS BROUGHT
ABOUT BY BUILDING COSTS THAT HAS CONSIDERABLY INCREASED FASTER THAT MOST
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS THAT ARE AFFECTED BY THE LARGE AMOUNT OF ON-SITE
LABOR INVOLVED IN THE TRADITIONAL METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION.
THE DEMAND FOR SKILLED WORKERS ON ON-SITE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
IS INCREASINGLY OUTRUNNING THE SUPPLY. THE ANSWER TO THERE PROBLEMS WERE
BROUGHT ABOUT BY THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF CONSTRUCITON AND SUBSTITUTION
OF SITE LABOR BY FACTORY PRODUCED PRECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURE WHICH HAS
RAPIDLY DEVELOPED AND GAINED IMPORTANCE.
THE CONCRETE IS CAST IN PERMANENT FORMS OF STEEL" CONCRETE" GLASS-
FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTIC.
THE WET CONCRETE IS VIBRATED MECHANICALLY IN THE FORMS TO ACHIEVE
MA#IMUM DENSITY AND HIGHEST SURFACE QUALITY.
CONCRETE STRENGTH IN PRECAST IS USUALLY )/// PSI" WHILE %+/"/// PSI FOR
STRENGTH OF STEEL.
PRECAST CONCRETE ELEMENTS ARE USUALLY STEAM CURED WITH THE USE
OF HIGH EARLY STRENGTH CEMENT TO ENABLE A PRECAST TO REMOVE IN FORM IN %(
HOURS.
FORMS ARE CALLED CASTING BEDS. THE CASTING BEDS AVERAGE $%) METERS
TO E#TEND %)/ METERS IN LENGTH.
TYPES OF PRECAST STRUCTURE
WALL PANELS THIS TYPE OF PRECAST STRUCTURE HAS NUMEROUS DESIGNS
DEPENDING UPON THE ARCHITECTURAL REQUIREMENTS. THE COMMON SHAPES
PRODUCED FOR ONE TO FOUR STOREY HIGH STRUCTURES ARE SECTIONS HAVING A
WIDTH UP TO %.(/ 7. THEY ARE USED AS CURTAIN WALLS ATTACHED TO COLUMNS AND
BEAMS OR SOMETIMES AS BEARING WALLS.
THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF WALL PANELS ARE,
$. FLAT TYPE
%. DOUBLE TEE TYPE
'. RIBBED TYPE
(. WINDOW OR MULLION TYPE

TO IMPROVE THE THERMAL INSULATION OF THE PANEL" FOAM GLASS" GLASS
FIBER OR E#PANDED PLASTIC IS INSERTED BETWEEN TWO LAYERS OF LIGHTWEIGHT
CONCRETE ADEQUATELY BONDED INTERCONNECTING THE TWO LAYERS TO ACT AS ONE
UNIT. STRESSES IN HANDLING AND ERECTION OF THE MEMBER IS MORE THAN THAT OF
THE FINISHED FILLED STRUCTURE" HENCE" CONTROL OF CRACKING IS OF GREAT
IMPORTANCE.
PRECAST COLUMN
PRECAST COLUMN SIZES ARE FROM .'/ @ .'/7. AB .*/ @ .*/7. IN A MULTI-STOREY
CONSTRUCTION" THE COLUMNS ARE MADE CONTINUOUS UP TO FOUR STORIES WHEREIN
CORBELS ARE USED TO PROVIDE BEARING FOR THE BEAM. TEE COLUMN IS SOMETIMES
USED TO SUPPORT DIRECTLY DOUBLE TEE FLOOR MEMBERS WITHOUT THE USE OF
INTERMEDIATE MEMBERS.
PRECAST BEAMS
THE SHAPE OF PRECAST BEAMS DEPENDS UPON THE MANNER OF FRAMING.
THE VARIOUS SHAPES ARE,
RECTANGULAR BEAM
INVERTED TEE BEAM
L &SHAPED BEAM
AASHTO BRIDGE GIRDER AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY
AND TRANSPORTATION OFFICIALS.
ROOF AND FLOOR MEMBERS
SOLID FLAT SLAB WIDE RANGES FROM /.*/M. TO %.(M.
HOLLOW CORE SLAB WIDE RANGES FROM /.*/M. TO %.(M.
DOUBLE TEE WIDE RANGES FROM %.( TO './M.
SINGLE TEE WIDE RANGES FROM %.( TO './M.
PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF A PECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURE
ESTIMATE THE DEPTH OF A PRECAST SOLID SLAB AT $1(/ OF ITS SPAN. DEPTH
TYPICALLY RANGE FROM ./-%//77.
AN %//77 PRECAST HOLLOW-CORE SLAB CAN SPAN APPRO#IMATELY +.*/M." %)/77
SLAB APPRO#. ..-/M." AND A '//77 SLAB APPRO#. $%./M. SPAN.
ESTIMATE THE DEPTH OF PRECAST CONCRETE DOUBLE TEES AT $1%- OF THEIR
SPAN. THE MOST COMMON DEPTHS OF DOUBLE TEES ARE '//"')/"(//"()/")$/"*$/"
AND-$)77.
A PRECAST CONCRETE SINGLE TEE .%-77 DEEP SPANS APPRO#IMATELY %*./M. AND
$$(%77 TEE FOR '%./M. SPAN.
ESTIMATE THE DEPTH OF PRECAST CONCRETE BEAMS AND GIRDERS AT $1$* OF
THEIR SPAN FOR LIGHT LOADINGS AND $1$% OF THEIR SPAN FOR HEAVY LOADINGS.
THESE RATIOS APPLY TO RECTANGULAR" INVERTED TEE AND L-SHAPED BEAMS.
THE WIDTH OF A BEAM OR GIRDER IS USUALLY ABOUT > ITS DEPTH. THE
PRO&ECTING LEDGERS ON INVERTED TEE AND L-SHAPED BEAMS ARE USUALLY
$)/77 WIDE AND '//77 DEEP.
TO ESTIMATE THE SIZE OF A PRECAST CONCRETE COLUMN. ADD UP THE TOTAL
ROOF AND FLOOR AREA SUPPORTED BY THE COLUMN. A %)/77. COLUMN CAN
SUPPORT UP TO ABOUT $-) CD.7. OF AREA. A '//77. COLUMN FOR %(/ CD.7. AREA. A
(//77. COLUMN FOR '+/ CD.7. AREA. A )//77. COLUMN FOR )*/ CD.7. AREA. A
*//MM. COLUMN FOR +(/ CD.7. AREA.
JOINING PRECAST CONCRETE ELEMENTS
BOLTING" WELDING" AND GROUTING ARE ALL COMMONLY EMPLOYED IN THESE
CONNECTIONS. E#POSED METAL CONNECTORS NOT COVERED BY TOPPING ARE
USUALLY DRY PACKED WITH STIFF GROUT AFTER BEING &OINED" TO PROTECT THEM
FROM FIRE AND CORROSION.
THE SIMPLEST &OINTS IN PRECAST CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION ARE THOSE
THAT RELY UPON GRAVITY BY PLACING ONE ELEMENT ON TOP OF ANOTHER" AS IS DONE
WHERE SLAB ELEMENTS REST ON A BEARING WALL OR BEAM" OR WHERE A BEAM RESTS
ON THE CORBEL OF A COLUMN. BEARING PADS ARE USUALLY INSERTED BETWEEN THE
CONCRETE MEMBERS AT BEARING POINTS TO AVOID THE CONCRETE-TO-CONCRETE
CONTACT THAT MIGHT CREATE POINTS OF HIGH STRESS. BEARING PADS ALSO ALLOW
FOR E#PANSION AND CONTRACTION IN THE MEMBERS. FOR SOLID AND HOLLOW-CORE
SLABS THESE PADS ARE STRIPS OF HIGH-DENSITY PLASTIC. UNDER ELEMENTS WITH
HIGHER POINT LOADING SUCH AS TEES AND BEAMS" PADS OF SYNTHETIC RUBBER
AREUSED.
PRESTRESSING OF CONCRETE
THERE ARE SEVERAL METHODS EMPLOYED IN APPLYING PRESTRESSED FORCE
TO A CONCRETE BEAM,
PRECOMPRESSING METHOD IS A PROCESS OF USING &ACKS REACTING AGAINST
ABUTMENT.
SELF-CONTAINED METHOD THE PROCESS IS DONE BY TYING THE &ACK BASE
TOGETHER WITH WIRES OR CABLES LOCATED ON EACH SIDE OF THE BEAM.
USUALLY THE WIRES AND CABLES ARE PRESSED THROUGH A HOLLOW CONDUIT
EMBEDDED IN THE CONCRETE BEAM. ONE END OF THE TENDON IS ANCHORED AND
FORCES ARE APPLIED AT THE OTHER END. AFTER ATTAINING THE DESIRED
PRESTRESS FORCE" THE TENDON IS THEN WEDGED AGAINST THE CONCRETE"
REMOVING THE &ACK EQUIPMENT.
BOND FRICTION THE PRESTRESSING STRANDS ARE STRETCHED BETWEEN
MASSIVE ABUTMENT PRIOR TO CASTING OF CONCRETE IN THE BEAM FORMS.
AFTER THE CONCRETE HAS GAINED SUFFICIENT STRENGTH" THE &ACKS ARE THEN
RELEASED TRANSFERRING THE PRESTRESSED FORCE TO THE CONCRETE BY BOND
AND FRICTION ALONG THE STRANDS.
THE SELF CONTAINED AND THE BOND AND FRICTION METHODS CAN
GENERALLY BE CLASSIFIED AS PRE-TENSIONING OR POST-TENSIONING SYSTEM. THESE
METHODS CAN BE APPLIED TO MASS PRODUCTION OF CASTING SEVERAL METERS LONG
OF STRUCTURE AND CUTTING THE INDIVIDUAL BEAM OR POST TO THE DESIRED LENGTH
OUT FROM THE LONG CASTING.
THERMAL PRESTRESSING THE STEEL IS PREHEATED BY MEANS OF ELECTRIC
POWER WHICH ARE ANCHORED AGAINST THE OPPOSITE END OF THE CONCRETE
BEAM. THE COOLING PROCESS PRODUCES PRESTRESS FORCE THROUGH
RESTRAINED CONTRACTION.
THE CAUSES OF PRESTRESS LOSSES ARE,
$. SLIP AT ANCHORAGE
%. ELASTIC SHORTENING OF CONCRETE
'. CREEP OF CONCRETE
(. SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE
). RELA#ATION OF STEEL STRESS
*. FRICTIONAL LOSS DUE TO INTENDED OR UNINTENDED CURVATURE IN THE
TENDONS.
CONCRETE FOR PRESTRESSING
CONCRETE OF HIGHER COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH IS USED FOR PRESTRESSED
STRUCTURES. MOST OF THE PRESTRESSED CONSTRUCTION SPECIFY A COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH OF CONCRETE BETWEEN (("/// AB *"/// EC;) %-/-(%% 56187% BECAUSE OF THE
FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES THAT IT OFFERS.
A) HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE HAS A HIGHER MODULUS OF
ELASTICITY. IT MINIMIZE THE REDUCTION OF PRESTRESS LOSS.
B) INCREASING THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF THE CONCRETE
MEETS THE PROBLEM OF HIGH BEARING STRESSES AT THE ENDS OF
POST AND BEAM WHERE THE PRESTRESSING FORCE IS TRANSFERRED
FROM THE TENDON TO THE ANCHORAGE DOWELS WHICH DIRECTLY
BEARS AGAINST THE CONCRETE.
C) HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE DEVELOPS STRONGER BOND
PRESTRESSES TO PRETENSIONING CONSTRUCTION.
D) HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE GIVES HIGHER STRENGTH TO PRECAST
CONSTRUCTION WHEN CURING IS CAREFULLY CONTROLLED.
MEASUREMENT OF PRESTRESSING FORCE
PRESTRESSING FORCE COULD BE DETERMINED BY,
$. MEASURING THE TENDON ELONGATION.
%. EITHER BY CHECKING &ACK PRESSURE ON A CALIBRATED GAGE OR
LOAD CELL OR BY THE USED OF CALIBRATED DYNAMOMETER.
POST TENSIONING THE STRESSING OF UNBONDED TENDONS AFTER CONCRETE
HAS CURED.
BUILDING MATERIALS
WOOD MATERIALS
WOOD HAS DURABILITY AND BEAUTY. IT HAS GREAT ABILITY TO ABSORB SHOCKS
FROM SUDDEN LOAD AND LIGHT IN WEIGHT WHICH ADAPTABLE IN A COUNTLESS
VARIETY OF PURPOSES.
TWO MAJOR CLASSIFICATION OF WOOD:
SOFTWOOD THESE ARE USED FOR GENERAL CONSTRUCTION.
HARDWOOD THESE ARE USED FOR FLOORING, STAIRS, PANELLING,
FURNITURES AND INTERIOR TRIM.
PROPERTIES OF WOOD:
HARDNESS MEASURED BY THE COMPRESSION, WHICH A PIECE
UNDERGOES WHEN A WEIGHT IS APPLIED.
FLEXIBILITY THE AMOUNT A PIECE WILL BEND BEFORE BREAKING.
STRENGTH TO THE GRAIN.
DURABILITY THE RELATIVE VALUE / LIFESPAN OF WOOD.
DEFECTS OF LUMBER:
DECAY CAUSED BY THE ATTACKED OF FUNGI.
CHECKS CRACKS OR LENGTH WISE SEPARATION ACROSS THE
ANNUAL RINGS OF GROWTH.
KNOTS IRREGULAR GROWTHS IN THE BODY WHICH INTERRUPS
SMOOTH CURVE.
PITCH POCKETS WELL REFINED OPENINGS BETWEEN ANNUAL RINGS
CONTAINING SOLID OR LIQUID PITCH.
WANE IS THE LACK OF WOOD ON THE EDGE OR CORNER OF A PIECE.
TYPES OF WARPING:
CUPPING IS A DISTORTION OF THE BOARD IN WHICH THE FACE IS
CONVEX/CONCAVE ACROSS THE BOARD.
BOWING IS A DISTORTION OF THE BOARD IN WHICH THE FACE IS
CONVEX/CONCAVE LONGITUDINALLY.
TWISTING IS A DISTORTION OF THE BOARD IN WHICH ONE CORNER IS
RAISED.
DEFINITION OF TERMS:
STRIPS PIECES LESS THAN 2 THICK AND LESS THAN WIDE.
BOARDS PIECES LESS THAN 2 THICK AND AT LEAST WIDE.
DIMENSION LUMBER PIECES MORE THAN 2 THICK AND LESS THAN !
IN ANY DIMENSION.
TIMBER PIECES " OR MORE ON THE SMALLEST DIMENSION.
LOG PIECES #2 OR MORE ON THE SMALLEST DIMENSION.
THREE CATEGORIES OF LUMBER:
YARD LUMBER USED FOR ORDINARY LIGHT CONSTRUCTION AND
FINISHING WORK. COMMONLY USED FOR FLOORING, PLANK SIDING,
TRIM AND MOULDING.
SHOP LUMBER IT IS INTENDED FOR USE IN SHOPS OR IN MILLS
MAKING SASH, DOORS, AND CABINETS.
STRUCTURAL LUMBER IS INTENDED FOR USE IN HEAVY
CONSTRUCTION FOR LOAD$BEARING PURPOSES AND IS CUT INTO
TIMBERS OF LARGER SI%E.
WOOD GRAIN:
EDGE GRAIN ANNUAL RINGS RUN APPROX. AT RIGHT ANGLE TO THE
FACE.
FLAT GRAIN WHEN THE ANNUAL RINGS RUN MORE OR LESS PARALLEL
TO THE SURFACE.
ANGLE GRAIN WHEN THE ANNUAL RINGS ARE AT ABOUT "! DEG. TO
THE FACE.
SEASONING OF LUMBER:
AIR DRYING LUMBER IS STRIP$PILED AT ASLOPE ON ASOLID
FOUNDATION. THIS ALLOWS AIR TO CIRCULATE AROUND EVERY PIECE
WHILE THE SLOPING ALOOWS WATER TO RUN OFF QUICKLY.
KILN-DRYING MORE EXPENSIVE LUMBER WHICH IS REQUIRED FOR
MORE REFINED USES SO AS WOOD WILL NOT MOVE. IT MUST BE DRIED
TO A MOISTURE CONTENT OF NOT MORE THAN ! TO #& PERCENT. THIS
IS DONE IN AN AIRTIGHT STRUCTURE SCIENTIFICALLY HEATED BY
STEAM PIPES IN WHICH THE LUMBER IS ARTIFICIALLY DRIED TO THE
CORRECT MOISTURE CONTENT.
MANUFACTURE BOARDS:
MANUFACTURED BOARDS ARE MADE OF WOOD BUT DOES NOT
APPEAR IN THEIR NATURAL STATE. THIS TYPE OF BUILDING MATERIALS CAN BE
CLASSIFIED AS A TYPE OF LUMBER AS THEY ARE THE BY$PRODUCT IN THE
MANUFACTURE OF LUMBER. THE COMPLETE UTILI%ATION OF WOOD HAS LEAD TO AN
EXPANDED FIELD OF MANUFACTURED BOARDS.
TYPES OF BOARDS:
PLYWOOD IS MADE OF AN ODD NUMBER VENEER SHEETS GLUED
TOGETHER WITH THE GRAINS RUNNING AT RIGHT ANGLE TO EACH
OTHER. IT IS LIGHT IN WEIGHT AND STRONG THAT SCREW OR NAIL CAN
BE DRIVEN CLOSE TO THE EDGES WITHOUT DANGER OF SPLITTING.
THE DIFF. TYPES OF PLYWOOD'
SOFT PLYWOOD $ THE MOST COMMON FOR STRUCTURAL USE
HARDWOOD PLYWOOD ARE USED FOR PANELLING AND
FINSHING WHERE USUALLY ON ONE FACE IS HARD FINISHED.
EXTERIOR OR MARINE PLYWOOD IS MADE FOR EXTERNAL
USE.
HARDBOARD IS MADE FROM WOOD CHIPS WHICH ARE EXPLODED
INTO FIBERS UNDER STREAM OF HIGH PRESSURE. THE LINING IN THE
WOOD ITSELF BINDS PRESSED WOOD TOGETHER WITH NO FILLERS OR
ARTIFICIAL ADHESIVES APPLIED. PRESSED WOOD IS EQUALLY STRONG
IN ALL DIRECTIONS BUT VERY BRITTLE. ITS COLOR VARIES FROM LIGHT
TO DARK BROWN.
PARTICLE BOARD IS MANUFACTURES FROM WOOD CHIPS, CURLS,
FIBERS, FLAKES, STRANDS, SHAVING, SLIVERS ETC. BOUND TOGETHER
AND PRESSED INTO SHEETS AND OTHER MOLDED SHAPED. PARTICLE
BOARD HAS EQUAL STRENGTH IN ALL DIRECTION OF A GIVEN CROSS
SECTIONAL AREA, IT IS NOT BRITTLE AND CAN RESIST WARPING.
MASONRY
MASONRY REFERS TO A MAN$MADE UNITS WHICH ARE FORMED AND
HARDENED INTO MODULAR BUILDING UNITS.
BASIC BRICKWORK TERMINOLOGY:
COURSE IS A HORI%ONTAL LAYER OF BRICKS OR OTHER MASONRY UNITS.
BED JOINT IS THE HORI%ONTAL MORTAR IN EVERY COURSE.
HEAD JOINT IS THE VERTICAL MORTAR IN EVERY MASONRY UNIT.
STRETCHER IS A BRICK LAID WITH ITS FACE PARALLEL TO THE WALL AND ITS
LONG DIMENSION HORI%ONTAL.
HEADER IS A BRICK LAID SO AS TO BOND TWO WYTHES TOGETHER.
WYTHE IS A VERTICAL LAYER OF MASONRY UNITS, ONE UNIT THICK.
SOLDIER IS A BRICK LAID ON ITS END WITH ITS FACE PARALLEL TO THE WALL.
ROWLOCK IS A BRICK LAID ON ITS FACE WITH ITS END VISIBLE IN THE WALL
FACE.
STRUCTURAL BONDS FOR BRICKWORK:
RUNNING BOND CONSISTS ENTIRELY OF STRETCHERS.
COMMON BOND HAS A HEADER COURSE EVERY SIXTH COURSE
ENGLISH BOND ALTERNATES COURSES OF HEADERS AND STRETCHERS.
FLEMISH BOND ALTERNATES HEADERS AND STRETCHERS IN EACH COURSE.
JOINT TOOLING PROFILES FOR BRICKWORK:
WEATHERED (OINT CONCAVE (OINT VEE (OINT
FLUCH (OINT RAKED (OINT
STRIPPED (OINT
STRUCK (OINT
REINFORCED BRICK MASONRY
A REINFORCED BRICK WALL IS CREATED BY CONSTRUCTING TWO WYTHES
OF BRICK !& #&&)) APART, PLACING THE REINFORCING STEEL IN THE CAVITY, AND
FILLING CAVITY WITH GROUT. GROUT IS A MIXTURE OF CEMENT, AGGREGATES, AND
WATER
BRICK BOUNDS
THE METHOD OF LAYING BRICKS IN A WALL IN ORDER TO FORM SOME
DISTINCTIVE PATTERN OR DESIGN IS REFERRED TO AS THE PATTERN
BOND.
THE METHOD BY WHICH THE INDIVIDUAL UNITS IN A BRICK STRUCTURE
ARE TIED TOGETHER EITHER BY OVERLAPPING OR BY METAL TIES IS
KNOWN AS THE STRUCTURAL BOND.
THE ADHESION OF MORTAR TO BRICKS OR TO STEEL REINFORCEMENT
USED IN CON(UNCTION WITH THEM IS CALLED THE MORTAR BOND.
CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS'
CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS ARE CLASSIFIED AS BEARING AND NON$
BEARING BLOCKS. LOAD BEARING BLOCKS ARE THOSE WHOSE THICKNESS RANGES
FROM #! CM. TO 2& CM. AND ARE USED TO CARRY LOAD ASIDE FROM ITS OWN
WEIGHT. NON$BEARING BLOCKS ON THE OTHER HAND, ARE BLOCKS WHICH ARE
INTENDED FOR WALLS, PARTITIONS, FENCES OR DIVIDERS CARRYING ITS OWN
WEIGHT WHOSE THICKNESS RANGES FROM *.! CM. TO #& CM.
CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS HAS THREE CELLS AND TWO ONE HALF CELLS
AT BOTH ENDS HAVING A TOTAL OF FOUR.
CONCRETE
CEMENTS
PORTLAND CEMENT
MADE FROM MATERIALS WHICH MUST CONTAIN IN THE PROPER PROPORTIONS OF
LIME, SILICA, ALUMINA AND IRON COMPONENTS. FOUR PARTS OF LIMESTONE TO ONE
PART CLAY ARE BASIC INGREDIENTS. THESE ARE MIXED, BURNED THEN PULVERI%ED.
PORTLAND CEMENT IS SOLD EITHER IN CEMENT BAGS OF "& + !& KILOS WEIGHT OR
IN BULK INTO CEMENT TRUCKS.
SPECIAL CEMENTS
WHITE PORTLAND CEMENT SAME MATERIALS AS NORMAL PORTLAND EXCEPT
IN COLOR. THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS IS CONTROLLED TO PRODUCE A
PURE WHITE, NON$STAINING CEMENT. IT IS USED PRIMARILY FOR
ARCHITECTURAL PURPOSES SUCH AS CURTAIN WALL AND FACING PANELS,
DECORATIVE CONCRETE STUCCO AND TILE GROUT, OR WHEREVER WHITE OR
COLORED CONCRETE OR MORTAR IS SPECIFIED.
MASONRY CEMENT OR TILE ADHESIVES HAS BEEN SPECIALLY DESIGNED TO
PRODUCE BETTER MORTAR THAN THAT MADE WITH NORMAL PORTLAND CEMENT
OR WITH A LIME$CEMENT HAS PARTICULARLY GOOD PLASTICITY AND
WORKABILITY, GOOD ADHESION AND BOND.
WATERPROOFED PORTLAND CEMENT NORMALLY PRODUCED BY ADDING A
SMALL AMOUNT OF STEARATE, USUALLY CALCIUM OR ALUMINUM TO THE CEMENT
CLINKER DURING THE FINAL GRINDING.
TYPES OF AGGREGATES USED IN CONCRETE
CONCRETE CAN BE CONSIDERED TO BE AN ARTIFICIAL STONE MADE BY
BINDING TOGETHER PARTICLES OF SOME INERT MATERIAL WITH A PASTE MADE OF
CEMENT AND WATER. THESE INERT MATERIAL ARE THE AGGREGATE. AGGREGATES
USED ARE SAND, GRAVEL CRUSHED STONE, CINDER. CRUSHED FURNACE SLAG,
BURNED CLAY, EXPANDED VERMICULITE, AND PERLITE.
SAND $ FOUND IN RIVERBEDS,
FREE OF SALT
AND MUST BE WASHED.
FINE AGGREGATE $ , AND SMALLER
DIAMETER STONES.
COARSE AGGREGATE $ BIGGER THAN , DIAMETER
STONES.
CONCRETE MI#ES
CLASS -AA $ #' # .' / $ CONCRETE UNDER WATER,
RETAINING
WALLS
CLASS A $ #'2'" $ FOOTINGS, COLUMNS
BEAMS, R.C.
SLABS

CLASS B $ #' 2 #/ 2'!$ SLAB ON FILL, NON BEARING WALLS
CLASS C $ #' /' 0 $ CONCRETE PLANT BOXES, ETC.
CONTROL OF CONCRETE MIXES
SLUMP TEST$ WHEN FRESHLY MIXED CONCRETE IS CHECKED TO ENSURE THAT THE
SPECIFIED SLUMP IS BEING ATTAINED CONSISTENTLY. A STANDARD SLUMP CONE IS
#2 INCHES HIGH 1&./&2 AND INCHES 1O.2&2 IN DIAMETER AT THE BOTTOM AND "
INCHES 1O.#&2 ON TOP WHICH IS OPEN ON BOTH ENDS.
THE CONE IS FILLED IN THREE EQUAL LAYERS, EACH BEING TAMPED OR
RODDED 2! TIMES WITH A STANDARD !/ BULLET NOSED ROD. WHEN THE CONE HAS
BEEN FILLED AND LEVELED OFF, IT IS LIFTED CAREFULLY AND THE AMOUNT OF SLUMP
IS MEASURED.
ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION 3X4
BEAMS AND COLUMNS *.! 5). 1.&*!2 /

SLABS AND TUNNEL INVERTS !.& 5). 1.!&2 2
TOPS AND WALL, PIERS, PARAPET + CURBS !.& 5). 1.!&2 2
SIDE WALLS AND ARCH IN TUNNEL LINING #&.& 5). 1.#&2 "
CANAL LINING *.! 5). 1.&*!2
/
HEAVY MASS CONSTRUCTION !.& 5). 1.!&2 2
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST$ COMMON QUALITY$CONTROL TEST OF CONCRETE,
BASED ON * AND 2 DAYS CURING PERIODS. SPECIMENS ARE USUALLY CYLINDRICAL
WITH A LENGHT EQUAL TO TWICE THE DIAMETER. STANDARD SI%E IS #2 INCH. HIGH
AND 0 INCH. DIAMETER. FILLING IS DONE THE SAME WAY AS THE SLUMP TEST BUT
TAKEN OUT FROM THE MOLD IN 2" HOURS. IT IS THEN SENT TO A COMPRESSION
TESTING LABORATORY, BY MAKING THE CYLINDER WHILE STILL WET. SOME
COMPRESSIVE STRESSES ARE 2,&&& 678, 2,!&& 678, /,&&& 678.

SOME OF THE BRANDS OF PORTLAND CEMENT
ISLAND CEMENT
CONTINENTAL CEMENT
HI$ CEMENT
UNION CEMENT
RI%AL CEMENT
FILIPINAS CEMENT
PACIFIC CEMENT
FORTUNE CEMENT
REPUBLIC CEMENT
NORTHERN CEMENT
BRANDS OF WHITE CEMENT
PRIME WHITE CEMENT
KEENE
TRINITY
SNOWCRETE
MORTAR CEMENT, SAND + WATER.
GROUT CEMENT AND WATER MIXTURE.
CONCRETE CEMENT, SAND, GRAVEL + WATER.
TYROLEAN FINISH ROUGH PLASTER FINISH OBTAINED BY FLINGING PLASTER
ON A WALL W/ A HAND OPERATED MACHINE.
EFFLORESCENCE AN ENCRUSTATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS CAUSED BY FREE
ALKALIES LEACHED FROM MORTAR OR AD(ACENT CONCRETE AS MOISTURE
MOVE THROUGH IT.
ADIABATIC CURING $ THE CURING OF CONCRETE OR MORTAR W/O THE GAIN OR
LOSS OF HEAT DURING THE CURING PERIOD.
WHEATHERED MOST WATERPROOFED TYPE OF MORTAR (OINTS FOR WALLS.
ADOBE BRICK LARGE ROUGHLY MOULDED SUN DRIED CLAY BRICKS OF
VARYING SI%ES.
ASHLAR BRICK A BRICK WHOSE FACE HAS BEEN HACKED TO RESEMBLE
ROUGHLY HACKED STONE.
RETARDER AN ADMIXTURE WHICH DELAY THE SETTING OF CEMENT PASTE OR
MIXTURES/ AN ADDITIVE MIXED WITH PLASTER TO CONTROL THE RATE OF
HARDENING.
STEAM CURING THE CURING OF CONCRETE OR MORTAR IN WATER VAPOR AT
AN ELEVATED TEMPERATURE AT EITHER ATMOSPHERIC OR HIGH PRESSURE.
QUOIN / COIN IN MASONRY, A HARD STONE OR BRICK USED TO REINFORCE AN
EXTERNAL CORNER OF A WALL.
%OCALO LOW WALL AROUND A CHALET$TYPE HOUSE.
FORTIFICATION THA WALL OF INTRAMUROS.
SCRATCH COAT INITIAL SCORED LAYER OF PLASTER WORK.
CINDER BLOCK A LIGHT WEIGHT MASONRY UNIT MADE OF CINDER CONCRETE.
MORTAR FOR BLOCK LAYING IS &.&#2! ).
PLASTERING THICKNESS IS &.&#0 ).
MORTAR FILLER FOR HOLLOW CELL &.&! X &.&*! X &.2& 9 &.&&&*! 5:.).
FOR " CELL/BLOCK 9 &.&&&*! X " 9 &.&&/ 5:.). FOR " CHB.
FERROUS AND NONFERROUS METALS
FERROUS$ METAL IN WHICH IRON IS THE PRINCIPAL ELEMENT.
NONFERROUS$ CONTAINING NO, OR VERY LITTLE IRON.
FERROUS METAL:
STEEL$ A MALLEABLE ALLOY OF IRON AND CARBON PRODUCED BY MELTING AND
REFINING PIG IRON AND/ OR SCRAP STEEL, GRADED ACCORDING TO THE CARBON
CONTENT.
PRODUCE BY THREE BASIC RAW MATERIALS" IRON ORE" AND LIMESTONE. FIVE
PARTICLES OF ALL THREE BASIC INGREDIENTS OF STEEL" WHICH OTHERWISE WOULD BE
WASTE" ARE BLENDED AND BURNED ON A MOVING GATE TO CAUSE THE FORMATION OF
CLINKERS. THESE ARE CALLED SINTER" A HIGH- GRADE BLAST-FURNANCE CHARGE
MATERIAL.
FROM THESE, RAW MATERIALS WHICH IS MELTED INTO INGOTS PLACE IN
MOLDS, A GRAT VARIETY OF PRODUCTS USED IN CONSTRUCTION ARE MADE. THEY
INCLUDED'
COLD-ROLLED SHEETS ARE GALVANIZED 1GIVEN A %INC COATING2. PIG IRON IS
USED TO MAKE CAST IRON WHICH IS HIGH IN COMPRESSIVE STRENGHT BUT LOW
IN TENSILE STRENGHT, AND HAS LITTLE USE FOR CONSTRUCTION. HOWEVER
SINCE IT IS CHEAP AND EASY TO CAST, IT IS USED FOR PUMPS, MOTORS,
ENGINES AND BECAUSE OF ITS CORROSION RESISTANCE IT IS USED FOR PIPES
TO SOME EXTENT.
WROUGHT IRON IS PRODUCED WHEN PIG IRON IS MELTED IN SUCH A WAY AS TO
REMOVE NEARLY ALL OF THE CARBON AND OTHER IMPURITIES. IT IS EASILY
WORKED AND IS TOUGH AND DUCTILE. IT4S MAIN USES ARE FOR WIRE AND
METAL ORNAMENTS.
STAINLESS STEELS ARE MADE WITH CHROMIUM OR A COMBINATION OF NICKEL
AND CHROMIUM USED IN BUILDINGS OF EXTERIOR WALLS PANELS, FRAMES FOR
DOORS EXPANSION (OINTS, FLASHING, COPINGS, FASCIA AND GRAVEL STOPS.
COPPER$ BEARING STEEL HAS HIGH RESISTANCE TO CORROSION AND IS USED
FOR MAKING SHEET STEEL AND METAL LATH.
STEEL PRODUCTS
ROLLED STRUCTURAL SHAPES
SHEET PILING$ SECTIONS ARE MADE TO INTERLOCK AND ARE AVAILABLE IN
SEVERAL SHAPE.
STEEL PIPE$ SEAMLESS OR WELDED SMALL DIAMETER PIPE AND ELECTRICALLY
WELDED LARGE DIAMETER PIPE.
REINFORCING STEEL$ MADE FROM NEW STEEL OR FROM DISCARDED
RAILWAY$ CAR AXLES OR RAILS.
REINFORCING STEEL COMES IN PLAIN OR DEFORMED BARS, THAT IS, BARS
WHICH HAVE LUGS OR DEFORMATIONS ROLLED ON THE SURFACE TO
PROVIDE ARCHORAGE IN CONCRETE.
SI%ES$START WITH NO.2 OR , 8;. 1DIVIDE A NUMBER OF BAR BY TO GET THE
EQUIVALENT IN 8;5< DIAMETER2

N=. 29 , - 9 0 )).
N=. /9 // 9 #& )).
N=. "9 . 9 #2)).
N=. !9 !/ 9 #0)).
N=. 09 > 9 2&)).
N=. *9 */ 9 22)).
N=. 9 # 9 2!)).
N=. ?9 # #/ 9 /&)).

WELDED WIRE FABRIC$ ANOTHER TYPE OF REINFORCING MATERIAL. IT
CONSISTS OF PARALLEL, LONGITUDINAL WIRES WELDED TO TRANSVERSE
WIRES AT REGULAR INTERVALS.
STEEL WIRE OVER #!&,&&& USES FOR WIRE INCLUDING PINS, NEEDLES,
NAILS, BOLTS, CABLES, PIANO WIRE, FENCES.
BOLTS AND NUTS 1EITHER HOT FORGED OR COLD$FORMED FROM WIRE
OF THE APPROPRIATE DIAMETER2. FOR BOLTS, WIRE IS FED INTO AN
AUTOMATIC BOLT$MAKING MACHINE WHICH CUTS TO LENGTH HEADS, TRIMS,
POINTS, AND IN MANY ROLLS THE THREAD.
STEEL STRAPPING MADE FROM HIGH$TENSILE FLAT WIRE IN A NUMBER
OF SI%ES. USED FOR BANDING COLUMN FORMS TO KEEP THEM FROM
BULGING UNDER THE PRESSURE OF FRESHLY POURED CONCRETE. A
TIGHTERNER TIGHTENS IT AND THE TWO LAPPED ENDS IS SEALED.
OPEN WEB STEEL (OISTS LIGHTWEIGHT WARREN$TYPE TRUSSES MADE
IN SEVERAL DIFFERENT STYLES.
SHEET STEEL BLACK AND GALVANI%ED, CAN BE USED TO MANUFACTURE
CORRUGATED ROOFING AND SIDING AND FORMED STEEL DECKING.
STEEL STUDS LIGHTWEIGHT, REQUIRING MINIMUM STORAGE SPACE AND
DOES NOT WARP OR SHRINK. FASTENERS DO NOT POP, AND (OINTS STAY
CLOSED. MUCH FASTER TO INSTALL THAN WOOD STUD INSTALLATION.
AVAILABLE IN # !/, 2 . AND / !/ INCHES. PLUMBING STACKS AND
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS FIT EASILY INTO A STEEL$FRAMEWALL.
PANS AND DONES MANUFACTURED FOR USE IN FORMING ONE$WAY AND
TWO$WAY RIBBED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEMS.

NONFERROUS METALS:
ALUMINUM ITS ORE, BAUXITE, REQUIRES #& KILOWATT HOURS FOR EACH POUND OF
METAL ALUMINUM EXTRACTED. THE REDDISH BROWN ORE IS WASHED AND TREATED
IN A SODA SOLUTION TO YIELD A CHALKY$WHITE POWDER CALLED ALUMNA,
CONTAINING A HIGH CONCENTRATION OF ALUMINUM.
ALUMINUM FOIL USED AS A VAPOR BARRIER ON WALLS AND
CEILINGS AND AS REFLECTIVE INSULATION.
COPPER A LUSTROUS REDDISH METAL, HIGHLY DUCTILE AND MALLEABLE@
HAS HIGH TENSILE STRENGTH, IS AN EXCELLENT ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL
CONDUCTOR, IS AVAILABLE IN A WIDE VARIETY OF SHAPES@ WIDELY USED FOR
DOWNSPOUTS, ELECTRICAL CONDUCTORS, FLASHINGS GUTTERS, ROOFING, ETC.
COPPER ALLOYS ARE BRASSES, AND BRON%ES WHICH CONTAIN
PRIMARILY %INC AND TIN, RESPECTIVELY, AND THE ALLOYS CONTAINING NICKEL.
BRASSES ARE USED IN ARCHITECTURAL AND HARDWARE
APPLICTIONS. BRON%ES ARE USED IN THE PRODUCTION OF SPRINGS.
LEAD A SOFT, MALLEABLE, HEAVY METAL@ HAS LOW MELTING POINT AND A
HIGH COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION. VERY EASY TO CUT AND WORK,
ENABLING IT TO BE FITTED OVER UNEVEN SURFACES. USED FOR ROOFING,
FLASHING AND SPANDREL WALL PANELS.
TIN A LUSTROUS WHITE, SOFT AND MALLEABLE METAL HAVING A LOW
MELTING POINT@ RELATIVELY UNAFFECTED BY EXPOSURE TO AIR@ USED FOR MAKING
ALLOYS AND SOLDER AND IN COATING SHEET METAL.
STRUCTURAL SHAPES
THE MOST COMMON SHAPES OF STRUCTURAL STEEL USED IN BUILDING
CONSTRUCTION ARE THE AMERICAN STANDARD FORMS SUCH AS'
#. SQUARE BARS 0. I$
BEAM
2. ROUND BARS *. TEE
BEAM
/. PLATE BARS . H$
COLUMN
". ANGLE BARS ?.
WIDE FLANGES
!. CHANNELS #&. %EE
STANDARD CHANNEL
THE STANDARD CHANNEL HAS THE SHAPE OF UNSYMMETRICAL BALANCE
CONSISTING OF TWO FLANGES ON ONE SIDE. IT THEREFORE REQUIRES LATERAL
SUPPORT TO PREVENT ITS TENDENCY TO BUCKLE. THE STANDARD CHANNELS ARE
GENERALLY USED AS ELEMENTS OF BUILT$UP SECTIONS FOR COLUMNS AND ARE
ALSO SUITABLE FOR FRAMING AROUND FLOOR OPENINGS, SPANDRELS, AND LINTELS
ATTRIBUTED TO THE ABSENCE OF FLANGE ON THE OTHER SIDE. THE CHANNEL
SECTION IS IDENTIFIRD AS C #! A 2& WHICH MEANS THAT THE CHANNEL HAS A DEPTH
OF 2& 5). AND WEIGHTS #! BC. PER METER LENGTH.
WIDE FLANGE
WIDE FLANGE SECTIONS ARE DESIGNATED AS W #2 A 2" WHICH MEANS THAT
THE FLANGE HAS A DEPTH OF 2" 5). AND IT WEIGHS #2 BC. PER METER LENGTH. ALL
WIDE FLANGE SECTIONS ARE GENERALLY WITH PARALLEL FACE FLANGE EXCEPT
THOSE WITH !D SLOPE INSIDE FACE PRODUCED BY BETLEHEM STEEL COMPANY.
COMPARATIVELY, WIDE FLANGE SECTIONS ARE MORE EFFICIENT THAN STANDARD I
BEAM WITH RESPECT TO BENDING RESISTANCE.
STANDARD I-BEAM
THE USE OF I$BEAM AS A COLUMN IS UNECONOMICAL, BECAUSE THE WHIRL
OR REVOLVING ACTION OF THE STRUCTURE ABOUT AN AXIS THROUGH THE CENTROID
PARALLEL TO THE WAB OF THE I$BEAM IS COMPARATIVELY SMALL.
H-BEARING PILES
H$BEARING PILES ALTHOUGH SUITABLE FOR PILE DRIVING ON DEEP
EXCAVATIONS IS MUCH MORE SUITABLE THAN THE I$BEAM FOR COLUMNS.
%EE SECTIONS
THE %EE SECTION IS ANOTHER STRUCTURAL FORM IN A LETTER % WHICH IS
NOT FREQUENTLY USED IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION EXEPT ON THE FABRICATION OF
STEEL WINDOWS AND OTHER FRAMES.
WROUGHT IRON A COMMERCIALLY PURE IRON OF FIBROUS NATURE, VALUED
FOR ITS CORROSION RESISTANCE AND DUCTILITY.
CAST IRON AN IRON ALLOY USUALLY INCLUDING CARBON AND SILICON WHICH
HAS HIGH COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH BUT LOW TENSILE STRENGTH.
WELDING IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH TWO METALS ARE SO (OINT THAT THERE
IS AN ACTUAL UNION OF THE INTERATOMIC BONDS.
EXTRUSION THE PROCESS OF PRODUCING METAL SHAPES OF A CONSTANT
CROSS SECTION BY FORCING THE HOT METAL THROUGH AN ORFICE IN A DIE BY
MEANS OF A PRESSURE RAM.
RED OXIDE PROTECTIVE COAT FOR IRON.
LAP SEAM A (OINT FORMED BY OVERLAPPING THE EDGES OF METAL SHEET OR
PLATES AND (OINING THEM BY RIVETING OR SOLDERING OR BRACING.
JOINING STEEL MEMBERS
STEEL SHAPES CAN BE (OINED INTO A BUILDING FRAME WITH ANY OF THREE
FASTENING TECHNIQUES.
RIVETS
A RIVETS IS A FASTENER CONSISTING OF A CYLINDRICAL BODY AND A
FORMED HEAD WHICH IS BROUGHT TO A WHITE HEAT, INSERTED THROUGH HOLES IN
THE MEMBERS TO BE (OINED, AND HOT$WORKED WITH A PNEUMATIC HAMMER TO
PRODUCED A SECOND HEAD OPPOSITE THE FIRSTHEAD.
PROCESS OF RIVETING'
A2 A HOT STEEL RIVET IS INSERTED IN HOLES THROUGH THE TWO
MEMBERS TO BE (OINED,
B2 ITS HEAD IS THEN HELD WITH HAND HAMMER WITH A CUP$SHAPED
DEPRESSION,
C2 WHILE A PNEUMATIC HAMMER DRIVES A RIVET SET REPEATEDLY
AGAINST THE BODY OF THE RIVET TO FORM THE SECOND HEAD,
D2 THE RIVET SHRINKS AS IT COOLS, DRAWING MEMBERS TIGHTLY
TOGETHER.
BOLTS
THE BOLTS COMMONLY USED IN STEEL FRAME CONSTRUCTION FALL INTO
TWO GENERAL CATEGORIES'
#2 CARBON STEEL BOLTS OR COMMON BOLTS ARE SIMILAR TO THE
ORDINARY MACHINE BOLTS THAT CAN BE PURCHASED IN
HARDWARE STORES.
22 HIGH$STRENGTH BOLTS ARE HEAT TREATED DURING
MANUFACTURE TO DEVELOP THE NECESSARY STRENGTH. IT IS
USUALLY TIGHTENED USING PNEUMATIC OR ELECTRIC IMPACT
WRENCH.
A MA(OR PROBLEM IN HIGH$STRENGTH BOLTING OR FRICTION$TYPE
CONNECTIONS IS HOW TO VERIFY THE NECESSARY TENSION HAS BEEN ACHIEVED IN
ALL THE BOLTS IN A CONNECTION.
SEVERAL WAY TO ACHIEVED PROPER TIGHTENING'
TURN$OF$NUT METHOD
LOAD INDICATOR WASHER
TENSION CONTROL BOLTS
PROCESS OF TIGHTENING A TENSION CONTROL BOLT'
A2 THE WRENCH HOLDS BOTH THE NUT AND THE SPLINED BODY OF THE BOLT,
AND TURNS THEM AGAINST ONE ANOTHER TO TIGHTEN THE BOLT,
B2 WHEN THE REQUIRED TORQUE IS ACHIEVED, THE SPLINED END TWISTS OFF
IN THE WRENCH,
C2 A PLUNGER INSIDE THE WRENCH DISCHARGES THE SPLINED END INTO A
CONTAINER.
WELDING
WELDING CAN (OIN THE MEMBERS OF A STEEL FRAME AS IF THEY WERE A
MONOLITHIC WHOLE. WELDED ARE STRONGER THAN THE MEMBERS THEY (OIN IN
RESISTING BOTH SHEAR AND MOMENT FORCES.
TYPICAL WELDS USED IN STEEL FRAME CONSTRUCTION'
FILLET WELD
DOUBLE FILLET WELD
DOUBLE$BEVEL GROOVE WELD
SINGLE$BEVEL GROOVE WELD WITH BACKUP BAR
V$GROOVE WELD
V$GROOVE WELD WITH BACKUP BAR
PUDDLE WELD
PARTIAL$PENETRATION SINGLE$BEVEL GROOVE WELD
THE BASIC SYBOLS ARE'
BACK FILLET PLUG OR
SLOT
GROOVE OR BUTT
SQUARE V BEVEL U ( FLARE V FLARE BEVEL

THE ARROW
THE REFERENCE LINE CARRIES
THE DESCRIPTIVE SYMBOLS
THE ARROW POINTS TO
THE WELD

THE BASIC SYMBOLS
THE BASIC WELD SYMBOL IS LOCATED ON EITHER SIDE OF THE REFERENCE LINE AS
FOLLOWS,

SYMBOLS ON THE TOP OF THE REFERENCE LINE REFER TO WELDS ON THE SIDE OF THE
&OINT OPPOSITE THE

ARROW



SYMBOLS ON THE BOTTOM OF THE REFERENCE
LINE

REFER TO WELDS ON THE SAME SIDE OF THE
(OINT AS

AS THE ARROW


SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS

FIELD WELD THIS WELD BE DONE IN THE FIELD DURING ERECTION. OTHER WELDS
ARE DONE EARLIER IN THE FABRICATOR4S SHOP.

WELD ALL AROUND THIS INDICATES THAT THE WELD SHOULD BE CARRIED FULLY
AROUND THE PERIMETER OF THE (OINING PIECES.

BACKUP BAR AS INDICATED IN THIS EXAMPLE, A BACKUP BAR TO SUPPORT THE
FIRST PASS OF THE WELD MUST BE PLACED ON THE SIDE OF THE (OINT OPPOSITE
THE ARROW.

SPACER SMALL METAL SPACERS ARE USED TO MAINTAIN A GAP BETWEEN THE PIECS
TO BE (OINED, PRIOR TO WELDING.

A SHARP BEND NEAR THE END OF THE ARROW INDICATES THAT THE ARROWHEAD IS
POINTING TOWARD THE GROOVED SIDE OF THE BEVEL OR ($GROOVED (OINT
GLASS
THE MA(OR INGREDIENT OF GLASS IS SAND 1SILICON DIOXIDE2. A HARD
BRITTLE INORGANIC SUBSTANCE, ORDINARILY TRANSPARENT OR TRANSLUCENT@
PRODUCED BY MELTING A MIXTURE OF SILICA, A FLUX AND A STABILI%ER@ WHILE
MOLTEN MAYBE BLOWN, DRAWN, ROLLED, PRESSED OR CAST TO A VARIETY OF
SHAPES.
DURING ITS MANUFACTURED, ORDINARY WINDOW GLASS IS ANNEALED,
COOLED SLOWLY UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITION, TO AVOID LOCKED$IN THERMAL
STRESSES THAT MIGHT CAUSE IT TO BEHAVE UNPREDICTABLY IN USE.
THICKNESSES OF GLASS
GLASS IS TYPICALLY MANUFACTURED IN A SERIES OF THICKNESSES
RANGING FROM APPROXIMATELY 2.!)), THROUGH /)), IS CALLED SINGLE$
STRENGTH, OR 0)) TO 22)), IS CALLED DOUBLE$STRENGTH, AND ON SPECIAL
ORDER, 2!)) IS AVAILABLE.
TYPES OF CLEAR GLASS
#. TEMPERED GLASS
TEMPERED GLASS IS PRODUCED BY CUTTING ANNEALED GLASS TO
THE REQUIRED SI%ES FOR USE, REHEATING IT TO APPROXIMATELY #2&&
DEGREES FAHRENHEIT, COOLING BOTH ITS SURFACES RAPIDLY WITH A
BLAST OF AIR WHILE ITS CORE COOLS MUCH MORE SLOWLY. ITS FOUR TIMES
AS STRONG IN BENDING AND MORE RESISTANT TO THERMAL STRESS AND
IMPACT.
2. HEAT$STRENGTHENED GLASS
THE HEAT STRENGTHENED PROCESS IS SIMILAR TO TEMPERING,
BUT ITS, ABOUT ONE$THIRD AS HIGH AS TEMPERED GLASS IN TERMS OF
BENDING AND STRENGTH.
/. LAMINATED GLASS
ITS MADE BY SANDWICHING A TRANSPARENT VINYL INTERLAER BETWEEN
SHEETS OF GLASS AND BONDING THE THREE LAYERS TOGETHER UNDER
HEAT AND PRESSURE. WHEN ITS BREAKS, THE SOFT VINYL HOLDS THE
SHARDS OF GLASS IN PLACE RATHER THAN ALLOWING THEM TO FALL OUT
OF THE FRAME.
". PATTERNED OR ROLLED AND ROUGH CAST GLASS
HOT GLASS CAN BE ROLLED INTO SHEETS WITH MANY DIFFERENT SURFACE
PATTERNS FOR USE WHERE LIGHT TRANSMISSION IS DESIRED BUT VISION MUST BE
OBSCURED FOR PRIVACY.
!. SPANDREL GLASS
SPECIAL OPAQUE GLASSES ARE PRODUCED FOR COVERING THE SPANDREL
AREA 1THE BANDS OF WALL AROUND THE EDGES OF FLOORS2 IN GLASS
CURTAIN. IT IS USUALLY TEMPERED OR HEAT$STRENGTHENED TO RESIST
THE THERMAL STRESSES THAT CAN CAUSED BY ACCUMULATIONS OF SOLAR
HEAT BEHIND THE SPANDREL.
0. WIRED GLASS
SIMPLY A ROLLED GLASS INTO WHICH WIRE MESH IS INSERTED DURING THE
PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE. THE WIRE GREATLY INCREASES THE
RESISTANCE TO SHATTERING THROUGH IMPACT. ITS USE FOR SAFETY
GLA%ING, WHEN ITS BREAKS FROM THERMAL STRESS, THE WIRES HOLD THE
SHEET OF GLASS TOGETHER.
TINTED AND REFLECTIVE COATED GLASS
SOLAR HEAT BUILDUP CAN BE PROBLEMATIC IN THE INHABITED SPACES OF
BUILDINGS WITH LARGE AREAS OF GLASS, ESPECIALLY DURING THE WARM PART OF
THE YEAR. THIS IS USE TO REDUCE GLARE AND CUT DOWN ON SOLAR HEAT GAIN.
#2 TINTED GLASS
TINTED GLASS IS MADE BY ADDING SMALL AMOUNTS OF SELECTED
CHEMICAL ELEMENTS TO THE MOLTEN GLASS MIXTURE TO PRODUCE THE
DESIRED HUE AND INTENSITY OF COLOR IN GRAYS, BRON%ES, BLUES,
GREEN, AND GOLDS.
22 REFLECTIVE COATED GLASS
REFLECTIVE COATED GLASS APPEAR AS MIRROR FROM THE OUTSIDE ON A
BRIGHT DAY AND AT NIGHT, WITH LIGHTS ON INSIDE THE BUILDING, THEY APPEAR AS
DARK BUT TRANSPARENT GLASS.
/2 INSULATING GLASS
A SECOND SHEET OF GLASS APPLIED TO A WINDOW WITH AN AIRSPACE
BETWEEN THE SHEETS CUTS THIS RATE OF HEAT LOSS IN HALF. TWO KINDS
OF EDGES SEALS ARE FUSED GLASS EDGES AND A METAL SPLINE AND
ORGANIC SEALANT.
GLASS PRODUCTS
I. GLASS BLOCKS
COMPARABLE IN MANY WAYS TO UNIT MASONRY BUT HAVE THE ADDED
FEATURE OF TRANSMITTING LIGHT. THEY ARE MADE INTO TWO SEPARATE
HALVES, WHICH ARE HEAT$SEALED TOGETHER TO FORM A HOLLOW UNIT
WITH REASONBLY HIGH THERMAL EFFICIENCY AND SOUND INSULATION. THE
EDGE SURFACES OF THE BLOCK ARE COATED WITH A GRITTY MORTAR
BOND.
TWO TYPES:
#. FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS DIRECT OR DIFFUSE THE DAYLIGHT WHICH PASSES
THEOUGH THEM TO IMPROVE THE ILLUMINATION OF THE BUILDING INTERIOR.
THREE STYLES OF FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS'
A. A LIGHT DIRECTING BLOCK DIRECTS INCOMING LIGHT UPWARD TOWARD
THE CEILING. USED ALWAYS ABOVE EYE LEVEL.
B. A LIGHT DIFFUSING BLOCK DIFFUSES INCOMING LIGHT EVENLY
THROUGHOUT THE INTERIOR OF THE ROOM.
C. GENERAL PURPOSES BLOCK
2. DECORATIVELY OR ARCHITECTURAL GLASS AVAILABLE IN A WIDE RANGE OF
STYLES AND PATTERNS. THESE GLASS MASONRY UNITS PROVIDE ALMOST
UNLIMITED DESIGN VERSATILITY WHEN USED IN WINDOW, OPENINGS AND
FACADES, AS INTERIOR WALLS AND DIVIDER PANELING.
PAINT FINISHES
THE PURPOSE OF A FINISH IS TO PROTECT, PRESERVE OR VISUALLY
ENHANCE THE SURFACE TO WHICH IT IS APPLIED. FINISHES INCLUD PLASTIC
LAMINATED SURFACE COVERINGS SUCH AS PLASTIC LAMINATED AND VINYL OF
FABRIC WALL COVERING.
PAINT GENERALLY REFERS TO OPAQUE OR CLEAR FILM$FORMING MATERIAL
THAT ACTS AS A SHIELD OR BARRIER BETWEEN THE BUILDING MATERIAL AND THOSE
ELEMENTS OR CONDITIONS THAT MAY ADVERSELY AFFECTS OR DETERIORATE. THE
PAINT FILM MUST RESIST DETERIORATION DUE TO SUNLIGHT HEAT, TEMPERATURE
VARIATIONS, WATER OR MOISTURE VAPOR, MILDEW AND DECAY CHEMICALS AND
PHYSICAL ABRASION. PAINT MAY ALSO SERVE TO MAKE SURFACES MORE SANITARY,
IMPROVE HEATING AND LIGHTING EFFECTS, AND PROMOTE HUMAN COMFORT AND
SAFETY.
WHEN USING PAINT, THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF COLOR AND
SURFACE TEXTURE MUST BE CONSIDERED. CERTAIN COLORS MAY BE STIMULATING
WHILE OTHERS ARE RELAXING. WHITE AND LIGHT COLORS REFLECT SI%E OF FORM
AND SPACE. DARK COLOR CAN INHIBIT THE PERCEPTION OF FORM AND MAY BE USED
FOR CONTRAST. FLAT PAINT FINISHES SOFTEN AND DISTRIBUTE, ILLUMINATION
EVENLY. GLOSSY FINISHES REFLECT LIGHT AND CAN CAUSE GLARE, BUT THEY ALSO
PROVIDE SMOOTH, EASILY CLEANED, NON$ABSORPTIVE SURFACES.
MOST PAINTS ARE CAREFULLY FORMULATED TO MEET SPECIFIC
APPLICATION THAT USE REQUIREMENTS AND ARE READY$MIXED FOR APPLICATION
EXCEPT FOR THINNING, STIRRING, OR THE ADDITION OF AN ACTIVATOR OR CATALYST.
IT IS ALWAYS ADVISABLE THEREFORE TO FOLLOW THE PAINT MANUFACTURERS
RECOMMENDATIONS IN THE APPLICATION AND USE OF A PAINT OR OTHER
PROTECTIVE COATING.
PAINTS MAY BE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO'
MATERIAL TO WHICH IT IS APPLIED
WOOD, METAL MASONRY, CONCRETE, PLASTIC, ETC.,
SURFACE FINISH TEXTURE
GLOSS, SEMI$GLOSS, EGG SHELL, SATIN, FLAT,+ VARNISH.
CONSIDERATIONS IN THE SELECTION AND USE OF A PAINT INCLUDE'
SURFACE PREPARATION
- THE FOUNDATION OF ANY PAINT SYSTEM MUST BE PROPERLY PREPARED TO
ENSURE PROPER ADHESION OF THE PAINT FILM TO ITS SURFACE!
TYPE OF PAINT
- PAINT MUST BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE MATERIAL TO WHICH IT IS APPLIED.
- SPECIFICATIONS INCLUDE THE PAINT VEHICLE, FINISH COLOR, EXPOSURE, AND
MANUFACTURER AND/OR TRADE NAME.
METHOD
- DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF PAINT AND THE MATERIAL TO WHICH IT IS BEING
APPLIED. COATINGS MAY BE BRUSHED, ROLLED OR SPRAYED ON.
DRYING
- THE TIME AND CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR A PAINT TO DRY MUST BE CHECKED.
FILM THICKNESS
- THE DRY FILM THICKNESS 1DFT2 IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE NUMBER OF
COATS.
- MULTIPLE THIN COATS ARE GENERALLY MORE EFFECTIVE THAN A SINGLE THICK
COAT.
- A MINIMUM OF 2 COATS IS REQUIRED TO PRODUCE ! MIL DFT.
COVERAGE
- A PAINT4S COVERAGE CAN BE ESTIMATED BY ITS PERCENTAGE OF VOLUME
SOLIDS'
- 8E. PAINT WITH #&&D VOLUME SOLIDS'
1NO THINNER2
# GAL COVERS
#0&& SF 1#"? )22 F # MIL DFT
&& SF 1 *" )22 F 2 MIL DFT
"&& SF 1 /* )22 F " MIL DFT

$PAINT WITH !&D VOLUME SOLIDS
1!&D THINNER2
# GAL COVERS
&& SF 1*" )22 F # MIL DFT
"&& SF 1/* )22 F 2 MIL DFT
PAINT GENERALLY CONSIST OF'
PIGMENT FINELY GROUND SOLIDS THAT PROVIDE THE PAINTS COVERINGS
OR HIDING POWER OR ITS COLOR.
VEHICLE LIQUID MEDIUM TO CARRY THE PIGMENT IN SUSPENSION
DURING APPLICATION. AND CONSISTS OF BINDERS AND SOLVENTS.
BINDER SERVE TO FORM THE PAINT FILM AND CAUSE IT TO ADHERE THE
SURFACE BEING PAINTED.
BINDERS ARE LARGELY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PROTECTIVE QUALITY AND
DURABILITY OF THE PAINT FIL OR PROTECTIVE COATING.
SOLVENTS OR THINNERS ACTS DRYING AGENTS.
DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF SOLVENT USED, A PAINT MAY DRY OR HARDEN BY
OXIDATION, EVAPORATION, CHEMICAL ACTION, OR BY THERMOSETTING ACTION
AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES.
COLOR
DEPENDS ON THE TYPE OF PAINT AND THE MANUFACTURER.
EXPOSURE
EXTERIOR OR INTERIOR
CHARACTERISTICS'
PIGMENTED COATING
LACQUER AND ENAMEL PAINTS
CLEAR COATINGS
VARNISHES, LACQUERS, SHEELAC, SEALERS
RUST INHIBITIVE COATINGS
%INC$PIGMENTED COATINGS
%INC, SILICONS, ALKYD, OR ASPHALT OR BASE COATINGS
ASPHALT OR TAR COATINGS THAT FORM NON$PEMEABLE BARRIERS AGAINST
WATER AND OXYGEN TO PROTECT SUBMERGED FERROUS METAL AND TO
WATERPROOF MASONRY SURFACES.
CEMENT MORTAR COATINGS
MIXTURE OF PORTLAND CEMENT, LIME AND WATER USED TO DAMPPROOF
MASONRY MATERIALS AND PROTECT EXPOSED STEEL
PLASTIC AND SYNTHETIC RUBBER COATINGS
COATING RESISTANT TO MILDEW, MOLD, FUMES, MARINE ENVIRONMENTS ETC.,
PAINTS MAY BE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO ITS VEHICLE OR BINDER'
ALKYDS & USED FOR E#TERIOR PAINTS.
OIL MODIFIED RESINS THAT HARDEN BY OXIDATION AND EVAPORATION.
THE MOST COMMON PAINT VEHICLE
FAST DRYING A HARDER THAN ORDINARY TIME, LOWERS THE GLOSS, AND
IMPROVES THE PAINTS WETTING PROPERTIES, DURABILITY AND ELASTICITY TO
RESIST BLISTERING.
HAVE GOOD DRYING PROPERTIES, DURABILITY AND WATER RESISTANCE FOR
EXTERIOR EXPOSURES, AND GOOD COLOR RETENTION.
ASPHALT & USED FOR WATERPROOFING AT FIREWALL AND ROOF DECKING.
COATINGS WITH A VEHICLE OF BOTH PETROLEUM AND NATURAL ASPHALTS ARE
USED TO PROTECT WOOD, MASONRY, CONCRETE AND AS ROOF COATING.
HAVE GOOD WATER RESISTANCES BUT THERMOPLASTIC IN NATURE.
ADDITION OF ALUMINUM GLAKES HELPS TO REFLECT THE SUN4S RAYS.
ADDITION OF EPOXY RESINS MINIMI%ES THE COLD FLOW AND MAXIMI%ES THE
CHEMICAL$RESISTANCE OF ASPHALT.

CHLORINATED RUBBER & USED FOR INDUSTRIAL FLOORING.
USED IN COATINGS HIGHLY RESISTANT TO ALKALIES, ACIDS, CHEMICALS, AND
WATER
MAY BE REMOVED BY COAL TAR SOLVENTS
HAS LIMITED RESISTANCE TO PROLONGED HEAT EXPOSURE
USED IN SWIMMING POOLS, WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
EPOXY CATALYZED USED FOR DUCO FINISH.
TWO COMPONENT COATINGS CONSISTING OF A PIGMENTED PRIMER OR ENAMEL
AND AN ACTIVATOR OR CATALYST.
MIXED (UST PRIOR TO USE HAS LIMITED -POT LIFE
PRODUCES BY CHEMICAL ACTION A DENSE, HARD FILM SIMILAR TO BAKED
ENAMEL.
HAS EXCELLENT RESISTANT TO SOLVENTS, CHEMICALS, PHYSICAL ABRASION,
TRAFFIC WEAR, A CLEANING MATERIALS
HAS GOOD ADHESION PROPERTIES, COLOR RETENTION AND STAIN RESISTANCE.
HAS GOOD DURABILITY FOR EXTERIOR EXPOSURE BUT MAY CHALK.
HARDWARE
HARDWARE $ METAL PRODUCTS USED IN CONSTRUCTION, SUCH AS BOLTS, HINGES,
LOCKS, TOOLS, ETC. THEY ARE CLASSIFIED AS'
FINISHING HARDWARE HARDWARE, SUCH AS HINGES LOCKS, CATCHES,
ETC. THAT HAS A FINISHED APPEARANCE AS WELL AS FUNCTION, ESP. THAT USED
WITH DOORS, WINDOWS, AND CABINETS, MAYBE CONSIDERED PART OF THE
DECORATIVE TREATMENT OF A ROOM OR BUILDING.
ROUGH HARDWARE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION, HARDWARE MEANT TO
BE CONCEALED, SUCH AS BOLTS, NAILS, SCREWS, SPIKES, RODS, AND OTHER METAL
FITTINGS.
SOME FINISHING HARDWARE BRANDS'
#. SARGENT *. RABBIT
2. STANLEY . UNIVERSAL
/. YALE ?.
EAGLE
". CORBIN #&. MASTER
!. SCHLAGE ##. ALPHA
0. KWIKSET #2. YETI
DOORS AN ENTRANCE WAY
TYPES OF DOOR:
FLUSH A SMOOTH$SURFACED DOOR HAVING FACES WHICH ARE PLANE WHICH
CONCEAL ITS RAILS AND STILES OR OTHER STRUCTURE WHEN USED INSIDE, IT IS
OF HOLLOW CORE, WHEN USED FOR EXTERIOR IT IS OF SOLID CORE.
PANEL DOOR A DOOR HAVING STILES, RAILS AND SOMETIMES MUNTINS, WHICH
FORM ONE OR MORE FRAMES AROUND RECESSED THINNER PANELS.

KINDS OF DOORS:
SWINGING DOOR
OVERHEAD SWING-UP GARAGE DOOR A RIGID OVERHEAD DOOR WHICH OPENS
AS AN ENTIRE UNIT.
OVERHEAD ROLL-UP GARAGE DOOR A DOOR WHICH, WHEN OPEN, ASSUMES A
HORI%ONTAL POSITION ABOVE THE DOOR OPENING, MADE OF SEVERAL LEAVES.
ROLL-UP DOOR 1SOLID OR SEE$THROUGH ALUMINUM SHUTTERS2 A DOOR MADE
UP OF SMALL HORI%ONTAL INTERLOCKING METAL SLATS WHICH ARE GUIDED IN A
TRACK' THE CONFIGURATION COILS ABOUT AN OVERHEAD DRUM WHICH IS
HOUSED AT THE HEAD OF THE OPENING, EITHER MANUAL OR MOTOR $ DRIVEN.
ACCORDION DOOR A HINGED DOOR CONSISTING OF A SYSTEM OF PANELS
WHICH ARE HUNG FROM AN OVERHEAD TRACK. WHEN THE DOOR IS OPEN, THE
FACES OF THE PANELS CLOSE FLAT AGAINST EACH OTHER. WHEN THE DOOR IS
CLOSED, THE EDGES OF AD(ACENT PANELS BUTT AGAINST 1OR INTERLOCK2
EACH OTHER TO FORM A SOLID BARRIER.
BI-FOLDING DOOR $ ONE OF TWO OR MORE DOORS WHICH ARE HINGED
TOGETHER SO THAT THEY CAN OPEN AND FOLD IN A CONFINED SPACE.
REVOLVING DOOR $ AN EXTERIOR DOOR CONSISTING OF FOUR LEAVES 1AT ?&&
TO EACH OTHER2 WHICH PIVOT ABOUT A COMMON VERTICAL AXIS WITHIN A
CYLINDRICALLY SHAPED VESTIBULE, PREVENTS THE DIRECT PASSAGE OF AIR
THROUGH THE VESTIBULE, THEREBY ELIMINATING DRAFTS FROM OUTSIDE.
SLIDING DOOR $ A DOOR MOUNTED ON TRACK WHICH SLIDES IN A HORI%ONTAL
DIRECTION USUALLY PARALLEL TO ONE WALL.
BY-PASSING SLIDING DOOR $ A SLIDING DOOR WHICH SLIDES TO COVER A FIXED
DOOR OF THE SAME WIDTH OR ANOTHER SLIDING DOOR.
SLIDING POCKET DOOR $ A DOOR WHICH SLIDES INSIDE A HOLLOW OF THE WALL.
DUTCH DOOR $ A HINGED DOOR WHICH IS DIVIDED TO TWO. THE UPPER PART
CAN BE OPENED WHILE THE LOWER PORTION IS CLOSED.
FRENCH DOOR
FINISHING HARDWARES:
A! TO HUNG A DOOR
HINGE$ A MOVABLE (OINT USED TO ATTACH SUPPORT AND TURN A DOOR
ABOUT A PIVOT, CONSISTS OF TWO PLATES (OINED TOGETHER BY A PIN WHICH
SUPPORT THE DOOR AND CONNECT IT TO ITS FRAME, ENABLING IT TO SWING OPEN
OR CLOSED.
TYPES OF HINGES:
1. BUTT HINGE $ CONSISTS OF TWO RECTANGULAR METAL PLATES WHICH ARE (OINED
WITH A PIN, IN LARGE HINGE, THE PIN IS REMOVABLE, IN SMALL HINGES, IT IS FIXED.
FAST PIN HINGE $ A HINGE IN WHICH THE PIN IS FASTENED PERMANENTLY IN
PLACE.
FULL SURFACE HINGE $ A HINGED DESIGNED FOR ATTACHMENT ON THE
SURFACE OF THE DOOR AND (AMB WITHOUT MORTISING.
LOOSE JOINT HINGE $ A DOOR HINGED HAVING TWO KNUCKLES, ONE OF
WHICH HAS VERTICAL PIN THAT FITS IN A CORRESPONDING HOLE IN THE
OTHER, BY LIFTING THE DOOR UP, OFF THE VERTICAL PIN, THE DOOR MAY BE
REMOVED WITH UNSCREWING THE HINGED.
LOOSE PIN HINGE $ A HINGE HAVING A REMOVABLE PIN WHICH PERMITS ITS
TWO PARTS TO BE SEPARATED.
PAUMELLE HINGED $ A TYPE OF DOOR HINGE HAVING A SINGLE (OINT OF
THE PIVOT TYPE, USUALLY OF MODERN DESIGN.
OLIVE KNUCKLE HINGE $ A PAUMELLE HINGE WITH KNUCKLES FORMING AN
OVAL SHAPE.
. SPRING HINGES $ A HINGE CONTAINING ONE OR MORE SPRINGS, WHEN A DOOR IS
OPENED, THE HINGE RETURNS IT TO OPEN POSITION AUTOMATICALLY, MAY ACT IN
ONE DIRECTION ONLY, OR IN BOTH DIRECTIONS.
DOUBLE ACTION $ EXCELLENT FOR USE IN RESTAURANTS, HOSPITALS,
KITCHENS, THE DOOR OPENS BY (UST PUSHING IT WITH THE SHOULDER OR
FEET.
SINGLE ACTION
!. PIVOT HINGE $ THE AXLE OR PIN ABOUT WHICH A WINDOW OR DOOR ROTATES.
VERTICAL SPRING PIVOT HINGE$ A SPRING HINGE FOR A DOOR WHICH
IS MORTISTED INTO THE HEEL OF THE DOOR, THE DOOR IS FASTENED
TO THE FLOOR AND DOOR HEAD WITH PIVOTS.
B. TO FIX ONE SASH
TYPES OF BOLT AND FASTENER:
CHAIN HEAD AND FOOT BOLT
DOOR OR BARREL BOLT
FLUSH BOLT
CHAIN DOOR FASTENER
C. TO LOCK THE DOOR
LOCKSET A COMPLETE LOCK SYSTEM INCLUDING THE BASIC LOCKING MECHANISMS
AND ALL THE ACCESSORIES, SUCH AS KNOBS ESCUTCHEONS, PLATES, ETC.
BUTTON A SMALL RE(ECTING MEMBER USED TO FASTEN THE FRAME OF A
DOOR OR WINDOW.
KNOB A HANDLE, MORE OR LESS SPHERICAL USUALLY FOR OPERATING A
LOCK.
ESCUTCHEON A PROTECTIVE PLATE SURROUNDING THE KEYHOLE OF A
DOOR.
PLATES A THIN FLAT SHEET OF MATERIAL.
STRIKES A METAL PLATE OR BOX WHICH IS SET IN A DOOR(AMB AND IS
EITHER PLACED OR RECESSED TO RECEIVE THE BOLT OR LATCH OF A LOCK,
FIXED ON DOOR.
LIP STRIKE THE PRO(ECTION FROM THE SIDE OF A TRIKE PLATE WHICH
THE BOLT OF A LOCK STRIKES FIRST, WHEN A DOOR IS CLOSED@ PRO(ECTS
OUT FROM THE SIDE OF THE STRIKE PLATE TO PROTECT THE FRAME.
USE A DIFFERENT LOCKSET FOR EACH ROOM'
ENTRANCE LOCKSET WITH A KEY AND UNIVERSAL BUTTON WHICH
WHEN PUSHED STAYS PUT AND LOCKS THE DOOR.
BEDROOM LOCKSET SAME AS THE ENTRANCE LOCKSET BUT SIMPLER
IN DESIGN.
TOILET LOCKSET WITHOUT A KEY HAS A BUTTON THAT IS PUSHED TO
LOCK INSIDE.
KIND OF LOCKSET'
INTEGRAL LOCK A TYPE OF MORTISE LOCK HAVING ITS CYLINDER IN
THE KNOB.
CYLINDER LOCK A BORED LOCK WHICH HAS A CYLINDRICAL CASE
INTO WHICH A SEPARATE LATCH CASE FITS.
LATCH A SIMPLE FASTENING DEVISE HAVING A LATCH BOLT, BUT NOT A DEAD BOLT
CONTAINS NO PROVISIONS FOR LOCKING WITH A KEY.
NIGHT LATCH KEY OPERATED LATCH WITH SAFETY PIN.
LIFT LATCH A TYPE OF DOOR LATCH WHICH FASTENS A DOOR BY MEANS OF A
PIVOTED BAR THAT ENGAGES A HOOK ON THE DOOR (AMB, A LEVER WHICH LIFTS THE
PIVOTED BAR USED TO UNFASTEN THE DOOR.
RABBETED LOCK A LOCK OR LATCH IN WHICH THE FACE IS FLUSH WITH THE
RABBET ON A RABBETED DOOR (AMB.
ROLLER LATCH A TYPE OF DOOR LATCH HAS A ROLLER UNDER SPRING TENSION
INSTEAD OF A BEVELED SPRING BOLT, THE ROLLER ENGAGES A STRIKE PLATE,
HAVING A RECESS FORMED TO RECEIVE.

SCREEN DOOR LATCH A SMALL LOCKING OR LATCHING DEVICE USED ON SCREEN
DOORS AND GENERATED BY A KNOB OR LEVER HANDLE, SOMETIMES EQUIPPED WITH
A DEAD BOLT.
HASP A FASTENING DEVICE CONSISTING OF A LOOP OR STAPLE AND A SLOTTED
HINGE PLATE NORMALLY SECURED WITH A PADLOCK.
KEY$PADLOCK A DEVICE WHICH FASTENS IN POSITION MAYBE OPERATED BY A KEY.
MAGNETIC PADLOCK A KIND OF LOCK WHICH OPENS BY USING THE
CORRESPONDING MAGNET WHICH GOES WITH IT.
HASPLOCK A KIND OF HASP THAT HAS A BUILT-IN LOCKING DEVICE WHICH CAN BE
OPENED ONLY WITH A KEY.
BORED LOCK A LOCK INTENDED FOR INSTALLATION IN A CIRCULAR HOLE IN A DOOR.
CREMONE BOLT USED TO FASTEN UPPER AND LOWER DOOR.
DEAD BOLT A TYPE OF DOOR LOCK, THE BOLT, WHICH IS SQUARE IN SECTION IS
OPERATED BY THE DOOR KEY OR A TURN PIECE.
TYPES OF AUTOMATIC DOOR CLOSER'
PNEUMATIC TYPE
SEMI$CONCEALED OVERHEAD TYPE
CONCEALED TYPE
OVERHEAD LIQUID TYPE
TYPES OF CABINET HINGED DOOR'
FLUSH
OVERLAPPING
OFFSET
TYPES OF CABINET HINGES'
BUTT HINGES
COMMON BUTT
LOOSE PIN
T$HINGE
PIANO HINGE
DECORATIVE HINGE
OFFSET HINGES USED FOR HANGING LIPPED OR OVERLAPPING
DOORS, AVAILABLE IN SEMI$CONCEALED AND SURFACE$MOUNTED
STYLES.
PIVOT HINGES MADE FOR BOTH FLUSH AND OVERLAPPING DOORS.
INVISIBLE HINGES DON4T SHOW FROM THE FRONT AND IS EXPENSIVE.
THEY CAN BE USED FOR BOTH FLUSH AND OVERLAPPING DOOR.
FLUSH COUNTER HINGE FOR A DROP DOWN DOOR THAT CAN BE
LOWERED TO SERVE AS WORK SURFACES REQUIRE HINGES THAT LAY
FLUSH IN THE SURFACE, MORTISE THEM INTO BOTH SURFACES, THEY
DON4T SHOW WHEN THE DOOR IS CLOSED. A DROPDOWN DOOR ALSO
REQUIRES A CHAIN OR STAY SUPPORT TO HOLD THE DOOR4S WEIGHT
WHEN IT4S OPEN.


CATCHES FOR CLOSING OF CABINET DOORS IN PLACE
KINDS OF CATCHES'
FRICTION CATCH ANY CATCH WHICH WHEN IT ENGAGES A STRIKE, IS
HELD IN THE ENGAGED POSITION BY FRICTION.
MAGNETIC CATCH A DOOR CATCH FLAT THAT USES A MAGNET TO
HOLD THE DOOR IN A CLOSED POSITION.
BULLET CATCH A FASTENER WHICH HOLDS A DOOR IN PLACE BY
MEANS OF A PRO(ECTING SPRING ARCTUATED STEEL HALL WHICH IS
DEPRESSED WHEN THE DOOR IS CLOSED.
TYPES OF KNOBS'
SCREW$IN KNOB
BOLT$ON KNOB
FLUSH KNOB
FLUSH RING
PULL
OTHER FINISHING ACCESSORIES'
GRAB BAR A HAND GRIP USUALLY INSTALLED IN SHOWER, WHICH MAY
BE USED FOR STEADYING ARE SELF.
SELF BRACKET ANY OVER HANGING MEMBER PRO(ECTING FROM A
WALL OR OTHER BODY TO SUPPORT A WEIGHT.
METAL BRACKET USED TO SUPPORT ANY CABINET OR SHELF.
SPRING DOOR CLOSER ATTACHED ABOVE A SCREEN DOOR TO
AUTOMATICALLY CLOSE IT.
DOOR STOPPER TO PREVENT THE DOOR WITH ITS LOCKSET FROM
HARMING THE WALL OR TILES.
ROUGH HARDWARES:
NAILS
COMMON WIRE NAIL WITH HEAD AND FOR STRENGTH.
FINISHING NAIL WITHOUT HEAD AND FOR BETTER APPEARANCE
MASONRY OR CONCRETE NAIL USED FOR CONCRETE, MORTAR AND BRICK
SURFACE
SI%ES, #, # ., 2 -, 2 ., /, / ., ", 0
OTHER COMMON HAMMER DRIVEN FASTENER
SCOTCH NAILS BRADS
STAPLES TACKS
SCREWS
CLASSIFIED BY GAUGE 1DIAMETER2, LENGTH, HEAD TYPE, AND METALLIC
MAKE$UP.
TYPES OF SCREW HEAD
FLAT HEAD SCREW
OVAL HEAD SCREW
PHILIPPS HEAD
SHEET$METAL SCREW
ROUND HEAD SCREW
LAG SCREW
WASHERS
FLAT
COUNTER SUNK
FLUSH
BOLTS
BOLTS HAVE THREADED SHAFTS THAT RECEIVE NUTS. TO USE THEM, A HOLE
IS DRILLED, PUSHING A BOLT THROUGH AND ADDING A NUT.
BOLTS TIGHTENED WITH SCREW WHILE HOLDING THE NUT WITH A WRENCH.
NUTS
FLAT SQUARE NUT
HEX NUT
SQUARE NUT
ACORN NUT
T NUT
KNURLED NUT
WING NUT
HUNGER BOLTS FOR HANGING FIXTURES FROM WALLS.
U-BOLTS TO ATTACH FLAT SURFACE TO ROUND POLES AND PIPES.
JOINERY BRACKETS
MENDING PLATE
T$PLATE
FLAT CORNER PLATE
L$BRACKET
AWNING AN ARCHITECTURAL PRO(ECTED WINDOW.
BAY WINDOW A WINDOW WHICH PRO(ECTS OUTSIDE THE MAIN LINE OF A
BUILDING.
HOPPER WINDOW A WINDOW SASH WHICH OPENS INWARD AND ITS HINGED AT
THE BOTTOM.
ORIEL WINDOW A PRO(ECTED WINDOW BEYOND BUILDING WALL CARRIED BY A
CORBEL.
BATTEN DOOR $ A DOOR W/OUT STILES WHICH IS COSTRUCTED OF VERTICAL
BOARDS HELD TOGETHER BY HORI%ONTAL BATTENS.
STILE VERTICAL FRAMES OF PANELLED DOOR.
TRANSOM WINDOW OVER A DOOR.
DOOR (AMB FINISHED FRAME SURROUNDING A DOOR.
ANCHOR BOLT A STEEL BOLT USUALLY FIXED IN ABUILDING STRUCTURE WITH
ITS THREADED PORTION PRO(ECTING.
PLATE BOLT A BOLT IN A BUILDING FOUNDATION WHICH SECURES THEPLATE OR
SILL.
MACHINE BOLT A THREADED BOLT HAVING A STRAIGHT SHANK AND A
CONVENTIONAL HEAD SUCH AS A SQUARE, HEXAGONAL, BUTTON OR
COUNTERSANK.
CARRIAGE BOLT A BOLT WITH NECK FOR NON$RATATING MOUNTING.
LAG SCREW COMMON HARDWARE FASTENER FOR TRUSS BRACES.
KNOB BOLT A DOOR LOCK WITH A SPRING BOLT CONTROLLED BY ONE OR BOTH
KNOBS AND DEAD BOLT CONTROLLED BY AKEY.
BACKSET THE HORI%ONTAL DISTANCE FROM THE FACE OF A LOCK OF LATCH TO
THE CENTER OF THE KNOB OR LOCK CYLINDER.
GUSSET A PLATE ATTACHED TO SIDE OF A (OINT FOR INCREASE HOLDING
POWER.
BRAD A THIN NAIL WITH SMALL HEAD.
KERF IN A SUSPENDED ACOUSTICAL CEILING, AGROOVE CUT INTO THE EDGES
OF AN ACOUSTICAL TILES TO RECEIVE SPLINES OR SUPPORTING MEMBERS OF
THE CEILING SUSPENSION SYSTEM.
PERFORATED TAPE A TYPE OF TAPE USED IN FINISHING (OINTS BETWEEN
GYPSUM BOARD.
SAHARA USED FOR WATERPROOFING.
PARQUET INLAID WOOD FLOORING USUALLY SET IN SIMPLE GEOMETRIC
PATTERN.
VINYL TILE A FLOOR TILE COMPOSED PRINCIPALLY OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE.
BEVEL THE ANGLE WITH ONE SURFACE OF A BODY MAKES WITH ANOTHER
SURFACE WHEN THEY ARE NOT AT RIGHT ANGLE.
CHASE A CONTINOUS RECESS BUILT INTO A WALL TO RECEIVE PIPES, DUCTS,
ETC.
GYPSUM BOARD MATERIAL USED IN DRYWALL CONSTRUCTION.
PLOUGH A GROOVE EXTENDED ALONG THE EDGE OR FACE OF THE WOOD
MEMBER BEING CUT PARALLEL TO GRAIN.
BUILDING PROTECTION
PREVENTIONS
WATERPROOFING A METHOD OF PROTECTING SURFACES AGAINST THE
DESTRUCTIVE EFFECTS OF WATER.
DAMP$PROOFING PROTECTION FROM THE OUTSIDE IS PROVIDED BY WATER
REPELLENT MATERIALS WHICH TURN WATER ASIDE AND FORCE IT TO RETURN TO
THE EARTH. THE DAMPNESS THAT SOMETIMES OCCURS INSIDE THE BUILDING
CAN BE CAUSED BY PENETRATION OF MOISTURE FROM THE OUTSIDE OR BY
CONSIDERATION OF WATER VAPOR GENERATED ON THE INSIDE.
CLEAR PROTECTIVE TREATMENTS FOR MASONRY, CONCRETE THIS IS A CLEAR,
INVISIBLE SILICONE WATER REPELLENT SPECIALLY FORMULATED FOR
APPLICATION ON MASONRY AND BRICKS 1STANDARD SILICONE REPELLENT2 AND
FOR LIMESTONE AND CONCRETE THAT SEEPS MUCH RAINWATER 1SPECIAL
FORMULATED SILICONE REPELLENT2. THE SILICONE LIQUID IS APPLIED BY
BRUSH OR LOW PRESSURE SPRAY AND DOES NOT AFFECT THE COLOR OR
NATURALNESS OF THE MATERIAL.
ANAY 1TERMITE2 PROOFING BY SOIL POISONING IT IS IMPORTANT TO POISON
THE SOIL AGAINST ANAY 1WHITE ANTS2 IN ORDER TO STOP THE ANAY FROM
INFESTING THE MAINPOSTS, WALLS AND FLOORING.
WOOD PRESERVATIVE 1POWDER POST TERMITES2 A CHEMICAL LIQUID PAINTED
AND APPLIED TO LUMBER TO PRESERVE IT FOR YEARS. IT PROTECTS WOOD
AGAINST POWDER POST BEATLES 1BUKBOK2 POWDER POET TERMITE 1UNOS2,
DECAY CAUSING FUNGI, SUCH AS SAP STAIN AND SRYROT.
FIREPROOFING A CLEAR LIQUID APPLIED EASILY ON WOOD, PLYWOOD, LUMBER
AND OTHER BOARD THAT RETAINS THE NATURAL BEAUTY, GIVES ADDED
STRENGTH AND PROTECTS MATERIALS AGAINST FIRE, WEATHER, DECAY,
INSECTS AND WARPING. SINCE THE LIQUID PENETRATED INTO THE WOOD, WHEN
THERE IS FIRE. IT REACTS BY DISPERSING THE FLAME, PREVENTING
PROGRESSIVE BURNING.
RATPROOFING A METHOD OF PROTECTING ROOMS AGAINST THE INTRUSION
OF RATS AND OTHER SMALL DESTRUCTIVE ANIMALS FROM GNAWING THE
WOODEN PARTS OF THE HOUSE, HABITATING ON CEILINGS AND FLOORS OF
HOUSES AND BUILDINGS.
RUSTPROOFING A METHOD OF PROTECTING THE FERROUS MATERIALS LIKE
STEEL, IRON FROM RUSTING OR CORROSION.
FLOOR PROTECTION WHEN FLOORS ARE SUB(ECTED TO WEAR AND TEAR, OR
FROM CHEMICAL ABRASIONS AND HEAVY USE, A SPECIAL KIND OF MATERIAL
SHOULD BE USED TO PROTECT THE FLOORING.
DESCALERS, PAINT AND CHEMICAL STRIPPERS WHEN AN OLD HOUSE HAVING
OLE PAINT IS IN NEED OF REPAINTING, PAINT REMOVER IS APPLIED TO THE
SURFACE WHICH SOFTENS AND LIFTS THE PAINT. FOR CLEANING OF BUILDINGS
FROM STAINS, RUST, ALGAE OR EVEN CEMENT BUILD UP FROM FORMS OR
EQUIPMENT, ETC. A CHEMICAL STRIPPER OR DESCALER IS USED.
CONTROL, PROTECT AND MANAGE FOR BUILDINGS THAT NEED TOTAL
CONTROL OF THE INCOMING AND OUTGOING INDIVIDUALS FOR THE PROTECTION
OF THE BUILDING AS A WHOLE FROM ROBBERS, STEALERS, ETC. THERE ARE SO
MANY EQUIPMENTS WHICH CAN BE INSTALLED.
THIS IS APPLIED ON THE FOLLOWING LOCATIONS'
ROOF DECKS
CONCRETE TERRACES AND BALCONIES
SHEATHING FOR WOOD SHINGLE AND TILE ROOFING
WATER TANKS
CONCRETE ROOF GUTTERS
PLANT BOXES INSIDE
KITCHEN FLOOR
TOILETS
CANOPIES
BASEMENT FLOOR AND WALLS
ELEVATOR PITS
SWIMMING POOL
MACHINE ROOMS, AIR CON + PUMP ROOMS
REFRIGERATION + COLD STORAGE ROOMS
THREE TYPES OF WATERPROOFING'
INTEGRAL TYPE MEDIUM IN POWDER FORM IS ADDED
AND MIXED WITH THE AGGREGATES OF CONCRETE. IN THIS CASE, ONE
PACK OF USUALLY .?& KILOS IS ADDED TO ONE BAG OF KILOS CEMENT.
SOME OF THE KNOWN BRANDS ARE SAHARA AND SAKURA.
MEMBRANE TYPE RECOMMENDED FOR USE WHERE
DIRECT RAIN, OR STANDING WATER ARE EMINENT, THERE ARE ABOUT #"
USES. THE MATERIALS USED DEPENDING ON THE MANUFACTURER IS
EITHER ASPHALT PAPER LAID WITH HOT ASPHALT, IMPREGNATED
ASBESTOS FELT, SOMETIMES THICK POLYETHYLENE SHEETS IS ALSO
USED. OTHER MATERIALS ARE PERFORMED SELF SEALING ASPHALT.
FLUID APPLIED A FLUID APPLIED ELASTOMERIC COATING
BASED ON HAVY SOLIDS ELASTOMER COMPOUND FORMULATED TO
WATERPROOF AND PRESERVE THE SUBSTRATE, LIKE CONCRETE,
WOOD, BRICKS AND STEEL. THE WATERPROOFING IS MONOLOTHIC,
SEAMLESS, FLEXIBLE AND ELASTIC OVER A WIDE TEMPERATURE
RANGE, WITHSTANDS EXTREME THERMAL MOVEMENT, SETTLING AND
CRACKING. IT RESISTS PUNCTURE AND TEARING ABRASIVE
OVERLAYMENTS. THIS ELASTOMERIC FLUID CAN BE APPLIED BY
ROLLER, BRUSH, SPRAY OR SQUEEGEE.

ROOFING FELTS THE BASE FELTS USED IN BUILT$UP ROOFING ARE AVAILABLE IN
TWO BASIC TYPE ASBESTOS FELTS AND ORGANIC OR RAG FELTS. THEY LOOK
ALIKE, SUPERFICIALLY, BUT THEY DIFFER WIDELY IN SERVICE.
ASBESTOS'
ASBESTOS FELTS COMPOSED PRIMARILY OF ASBESTOS FIBER, A
NON$ROTTING, NON$WICKING INORGANIC MINERAL FIBER.
IDENTICAL EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION PROPERTIES TO
FINISHING FELTS.
MINIMUM STRETCH AND SHRINKAGE OR WETTING OR DRYING
WHICH MEANS MINIMUM DISTORTION.
LOSES STRENGTH SLOWLY WHILE AGING.
EXCELLENT RESISTANCE TO -BURNOUT IN HOT CLIMATE.
RAT RESISTANT.
ORGANIC'
ORGANIC FELTS COMPOSED OF FIBROUS ORGANIC MATERIALS.
SUB(ECT TO DETERIORATION BY OXIDATION AND TO WICKING.
DIFFERENT EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION PROPERTIES FROM
FINISHING PLIES.
MAXIMUM STRETCH AND SHRINKAGE ON WETTING AND DRYING WHICH
MEANS MAXIMUM DISTORTION.
LOSES STRENGTH RAPIDLY WHILE AGING.
POOR RESISTANCE TO -BURNOUT IN HOT CLIMATE.
POOR RESISTANCE TO ROT.
VAPOR INSULATION 1DAMPROOFING2
THE DAMPNESS THAT SOMETIMES OCCURS INSIDE BUILDINGS CAN BE CAUSED BY
PENETRATION OF MOISTURE FROM THE OUTSIDE OR BY CONDENSATION OF WATER
VAPOR GENERATED ON THE INSIDE. PROTECTION FROM THE OUTSIDE IS PROVIDED
BY WATER REPELLENT MATERIALS WHICH TURN ASIDE AND FORCE IT TO RETURN TO
THE EARTH DONE THE OUTSIDE OF THE BUILDING. MOISTURE VAPOR ON THE OTHER
HAND CAN PERMEATE MOST ORDINARY BUILDING MATERIALS SUCH AS WOOD, PAPER,
LATH PLASTER, UNTREATED BRICK, ETC. THE MOISTURE VAPOR WILL CONDENSE
WATER WHEN ITS TEMPERATURE IS REDUCED BY CONTACT WITH A COOL SURFACE
OR COOL AIR. HENCE, HIGH HUMIDITY IN A BUILDING MAY RESULT IN CONDENSATION
OF WATER NOT ONLY ON THE INSIDE OF WALLS AND WINDOWS BUT ALSO ON THE
OUTSIDE OR WITHIN THE EXTERIOR WALLS, CEILING OR ROOF. MOISTURE VAPOR IS
PRODUCED BY COOKING OCCUPANTS, LAUNDERING, EARTH CRAWL SPACES,
BASEMENT FLOORS, HUMIDIFIES, ETC.
VAPOR BARRIERS 1DAMPROOFING MATERIALS2
THESE ARE MATERIALS WHICH EFFECTIVELY RETARD OR STOP THE FLOW OF WATER
VAPOR AND NORMALLY ARE PRODUCED IN SHEETS OR THIN LAYERS. VAPOR
BARRIERS SHOULD BE INSTALLED ON THE WARM SIDE OF THE INSULATION. THEY
SHOULD BE CONTINUOUS SURFACES OF ASPHALT OR WAX COATED PAPER,
ALUMINUM, OR OTHER METAL FOIL SHEETS OR POLYETHYLENE FILM. THEY CAN BE
ATTACHED TO THE INSULATION AS PART OF THE MANUFACTURED PRODUCT OR
INSTALLED SEPARATELY IN OR ON THE WARM SIDE OF THE WALL, FLOOR, OR
CEILING. THEY MUST BE CONTINUOUS AND ALLOW NO OPENINGS THROUGH WHICH
VAPOR MAY PASS. ALTHOUGH ASPHALT PAPER IS A GOOD MOISTURE BARRIER, IT IS
NOT A VAPOR BARRIER, AND SHOULD BE USED ON THE OUTSIDE OF A BUILDING FOR
THAT PURPOSE.
MATERIALS USED AS VAPOR BARRIERS'
POLYETHYLENE FILM THIS IS CHEMICALLY INERT PLASTIC,
UNAFFECTED BY ACIDS, ALKALIS AND CAUSTICS, PRODUCED IN ROLLS
OF / TO 2& FT. WIDE. COMMON THICKNESSES ARE 2,/," AND 0 MIL 1#MIL
9 .&&# IN.2 THIS FILM IS USEFUL NOT ONLY AS VAPOR BARRIER FOR
WALLS, CEILINGS AND FLOORS BUT ALSO AS A BARRIER TO PREVENT
THE PASSAGE OF MOISTURE FROM THE EARTH UPWARD THROUGH A
CONCRETE SLAB LAIN ON THE GROUND. POLYETHYLENE FILM CAN BE
APPLIED VERTICALLY IN /0 IN. WIDE STRIPS TO STUDDING ON #0 IN.
CENTERS WITH A FULL OVERLAP ON ALTERNATE STUDS. FILMS ARE
STAPLED TO STUDS. OVERLAPS AND EXTENSIONS TO FLOORS AND
WALLINGS SHALL BE 0 IN.
ALUMINUM FOIL USED AS VAPOR BARRIER AS A SINGLE SHEET, OR
AS A THIN LAYER OF FOIL LAMINATED TO A HEAVY BACKING OF ASPHALT$
IMPREGNATED KRAFT PAPER. THIS IS ALSO DONE WITH TWO LAYERS OF
FOIL LAMINATED WITH ASPHALT CEMENT.
KRAFT PAPER COATED WITH ASPHALT OR WAX. SOMETIMES TWO
LAYERS OF PAPER ARE CEMENTED WITH A CONTINOUS LAYER OF
ASPHALT. ANOTHER MATERIALS USED FOR DAMP$PROOFING OF
CONCRETE WALLS IS -WEATHERKOTE BITUMINOUS EMULSION, BY
SHELL.
THERMAL INSULATION
IN COLD WEATHER, WE ARE INTERESTED IN TRANSFERRING HEAT FROM FURNACES,
RADIATORS, HEATING PANELS, INTO VARIOUS ROOMS OF OUR BUILDINGS. AT THE
SAME TIME WE ARE INTERESTED IN PREVENTING THAT HEAT FROM BEING
TRANSFERRED FROM THE INTERIOR OF THE BUILDING TO THE OUTSIDE.
DURING THE SUMMER, IT IS IMPORTANT THAT WE PREVENT THE TRANSFER OF HOT
OUTSIDE TEMPERATURES TO THE WORKING AND LIVING SPACE WITHIN OUR
BUILDINGS.
ALL OF THESE ARE DONE BY THE (UDICIOUS USE OF MATERIALS WHICH IS BEST
PREVENT THE TRANSFER OF HEAT, THIS WE CALL THERMAL INSULATION.
KINDS OF THERMAL INSULATION
LOOSE FILL THIS BULKY AND DIVIDED INTO'
FIBROUS TYPE
GRANULAR INSULATION
FIBROUS LOOSE FILL
GRANULE
BLANKET INSULATION$ IS MADE FROM SOME FIBROUS MATERIAL SUCH AS
MINERAL WOOL, WOOD FIBER, COTTON FIBER, OR ANIMAL HAIR.
BATTS
STRUCTURAL INSULATION BOARD
STRAWBOARD
CORKBOARD
BLOCK OR RIGID SLAB INSULATION THIS TYPE OF INSULATION IS SO CALLED
BLOCK OR RIGID BECAUSE THE UNITS ARE RELATIVELY STIFF AND INELASTIC.
FOAMED PLASTIC INSULATION
CELLULAR GLASS INSULATION
FOAMED CONCRETE
CELLULAR HARD RUBBER
SHREDDED WOOD OR WOOD FIBER
RIGID SLAB INSULATION
RIGID INSULATION$ WHICH ARE IMPERVOUS TO MOISTURE
PENETRATION RESULTING FROM CONTINUOUS CONTACT WITH
THE EARTH AND MOISTURE ARE PARTICULARLY USEFUL AS
PERIMETER INSULATION.
REFLECTIVE INSULATION
ALUMINUM FOIL
COPPER$ FOIL INSULATIONS
REFLECTIVE INSULATION
SHEET FOIL
FOAMED-IN PLACE INSULATION THIS IS POLYURETHANE PRODUCT MADE BY
COMBINING A POLYISOCYANATE AND A POLYESTER RESIN. THIS TYPE OF
INSULATION CAN BE APPLIED EITHER BY POURING OR BY SPRAYING. THE BASIC
INGREDIENTS FOR BOTH ARE DRAWN FROM THEIR CONTAINERS, MEASURED,
AND MIXED BY MACHINE.
APPLICATION BY POURING
APPLICATION BY SPRAYING
SPRAYED-ON-INSULATIONS MATERIALS USED ARE POLYURETHANE FOAM
ASBESTOS FIBER MIXED WITH INORGANIC BINDERS, VERMICULITE AGGREGATE
WITH A BINDER SUCH AS PORTLAND CEMENT OR GYPSUM AND PERLITE
AGGREGATE USING GYPSUM AS A BINDER. MACHINES ARE USED FOR BLOWING
THESE INSULATIONS INTO PLACE@ AS A RESULT THE SHAPE OR IRREGULARITY OF
THE SURFACE BEING INSULATED IS OF LITTLE CONSEQUENCE.
ASBESTOS FIBER INSULATION
CORRUGATED INSULATION
SOIL TESTING
LARGER THAN A SINGLE FAMILY HOUSE" IT IS NECESSARY TO DETERMINE THE SOIL AND
WATER CONDITION BENEATH THE SITE.
METHOD OF SOIL TESTING,
$. DIGGING TEST PITS ARE USEFUL WHEN FOUNDATION IS NOT E#PECTED TO
E#TEND DEEPER THAT ABOUT - FEET WHICH IS THE MA#IMUM PRACTICAL
REACH OF SMALL E#CAVATION MACHINE.
%. TEST BORING BORING WITH STANDARD PENETRATION TESTS CAN GIVE AN
INDICATION OF THE BEARING CAPACITY OF THE SOIL BY THE NUMBER OF
BLOWS OF A STANDARD DRIVING HAMMER REQUIRED TO ADVANCE A
SAMPLING TUBE INTO THE SOIL BY A FI#ED AMOUNT.
TYPES OF SOILS,
ROCK IS A CONTINUOUS MASS OF SOLID MINERAL MATERIALS" SUCH AS GRANITE
OR LIMESTONE" THAT CAN ONLY BE REMOVED BY DRILLING AND BLASTING.
SOIL IS A GENERAL TERM REFERRING TO EARTH MATERIAL.
BOULDER IF THE PARTICLE OF SOIL IS TOO LARGE TO LIFT BY HAND.
COBBLE IF THE PARTICLE OF SOIL TAKES THE WHOLE HAND TO LIFT.
GRAVEL IF THE PARTICLE CAN BE LIFTED EASILY WITH THUMB AND
FOREFINGER.
SAND IF THE PARTICLE SEEN BUT ARE TOO SMALL TO BE PICKED UP.
FINE GRAINED SOIL IF THE PARTICLES ARE TOO SMALL TO BE SEEN.
SILT
CLAY
PILE DRIVING
MATERIAL USED IN PILE FOUNDATION ARE,
$. TIMBER
%. CONCRETE
'. STEEL
TIMBER CANNOT RESIST HIGH STRESSES DUE TO HARD DRIVING THAT IS REQUIRED TO
PENETRATE HIHLY RESISTANT LAYER OF SOIL. THE TIP OF THE TIMBER PILE WHICH
COULD BE EASILY DAMAGED IS PROTECTED BY THE USE OF STEEL SHOES" ON THE
OTHERHAND THE BUTT IS ALSO PROVIDED WITH AN AMPLE PROTECTION BY THE USE OF
CUSHION BLOCK.

CONCRETE PILES ARE CLASSIFIED INTO TWO TYPES,
$. CAST-IN-PLACE
CASED IS CAST INSIDE A METAL SHELL FORM WHICH ARE LEFT IN THE
GROUND.
UNCASED ELIMINATE THE METAL CASING.
%. PRECAST PILES ARE REINFORCED TO RESIST HIGH STRESS CAUSED BY THE
HAMMER IN DRIVING.
METAL PILE IS AN E#CELLENT AMTERIAL FOR PILE BECAUSE OF ITS STRENGTH
CHARACTERISTICS TO WITHSTAND HARD DRIVING AND RAPID PENETRATION INTO THE
GROUND" RELATIVELY WITH SMALL MATERIAL DISPLACEMENTS.
DIFFERENT METAL PILES,
H-BEARING PILES
BOS PILES
RAIL PILES
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TERMS

ENGLISH VERNACULAR
ENGLISH VERNACULAR
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D8KC=;KM BIK5E $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ S8;L:I=; LENEM $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
LEHEM
D==I $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ P8;L= MK5<8;E B=ML
$$$$$$$$$$$ PE8I;= PK7K;LE
D==I F8MMEL $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ BKL8G=IK MK7=; $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
KK;LEI=
D==I HEKG $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ S=)HIEI= 1P8;L:K;2 MK7=;IJ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
KK;LEI8K
D==I (K)H $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ HK)HK P8;L:K; MK7=;IJ F8MM $$$$$$$$$$$$
LK7L8MJK7
DIKOH=IE P8; =I DIKO68; $$$$$$ P:;7=M MELEI $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
MELI=
M8LIE =I M8LEI $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ CK;L= ME7K SE6L85 TK;B $$$$$$$$$$$$$ P=7=
NECI=
M8AL:IE =P SK;G + GIKNEM $$$$$$ LK7L8MJK7 S<K6E $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ K=ILE
M=ILKI $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ PK:6= S<EEL
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ PMK;L7K
M=ILKI (=87L7 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ K=7L:IK S<=OEI $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
D:L7<K
M=:MG8;C $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ M=MG:IK S8G8;C7 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
TKH8BK
NK8MEI7 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ PK)KB:K; S8;B $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
PI8CKGEI=
NK8M $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ PKB= SBEL5< PMK;
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ KI=B87
NK8M SELLEI $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ P:;7=M SMKH 1I=:C<2 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$
LKICK MK7K
NEOEM P=7L $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ T:B=G SM=6E
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ BK<KGK
N:L $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ T:EIBK S=MGEI $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
H8;K;C
N85=M8LE BKI $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ E7LK;J= S=MGEI BKI $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
E7LK;8J=
OKB:) $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ E7L=6K S6K58;C $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
B8E;L=
O6E; SLI8;CEI $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ HKIG8;EIK S6M8L K;=H $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
P=MEJK
ONEI HK;G =I PI=RE5L=I $$$$$$$$$$ B=MKGK SLK8I7 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
HKCGK;K;
PK8;LEI $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ P8;L=I SLKBE
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ SLKBK
PK;EM $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ BK;GE<K SLI8;CEI 1=6E;2 $$$$$$$$$$$
HKIG8;EIK
PK;EMMEE D==I $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ DE BK;GE<K SLI8;CEI $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
MKGIE, MKGI8;K
PKLLEI; $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ PMK;L8MJK SL:55= $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
PKM8LKGK
PEK GIKNEM $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ GIKH8LK SL:G 1NEIL85KM2$$$$$$$$$$$$$
P8MKIELE
PE;G:M:) 1K8;C P=7L2 $$$$$$$$$$$$ PE;G:M=; SL:G 1<=I8Q=;LKM2 $$$$$$$$$
PKHKMKCHKC
P85BO=IB $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ P8BELK TE)6EI 1)ELKM
O=IB2$$$$$ S:HK;, S:H:<K;
P8CMEKG $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ T8;CCK, E7L=6K T<IEKG $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
R=7BK7
PMK8; G.I. 7<EEL $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Y8EI= L87= GKMHK;87KG= T8;7)8L< $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
LKLEI=
PMK8; G.I. SLIK6 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ L8;C:ELK T8;7)8L<8;C $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
LKLEI8K
PMK;B B=KIG $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ SE;E6K T=6 C<=IG $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ K8M=,
TK<8MK;
PMK7LEI $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ PKM8LKGK TIK;7=) $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
E76E<=
PMK7LEIEG C=:I7E $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ K:7L:IKGK TIEKG
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ BKJLK;C, PEIGK;=
PM:C $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ TK6=; TIEMM87E
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ PEIC=MK
PM:)H B=H $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ H:M=C TI:77
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ TI:77, K8M=
PM:)HEI $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ T:HEI= VKI;87<EG $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
VKI;87KG=
PM:)H L8;E $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ H:M=C VEIL85KM SL:G
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ P8MKIELE
P=7L $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ P=7LE, HKM8C:E WK8;75=KL8;C T8ME7 $$$$$$$
A7=ME<=7
PI=RE5L8=; $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ B=MKGK WK7<EI $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
P8L7K, T7K6K
P:IM8;7 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ RE=7LIK WKLEI CM=7EL $$$$$$$$$$$$$$
I;8G=I=
P:LLJ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ MK78MJK W8;G=O $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
B8;LK;K
Q:KILEI R=:;G $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ MEG8K5K;K W8;G=O GI8MME $$$$$$$$$$$
RE<K7
RKHHEL $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ VK58KGK W8;G=O HEKG $$$$$$$$$$$$
S=)HIEI=

B8;LK;K
RKPLEI7 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ K8M= W8;G=O (K)H
$$$$$$$$$$$$ HK)HK B8;LK;K
RE8;P=I58;C BKI $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ CKH8MMK, BKBKM W8;G=O S8MM $$$$$$$$$$$$$$ PK7K)K;=
R8GCEI=MM $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ CKHKMMELE W.I. SLIK6 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
PMK;5<:EMK
R87EI $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ SE;E6K, TKB86 W8I8;C K;=H $$$$$$$$$$$$$
P=MEJK
S8M86K;
R8NEL7 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ R8)KL7E W==G GIK8; $$$$$$$$$$$$$$
HK76E
R==P $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ AL86, B:H=;C W==G PMK;B $$$$$$$$$$$$$$
TKHMK
SK;G $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ B:<K;C8; WI=:C<L II=; SLIK6 $$$$$$
PMK;L7:EMK
S5KPP=MG8;C $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ A;GK)8J=, PMK;5<K
S5IKL5< C=KL $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ REH=BKGK
S5IEO $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ T:I;8MJ=