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San Beda College of Law

77
MEMORY AID IN REMEDIAL LAW
SPECIAL CIVIL ACTIONS
SPECIAL CIVIL ACTIONS UNDER THE
RULES OF COURT:
SPECIAL CIVIL
ACTIONS
INITIATED BY
COMPLAINTS
SPECIAL CIVIL
ACTIONS INITIATED
BY PETITIONS
Interpleader
Expropriation
Foreclosure of Real
Estate Mortgage
Partition
Forcible
Entry and Unlawful
Detainer
Declaratory Relief
Review of
Adjudication of te
!o"elec#!$A
!ertiorari
Proibition
Manda"us
%uo &arranto
!onte"pt
VENUE
'e venue of special civil actions is
governed by te general rules on venue(
except wen oterwise indicated by a
particular rule under te rules on special
civil action) *Rule +,-./0
1pecial civil actions are governed by
te rules on ordinary civil actions(
subject to te specific rules prescribed
for a particular special civil action) *1ec
2-a Rule /0
3y virtue of 1ection 2 of Rule /( te
provisions of Rule /+ on "otion to
dis"iss are applicable in special civil
actions) (National Power Corp. vs.
Valera, L-15295, Nov. 30, 1961).
RULE 62
INTERPLEADER
Interpleader tat special civil re"edy
wereby a party wo as property in is
possession or an obligation to perfor"(
eiter wolly or partially( but wo clai"s
no interest in te subject( or wose
interest( in wole or in part( is not
disputed by oters( goes to court and
as4s tat conflicting clai"ants to te
property or obligation be re5uired to
litigate a"ong te"selves in order to
deter"ine finally wo is entitled to te
sa"e) (Alvare vs. Co!!onwealt", 65
P#$L 302)
RE!UISITES FOR INTERPLEADER
1. 'e plaintiff clai"s no interest
in te subject "atter or is
clai" tereto is not disputed)
2. 'ere "ust be at least two or
"ore conflicting clai"ants)
3. 'e parties to be interpleaded
"ust "a4e effective clai"s)
4. 'e subject "atter "ust be one
and te sa"e)
'e peculiar caracteristic of an
interpleader is tat tere is no cause of
action on te part of te plaintiff but
only a treat of cause of action)
PURPOSE OF REMEDY: to protect a
person not against double liability but
against double vexation in respect to
one6s liability) (%a&' %a&' (ol) vs. %on,
*0 +C,A 165)
'e conflicting clai"ants( wo are co-
defendants in te action( "ust serve
copies of teir answers not only on te
plaintiff but also upon teir co-
defendants) *RE7A8AD$( p) .9/0
An action in interpleader sould be filed
witin a reasonable ti"e after a dispute
as arisen witout waiting to be sued by
eiter of te contending clai"ants)
$terwise( e "ay be barred by laces
or undue delay) 'is is because after
judg"ent is obtained against te
plaintiff by one clai"ant( e is already
liable to te latter)
&itin te /: days provided for filing te
answer( eac clai"ant "ay file a
MOTION TO DISMISS on te ff 7R$U;D1<
/) I"propriety
,) Rule /+
'e period to file te answer sall be
tolled and if te "otion is denied( te
"ovant "ay file is answer witin te
re"aining period( but not less tan
:days fro" notice of denial) *sec)=0
REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE
CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EPS : Mar!essa N"ylan, C#arissi$ae
%en!"ra, Jocelyn &a'ala SU(JECT HEAS: Jona O'ia )Ci*il Proce+"re,- Alnai.a Hasi$an )S/ecial Ci*il Ac!ions an+
S/ecial
Procee+in0s,- Jeenice +e Sa0"n )Cri$inal Proce+"re,- Elaine Mas"ka! )E*i+ence,
78 2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS

EFFECT "HEN A CLAIMANT FAILS TO
PLEAD "ITHIN THE TIME FI#ED
'e court "ay( on "otion( declare i"
in default and tereafter render
judg"ent barring i" fro" any clai" in
respect to te subject "atter) *1ec):0
'e costs( expenses and attorneys fees
incurred by te plaintiff in te action
sall constitute a lien upon te subject
"atter and#or is recoverable fro" te
defendant wo loses in te action and is
found by te court to ave caused te
unnecessary litigation) (-eni . Co. vs.
/asti0a, 63 P#$L 16).
A de$endant %a& $'le a ()*nter(la'%
$)r 'nterpleader a+a'n,t t-e pla'nt'$$
and a t-'rd part& al,) (la'%'n+ t-e
,*./e(t%atter )$ t-e ,*'t0 *%a&' %a&'
(ol) vs. %on0
NOTE: Interpleader cannot be availed of
to resolve te issue of breac of
underta4ings "ade by defendants wic
issues sould be resolved in an ordinary
civil action for specific perfor"ance or
oter relief (/eltran vs. P##C, L-25131,
A23. 21, 1969).
INTERPLEADER INTERVENTION
An original action Ancillary action
Presupposes tat
plaintiff as no
interest in te
subject "atter of te
action or as interest
terein in wole or in
part wic is not
disputed by te oter
parties plaintiff as
no interest in te
subject "atter of te
action or as interest
terein in wole or in
part wic is not
disputed by te oter
parties
Proper in any of te
four situations<
person aving 1a2
legal interest in te
"atter in litigation(
or 1.2 success of
eiter of te parties(
or 1(2 an interest
against bot( or 1d2 is
so situated as to be
adversely affected by
a distribution or
oter disposition of
property in te
custody of te court
or of an officer
tereof) *Rule />(
1ec) /0
Defendants are being
sued precisely to
interplead te"
Defendants are
original parties to te
pending suits
RULE 63
DECLARATORY RELIEF AND SIMILAR
REMEDIES
ORDINARY ACTION DECLARATORY
RELIEF
&rit of execution is
available
;o writ of
execution
'ere is breac or
violation of rigt
;o breac or
violation
Motion to dis"iss ?
Rule /+ and /.
Additional ground
for Motion to
Dis"iss -Rule +2
1ec) =
RE!UISITES FOR DECLARATORY RELIEF
/) justiciable controversy
,) adverse clai" between real
parties in interest
2) subject "atter is a written
instru"ent or a statute or a law
=) relief sougt is to deter"ine te
rigts and duties under te
statute
:) tere "ust be no breac or
violation of instru"ent or statute
+) no oter available or sufficient
re"edy
Declaratory judg"ents are to be
distinguised fro" te so-called a0visor4
caracter( since tey are res judicata
and binding upon te parties and tose
in privity wit te"( and fro" decisions
of abstract or !oot 52estions since tey
"ust involve a real controversy) */+ A")
@ur) Declaratory @udg"ents0
4*,t'('a.'l't& te court "ust be
satisfied tat an actual controversy or
te ripening of seeds of one( exists
between parties( all of wo" are sui
juris and before te court( and te
declaration sougt will be a practical
elp in ending te controversy) *Feria(
p)=2:0
'e fact tat te plaintiff6s desires are
twarted by its own doubts( or by te
fears of oters does not confer a cause
of action) 3ut te doubt beco"es a
justifiable controversy wen it is
2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OERATIONS E!EC"TI#E COMMITTEE AND S"B$ECT
C%AIRERSONS
Ma&'(el A)a&en*o+ )O*er1all C#air/erson,, Ronald $al,an-a& )O*er1all %ice C#air,, Yolanda
Tolen*'no)%C1Aca+s,, Jenn'fe& Ang )%C1 Secre!aria!,, $o. Ind/(*'0o )%C1Finance,, Ela'ne Ma+/1a* )%C1
EP,, Anna Ma&ga&'*aE&e+ )%C12o0is!ics, $ona*2an
Mang/nda.ao )Poli!ical 2a3,, 3&an('+ Bened'(* Reo*/*a& )2a'or 2a3,, Ro,/ald ad'lla )Ci*il 2a3,,
C2a&,a'ne To&&e+ )Ta4a!ion 2a3,, Ma&1 Da0'd Ma&*'ne- )Cri$inal 2a3,, 4a&n. L/'+a Aleg&e )Co$$ercial
2a3,, $'n1. Ann ". )Re$e+ial 2a3,, $a(1'e Lo/ Ba/*'+*a )2e0al E!#ics,
San Beda College of Law
75
MEMORY AID IN REMEDIAL LAW
translated into a clai" of rigt wic is
actually contested)
'us( te petitioner "ust sow Aan
antagonistic assertion of a legal rigt on
one side and a denial tereof on te
oter concerning a real( and not "ere
teoretical 5uestion or issue) (6el2!en
vs. ,P, 97 P"il. 21*)
'o be RIPE FOR 4UDICIAL
DETERMINATION or to constitute te
RIPENIN5 SEEDS of a controversy( it
"ust appear tat( under te facts of te
case( tere is a treatened litigation in
te i""ediate future( wic litigation is
i""inent and inevitable unless
prevented by te declaratory relief
sougt) (8olentino vs. /oar0 o)
A&&o2ntan&4, 90 P#$L 13)
REFUSAL TO 5RANT DECLARATORY
RELIEF IS 4USTIFIED "HEN
/) te decision will not ter"inate
te controversy or uncertainty
giving rise to te actionB or
,) te declaration is not necessary
and proper under te
circu"stances *Rule +=( 1ec :0
'e concept of a cause of action as Aan
act or o"ission by wic a person
violates te rigts of anoterA under
ordinary civil action does not apply) In
declaratory relief tere "ust be NO
breac or violation of te instru"ent or
statute involved)
"HEN AN ACTION FOR DECLARATORY
RELIEF "ILL NOT LIE
/) '$ $3'AI; @UDU!IA8 DE!8ARA'I$;
$F !I'ICE;1DIP - because te
instru"ents is not a contract in
wic anoter party or person is
involved) It is a unilateral act not
affecting anyone but i"self)
,) '$ E1'A38I1D I88E7I'IMA'E
FI8IA'I$; A;D DE'ERMI;E
DEREDI'ARE RI7D'1 ? not predicated
on justiciable controversy because
rigts of succession are not
trans"itted until te deat of
decedent)
2) 'DE 1U3@E!' $F 'DE A!'I$; I1 A
!$UR' DE!I1I$; ? since e "ay still
avail of oter re"edies suc as an
appeal) Moreover( decision is already
final and res judicata applies)
=) A!'I$; '$ RE1$8FE A P$8I'I!A8
%UE1'I$; $R I11UE ? because
deter"ination is outside te
peripery of te courts)
:) 'ose deter"inative of issues rater
tan involves a construction of
definite status( rigts and relations)
+) 'er"s of assailed ordinaces are not
a"biguous or of doubtful "eaning)
.) !ontract or statute as been
breaced ?action is "erely to see4
advisory opinion on a "oot 5uestion)
(en2!eration )ro! 9eria, p.73*)
A tird-party co"plaint is supposed to
see4 contribution( inde"nity(
subrogation or oter relief fro" te tird
party defendant in respect to te clai"
of te plaintiff against i"( and ence it
is i"proper wen te "ain case is for
declaratory relief wic purpose is "ere
interpretation and construction)
(Co!!issioner o) C2sto!s vs. Clori:el,
** +C,A 759)
Dowever( wen te co"plaint for
declaratory relief alleges oter "atters(
te court "ay grant suc affir"ative
reliefs as te evidence "ay warrant)
(A0lawan vs, $AC, 1*0 +C,A 165)
!o"pulsory counterclai" based on or
arising for" te sa"e transaction( deed(
or contract on wic petition is based
"ay be filed and entertained in
declaratory proceedings because tere is
noting in te nature of DR tat
proscribes te filing of counterclai" and
Rules on $!A apply to 1!A suppletorily)
(Visa4an Pa&'in3 Corp. vs. ,eparations
Co!!ission, 155 +C,A 572)
PARTIES
/) Person 1a2 wo is interested
under a Deed( will( contract or
oter written instru"entB $R(
1.2 wose rigts will be affected
by a statute( executive order or
regulation( ordinance or oter
govern"ent regulation
,) all persons wo ave a clai" to
be affected by te declaration
*1ec),0
REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE
CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EPS : Mar!essa N"ylan, C#arissi$ae
%en!"ra, Jocelyn &a'ala SU(JECT HEAS: Jona O'ia )Ci*il Proce+"re,- Alnai.a Hasi$an )S/ecial Ci*il Ac!ions an+
S/ecial
Procee+in0s,- Jeenice +e Sa0"n )Cri$inal Proce+"re,- Elaine Mas"ka! )E*i+ence,
80 2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS

;on-joinder of necessary parties is not a
jurisdictional defect but "ay be ground
for dis"issal under 1ection :)
;otary public( not a party to te
contract is not entitled to file
declaratory relief) (8a0eo vs. Prov. 9is&al
o) Pan3asinan)
ACTIONS SIMILAR TO DECLARATORY
RELIEF
/) refor"ation
,) 5uieting of title
2) re"oval of clouds
=) consolidation *Art /+9.( ;!!0
In tese cases te court as no discretion
weter or not to entertain DR)
@URI1DI!'I$; deter"ined by te FA8UE
of Property)
CONVERSION TO ORDINARY ACTION
*1ec)+0
"HEN IS CONVERSION PROPER6 If after
filing of petition for declaratory relief
but before rendition of judg"ent( a
breac or violation of te instru"ent or
statute occurs( ten te sa"e "ay be
converted into an ordinary action)
'e law does not re5uire tat tere sall
be an actual pending case) It is sufficient
tat tere is a breac of te law( an
actionable violation to bar a co"plaint
for declaratory relief) (/or;a vs.
Villa0oli0, 15 P#$L 36)
RULE 67
REVIE" OF 4UD5MENTS AND FINAL
ORDERS OR RESOLUTIONS OF THE
COMELEC AND THE COA0
TIME FOR FILIN5 OF PETITION
'irty *290 days fro" notice of
judg"ent( if "otion for reconsideration
is denied( "ust file witin te re"aining
period but not less tan : days in any
event rec4oned fro" notice of denial)

MODE OF REVIE"
'is petition sould be filed exclusively
to te 1upre"e !ourt
'is refers to Rule +: as an independent
civil action and not a "ode of appeal)
'e order to co""ent under 1ection +(
Rule += in case te 1upre"e !ourt finds
te petition sufficient in for" and
substance is e5uivalent to su""ons in
ordinary civil action)
EFFECT OF FILIN5
'e filing of a petition for certiorari
sall not stay te execution of judg"ent(
final order or resolution sougt to be
reviewed( unless te 1upre"e !ourt
sall direct oterwise upon suc ter"s as
it "ay dee" just)
Under tis rule( te petitioner "ay apply
for a restraining order and preli"inary
injunction fro" te 1upre"e !ourt to
stay te execution of judg"ent or final
order or resolution sougt to be
reviewed)
RULE 68
CERTIORARI9 PROHIBITION AND
MANDAMUS
RE!UISITES OF CERTIORARI
1. tere "ust be a controversyB
2. respondent is exercising judicial
or 5uasi-judicial functionsB
3. respondents acted witout or in
excess of its jurisdiction or acted
wit grave abuse of discretion
a"ounting to lac4 of
jurisdictionB and
4. tere "ust be no appeal or oter
plain( speedy and ade5uate
re"edy)
"r't )$ Cert')rar' : is a prerogative writ
never de"andable as a "atter of rigt(
never issued except in te exercise of
judicial discretion)(N2nal vs. C<A, 169
+C,A 356)
Spe('al (';'l a(t')n $)r (ert')rar' )n
R*le 68 ,-)*ld n)t .e ()n$*,ed <'t-
Appeal .& (ert')rar' *nder R*le 780
+== ,>L= 75 9<, 6$+8$NC8$<N+.
2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OERATIONS E!EC"TI#E COMMITTEE AND S"B$ECT
C%AIRERSONS
Ma&'(el A)a&en*o+ )O*er1all C#air/erson,, Ronald $al,an-a& )O*er1all %ice C#air,, Yolanda
Tolen*'no)%C1Aca+s,, Jenn'fe& Ang )%C1 Secre!aria!,, $o. Ind/(*'0o )%C1Finance,, Ela'ne Ma+/1a* )%C1
EP,, Anna Ma&ga&'*aE&e+ )%C12o0is!ics, $ona*2an
Mang/nda.ao )Poli!ical 2a3,, 3&an('+ Bened'(* Reo*/*a& )2a'or 2a3,, Ro,/ald ad'lla )Ci*il 2a3,,
C2a&,a'ne To&&e+ )Ta4a!ion 2a3,, Ma&1 Da0'd Ma&*'ne- )Cri$inal 2a3,, 4a&n. L/'+a Aleg&e )Co$$ercial
2a3,, $'n1. Ann ". )Re$e+ial 2a3,, $a(1'e Lo/ Ba/*'+*a )2e0al E!#ics,
San Beda College of Law
86
MEMORY AID IN REMEDIAL LAW
RE!UISITES OF PROHIBITION
/) tere "ust be a controversyB
,) respondent is exercising judicial(
5uasi-judicial or "inisterial
functionsB
2) respondents acted witout or in
excess of its jurisdiction or acted
wit grave abuse of discretion
a"ounting to lac4 of
jurisdictionB and
=) tere "ust be no appeal or oter
plain( speedy and ade5uate
re"edy)
Pr)-'.'t)n %*,t n)t .e ()n$*,ed <'t-
In/*n(t')n
+== 6$+8$NC8$<N <N 8#= 8<P$C <N
P,<V$+$<NAL ,=-=6$=+ >N6=, C$V$L
P,<C=6>,=
Manda%*, ? a writ issued in te na"e of
te 1tate( to an inferior tribunal(
corporation( board or person(
co""anding te perfor"ance of an act
wic te law enjoins as a duty resulting
fro" an office( trust or station)
PURPOSE OF MANDAMUS: Manda"us is
e"ployed to co"pel te perfor"ance(
wen refused( of a "inisterial duty( tis
being its "ain objective) It does not lie
to re5uire anyone to fulfill a contractual
obligation or to co"pel a course of
conduct( nor to control or review te
exercise of discretion)
E#HAUSTION OF ADMINISTRATIVE
REMEDY
5ENERAL RULE< Manda"us will not issue
wen ad"inistrative re"edies are still
available)
E#CEPTIONS<
/) If party is in estoppelB and
,) Pure 5uestions of law are raised)
Ma& %anda%*, .e *,ed t) ()%pel a
d',(ret')nar& d*t&6
NO0 It is only applicable to a "inisterial
duty) D$&EFER( it can be used to te
extent of re5uiring te perfor"ance of a
discretionary duty to act but not to
re5uire perfor"ance of suc duty in a
particular "anner)
MANDAMUS IN4UNCTION
Re"edial Preventive
'o set in "otion
and to co"pel
action *A!'IFE0
'o restrain "otion
or to enforce
inaction
*!$;1ERFA'IFE0
"otion to dis"iss
- Rule /+ and /.
Additional ground
for Motion to
Dis"iss -Rule +2
1ec) =
RE!UISITES OF MANDAMUS
/) tere "ust be a clear legal rigt
or dutyB
,) act to be perfor"ed "ust be
pra(t'(al - witin te powers of
te respondent to perfor" suc
tat if te writ of "anda"us was
issued( e can co"ply wit it( or
else te essence will be
defeatedB
2) respondent "ust be exercising a
%'n',ter'al d*t& - a duty wic
is absolute and i"perative and
involves "erely its executionB
=) duty or act to be perfor"ed
"ust be e=',t'n+ - a correlative
rigt will be denied if not
perfor"ed by te respondentsB
and
:) no appeal or oter plain( speedy
and ade5uate re"edy in te
ordinary course of law)
Preli"inary injunction "ust be
sougt)
MANDAMUS ;,0 !UO "ARRANTO 12ND
+r)*nd2
Manda"us is te proper re"edy wen
te respondent unlawfully excludes te
petitioner fro" an office to wic e is
entitled witout usurping( intruding into
or unlawfully olding te office) $n te
oter and( if te respondent clai"s any
rigt to te office and usurps( intrudes
into or unlawfully olds against te
petitioner( %uo &arranto is te proper
re"edy)
Manda%*, %a& .e ()%.'ned <'t- >*)
<arrant)
'e co"plaint for "anda"us is against
te persons wo exclude te plaintiff
fro" te office in 5uestion( wile te
petition for 5uo warranto is directed
REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE
CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EPS : Mar!essa N"ylan, C#arissi$ae
%en!"ra, Jocelyn &a'ala SU(JECT HEAS: Jona O'ia )Ci*il Proce+"re,- Alnai.a Hasi$an )S/ecial Ci*il Ac!ions an+
S/ecial
Procee+in0s,- Jeenice +e Sa0"n )Cri$inal Proce+"re,- Elaine Mas"ka! )E*i+ence,
82 2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS

against te person wo actually olds
te said office) (/2r32ete vs, -a4or, 97
P#$L 930)
RESPONDENTS
@oinder as parties defendant#respondent
wit te court or judge or te persons
interested in sustaining te proceedings
is "andatory) (+e!ira vs. =nri52e, 17
P#$L **6)
'e non-inclusion of te person
interested in sustaining te proceedings
renders te petition defective) (,P vs.
?2r:ano, 105 P#$L 709)
'e principal defendant#respondent is
te judge as a person( not te court as
an entity)
CERTIORARI
PROHIBITION
MANDAMUS
Directed
against an
entity or
person
exercising
judicial or
5uasi-judicial
function)
Directed
against an
entity or
person
exercising
judicial(
5uasi-judicial
or "inisterial
function)
Directed
against an
entity or
person
exercising
"inisterial
function)
Entity or
person is
alleged to
ave acted<
/) &itout
jurisdictionB
,) In excess
of
jurisdictionB
or
2) &it
grave abuse
of
discretion
a"ounting
to lac4 or
excess of
jurisdiction

Entity or
person is
alleged to
ave acted<
/) &itout
jurisdic-
tionB
,) In excess
of jurisdic-
tionB or
2) &it grave
abuse of
discretion
a"ounting
to lac4 or
excess of
jurisdic-
tion)
Entity or
person is
alleged to
ave
unlawfully<
/) ;eglected
a "iniste-
rial dutyB
or
,) Excluded
anoter
fro" a
rigt or
office)
Purpose is to
annul or
nullify a
proceeding)
Purpose is to
ave
respondent
desist fro"
furter
proceeding)
Purpose is for
respondent
to<
/) Do te act
re5uired
and
,) 'o pay
da"ages)
'is re"edy
is corrective
Gto correct
usurpation of
jurisdiction)
'is re"edy
is preventive
and negative
Gto restrain
or prevent
usurpation of
jurisdiction)
'is re"edy
is affir"ative
or positive *if
te
perfor"ance
of a duty is
ordered0 or it
is negative *if
a person is
ordered to
desist fro"
excluding
anoter fro"
a rigt or
office0)
HO" 4URISDICTION AC!UIRED
'e court ac5uires jurisdiction over te
respondents wit te service on te" of
its orders indicating its initial action on
te petitioner or by teir voluntary
sub"ission to suc jurisdiction)
It is te allegations( not title of te
petition deter"ines te nature of special
civil action)
Nat*re )$ 4*d'('al )r !*a,'/*d'('al a(t,
It is te nature of te act to be
perfor"ed rater tan of te office(
board( or body wic perfor"s it( tat
deter"ines weter or nor it is te
discarge of a judicial or 5uasi judicial
function) It is enoug if te officers act
judicially in "a4ing teir decision
watever "ay be teir public caracter)
(-2n. Co2n&il o) Le!er4 vs. Prov. /oar0
o) /atan3as, 56 P#$L 260).

An original action for certiorari(
proibition( "anda"us( is an
independent action and as suc<
1. does not interrupt te course of
te principal actionB
2. does not affect te running of te
regle"entary periods involved in
te proceedingsB
3. does not stay te execution of
judg"ent( unless a te"porary
restraining order or writ of
preli"inary injunction as been
issued)
4*r',d'(t')nal !*e,t')n, are 5uestions
aving to do wit an indifferent disregard of
2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OERATIONS E!EC"TI#E COMMITTEE AND S"B$ECT
C%AIRERSONS
Ma&'(el A)a&en*o+ )O*er1all C#air/erson,, Ronald $al,an-a& )O*er1all %ice C#air,, Yolanda
Tolen*'no)%C1Aca+s,, Jenn'fe& Ang )%C1 Secre!aria!,, $o. Ind/(*'0o )%C1Finance,, Ela'ne Ma+/1a* )%C1
EP,, Anna Ma&ga&'*aE&e+ )%C12o0is!ics, $ona*2an
Mang/nda.ao )Poli!ical 2a3,, 3&an('+ Bened'(* Reo*/*a& )2a'or 2a3,, Ro,/ald ad'lla )Ci*il 2a3,,
C2a&,a'ne To&&e+ )Ta4a!ion 2a3,, Ma&1 Da0'd Ma&*'ne- )Cri$inal 2a3,, 4a&n. L/'+a Aleg&e )Co$$ercial
2a3,, $'n1. Ann ". )Re$e+ial 2a3,, $a(1'e Lo/ Ba/*'+*a )2e0al E!#ics,
San Beda College of Law
87
MEMORY AID IN REMEDIAL LAW
law( arbitrariness( and caprice or o"ission to
weig pertinent considerations( a decision
arrived at witout rational deliberation( as
distinguised fro" 5uestions tat re5uire
digging into te "erits and unearting errors
of judg"ent wic is te office on te oter
and of review under Rule =: of te Rules
(6ario vs. -ison, 1*6 +C,A 19).
5RAVE ABUSE OF DISCRETION
An act of a court or tribunal "ay only be
considered as co""itted in grave abuse
of discretion wen te sa"e was
perfor"ed in capricious or wi"sical
exercise of judg"ent wic is e5uivalent
to lac4 of jurisdiction)
'e abuse of discretion "ust be so
patent and gross as to a"ount to an
evasion of positive duty or to a virtual
refusal to perfor" a duty enjoined by
law( or to act at all in conte"plation of
law( as were te power is exercised in
an arbitrary and despotic "anner by
reason of passion or personal ostility)
Can t-e C)*rt )$ Appeal, a<ard
da%a+e, 'n %anda%*, pr)(eed'n+,6
YES0 In conferring to te !ourt of
Appeals original jurisdiction over te
special civil action of "anda"us( a"ong
oters( as well as over te issuance of
auxiliary writs of processes( it is clearly
intended tat said !ourt sould exercise
all te powers ten possessed by it under
te Rules of !ourt in relation to said
action of "anda"us and auxiliary writs(
including te adjudication of da"ages to
petitioners in te action in appropriate
cases) (Vital-(oon vs. CA 212 +C,A
235)
H)< e=e(*ted6 *1ections / and > of Rule
2>0
A writ of certiorari cannot be issued by
an R'! against an ad"inistrative agency
exercising 5uasi-judicial functions since
te latter is of te sa"e ran4 as te R'!)
A writ of proibition "ay be issued by
te R'! against ad"inistrative agencies
only wen wat is sougt to be
proibited is a "inisterial function but
not 5uasi- judicial function)
1andiganbayan "ay li4ewise issue writs
of certiorari proibition and "anda"us
only in aid of its appellate jurisdiction)
HIn aid of its appellate jurisdictionH -
tere exists a rigt to appeal te
judg"ent on te "erits to te
1andiganbayan
MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION
AS PRERE!UISITE
5ENERAL RULE< a "otion for
reconsideration is an essential
precondition for te filing of a petition
for certiorari( proibition( "anda"us) It
is a for" of a plain( speedy( and
ade5uate re"edy) Its purpose is to give
te court a 5uo te opportunity to
correct itself)
E#CEPTION<
/) if te assailed judg"ent#order is
a patent nullity
,) wen tere is extre"e urgency
2) if te issue as been raised and
pro"ptly passed upon by te
court
=) if te issue is purely a 5uestion
of law
:) if for public purpose
+) if suggested by te court a 5uo
EFFECT OF FILIN5 OF MOTION FOR
RECONSIDERATION
If a "otion for reconsideration is filed(
te period sall not only be interrupted
but anoter +9 days sall be given to te
petitioner witin wic to file te
appropriate petition for certiorari or
proibition wit te superior court) (+C
A0!inistrative Cir&2lar 002-03)
Are t-e re%ed'e, )$ APPEAL AND
CERTIORARI E#CLUSIVE6
5ENERAL RULE: If after judg"ent te
petition for certiorari is availed of wen
appeal is a plain( speedy and ade5uate
re"edy ten te petition "ust fail for
certiorari "ay not be resorted to as a
substitute for appeal( in suc a case(
appeal is dee"ed abandoned)
REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE
CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EPS : Mar!essa N"ylan, C#arissi$ae
%en!"ra, Jocelyn &a'ala SU(JECT HEAS: Jona O'ia )Ci*il Proce+"re,- Alnai.a Hasi$an )S/ecial Ci*il Ac!ions an+
S/ecial
Procee+in0s,- Jeenice +e Sa0"n )Cri$inal Proce+"re,- Elaine Mas"ka! )E*i+ence,
88 2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS

E#CEPTIONS: Even wen appeal is
available( a writ of certiorari "ay be
allowed<
1. wen appeal does not constitute
a speedy and ade5uate
re"edyB
2. wen orders were issued eiter
in excess of or witout
jurisdictionB
3. for certain special considerations
as for public policy or public
welfareB
4. wen te order is a patent
nullityB
5. wen decision in te certiorari
case will avoid future litigation)
Ade>*ate Re%ed& A re"edy wic is
e5ually beneficial( speedy and sufficient(
not "erely a re"edy wic at so"eti"e
in te future will bring about a revival of
judg"ent of te lower court co"plained
of in te !ertiorari proceeding( but a
re"edy wic will pro"ptly relieve te
petitioner fro" te injurious effects of
tat judg"ent and te acts of te
inferior court or tribunal (Pioneer
$ns2ran&e +2ret4 Corp. vs. #ontanosas,
*1 +C,A 766).
Unli4e in Rule =:( finding of fact of !ourt
of Appeals is not conclusive or 1!
because tis is original 1!A)
I"portant Re5uire"ents<
/) verified
,) acco"panied by certified true
copy of judge"ent or duplicate
original *not xerox0
2) certification of non-foru"
sopping
If te petition is not sufficient in for"
and substance( te court "ay dis"iss it
outrigt)
'e court "ay dis"iss te petition after
te filing and consideration of te
co""ent witout olding a earing or
re5uiring te sub"ission of "e"oranda)
It is not "andatory on court to receive
evidence and ear petition)
RULE 66
!UO "ARRANTO
Se(t')n ?0 A(t')n .& 5);ern%ent
a+a'n,t Ind';'d*al,
!*) "arrant) - a proceeding or writ
issued by te court to deter"ine te
rigt to use an office( position or
francise and to oust te person olding
or exercising suc office( position or
francise if is rigt is unfounded or if a
person perfor"ed acts considered as
grounds for forfeiture of said exercise of
position( office or francise)
Actions of 5uo warranto against
corporations wit regard to
francises and rigts granted to
te"( as well as teir dissolution(
covered under te for"er Rule ++
now fall under te jurisdiction of
1ecurities and Excange !o""ission
and are governed by its rules)
Dowever( cases involving intra-
corporate disputes and elections of
directors and officers li4ewise
covered under te for"er Rule ++(
ave now been transferred to te
jurisdiction of te R'!) *1ecurities
Regulation !ode( 1ec) :),0)
!UO "ARRANTO MANDAMUS
Designed to try te
rigt or title to te
office( te rigt to
te office itself is
disputed
Applicable only in
cases were te
rigt to te office
is ;$' in dispute
5ROUNDS* +e& 1 0
/) A person wo usurps( intrudes
into( or unlawfully olds or
exercises a public office(
position or franciseB
,) A public officer wo does or
suffers an act wic( by te
provision of law( constitutes a
ground for te forfeiture of is
officeB
2) An association wic acts as a
corporation witin te
Pilippines witout being legally
incorporated or witout lawful
autority so to act)
2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OERATIONS E!EC"TI#E COMMITTEE AND S"B$ECT
C%AIRERSONS
Ma&'(el A)a&en*o+ )O*er1all C#air/erson,, Ronald $al,an-a& )O*er1all %ice C#air,, Yolanda
Tolen*'no)%C1Aca+s,, Jenn'fe& Ang )%C1 Secre!aria!,, $o. Ind/(*'0o )%C1Finance,, Ela'ne Ma+/1a* )%C1
EP,, Anna Ma&ga&'*aE&e+ )%C12o0is!ics, $ona*2an
Mang/nda.ao )Poli!ical 2a3,, 3&an('+ Bened'(* Reo*/*a& )2a'or 2a3,, Ro,/ald ad'lla )Ci*il 2a3,,
C2a&,a'ne To&&e+ )Ta4a!ion 2a3,, Ma&1 Da0'd Ma&*'ne- )Cri$inal 2a3,, 4a&n. L/'+a Aleg&e )Co$$ercial
2a3,, $'n1. Ann ". )Re$e+ial 2a3,, $a(1'e Lo/ Ba/*'+*a )2e0al E!#ics,
San Beda College of Law
85
MEMORY AID IN REMEDIAL LAW
"HO MAY COMMENCE
/) 7overn"ent troug 1olicitor
7eneral *1ec =0B or
,) Individual clai"ing to be entitled
to te office position *1ec :0
Deter%'nat')n )$ S*$$'('en(& )$
E;'den(e depend, *p)n t-e D',(ret')n
)$ t-e S)l'('t)r 5eneral because te
institution of te action is expressly
"ade to depend upon weter e as
good reason to believe tat e can
establis by proof tat te case is one of
tose specified in 1ection /) (A!ante
vs. #ila0o, 6* P#$L 331)
CLASSIFICATION OF !UO "ARRANTO
PROCEEDIN5S
/) MANDATORY ? brougt by te
1olicitor 7eneral or a public
prosecutor( wen<
a) Directed by te President
b) Upon co"plaint or wen e as
reason to believe tat te cases
for %uo &arranto can be
establised by proof)
,) DISCRETIONARY ? brougt by te
1olicitor 7eneral or a public
prosecutor at te re5uest or upon
te relation of anoter person
provided tere "ust be<
a) 8eave of court
b) Inde"nity bond
Relat)r : is te person at wose re5uest
and upon wose relation te 1ol) 7en) or
public prosecutor brings an action for
5uo warranto wit te per"ission of te
court under section 2 I =)
If plaintiff6s rigt to file te co"plaint is
not proven( it beco"es unnecessary for
te !ourt to pass upon te rigt of te
defendant wo as a perfect rigt to te
undisturbed possession of is office)
D$&EFER( if co"plaint is brougt by te
1ol) 7en) or public prosecutor( te !ourt
"ay pass upon te defendant6s rigt to
office)
CONTENTS OF PETITION< *1ec +0
/) ;a"e of person wo clai"s to be
entitled tereto( if any
,) Aver"ent of is rigt to
office#position
2) Allegation tat respondent is
unlawfully in possession tereof
!*) "arrant) 'n Ele(t)ral Pr)(eed'n+
;,0 !*) "arrant) *nder R*le 66
!UO "ARRANTO
IN ELECTORAL
PROCEEDIN5S
!UO "ARRANTO
UNDER RULE 66
'o contest te
rigt of an elected
public officer to
old public office)
Prerogative writ by
w#c te govt) can call
upon any person to
sow by wat title e
olds a public office or
exercises a public
francise
An electoral
proceeding under
te $"nibus
Elections !ode for
te exclusive
purpose of
i"pugning te
election of a public
officer on te
ground of
ineligibility or
dis5ualification to
old te office
'ree grounds<
usurpation( forfeiture(
or illegal association
Petition "ust be
filed w#in /9 days
fro" te
procla"ation of
te candidate
Presupposes tat te
respondent is already
actually olding office
and action "ust be
co""enced witin one
year fro" cause of
ouster or rigt of
petitioner to old
office arose
May be filed by any
registered
candidate for te
sa"e office and(
wo( even if te
petition prospers(
would not be
entitled to tat
office)
'e petitioner "ust be
te govern"ent or te
person entitled to te
office and wo would
assu"e te sa"e if is
action succeeds)
Actual or co"pensatory da"ages are
recoverable in 5uo warranto proceedings
under te $"nibus Election !ode)
REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE
CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EPS : Mar!essa N"ylan, C#arissi$ae
%en!"ra, Jocelyn &a'ala SU(JECT HEAS: Jona O'ia )Ci*il Proce+"re,- Alnai.a Hasi$an )S/ecial Ci*il Ac!ions an+
S/ecial
Procee+in0s,- Jeenice +e Sa0"n )Cri$inal Proce+"re,- Elaine Mas"ka! )E*i+ence,
89 2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS

RI5HTS OF PERSONS AD4UD5ED
ENTITLED TO THE OFFICE *1ec /90
/) 'a4e upon i"self te
execution
,) De"and fro" respondent all
te boo4s and papers
appertaining to te office
Respondent6s neglect or
refusal is punisable by
conte"pt
2) 3ring an action for da"ages
against respondent sustained
by i" by reason of te
usurpation
Must be co""enced witin /
EEAR a)ter "e entr4 o) t"e
;203!ent esta:lis"in3 t"e
petitioner@s ri3"t to t"e
o))i&e in 52estion) *1ec //0
LIMITATION
;o action against a public officer or
e"ployee for is ouster fro" office "ust
be co""enced &I'DI; / EEAR a)ter t"e
&a2se o) s2&" o2ster or t"e ri3"t o) t"e
petitioner to "ol0 s2&" o))i&e or position
arose) *1ec //0
'e periods witin wic te 5uo
warranto action sould be brougt
are condition precedent to te
existence of a cause of action)
'e one-year period is not interrupted
by te prosecution of any ad"inistrative
re"edy as( in 5uo warranto proceeding(
no one is co"pelled to resort to
ad"inistrative re"edies since public
interest re5uires tat te rigt to public
office sould be deter"ined as speedily
as possible) (Pal!a-9ernan0e vs. 6ela
Pa, 160 +C,A *51).
RULE 6@
E#PROPRIATION
EMINENT DOMAIN is te rigt of te
1tate to ac5uire private property for
public use upon te pay"ent of just
co"pensation)
E#PROPRIATION is te procedure to be
observed in te exercise of te rigt of
e"inent do"ain)
"HEN IS E#PROPRIATION PROPER6
/) &en owner refuses to sell
,) &en e agrees to sell but an
agree"ent as to price cannot be
reaced
CONTENTS OF COMPLAINT *+e& 10
/) Rigt and purpose of
expropriation
,) Description of te real or
personal property sougt to be
expropriated
2) All persons owning or clai"ing to
own or occupying any part or
interest terein "ust be na"ed
as defendants( sowing( so far as
practicable( te separate
interest of eac defendant)
=) If te title of te property to be
expropriated is in te na"e of
te Republic of te Pilippines or
if te title is obscure or
doubtful( aver"ent to tat
effect sall be "ade in te
co"plaint)
All pr)pert'e, (an .e e=pr)pr'ated
e=(ept
/) Money
,) !oses in action
Upon filing of te co"plaint or at
anyti"e tereafter and after due notice
to te defendant( te plaintiff sall ave
te rigt to ta4e or enter upon te
possession of te real property involved
if e "a4es a Preli"inary Deposit)
PURPOSE OF PRELIMINARY DEPOSIT
UNDER SEC0 2
/) Provide da"ages if court finds
plaintiff as no rigt to
expropriate
,) Advance pay"ent for just
co"pensation
VALUE OF PRELIMINARY DEPOSIT
Per,)nal Pr)pert& provisionally
ascertained and fixed by te court
Real Pr)pert& - assessed value in tax
return
2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OERATIONS E!EC"TI#E COMMITTEE AND S"B$ECT
C%AIRERSONS
Ma&'(el A)a&en*o+ )O*er1all C#air/erson,, Ronald $al,an-a& )O*er1all %ice C#air,, Yolanda
Tolen*'no)%C1Aca+s,, Jenn'fe& Ang )%C1 Secre!aria!,, $o. Ind/(*'0o )%C1Finance,, Ela'ne Ma+/1a* )%C1
EP,, Anna Ma&ga&'*aE&e+ )%C12o0is!ics, $ona*2an
Mang/nda.ao )Poli!ical 2a3,, 3&an('+ Bened'(* Reo*/*a& )2a'or 2a3,, Ro,/ald ad'lla )Ci*il 2a3,,
C2a&,a'ne To&&e+ )Ta4a!ion 2a3,, Ma&1 Da0'd Ma&*'ne- )Cri$inal 2a3,, 4a&n. L/'+a Aleg&e )Co$$ercial
2a3,, $'n1. Ann ". )Re$e+ial 2a3,, $a(1'e Lo/ Ba/*'+*a )2e0al E!#ics,
San Beda College of Law
87
MEMORY AID IN REMEDIAL LAW
DEFENSES AND OB4ECTIONS 1Se(0 32
$3@E!'I$;1
If defendants as no objection<
File and serve a NOTICE OF
APPEARANCE and
MANIFESTATION to tat effectB
'ereafter e sall be entitled
to notice of all proceedings)
If defendants as objection( e "ust
serve is answer)
;o counterclai"( cross-clai" or tird-
party co"plaint sall be alleged or
allowed in te answer or any subse5uent
pleading)
REASON< Expediency
A defendant waives all defenses and
objections not so alleged but te court(
in te interest of justice( "ay per"it
a"end"ents to te answer to be "ade
not later tan /9 DAE1 fro" te filing
tereof)
Can t-e de$endant .e de(lared 'n
de$a*lt6
NO0 Failure to file an answer would
result to te court6s judg"ent on te
rigt to expropriate witout prejudice to
te rigt to present evidence on just
co"pensation)
ORDER OF E#PROPRIATION
$rder declaring tat te plaintiff as
lawful rigt to ta4e te property
Issued wen<
1. $bjections or defenses against
te rigt of plaintiff to
expropriate are overruled( $R
2. ;o party appears to defend te
case)
A,(erta'n%ent )$ ()%pen,at')n0
1Se(t')n 82
COMMISSIONERS - at least 2 co"petent
and disinterested persons to ascertain
and report to te court te just
co"pensation
$bjections to te $RDER $F
APP$I;'ME;' "ust be filed witin
/9 DAE1 fro" service of te order
and sall be resolved witin 29 DAE1
after A88 co""issioners received te
copies of te objections)
REPORT OF COMMISSIONERS 1Se(0 @2
"ust be filed wit te court witin
+9 DAE1 fro" notice of teir
appoint"ent)
sall not be effectual until te court
sall ave accepted fro" teir
report and rendered judg"ent in
accordance wit teir
reco""endations)
Interested parties "ay file teir
objections to te report witin /9
DAE1 fro" notice tereof)
'e appoint"ent of co""issioners is
"andatory and cannot be dispensed
wit) (-eral&o vs. Pine0a)
Fees of co""issioners sall be taxed as
part of te costs of proceedings) *1ec)/,0
4UST COMPENSATION is e5uivalent to
te value of te property at te ti"e of
its ta4ing or filing of co"plaint
wicever co"es first) It is te fair and
full e5uivalent for te loss sustained by
te defendant)
FORMULA $)r deter%'nat')n )$ /*,t
()%pen,at')n
@1 J @ust !o"pensation
FMF J Fair Mar4et Falue
!D J !onse5uential Da"ages
!3 J !onse5uential 3enefits
4S A FMV B CD : CB
I$ CB C CD t-en9 4SA FMV
In no case sall te conse5uential
benefits exceed te conse5uential
da"ages assessed( or te owner be
deprived of te actual value of is
property so ta4en) *1ec)+0
Se(t')n D0 Un(erta'n )<ner,-'pE
()n$l'(t'n+ (la'%,0
If tere are conflicting clai"s on te
property or uncertainty wit respect to
its ownersip( te ownersip sall be
deter"ined by te court to order any
su" awarded to be deposited wit) 'e
court sall award any su" representing
just co"pensation to be deposited wit
REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE
CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EPS : Mar!essa N"ylan, C#arissi$ae
%en!"ra, Jocelyn &a'ala SU(JECT HEAS: Jona O'ia )Ci*il Proce+"re,- Alnai.a Hasi$an )S/ecial Ci*il Ac!ions an+
S/ecial
Procee+in0s,- Jeenice +e Sa0"n )Cri$inal Proce+"re,- Elaine Mas"ka! )E*i+ence,
88 2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS

te !ler4 of !ourt for te benefit of te
person to be later adjudged in te case)
'ere is no need for an independent
action since te person entitled tereto
will be adjudged in te sa"e
proceeding)
Se(t')n ?F0 R'+-t, )$ pla'nt'$$ a$ter
/*d+%ent and pa&%ent0
"HEN IS TITLE VESTED IN
E#PROPRIATION:
/) If personal property( upon
pay"ent of just co"pensation)
*1ec) /90
,) If real property( upon pay"ent of
just co"pensation and
registration) *1ec) /20
STA5ES IN E#PROPRIATION
1. Deter"ination of te autority
of te plaintiff to exercise te
power of e"inent do"ain and
te propriety of te exercise in
te context of te facts
involvedB and
2. Deter"ination of @U1'
!$MPE;1A'I$;)
MULTIPLE APPEALS
$rder of expropriation "ay be appealed
by te defendant by re&or0 on appeal)
'is is an instance wen "ultiple
appeals are allowed because tey ave
separate and#or several judg"ents on
different issues)
Exa"ples<
a) issue on te rigt to expropriate
b) issue of just co"pensation
A final order sustaining te rigt to
expropriate te property "ay be
appealed by any party aggrieved
tereby) *1ec)= par),0
An appeal does not delay te rigt of te
plaintiff to enter upon te property of
te defendant and appropriate te sa"e
for public use)
"-at ', t-e e$$e(t '$ t-e )rder )$
()nde%nat')n <a, re;er,ed6
'e owner sall repossess te property
wit te rigt to be inde"nified for all
da"ages sustained due to te ta4ing)
"HEN MAY PLAINTIFF ENTER INTO
POSSESSION OF PROPERTY6
/) Upon filing of co"plaint( serving
notice to defendant and after
depositing of assessed value of
property for taxation purposes
wit autoriKed govern"ent
depositary *1ection ,0
,) Upon pay"ent or tender of
co"pensation fixed by te
judg"ent and pay"ent of te
costs by plaintiff *1ec)/90
COST
All costs sall be paid by te
plaintiff) E#CEPT:
/) !ost of rival clai"ants litigating
teir clai"s orB
,) Appeal is ta4en by te owner by
property and te judg"ent is
affir"ed( in wic case costs will
be paid by owner)
RULE 6G
FORECLOSURE OF REAL ESTATE
MORT5A5E
4UDICIAL
FORECLOSURE
E#TRA4UDICIAL
FORECLOSURE
Re5uires court
intervention
;o court intervention
necessary
'ere is only an
e5uity of
rede"ption
Rigt of rede"ption
exists
RU8E +L A!' 2/2:
PARTIES TO A 4UDICIAL FORECLOSURE
/) debtor and creditor
,) "ortgagee and "ortgagor
2) successors in interest
=) junior encu"berancer#s

CONTENTS OF THE COMPLAINT: *1ec) ,0
/) te date and due execution of
te "ortgageB its assign"ents( if
anyB
,) te na"es and residences of te
"ortgagor and te "ortgageeB
2) a description of te "ortgaged
propertyB
=) a state"ent of te date of te
note or oter docu"entary
evidence of te obligation
2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OERATIONS E!EC"TI#E COMMITTEE AND S"B$ECT
C%AIRERSONS
Ma&'(el A)a&en*o+ )O*er1all C#air/erson,, Ronald $al,an-a& )O*er1all %ice C#air,, Yolanda
Tolen*'no)%C1Aca+s,, Jenn'fe& Ang )%C1 Secre!aria!,, $o. Ind/(*'0o )%C1Finance,, Ela'ne Ma+/1a* )%C1
EP,, Anna Ma&ga&'*aE&e+ )%C12o0is!ics, $ona*2an
Mang/nda.ao )Poli!ical 2a3,, 3&an('+ Bened'(* Reo*/*a& )2a'or 2a3,, Ro,/ald ad'lla )Ci*il 2a3,,
C2a&,a'ne To&&e+ )Ta4a!ion 2a3,, Ma&1 Da0'd Ma&*'ne- )Cri$inal 2a3,, 4a&n. L/'+a Aleg&e )Co$$ercial
2a3,, $'n1. Ann ". )Re$e+ial 2a3,, $a(1'e Lo/ Ba/*'+*a )2e0al E!#ics,
San Beda College of Law
85
MEMORY AID IN REMEDIAL LAW
secured by te "ortgage( te
a"ount clai"ed to be unpaid
tereonB and
:) te na"es and residences of all
persons aving or clai"ing an
interest in te property
subordinate in rigt to tat of te
older of te "ortgage( all of
wo" sall be "ade defendants
in te action)
NATURE and PURPOSE
'e re"edy used for te satisfaction of
any "onetary obligation( wic a person
owes to anoter( by proceeding against a
property used to secure said obligation)
Its purpose is to cut off te rigts of te
owner of te property "ortgaged used to
secure te obligation and all rigts
ac5uired subse5uent to said rigt)
EFFECT IF THE 4UNIOR ENCUMBRANCER
IS NOT IMPLEADED
a) Dis e5uity or rigt of rede"ption is
;$' affected or barred by te
judg"ent of te court because e is
"erely a necessary party not an
indispensable party (+2nli)e
$ns2ran&e vs. 6ie).
b) 'e re"edy of te senior
encu"brancer is to file an
I;DEPE;DE;' proceeding to
foreclose te rigt to redee" by
re5uiring te junior encu"brancer to
pay te a"ount stated in te order
of execution or to redee" te
property in a specified ti"e)
'ere is no provision proibiting te
joinder of a first "ortgagee in a
co"plaint filed by te second "ortgagee
for te sa"e purpose) In suc a
situation( te second "ortgagee as to
wait until after te debtor6s obligation to
te first "ortgagee as been fully
settled and te excess of te proceeds of
te sale( if any( will be given to te
second "ortgagee) (Alp"a $ns2ran&e vs.
,e4es, 106 +C,A 2*7)
If te first "ortgagee is not joined as
party( e "ay file a co"plaint in
intervention) Moreover( even witout
tis intervention( is rigts are
protected inas"uc as te "ortgaged
property re"ains subject to lien) (see
/P$ vs. 6e Coster, 7* P#$L 597)
4UD5MENT ON FORECLOSURE 1Se(0 22
judg"ent of te court ordering
debtor to pay witin >9-/,9 DAE1
fro" te entry of judg"ent after
ascertaining te a"ount due to te
plaintiff)
Se(t')n 30 Sale )$ pr)pert&E e$$e(t0
RULE 3D RULE 6G
;o need to confir"
sale
;eed to confir" sale
FORECLOSURE SALE *1ection 20
1ale of te "ortgaged property
ordered by te court after
failure of te debtor to pay
witin >9-/,9 day period)
HE!UITY OF REDEMPTIONI
Rule 2> on sale of real estate
will be followed
After confir"ation of te sale( it
sall divest te rigts in te
property of all te parties to te
action)
Order )$ ()n$'r%at')n
3efore te order of confir"ation( even
a)ter t"e eApiration o) perio0 o) e52it4(
te debtor can still pay is debt)
Mortgagor does not ave te rigt to a
notice of sale after failure to pay debt
*1ec) 20 because<
a) said notice is not litigable
b) issuance is "inisterial
Dowever( te "ortgagor is entitled to a
notice of earing of te confir"ation of
te sale( $'DER&I1E( 'DE $RDER I1
F$ID)
Due process re5uires tat said notice be
given so tat te "ortgagor<
a) can resist te "otionB and
b) be infor"ed tat is rigt to
redee" be cut-off) (8i3lao vs.
/otones)
REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE
CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EPS : Mar!essa N"ylan, C#arissi$ae
%en!"ra, Jocelyn &a'ala SU(JECT HEAS: Jona O'ia )Ci*il Proce+"re,- Alnai.a Hasi$an )S/ecial Ci*il Ac!ions an+
S/ecial
Procee+in0s,- Jeenice +e Sa0"n )Cri$inal Proce+"re,- Elaine Mas"ka! )E*i+ence,
50 2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS

'e $rder of !onfir"ation is
APPEA8A38E)
REMEDY '$ %)rt+a+)r re$*,e, t) ;a(ate
t-e pr)pert& writ of possession
'e issuance of a writ of possession in a
foreclosure proceeding is not an
execution of judg"ent witin te
purview of 1ection + of Rule 2> of te
Rules of !ourt but is "erely a "inisterial
and co"ple"entary duty of te court to
put an end to te litigation wic te
court can underta4e even after te lapse
of five years( provided te statute of
li"itations and te rigts of tird person
ave not intervened in te "eanti"e)
"HEN TITLE AC!UIRED
'e buyer ac5uires title upon finality of
te confir"ation of sale)
'e certificate of sale cannot be
registered witout te final order
confir"ing te sale)
DEFICIENCY 4UD5MENT - judg"ent
rendered by te court olding defendant
liable for any unpaid balance due to te
"ortgagee if te proceeds fro" te
foreclosure sale does not satisfy entire
debt)
4UD5MENT OF
FORECLOSURE
DEFICIENCY
4UD5MENT
Action %uasi in
Re"
Action in Persona"
INSTANCES "HERE COURT CANNOT
RENDER DEFICIENCY 4UD5MENT
/) Recto 8aw *Art) /=L= of te ;!!0
,) ;on-resident "ortgagor unless
tere is attac"ent)
3. 1ec) . Rule L+ wen "ortgagor
dies( te "ortgagee "ay file is
clai" wit te probate court)
4. Mortgagee is a tird person but
not solidarily liable wit te
debtor)
Deficiency not executed before te
deat of "ortgage debtor "ay be filed
as a clai" against te estate of te
deceased) (,e4es vs. ,osensto&', 7*
P#$L *17)
E!UITY OF
REDEMPTION
RI5HT OF
REDEMPTION
Rigt of te
defendant
"ortgagor to
extinguis te
"ortgage and
retain ownersip of
te property by
paying te debt
w#in >9-/,9 days
after te entry of
judg"ent or even
after te
foreclosure sale
but prior to
confir"ation
Rigt of te debtor(
is successor in
interest or any
judicial creditor or
judg"ent creditor of
said debtor or any
person aving a lien
on te property
subse5uent to te
"ortgage or deed of
trust under w#c te
property is sold to
redee" te property
w#in / year fro" te
registration of te
1eriff6s certificate
of foreclosure sale
7overned by Rule
+L
7overned by 1ecs)
,>-2/ of Rule 2>
'ere is no rigt of rede"ption in
judicial foreclosure sale after te
confir"ation of sale except tose
granted by ban4s or ban4ing
institutions in favor of non-judicial
persons as provided by te 7eneral
3an4ing Act) ((overn!ent $ns2ran&e
+4ste! vs. 8"e C9$ o) $loilo, 115
+C,A 19).
In e=tra/*d'('al $)re(l),*re( te
"ortgagor as te rigt to redee" te
property witin one year fro" te
registration of te deed of sale)
HO"EVER( 1ec) =. of te 7eneral
3an4ing Act provides tat in case of
extrajudicial foreclosure(
notwitstanding Act 2/2:( juridical
person sall ave te rigt to redee"
te property until( but not after( te
registration of te certificate of
foreclosure sale wit te applicable
Register of Deeds wic in no case sall
be "ore tan tree "onts after
foreclosure( wicever is earlier)
&ere( after extrajudicial foreclosure of
a real estate "ortgage( te "ortgagee
purcased te sa"e at te foreclosure
sale( e sall be entitled to a writ of
possession despite te fact tat te
pre"ises are in te possession of a
lessee wose lease as not yet
2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OERATIONS E!EC"TI#E COMMITTEE AND S"B$ECT
C%AIRERSONS
Ma&'(el A)a&en*o+ )O*er1all C#air/erson,, Ronald $al,an-a& )O*er1all %ice C#air,, Yolanda
Tolen*'no)%C1Aca+s,, Jenn'fe& Ang )%C1 Secre!aria!,, $o. Ind/(*'0o )%C1Finance,, Ela'ne Ma+/1a* )%C1
EP,, Anna Ma&ga&'*aE&e+ )%C12o0is!ics, $ona*2an
Mang/nda.ao )Poli!ical 2a3,, 3&an('+ Bened'(* Reo*/*a& )2a'or 2a3,, Ro,/ald ad'lla )Ci*il 2a3,,
C2a&,a'ne To&&e+ )Ta4a!ion 2a3,, Ma&1 Da0'd Ma&*'ne- )Cri$inal 2a3,, 4a&n. L/'+a Aleg&e )Co$$ercial
2a3,, $'n1. Ann ". )Re$e+ial 2a3,, $a(1'e Lo/ Ba/*'+*a )2e0al E!#ics,
San Beda College of Law
56
MEMORY AID IN REMEDIAL LAW
ter"inated( unless te lease as been
previously registered in te Registry of
Property or te "ortgagee ad prior
actual 4nowledge of te existence of te
lease) Under 1ec) . of Act 2/2:( as
a"ended( te petition for suc writ of
possession sall be "ade under oat and
filed as an ex parte "otion in te
registration or cadastral proceedings of
te property) ($:as&o vs. Ca32ioa, (.,.
No. 62619, A232st 19, 1916).
PROVISIONAL REMEDIES AVAILABLE TO
MORT5A5EE IN CASE OF FORECLOSURE
/) Preli"inary attac"ent of
properties of te debtor not
covered by te "ortgageB and
,) Receiversip of "ortgaged
property)
RULE 6D
PARTITION
PARTITION - is te process of dividing
and assigning property owned in co""on
a"ong te various co-owners tereof in
proportion to teir respective interests
in said property)
PARTITION MAY BE
/) 4*d'('al - procedure is under
Rule +>)
,) E=tra/*d'('al - no court
intervention re5uired)
CONTENTS OF A COMPLAINT *1ec)/0
/) nature and extent of is titleB
,) ade5uate description of te real
estate of wic partition is
de"andedB and
2) join as defendants all oter
persons interested in te
property)
PARTIES
All co-owners are in0ispensa:le parties)
!reditors or assignees of co-owners "ay
intervene and object to a partition
effected witout teir concurrence) 3ut
tey cannot i"pugn a partition already
executed( UNLESS:
/) tere as been fraudB $R
,) in case it was "ade
notwitstanding a for"al
opposition presented to prevent
it)
Dowever( tis rigt to intervene is not
absolute and intervenor "ust sow a
legiti"ate and proper interest in te
subject property) (6e /or;a vs. B23o, 67
P#$L 767)
NONINCLUSION OF A COO"NER
/) BEFORE 4UD5MENT ? not a
ground for "otion to dis"issB
re"edy is to file a "otion to
include te party
,) AFTER 4UD5MENT ? judg"ent is
void because co-owners are
indispensable parties)
Even toug a co"plaint is defective for
failure to "a4e allegations necessary to
constitute a cause of action but during
te trial evidence offered establises a
cause action intended to be alleged( te
defect is cured and cannot be "ade a
ground of subse5uent objection) 'is is
in accordance wit 1ection : of Rule /9)
(6el Val vs. 6el Val)
"HEN CAN PARTITION BE MADE6
5ENERAL RULE< It can be "ade anyti"e
and te rigt to de"and partition is
IMPRE1!RIP'I38E)
E#CEPTION< if a co-owner asserts
adverse title to te property in wic
case te period of prescription runs fro"
suc ti"e of assertion of te adverse
title)
NATURE OF PARTITION
'e partition of property "ay be "ade
voluntarily *by agree"ent0 or
co"pulsorily under te Rules) Even if te
parties ad resorted to judicial partition(
tey "ay still "a4e an a"icable
partition of te property)
'ere can be a judicial partition of
personal property)
An action for partition and accounting
under Rule +>( is in te nature of an
action 52asi in re!) 1uc an action is
essentially for te purpose of affecting
te defendant6s interest in a specific
property and not to render a judg"ent
against i") (Val!onte vs. CA, 252 +C,A
102).
REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE
CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EPS : Mar!essa N"ylan, C#arissi$ae
%en!"ra, Jocelyn &a'ala SU(JECT HEAS: Jona O'ia )Ci*il Proce+"re,- Alnai.a Hasi$an )S/ecial Ci*il Ac!ions an+
S/ecial
Procee+in0s,- Jeenice +e Sa0"n )Cri$inal Proce+"re,- Elaine Mas"ka! )E*i+ence,
52 2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS

T"O 122 ASPECTS OF PARTITION
/) EMI1'E;!E of co-ownersip
,) A!!$U;'I;7 *ow to actually
partition te property0
M)de )$ Appeal: Record on Appeal
@udge"ent directing an accounting is
appealable regardless of weter te
accounting is te principal relief sougt
or a "ere incident( and beco"es final
and executory witin te regle"entary
period) (-iran0a vs. CA, *1 +C,A 295)
4UD5MENT CONTENTS
OF
4UD5MENT
EFFECT OF
4UD5MENT
If actual
PARTITION of
property is
"ade
'e
judg"ent
sall state
definitely( by
"etes and
bounds and
ade5uate
description(
te
particular
portion of
te estate
assigned to
eac party
'o vest in
eac party to
te act( in
severalty te
portion of
te estate
assigned to
i")
If te wole
property is
ASSI5NED to
one of te
parties upon
is paying to
te oters
te su" or
su"s ordered
by te court
'e
judg"ent
sall state
te fact of
suc
pay"ent and
te
assign"ent
of te real
estate to te
party "a4ing
te pay"ent
'o vest in te
party "a4ing
te pay"ent
te wole of
te real
estate free
fro" any
interest on
te part of
te oter
parties to te
action
If te
property is
sold and te
SALE is
confir"ed by
te court
'e
judg"ent
sall state
te na"e of
te
purcaser or
purcasers
and a
definite
description
of te
parcels of
real estate
'o vest te
real estate in
te
purcaser or
purcasers
"a4ing te
pay"ent#s(
free fro" te
clai"s of any
of te parties
to te action
sold to eac
purcaser
ASSI5NMENT OF REAL PROPERTY
if te real estate or a portion
tereof cannot be divided witout
prejudice to te interests of te
parties
Re>*','te, O$ A,,'+n%ent
/) assign"ent is in favor of one te
parties not to 2
rd
personsB
,) pay"ent to te oter partiesB
and
2) oter interested parties does not
as4 te court tat te property
be sold instead)
'e public sale of te property is
MA;DA'$RE if one of te parties
interested as4s tat te property be sold
instead of assigned to one of te parties)
(9eria, p.601)
Rep)rt )$ ()%%',,')ner,
interested parties "ay object to te
report witin /9 days fro" noticeB
not binding until te court as
accepted it and rendered judge"ent
tereon)
'e appoint"ent of !o""issioners is
!an0ator4 unless tere is an
extrajudicial partition between te
parties) 'ey ave te power to effect
te partition 3U' ;$' to in5uire into
5uestion of ownersip or possession)
RULE @F
FORCIBLE ENTRY AND UNLA"FUL
DETAINER
Nat*re )$ Pr)(eed'n+, 'n accion
interdictal
Eject"ent cases are su""ary
proceedings intended to provide an
2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OERATIONS E!EC"TI#E COMMITTEE AND S"B$ECT
C%AIRERSONS
Ma&'(el A)a&en*o+ )O*er1all C#air/erson,, Ronald $al,an-a& )O*er1all %ice C#air,, Yolanda
Tolen*'no)%C1Aca+s,, Jenn'fe& Ang )%C1 Secre!aria!,, $o. Ind/(*'0o )%C1Finance,, Ela'ne Ma+/1a* )%C1
EP,, Anna Ma&ga&'*aE&e+ )%C12o0is!ics, $ona*2an
Mang/nda.ao )Poli!ical 2a3,, 3&an('+ Bened'(* Reo*/*a& )2a'or 2a3,, Ro,/ald ad'lla )Ci*il 2a3,,
C2a&,a'ne To&&e+ )Ta4a!ion 2a3,, Ma&1 Da0'd Ma&*'ne- )Cri$inal 2a3,, 4a&n. L/'+a Aleg&e )Co$$ercial
2a3,, $'n1. Ann ". )Re$e+ial 2a3,, $a(1'e Lo/ Ba/*'+*a )2e0al E!#ics,
San Beda College of Law
57
MEMORY AID IN REMEDIAL LAW
expeditious "eans of protecting actual
possession or rigt to possession of
property)
'e Rule on 1u""ary Procedure applies
only in cases filed before te M'!) &en
te decision of te M'! is appealed to
te R'!( te applicable rules are tose
of te latter court) (,e)23ia vs. CA, 251
+C,A 37*)
Se(t')n ?0 "-) %a& 'n,t't*te
pr)(eed'n+,0
A0 F)r('.le entr&: A person deprived of
possession of any land or building by
force( inti"idation( treat( strategy
or stealt)
B0 Unla<$*l deta'ner:
1. lessor( vendor( vendee or oter
person against wo" possession
of any land or building is
unlawfully witeldB
2. legal representatives or assigns
of any suc lessor( vendor(
vendee( or oter person against
wo" possession of any land or
building is unlawfully witeld)
A+a'n,t <-)% %a& a(t')n .e
%a'nta'ned6
1. 'e action of forcible entry and
detainer "ay be "aintained only
against one in possession at te
co""ence"ent of te action)
2. 'enant wit rigt of possession
"ay bring action against anoter
tenant
3. Fendor "ay bring action for
eject"ent against vendee upon
failure to pay te install"ents)
4. Forcible entry and unlawful
detainer lie even against te
very owner of property)
THREE JINDS OF ACTION FOR
RECOVERY OF POSSESSION
A"ount of rents and da"ages clai"ed
doe not affect jurisdiction of "unicipal
court because tey are only incidental or
accessory to te "ain action (Lao +en3
#ian vs. Lope, 13 P#$L 61*)
3ut if only rents or da"ages are clai"ed
in an ordinary action( te action is
personal and te a"ount clai"ed
deter"ines weter it falls witin te
jurisdiction of R'! or M'!)
Fr)% <-at date ', t-e )ne&ear per')d
', ()*nted6
FORCIBLE ENTRY fro" te date of
entry or ta4ing of possession by force(
inti"idation( etc)
UNLA"FUL DETAINER ?
a0 fro" te date of te last de"and
to vacate in case of non-pay"ent
of rent or non-co"pliance wit
te conditions of te lease)
b0 fro" te date of te notice to
5uit( in case of a tacit renewal
of te lease (ta&ita
re&on02&&ion), as wen wit te
ac5uiescence of te lessor( te
lessee continues enjoying te
REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE
CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EPS : Mar!essa N"ylan, C#arissi$ae
%en!"ra, Jocelyn &a'ala SU(JECT HEAS: Jona O'ia )Ci*il Proce+"re,- Alnai.a Hasi$an )S/ecial Ci*il Ac!ions an+
S/ecial
Procee+in0s,- Jeenice +e Sa0"n )Cri$inal Proce+"re,- Elaine Mas"ka! )E*i+ence,
ACCION
INTERDIC
TAL
ACCION
PUBLICIANA
ACCION
REINVIDICA
TORIA
1u""ary
action for
te recovery
of pysical
possession
were te
dispossessio
n as not
lasted for
"ore tan
one year)
Eject"ent
proceeding
under Rule
.9B eiter
forcible
entry or
unlawful
detainer
A plenary
action for
te recovery
of te real
rigt of
possession
wen te
dispossessio
n as lasted
for "ore
tan one
year)
An action for
te recovery
of ownersip(
w#c
necessarily
includes te
recovery of
possession)
All cases of
forcible
entry and
unlawful
detainer
irrespective
of te
a"ount of
da"ages or
unpaid
rentals
sougt to be
recovered
sould be
brougt to
te M'!)
Dowever( if
not brougt
witin /
year( R'!
as
jurisdiction)
R'! as
jurisdiction
if te value
of te
property
exceeds
P,9(999
outside
Metro
ManilaB
P:9(999
witin Metro
Manila)
M'! as
jurisdiction
if te value
of te
property
does not
exceed te
above
a"ounts)
R'! as
jurisdiction if
te value of
te property
exceeds
P,9(999
outside Metro
ManilaB
P:9(999
witin Metro
Manila)
M'! as
jurisdiction if
te value of
te property
does not
exceed te
above
a"ounts)
58 2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS

ting leased for fifteen days( as
provided in Article /+.9( ;!!0
c0 fro" te date of te revocation
of te per"it in case of
occupancy on "ere tolerance or
under a te"porary per"it)
&ile it is true tat te only issue in
forcible entry or unlawful detainer
action is te pysical possession of te
leased property( tat is( possession de
factoGnot possession de jure( yet te
court "ay go beyond tat if only to
prove te nature of possession) 'e
court "ay receive evidence upon te
5uestion of title solely for te purpose of
deter"ining te caracter and extent of
possession and da"ages for te
detention (Consin3 vs. Ba!an0re, 67
+C,A 1).
FORCIBLE ENTRY
1Detenta(')n2
UNLA"FUL
DETAINER
1De,a-*(')2
Possession of te
land by te
defendant is
unlawful fro" te
beginning as e
ac5uires possession
by Force(
Inti"idation(
1trategy( 'reat
or 1tealt
Possession is
inceptively lawful but
it beco"es illegal by
reason of te
ter"ination of is
rigt to te
possession of te
property under is
contract w# te
plaintiff
;o previous
de"and for te
defendant to
vacate te
pre"ises is
necessary
De"and is
jurisdictional if te
ground is non-
pay"ent of rentals or
failure to co"ply
wit lease contract
'e plaintiff "ust
prove tat e was
in prior pysical
possession of te
pre"ises until e
was deprived
tereof by te
defendant
'e plaintiff need not
ave been in prior
pysical possession
'e / year period
is generally
counted fro" te
date of actual
entry on te land
Period is counted
fro" te date of last
de"and or last letter
of de"and
LESSOR MAY PROCEED A5AINST LESSEE
ONLY AFTER DEMAND *1ec),0
DEMA;D conte"plated under tis section
is /*r',d'(t')nal0 It is a t<)$)ld de%and
a) to pay AND vacateB $R
b) to co"ply wit te conditions of
te lease AND vacate)
A de"and is a pre-re5uisite to an action
for unlawful detainer wen te action is
Afor failure to pay rent due or to co"ply
wit te conditions of is leaseH( and not
were te action is to ter"inate te
lease because of te expiration of its
ter" (Co 8ia!&o vs. 6ia, *5 P#$L 6*2).
'e acceptance of rentals in arrears
does not constitute &AIFER of default in
pay"ent of rentals (Cl2tario vs CA).
'e ter" FA!A'E need n)t be stated if
tere are oter ter"s definitively
i"plying tat te tenant sould vacate0
((ol0en (ate ,ealt4 Corp. vs. CA)
D$&EFER( in La Campana vs CA, te
court ruled tat te rule in 7olden 7ate
will not apply IF te ter" of te de"and
is a"biguous in nature)
HO" IS DEMAND MADE6
1. personally
2. posting it at te pre"ises if no
person is found tereon (Vira4 vs
CA)
3. substituted service
4. registered "ail (Co Cen3 Cian vs
CA)
5ENERAL RULE:
@UD7ME;' of te M'! against te
defendant in eject"ent proceedings is
IMMEDIA'E8E EME!U'$RE)
E#CEPTION: wen te following &on&2rsD
/) te defendant perfects is
appeal(
,) e files sufficient supersedeas
bond to pay te rents( da"ages
and costs accruing down to te
ti"e of judg"ent appealed
fro"B and
2) e deposits wit te appellate
court te a"ount of rent due
fro" ti"e to ti"e under te
contract or in te absence of a
2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OERATIONS E!EC"TI#E COMMITTEE AND S"B$ECT
C%AIRERSONS
Ma&'(el A)a&en*o+ )O*er1all C#air/erson,, Ronald $al,an-a& )O*er1all %ice C#air,, Yolanda
Tolen*'no)%C1Aca+s,, Jenn'fe& Ang )%C1 Secre!aria!,, $o. Ind/(*'0o )%C1Finance,, Ela'ne Ma+/1a* )%C1
EP,, Anna Ma&ga&'*aE&e+ )%C12o0is!ics, $ona*2an
Mang/nda.ao )Poli!ical 2a3,, 3&an('+ Bened'(* Reo*/*a& )2a'or 2a3,, Ro,/ald ad'lla )Ci*il 2a3,,
C2a&,a'ne To&&e+ )Ta4a!ion 2a3,, Ma&1 Da0'd Ma&*'ne- )Cri$inal 2a3,, 4a&n. L/'+a Aleg&e )Co$$ercial
2a3,, $'n1. Ann ". )Re$e+ial 2a3,, $a(1'e Lo/ Ba/*'+*a )2e0al E!#ics,
San Beda College of Law
55
MEMORY AID IN REMEDIAL LAW
contract( te reasonable value of
te use and occupation of te
pre"ises on or before te /9
t
day of eac succeeding "ont or
period)
NOTE< 1UPER1EDEA1 3$;D is re5uired
only if arrearages in rentals are awarded
in te judg"ent by te court) (<n&e vs.
(onales, *6 +C,A 251)
Preli"inary proibitory and "andatory
injunction "ay be granted in forcible
entry and unlawful detainer cases *1ecs)
/: and ,9 of Rule .90)
I, $)r%al ()ntra(t a prere>*','te 'n
*nla<$*l deta'ner6
'e existence of a for"al contract is
NOT necessary in unlawful detainer)
Even if tere is no for"al contract
between te parties tere can still be an
unlawful detainer because i"plied
contracts are covered by eject"ent
proceedings) Possession by tolerance
creates an i"plied pro"ise to vacate te
pre"ises upon te de"and of te owner)
(Peran vs. C9$ o) +orso3on)
!*e,t')n, t) .e re,)l;ed 'n an a(t')n
$)r $)r('.le entr& are:
F'r,t( wo ad actual possession over te
piece of real propertyN
Se()nd( was te possessor ousted
terefro" witin one year fro" te
filing of te co"plaint by force( treat(
strategy or stealtN
T-'rd( does te plaintiff as4 for
restoration of possessionN (6ion
vs.Con&ina)
Are t-'rd per,)n, .)*nd .& a /*d+%ent
'n an e/e(t%ent (a,e6
5ENERAL RULE: EE1 provided is
possession can be traced fro" te title
of te defendant e)g) sublessee
E#CEPTIONS<
1. if te property was ac5uired before
te actionB
2. if te property is covered by a
'orrens 'itle and te certificate does
not state tat te property is subject
to a pending action and e bougt
te sa"e in good fait)
'e judg"ent binds and "ay be
executed against sub-lessees wo ave
not been i"pleaded since teir rigt to
stay is only subsidiary to tat of te
lessees) $nce te rigt of te latter
disappears( tey ave noting to stand
on( unless tey clai" an understanding
or relation wit te owner)
@udg"ent for eject"ent cannot be
enforced against a co-owner wo was
not "ade a party to te action)
(Cr2&osa vs. Con&ep&ion, 101 P#$L 17*)
4UD5MENT *1ec) /.0
'e court can award DAMA7E1 in
eject"ent cases PR$FIDED te da"ages
refer only to<
a) te fair and reasonable value of
te use and enjoy"ent of te
property or te rent arising fro"
te loss of possessionB
b) arrearsB
c) li5uidated da"ages since tey
are already part of te contract
Atty6s fees cannot be considered
da"ages) (6e La2reano vs. A0il, *2 +C,A
171)
E/e(t%ent ,*'t, are n)t ,*,pended )r
.arred .& )t-er a(t')n, (%ilson A2to
+2ppl4 Corp. vs. CA, 201 +C,A 101) ,*(-
a, t-e $)ll)<'n+:
1. Injunction
2. !onsignation of rentals
3. Accion publiciana
4. &rit of possession case
5. %uieting of title
6. 1pecific Perfor"ance wit
da"ages
7. Refor"ation of instru"ent
8. Reconveyance of property or
accion reinvindicatoriaB
annul"ent of sale and
reconveyance
9. Annul"ent of sale( or title( or
docu"entB annul"ent of deed of
sale wit assu"ption of
"ortgage and#or to declare te
sa"e an e5uitable "ortgageB
annul"ent of sale wit da"ages)
(en2!eration )ro! 9eria, p.615)
REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE
CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EPS : Mar!essa N"ylan, C#arissi$ae
%en!"ra, Jocelyn &a'ala SU(JECT HEAS: Jona O'ia )Ci*il Proce+"re,- Alnai.a Hasi$an )S/ecial Ci*il Ac!ions an+
S/ecial
Procee+in0s,- Jeenice +e Sa0"n )Cri$inal Proce+"re,- Elaine Mas"ka! )E*i+ence,
59 2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS

Eject"ent case is a real action( wic is
not extinguised by te deat of a party)
(CaEia vs. CA, 261 +C,A 670)
I%%ed'ate e=e(*t')n )n appeal t)
C)*rt )$ Appeal, )r S*pre%e C)*rt
*1ec),/0
'e judg"ent of te R'! against te
defendant sall be i""ediately
executory( witout prejudice to a furter
appeal tat "ay be ta4en terefro")
It is "andatory for te R'! to order
execution of te appealed judg"ent
upon failure of defendant to "a4e te
"ontly deposit of curre=nt rentals)
(6e"esa vs. -a&alala3, 11 +C,A 573)
Prior notice of judg"ent is re5uired for
i""ediate execution) (64 vs. CA, 195
+C,A 515)
RULE @?
CONTEMPT
CONTEMPT DEFINED
!onte"pt of court is a defiance of te
autority( justice or dignity of te courtB
suc conduct as tends to bring te
autority and ad"inistration of te law
into disrespect or to interfere wit or
prejudice parties litigant or teir
witnesses during litigation) (#alili vs.
C$,, 136 +C,A 112).
PURPOSE AND NATURE OF PO"ER
'e power to punis for conte"pt is
inerent in all courtsB its existence is
essential to te preservation of order in
judicial proceedings and to te
enforce"ent of judg"ents( orders( and
"andates of te courts( and(
conse5uently( to te due ad"inistration
of justice)
'e exercise of te power to punis for
conte"pt as dual aspect( pr'%ar'l&( te
proper punis"ent of guilty party for is
disrespect to te courts( and(
,e()ndar'l&( is co"pulsory
perfor"ance of so"e act or duty
re5uired of i" by te court and wic
e refuses to perfor")
5ROUNDS OF DIRECT CONTEMPT
a) "isbeavior in te presence of
or so near a court as to obstruct
or interrupt te proceedings)
b) Disrespect towards te court)
c) $ffensive personalities towards
oters)
d) Refusal to be sworn or to answer
as witness or to subscribe an
affidavit or deposition)
5ROUNDS OF INDIRECT CONTEMPT
a) Misbeavior of an officer of a
court in te perfor"ance of is
official duties or in is official
transactions)
b) Disobedience of or resistance to
a lawful writ( process( order( or
judg"ent) UnautoriKed
intrusion to any real property
after being ejectedB
c) Any abuse or any unlawful
interference w# te proceedings
not constituting direct
conte"pt)
d) Any i"proper conduct tending to
degrade te ad"inistration of
justice)
e) Assu"ing to be an attorney or an
officer of te court w#o
autority)
f) Failure to obey a subpoena duly
served)
g) Rescue( or atte"pted rescue( of
a person or property in te
custody of an officer)
In cases of Disobedience of or resistance
to lawful writ( process( order or
judg"ents te following "ust be
present<
1. $rder "ust be specificB
2. $rder "ust be lawfulB and
3. Disobedience sould be willful)
If te court as jurisdiction wen it
rendered judg"ent( te sa"e cannot be
disobeyed owever erroneous it "ay be)
CLASSES OF CONTEMPT
?2 A, t) %anner )$ ()%%',,')n
DIRECT INDIRECT
1u""ary in nature Punised after being
carged and earing
2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OERATIONS E!EC"TI#E COMMITTEE AND S"B$ECT
C%AIRERSONS
Ma&'(el A)a&en*o+ )O*er1all C#air/erson,, Ronald $al,an-a& )O*er1all %ice C#air,, Yolanda
Tolen*'no)%C1Aca+s,, Jenn'fe& Ang )%C1 Secre!aria!,, $o. Ind/(*'0o )%C1Finance,, Ela'ne Ma+/1a* )%C1
EP,, Anna Ma&ga&'*aE&e+ )%C12o0is!ics, $ona*2an
Mang/nda.ao )Poli!ical 2a3,, 3&an('+ Bened'(* Reo*/*a& )2a'or 2a3,, Ro,/ald ad'lla )Ci*il 2a3,,
C2a&,a'ne To&&e+ )Ta4a!ion 2a3,, Ma&1 Da0'd Ma&*'ne- )Cri$inal 2a3,, 4a&n. L/'+a Aleg&e )Co$$ercial
2a3,, $'n1. Ann ". )Re$e+ial 2a3,, $a(1'e Lo/ Ba/*'+*a )2e0al E!#ics,
San Beda College of Law
57
MEMORY AID IN REMEDIAL LAW
If co""itted
against< a) R'! -
fine not exceeding
P,( 999 or
i"prison"ent not
exceeding */90
days or bot)
b) M'! - fine not
exceeding P,99 or
i"prison"ent not
exceeding */0 day(
or bot)
If co""itted against<
a) R'! - fine not
exceeding P29(999 or
i"prison"ent not
exceeding + "onts
or bot
b) M'! - fine not
exceeding P:(999 or
i"prison"ent not
exceeding */0 "ont
or bot
22 A, t) nat*re
a) !ivil !onte"pt ? consists in failing to
do so"eting ordered to be done by
a court or a judge in a civil case for
te benefit of te opposing party
terein)
defendant6s intent in co""itting
te conte"pt is i""aterial since
te purpose of civil conte"pt
proceedings is re"edial) Dence(
good fait is not a defense)
purpose is pri"arily
co"pensatory or re"edial)
b) !ri"inal !onte"pt ? is a conduct
tat is directed against te autority
and dignity of a court or of a judge
acting judicially( as in unlawfully
assailing or discrediting te autority
and dignity of te court or judge( or
in doing a duly forbidden act)
intent is necessary)
purpose is pri"arily punitive)
1tate is te real prosecutor)
!onte"pt proceedings are cri"inal in
nature( even wen te acts co"plained
are incidents of civil actions( ence te
"ode of procedure and rules in evidence
are assi"ilated as far as practicable to
tose adapted to cri"inal prosecutions)
(Lee Fi&' #on vs. Colle&tor o) C2sto!s,
71 P"il. 571)
In special judg"ents under R*le 3D
Se(t')n ??( te person re5uired by te
judg"ent to obey te sa"e "ay be
punised for conte"pt if e disobeys)
;$ conte"pt owever lies in judg"ents
for "oney *1ection >0 and judg"ents for
specific act *1ection /90 under Rule 2>)
T"O MODES OF COMMENCIN5 A
PROCEEDIN5 FOR INDIRECT CONTEMPT
/) An order or oter for"al carge
by te court re5uiring te
respondent to sow cause wy
e sould not be punised for
conte"pt< and
,) A verified petition carging
indirect conte"pt wit
supporting particulars and
certified true copies of te
necessary docu"ents and
papers)
'e first procedure applies only wen
te indirect conte"pt is co""itted
against a court or judge possessed and
cloted wit conte"pt powers) 'e
second "ode applies if te
conte"ptuous act was co""itted ;$'
against a court or a judicial officer wit
autority to punis conte"ptuous acts)
(Naareno vs /arnes, 136 +C,A 5*)
&itout carge and earing( court
ac5uires no jurisdiction to punis for
indirect conte"pt) (=spara3oa vs 8an,
97 P"il *79)
!ourt "ay !ot2 proprio institute
proceedings for conte"pt) 1uc power is
necessary for its own protection against
an i"proper interference witout te
due ad"inistration of justice and not
dependent upon te co"plaint of te
parties litigant)
For"al infor"ation by te prosecuting
officer is not necessary to begin
conte"pt proceedings) All tat Rule ./
re5uires is tat tere be a carge in
writing duly filed in court and an
opportunity to te person carged to be
eard by i"self or counsel)
REMEDIES TO CHALLEN5E CONTEMPT
4UD5MENTS
In D're(t C)nte%pt9 te person
adjudged in direct conte"pt "ay avail
i"self of te re"edies of (ert')rar' )r
pr)-'.'t')n) 'e execution of te
judg"ent sall be suspended pending
resolution of te petition( provided suc
person files a bond and conditioned tat
e will abide by and perfor" te
judg"ent sould te petition be decided
against i")
REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE
CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EPS : Mar!essa N"ylan, C#arissi$ae
%en!"ra, Jocelyn &a'ala SU(JECT HEAS: Jona O'ia )Ci*il Proce+"re,- Alnai.a Hasi$an )S/ecial Ci*il Ac!ions an+
S/ecial
Procee+in0s,- Jeenice +e Sa0"n )Cri$inal Proce+"re,- Elaine Mas"ka! )E*i+ence,
58 2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS

In Ind're(t C)nte%pt9 te person
adjudged for indirect conte"pt "ay
appeal suc judg"ent or final order to
te proper court as in cri"inal cases)
'e execution of te judg"ent sall ;$'
be suspended until a bond is filed by te
person adjudged in conte"pt)
'e judg"ent against a person adjudged
to be in conte"pt is i""ediately
e=e(*t)r& and can be stopped only by
filing a bond)
I%pr',)n%ent *nt'l )rder ()%pl'ed
*1ection L0
&en te conte"pt consists in REFU1A8
or $MI11I$; to do an act wic is yet in
te power of te respondent to perfor"(
e "ay be IMPRI1$;ED by order of te
court U;'I8 e perfor"s it)
Pr)(eed'n+ <-en part& relea,ed )n .a'l
$a'l, t) an,<er *1ec) >0
'e court "ay< ?2issue anoter order of
arrest or 22 "ay order te bond for is
appearance to be forfeited and
confiscated( or 32 3$'D) If tere is no
aggrieved party( te bond sall be liable
and disposed of as in cri"inal cases)
"-en ()*rt %a& relea,e re,p)ndent
*1ec) /90
'e court "ay discarge respondent
wen it appears tat public interest will
not be prejudiced by is release)
C)nte%pt a+a'n,t >*a,'/*d'('al ent't'e,
*1ec) /,0
Rule ./ applies suppletorily to conte"pt
co""itted against persons( entities(
bodies or agencies exercising 5uasi-
judicial functions) 'e R'! of te place
werein te conte"pt as been
co""itted sall ave jurisdiction over
suc carges as "ay be filed terefore)
2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OERATIONS E!EC"TI#E COMMITTEE AND S"B$ECT
C%AIRERSONS
Ma&'(el A)a&en*o+ )O*er1all C#air/erson,, Ronald $al,an-a& )O*er1all %ice C#air,, Yolanda
Tolen*'no)%C1Aca+s,, Jenn'fe& Ang )%C1 Secre!aria!,, $o. Ind/(*'0o )%C1Finance,, Ela'ne Ma+/1a* )%C1
EP,, Anna Ma&ga&'*aE&e+ )%C12o0is!ics, $ona*2an
Mang/nda.ao )Poli!ical 2a3,, 3&an('+ Bened'(* Reo*/*a& )2a'or 2a3,, Ro,/ald ad'lla )Ci*il 2a3,,
C2a&,a'ne To&&e+ )Ta4a!ion 2a3,, Ma&1 Da0'd Ma&*'ne- )Cri$inal 2a3,, 4a&n. L/'+a Aleg&e )Co$$ercial
2a3,, $'n1. Ann ". )Re$e+ial 2a3,, $a(1'e Lo/ Ba/*'+*a )2e0al E!#ics,
VENUE AND 4URISDICTION OF SPECIAL CIVIL ACTIONS
SPECIAL CIVIL ACTION VENUE 4URISDICTION
/) Interpleader &ere te plaintiff or any of te
principal plaintiff resides or were te
defendant or any of te principal
defendants resides
;ote< 'e venue of special civil actions
is governed by te general rules on
venue( except as oterwise indicated in
te particular rule for said special civil
action)
M'! ? were te value of te
clai" or te personal property
does not exceed P,99( 999 or
P=99(999 in Metro Manila or
were te value of te real
property does not exceed
P,9(999 or P:9(999 in Metro
Manila)
R'! ? if te value exceeds te
above a"ounts or if te
subject "atter is exclusively
witin te jurisdiction of te
R'! *e)g) specific
perfor"ance( recovery of
titleO0
,) Declaratory Relief &ere te petitioner or te respondent
resides
R'!
2) !ertiorari( Proibition(
Manda"us
R'! of te place were te respondent
court( corporation( officer or person is
situatedB
If petition is filed in te !A( 1! or
1andiganbayan( in wic case te
location of te respondent is i""aterial
*1ec =( Rule +:0
R'!( !A( 1!( 1andiganbayan in
aid of its appellate jurisdiction
=) %uo &arranto
If filed wit te 1!( or !A( te location of
respondent is i""aterial or<
R'! of place were te respondent
resides or were any of te respondent
residesB
Dowever( if te 17 co""ences te action(
it "ay be brougt in te R'! in Manila( !A
or 1! *1ec .( Rule ++0
'e 1andiganbayan as exclusive original
jurisdiction on 5uo warranto arising or tat
"ay arise in cases file under E$ /(,(/=( /=-
A but tis "ust be in aid of its appellate
jurisdiction and not exclusive of te 1!)

R'!( !A( 1!
:) Expropriation &ere te property is located in case
te subject is a land)
In cases were te subject of
expropriation is personal propert4(
venue is te place were te plaintiff or
defendant resides
R'! *incapable of pecuniary
esti"ationG/aran3a4 +an
,o52e vs. #eirs o) Pastor, (.,.
No. 131196, B2ne 20, 20000
+) Foreclosure &ere te land or any part tereof is
located
R'! *incapable of pecuniary
esti"ationG3arangay 1an
Ro5ue vs) Deirs of Pastor( 7)R)
;o) /2LL>+( @une ,9( ,9990

.) Partition &ere te real property or a portion
tereof is located) If te subject "atter
is personal property *1ec) /2( Rule +>0(
in te place were te plaintiff or te
defendant resides
R'!
*incapable of pecuniary
esti"ation0
L) Forcible
Entry#Unlawful Detainer &ere te property is located M'!
REMEDIAL LAW COMMITTEE
CHAIRPERSON: Jinky Ann Uy ASST. CHAIRPERSONS: Allen Farias, Maricris Oronea EPS : Mar!essa N"ylan, C#arissi$ae
%en!"ra, Jocelyn &a'ala SU(JECT HEAS: Jona O'ia )Ci*il Proce+"re,- Alnai.a Hasi$an )S/ecial Ci*il Ac!ions an+
S/ecial Procee+in0s,- Jeenice +e Sa0"n )Cri$inal Proce+"re,- Elaine Mas"ka! )E*i+ence,

>) !onte"pt &ere te !ourt involved is sitting M'!( R'!( !A( 1!
2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OERATIONS E!EC"TI#E COMMITTEE AND S"B$ECT
C%AIRERSONS
Ma&'(el A)a&en*o+ )O*er1all C#air/erson,, Ronald $al,an-a& )O*er1all %ice C#air,, Yolanda
Tolen*'no)%C1Aca+s,, Jenn'fe& Ang)%C1 Secre!aria!,, $o. Ind/(*'0o )%C1Finance,, Ela'ne Ma+/1a* )%C1
EP,, Anna Ma&ga&'*a
E&e+ )%C12o0is!ics,. $ona*2an Mang/nda.ao )Poli!ical 2a3,, 3&an('+ Bened'(* Reo*/*a& )2a'or 2a3,,
Ro,/ald ad'lla )Ci*il 2a3,, C2a&,a'ne To&&e+ )Ta4a!ion 2a3,, Ma&1 Da0'd Ma&*'ne- )Cri$inal 2a3,,
4a&n. L/'+a Aleg&e )Co$$ercial 2a3,, $'n1. Ann ". )Re$e+ial 2a3,, $a(1'e Lo/ Ba/*'+*a )2e0al
E!#ics,