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# PROPERTIES OF FORCES

## MAGNITUDE the amount of force, N

DIRECTION refers to the orientation of its path or line of action. It is usually described
by the angle that the line of action makes with some reference.
SENSE refers to the manner in which it acts along its line of action
FORCE SYSTEM
COPLANAR all acting in a single plane of a vertical wall
PARALLEL all having the same direction
CONCURRENT all having their lines of action intersect at a common point.
MOMENT force x distance
moment can be about any point called CENTER OF MOMENT
MOMENT ARM distance from center of moment to force
shortest or perpendicular distance from the center of moment to line of
action of force.
CONCENTRATED LOADS example is a beam supporting a column
UNIFORM LOADS a series of uniform concentrated loads, but for 5 or
TYPES OF SUPPORT
HINGE
!"##E!
\$I%E& !E'(!)INE
TYPES OF BEAMS
'I*+#, '-++"!(E .E)*
'I*+#, '-++"!(E /& "0E! H)NG 1"0E!H)NGING .E)*2
3)N(I#E0E! .E)*
+!"++E 3)N(I#E0E! .E)* 1indeterminate2
3"N(IN"-' .E)*
INTERNAL FORCES TYPES
TENSION pulls away from 4oint
COMPRESSION pushes towards 4oint
SHEAR for connections
ASTM
)*E!I3)N '"3IE(, \$"! (E'(ING )N *)(E!I)#'
ACI
)*E!I3)N 3"N3!E(E IN'(I(-(E
)ccording to )3I code, I the strain in concrete reaches
5.556 17conc8 5.5562, 78
6mm
9555
It begins to crack

AISC
)*E!I3)N IN'(I(-(E \$"! '(EE# 3"N'(!-3(I"N
If a grade :5 steel 1fy8 :5ksi8 ;9;*pa2 reaches a strain 5.55<9 it begins to
yield of 1<.9mm2
STRUCTURAL
FEATURES OF A STRAIN STRESS DIAGRAM:
STRESS= STRAIN DIAGRAM
a graphic representation of the relationship between unit stress values and the
corresponding unit strains for a specific material
9. PROPORTIONAL LIMIT
maximum stress which the material springs back to the original length when
<. ELASTIC LIMIT
maximum stress below which the material does not return to its original
length but has incurred a permanent deformation we call permanent set
6.YIELD POINT
the stress wherein the deformation increases without any increase in the load.
(he material at some portion shows a decrease in its cross section
;. ULTIMATE STRENGTH
the maximum stress that can be attained immediately before actual failure or
rupture
RUPTURE STRENGTH
stress at which material specimen breaks
ALLOWABLE STRESS
the maximum unit stress permitted for a material in the design of a structural member,
usually a fraction of the material>s elastic limit, yield strength, or ultimate strength.
)lso called ALLOWABLE UNIT STRESS, WORKING STRESS.
ELASTIC RANGE
the range of unit stresses for which a material exhibits elastic deformation
ELASTIC DEFORMATION
a temporary change in the dimensions or shape of a body produced by a stress less
than the elastic limit of the material
BRITTLENESS
the property of material that causes it to rupture suddenly under stress with little evident
deformation. 'ince brittle materials lack the plastic behavior of ductile materials, they
can give no warning of impending material
DUCTILITY
the property of a material that enables it to undergo plastic deformation after being
stressed beyond the elastic limit and before rupturing. uctility is a desirable property
of a structural material since plastic behavior is an indicator of reserve strength and
can serve as a visual warning of impending failure.
ELASTICITY
the property of a material that enables it to deform in response to an applied force and
to recover its original si?e and shape upon removal of the force
MALLEABILITY
the ability of a material to regain and rebound to original shape when the load is
released
TOUGHNESS
the property of a material that enables it to absorb energy before rupturing, represented
by the area under the stress= strain curve derived from a tensile test of the material.
uctile materials are tougher than brittle materials.
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
a coefficient of elasticity of a material expressing the ratio between a unit stress and the
corresponding unit strain caused by the stress, as derived from Hooke>s law and
represented by the slope of the straight line portion of the stress= strain line diagram.
)lso called COEFFICIENT OF ELASTICITY, ELASTIC MODULUS
PERMANENT SET
the inelastic strain remaining in a material after complete release of the stress producing
deformation
YIELD STRENGTH
the stress necessary to produce a specific limiting permanent set in a material,
usually 5.<@ of its original length when tested in tension. ,ield strength is used to
determine the limit of usefulness of a material having a poorly defined yield point.
)lso called OOR STRESS!
STRAIN- RATE EFFECT
the behavior an increased rate of load application can cause in normally ductile material
TEMPERATURE EFFECT
the brittle behavior low temperatures can cause in a normally ductile material
STRESS RELAXATION
the time= dependent decrease in stress in a constrained material under a constant load
CREEP
the gradual permanent deformation of a body produced by a continued application of
stress or prolonged exposure to heat. 3reep deflection in a concrete structure continues
over time and can be significantly greater than the initial elastic deflection
FATIGUE
the weakening or failure of a material at a stress below the elastic limit when sub4ected
to a repeated series of stresses
STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF A36 STEEL:
*aximum allowable stress 1\$v2 in shear is 9;.A ksi
*aximum allowable stress 1\$b2 for bending is <; ksi
*odulus of elasticity 1E2 is <B,555 ksi
WEIGHT:
water8 9555 kg& m
6
steel8 CDA5 kg& m
6
concrete8 <;55 kg& m
6
weight8 density x volume
volume of cylinder8 pi 1diameter2
<
x length
;
PROPERTIES OF A MATERIAL
TENSION
the act of stretching or state of being pulled apart, resulting in the elongation of an
elastic body
TENSILE FORCE
an applied force producing or tending to produce tension in an elastic body
AXIAL FORCE
a tensile or compressive force acting along the longitudinal axis of a structural member
and at the centroid of the cross section, producing axial stress without bending, torsion
or shear also called A"IAL LOAD
AXIAL STRESS
the tensile or compressive stress that develops to resist axial force, assumed to be
normal to and uniformly distributed over the area of the cross section.
)lso called DIRECT STRESS, NORMAL TRESS
COMPRESSION
the act of shortening or state of being pushed together, resulting in the reduction in si?e
or volume of an elastic body
COMPRESSIVE FORCE
an applied force producing or tending to produce compression in an elastic body
ECCENTRIC FORCE
force applied parallel to the longitudinal axis of a structural member but not to the
centroid of the cross section, producing bending and uneven distribution of stresses in
the section.
STRESS=
the internal resistance or reaction of an elastic body to external forces applied to it.
EEual to the ratio of force to area and expressed in units of force per unit of cross=
sectional area.
)lso called UNIT STRESS.
TENSILE STRESS
the axial stress that develops at the cross section of an elastic body to resist the
collinear tensile forces tending to elongate it.
TENSILE STRAIN
the elongation of a unit length of material produces by a tensile stress
ELONGATION
a measure of ductility of a material, expressed as the percentage increase in length of a
test specimen after failure in tensile test
REDUCTION OF AREA
a measure of ductility of a material, expressed as the percentage decrease in cross=
sectional area of a test specimen after rupturing in a tensile test
TENSILE STRENGTH
the resistance of a material to longitudinal stress, measured by the minimum amount of
longitudinal stress reEuired to rupture the material
STRAIN
the deformation of a body under the action of an applied force. 'train is a dimensionless
Euantity, eEual to the ratio of the change in si?e and shape to the original si?e and
shape of a stressed element.
STRAIN GAUGE
an instrument for measuring minute deformation in a test specimen caused by tension,
compression, bending or twisting.
)lso called E"TENSOMETER
YOUNGS MODULUS
a coefficient of elasticity of material expressing the ratio of longitudinal stress to the
corresponding longitudinal strain caused by the strain.
POISSONS RATIO
the ratio of lateral strain to the corresponding longitudinal strain in an elastic body under
longitudinal stress
COMPRESSIVE STRESS
the axial stress that develops at the cross section of an elastic body to resist the
collinear compressive forces tending to shorten it.
COMPRESSIVE STRAIN
the shortening of a unit length of material produced by a compressive stress
SHEAR
the lateral deformation produced in a body by an external force that causes one part of
the body to slide relative to an ad4acent part in a direction parallel to their plane contact.
SHEAR FORCE
an applied force producing or tending to produce shear in the body
SHEARING FORCE
an internal force tangenial to the surface on which it acts, developed by a body in
response to shear, shearing in a vertical plane necessarily involves shearing in a
hori?ontal plane and vise versa
SHEARING STRESS
the force per unit area developed along a section of an elastic body to resist a shear
force.
)lso called S#EAR STRESS, TANGENIAL STRESS
SHEARING STRAIN
the lateral deformation developed in a body in response to shearing stresses, defined as
the tangent of the skew angle of the deformation.
SHEAR MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
a coefficient elasticity of a material, expressing the ratio between shearing stress and
the corresponding shearing strain produced by the strain.
)lso called MODULUS OF RIGIDITY, MODULUS OF TORSION
BENDING
the bowing of an elastic body as an external force is applied transversely to its length.
.ending is the structural mechanism that enables a load to be mechanism that enables
a load to be channeled in a direction perpendicular to its application.
TRANSVERSE FORCE
a force applied perpendicular to the length of a structural member,
producing bending and shear
TORQUE
the moment of a force system that causes or tends to cause rotation or torsion
TORSION
the twisting of an elastic body about its longitudinal axis caused by two eEual and
opposite torEues, producing shearing stresses in the body
REINFORCED CONCRETE
EFFECTIVE LENGTH
the depth of concrete section measured from the compression face to the centroid of the
tension reinforcement
COVER
the amount of concrete reEuired to protect steel reinforcement from fire and corrosion,
measured from the surface of the reinforcement to outer surface of the concrete section
BOND STRESS
the adhesive for per unit area of contact between reinforcing bar and the surrounding
concrete developed at any section of a flexural member
HOOK
a bend or curve given to develop an eEuivalent embedment length, used where there is
insufficient room to develop in adeEuate embedment length
STANDARD HOOK
a B5F, 96AF, 9D5F bend made at the end of a reinforcing bar according to standards
ANCHORAGE
any of various means, as embedment length or hooked bars, for developing tension or
compression in a reinforcing bar on each side of critical section in order to prevent bond
failure or splitting
CRITICAL SECTION
the section of a flexural concrete member at a point of maximum stress, a point of
inflection, or appoint within the span where tension bars are no longer needed to resist
stress
BALANCED SECTION
a concrete in which the tension reinforcement theoretically reaches its specified yield
strength as the concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate strain
OVERREINFORCED SECTION
a concrete section in which the concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate
strain before the tension reinforcement reaches its specified yield strength. (his is a
dangerous condition since failure of the section could occur instantaneously without
warning
UNDERREINFORCED SECTION
a concrete section in which the tension reinforcement reaches its specified yield
strength before the concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate strain. (his
is desirable condition since failure of the section would be preceded by large
deformations giving prior warning of impending collapse
BEAM
BEAM
a rigid structural member designed to carry and transfer transverse loads across spaces
supporting elements
SPAN
the extent of space between two supports of a structure
CLEAR SPAN
the distance between inner faces of the support of a span
EFFECTIVE SPAN
the center to center distance between the supports of a span
BENDING MOMENT
an external moment tending to cause part a structure to rotate or bend, eEual to the
algebraic sum of the moments about the neutral axis of the section under consideration
RESISTING MOMENT
an internal moment eEual and opposite to a bending moment, generated by a force
couple to maintain eEuilibrium of the section being considered
DEFLECTION
the perpendicular distance a spanning member deviates from a true course under
the moment of inertia of the section of the modulus of elasticity of the material
NEUTRAL AXIS
an imaginary line passing through the centroid of the cross section of a beam, other
member sub4ect to bending, along which no bending stresses occur
BENDING STRESS
a combination of compressive and tensile stresses developed at a cross section of
structural member to resist transverse force, having a maximum value at the surface
furthest from the neutral axis
CAMBER
a slight convex curvature intentionally built into beam, girder, or truss to compensate for
an anticipated deflection
#o\$ %s &am'er treate( %n a stee) tr*ss +5 meters an( )on,er-
TRANSVERSE SHEAR
an external shear force at a cross section of a beam or other member sub4ect to
bending, eEual to the algebraic sum of transverse forces on one side of the section
VERTICAL SHEARING
the shearing stress developed along cross section of a beam to resist transverse shear,
having a maximum value at the neutral axis and decreasing nonlinearly toward the outer
faces
HORIONTAL SHEARING
the shearing stress developed to prevent slippage along longitudinal planes of a beam
under transverse loading, eEual to any point to the vertical shearing stress at that point.
)lso called LONGITUDINAL S#EARING STRESS
FLEXURE FORMULA
a formula defining the relationship between bending moment, bending stress, and the
cross sectional properties of a beam. .ending stress is directly proportional to bending
moment and inversely proportional to the moment of inertia of a beam section.
MOMENT OF INERTIA
the sum of the products of each element of an area and the sEuare of its distance from a
coplanar axis of rotation. *oment of inertia is a geometric property that indicates how
the cross sectional area of structural member is distributed and does not reflect the
intrinsic physical properties of a material
SECTION MODULUS
a geometric property of a cross section, defined as the moment of inertia of the section
divided by the distance from the neutral axis to the most remote surface.
LATERAL BUCKLING
the buckling of a structural member induced by compressive stresses acting on slender
portion insufficiently rigid in the lateral direction
STRESS TRA!ECTORIES
lines depicting the direction but not the magnitude of the principal stresses in a beam
SHEAR DIAGRAM
a graphic representation of the variation in magnitude of the external shears present in a
structure for a given set of transverse loads and support conditions concentrated loads
produce external shears which are constant in magnitude between the loads uniformly
distributed loads produce linearly varying shears
MOMENT DIAGRAM
a graphic representation of the variation in magnitude of the bending moment present in
a structure for a given set of transverse load and support conditions. (he overall
deflected shape of a structure sub4ect to bending can often be inferred from the shape
of its moment diagram
produce bending moments which vary linearly between loads
produce parabolically varying moments
POSITIVE SHEAR
a net resultant of shear forces that acts vertically upward on the left part of the structure
being considered
NEGATIVE SHEAR
a net resultant of shear forces that act vertically downward on the left part of the
structure being considered
POSITIVE MOMENT
a bending moment that produces moment that produces a concave curvature at a
section of a structure
INFLECTION POINT
a point at which a structure changes curvature from convex to concave or vise versa as
it deflects under a transverse loadG theoretically an internal hinge and therefore a point
of ?ero moment
NEGATIVE MOMENT
a bending moment that produces a convex curvature at a section of a structure
SIMPLE BEAM
a beam resisting on simple supports at both ends which are free to rotate and have no
moment resistance. )s with any statistically determinate structure, the values of all
reactions, shears, and moments for a simple beam are independent of its cross
sectional shape and material
CANTILEVER BEAM
a pro4ecting beam supported at only one fixed end
CANTILEVER
a beam or other rigid structural member extending beyond a fulcrum and supported by a
balancing member or a downward force behind the fulcrum
OVERHANGING BEAM
a simple beam extending beyond one of its supports. (he overhanging reduces the
positive moment at midspan while developing a negative moment at the base of the
cantilever over the support
FIXED END BEAM
a beam having both ends restrained against translation and rotation. (he fixed ends
transfer bending stresses, increase the rigidity of the beam and reduces its maximum
deflection
CONTINUOUS BEAM
a beam extending over more than < supports in order to develop greater rigidity and
smaller moments than a series of simple beams having similar spans and loading. .oth
fixed end and continuous beams are indeterminate structures for which the values of all
reactions, shears and moments are dependent not only on span and loading but also on
cross sectional shape and material
HAUNCH
the part of a beam that is thickened or deepened to develop greater moment resistance.
(he efficiency of a beam can be increased by shaping its length in response to the
moment and shear values which typically vary along its longitudinal axis
SUSPENDED SPAN
a simple beam supported by the cantilevers of two ad4oining spans with pinned
construction 4oints at points of ?ero moment. )lso called hung span
EFFECTIVE LENGTH
the distance between inflection points in the span of a fixed end or continuous beam,
eEuivalent in nature to the actual length of simply supported beam
COLUMN
COLUMN
a relatively slender structural member designed primarily to support axial, compressive
loads, applied at the member ends.
POST
a stiff vertical support especially a wooden column in timber framing
BUCKLING
the sudden lateral or torsional instability of a slender structural member induced by the
action of a compressive load. .uckling can occur well before the yield stress of the
material is reached
BUCKLING
the axial load at which a column begins to deflect laterally and becomes unsuitable.
the maximum axial load that can theoretically be applied to a column without causing it
to buckle. (he critical buckling load for a column is inversely proportional to the sEuare
of its effective length and directly proportional to the modulus of elasticity of the material
and to the moment of inertia of the cross section.
BIFURCATION
the critical point at which a column carrying its critical buckling load, may either buckle
or remain undeflected. (he column is therefore in a state of neutral eEuilibrium
CRITICAL BUCKLING STRESS
the critical buckling load for a column divided by the area of its cross section
SLENDERNESS RATIO
the ratio of the effective length of a column to its least ratio of gyration
(he higher the slenderness ratio, the lower is the critical stress that will cause buckling.
) primary ob4ective in the design of a column is to reduce its slenderness ratio by
minimi?ing its effective length or maximi?ing its effective length or maximi?ing the radius
of gyration of its cross section
the radial distance from any axis to a point at which the mass of a body could be
concentrated without altering the moment of inertia of the body about that axis. \$or a
structural section, the radius of gyration is eEual to the sEuare root of the Euotient of the
moment of inertia and the area
(he higher the radius of gyration of a structural section, the more resistant the section is
to buckling. In determining the cross= sectional shape of a column, the ob4ective is to
providethe necessary radius of gyration about the different axes. \$or an asymmetrical
cross section, buckling will tend to occur about the weaker axis or in the direction of the
least dimension
LONG COLUMN
a slender column sub4ect to failure by buckling rather than by crushing
SHORT COLUMN
a thick column sub4ect to failure by crushing rather than by buckling. \$ailure occurs
when the direct stress from an axial load exceeds the compressive strength of the
material available in the cross section. )n eccentric load, however, can produce bending
and result in uneven stress distribution in the section
INTERMEDIATE COLUMN
a column having a mode of failure between that a short column and a long column, often
party inelastic by crushing and partly elastic by buckling
ECCENTRICITY
(he amount by which an axis deviates from another parallel axis.
P-DELTA EFFECT
)n additional moment developed in a structural member as its longitudinal axis deviates
from the line of action of a compressive force eEual to the product of the load and the
member deflection at any point.
MIDDLE THIRD RULE
(he proposition that a compressive load should be located within the middle third of a
hori?ontal section of a column or wall to prevent tensile stresses from developing in the
section.
EFFECTIVE LENGTH
(he distance between inflection points in a column sub4ect to buckling load. /hen this
portion of a column buckles the entire column falls.
COMBINED STRESSES
) set of tensile and compressive stresses resulting from the superposition of axial and
bending stresses at a cross section of a structural member, acting in the same direction
and eEual at any point to their algebraic sum.
KERN
(he central area of any hori?ontal section of a column or wall within which the resultant
of all compressive loads must pass if only compressive stresses are to be applied
beyond this area will cause tensile stresses to develop in the section. )lso called kern
area.
KERN POINT
) point on either side of the centroidal axis of a hori?ontal column or wall section
defining the limits of the kern area.
LATERAL BRACING
the bracing of a column or other compression member to reduce its effective length.
#ateral bracing is most effective when the bracing pattern occurs in more than one
plane.
UNBRACED LENGTH
the distance between the points at which a structural member is braced against buckling
in a direction normal to its length.
EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTOR
a coefficient for modifying the actual length of a column according to its end conditions
in order to determine its effective length. \$ixing both ends of a long column reduces its
effective length by half and increases its load=carrying capacity by a factor of ;.
TRUSS
METHOD OF SECTIONS
a method of determining member forces in a truss by considering the eEuilibrium of any
portion of the truss assembly.
METHOD OF !OINTS
a method for determining member forces in a truss by considering the eEuilibrium of the
various 4oints ideali?ed as points in free body diagrams
DEFINITION OF TERMS
ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE
a soil pressure acting on any structure that will tend to push the structure wherein the
structure or a wall tends to move away from the soil
ACCELEROGRAPH
is an instrument which measures the velocity and acceleration of an earthEuake in the
ground
ANCHOR BOLTS
a round, steel bolt embedded in concrete or masonry used to hold down machinery,
steel columns or beam casting, shock beam plates and engine heads
BALANCED DESIGN
is one which both the concrete and the steel are so proportioned as to work to their full
working stresses when the member carries its full allowable load
BATTER PILES
are piles at an inclination to resist forces that are not critical. (his is also known as brace
pile or spur pile
BEARING WALL SYSTEM
a structural system without a complete vertical load carrying space frame
BENDING MOMENT
is the algebraic sum of the moments of the forces acting on either side of the section of
a beam about an axis through the center of the gravity of the section
BORED PILE 1bearing pile2
a concrete pile which concreted either with a casing or without a casing at its permanent
location. (his is a cast in place pile
CAISSON
a watertight, cylindrical or rectangular chamber used to in under water construction to
protect workers from water pressure and soil collapse
CEMENT GUN
is an e4ector operated by compressed air to force gunite into cavities or cracks in rocks
or cement works
CHUTE
is an open=top through which bulk materials are conveyed and by gravity
COFFER DAM
a temporary dam= like structure constructed which excludes water from the site of the
foundation during its excavation and construction
CONSTRUCTION !OINT
the vertical or hori?ontal face in a concrete structure where concreting has been stopped
and continued later
COLD !OINT
formed when a concrete surface hardens before the next batch o f concrete is placed
CREEP
he tendency of most material to move or deform over time under a constant load (he
amount of movement varies enormously depending upon the material. (he area that is
highly stressed will move the most. (he movement causes stresses to be redistributed.
COUNTER 1inner in retaining wall2
a cantilever wall that is reinforced with a masonry structure extending upward from the
foundation or from the inner face of the retaining wall to provide additional resistance to
thrust and are placed at regular intervals. 1.uttress if outer2
COFFER DAM
a temporary watertight enclosure around an area of water or water bearing soil, in which
construction is to take place, bearing on a stable statum at or above the foundation level
of new construction. (he water is pumped from within to permit free access to the area
DIAPHRAGM
a hori?ontal or nearly hori?ontal system including hori?ontal bracing system, that act to
transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements
DIAPHRAGM STRUT
a structural member of a hori?ontal bracing system that takes axial tension or
compression. It is parallel to the applied load that collects and transfers shear to the
vertical resisting elements or distributive loads within the hori?ontal bracing system
DIVING BELL
a watertight bell= shaped steel chamber which can be lowered to or raised from a fresh
or seawater bed crane. It is opened at the bottom and filled with compressed air so that
men can prepare foundations and undertake similar construction work under water.
DOWEL
a short steel bar extending from one concrete element to another as for instance a
concrete foundation to a concrete column. It may or may not transfer direct stress
DRIFT BOLT
is a long pin of steel or wood, made with or without the head, driven through the timber
and into an ad4acent timber to hold them together and to transmit stresses
EXPANSION OR CONTRACTION
a 4oint designed to take expansion and contraction
the designed break in a structure to allow for the drying and temperature shrinkage of
concrete, brickwork of similar material, thereby preventing the formation of harmful
cracks
FATIGUE
is a phenomenon of failure under repeated stresses. ) fact, based experience and
experiments, is well known that stresses which are applied to a body a few times without
causing apparent structure in4ury may, if applied repeatedly or causing a great number
of times, causes failure
GUNITE
is a rich cement mortar which is applied by spraying under high air pressure
a concrete beam placed directly on the ground to provide foundation for the
superstructure
GRANOLITHIC FINISH
a surface layer or granolithic concrete which maybe laid on a base of either fresh or
hardened concrete
GRILLAGE
is a footing which consist of steel beams arranged to distribute a concentrated load to
the supporting masonry or soil
DISTRIBUTION OF HORIONTAL SHEAR
design analysis reEuirement, considered as the basis for the structural design of
structures where the total lateral forces are distributed to the various vertical
elements of the lateral force resisting system in proportion to their rigidities
considering the rigidity of the hori?ontal bracing system or diaphragm
HYBRID STEEL GIRDER
is a fabricated metal beam composed of flanges with a material of a specified minimum
yield strength different from that of the web plate
INTENSITY
the measure of the damage level of an earthEuake 1sub4ective to visual assessment2
INFLECTION POINT
a point in the moment diagram where it changes from positive to negative moment of
vise versa and the value of the moment at this point is ?ero
!ETTING
a method of driving piles or well points into the sand in the situations where a pile
hammer might not be suitable owing to the risk of damage by vibration to the piles of
LINTEL BEAM
a beam especially provided over an opening for a door, window, to carry the wall over
the opening
MAGNITUDE
the measure of the energy released by an earthEuake 1measured by instrument2
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
is the constant which, within the proportional limit, express ratio between the unit stress
to the unit strain. It is the measure of the relative abilities of the different materials of
construction to resist deformation under stress within proportional limit
MODULUS OF RESILIENCE
is a measure of the capacity of the material to absorb energy without danger of being
permanently deformed
MOMENT OF RESITANCE
is the internal resisting moment of a beam. It is opposite in sense to the bending
moment but of the same magnitude
MORTAR
is a mixture, composed of one part of +ortland cement and one part of clean sand, used
as a filter
MULLION
is a vertical member between two portions of window sash usually designed to resist
wind load and not vertical load. It is different from muntin, which is smaller member
which separates the panels of glass within the whole sash.
NON- BEARING WALL
is wall that carries no load other than its own weight
ORTHOGONAL EFFECT
the effect on the structure due to extreme lateral 1earthEuake2 motions acting in
directions other than parallel to the direction to the direction of resistance under
consideration
PARTY WALL
is a wall used or adopted for 4oint service between two buildings
PLASTER CEMENT FINISH
a mixture of +ortland cement, with water and sand applied to surfaces such as walls
ceilings in a plastic state, later it sets to form a hard surface
POINTING
in masonry, the final treatment of 4oints by the troweling of mortar or putty like filler into
4oints
PORTAL METHOD
method of analy?ing indeterminate modular building frames by assuming hinges at the
center of beam spans and column heights or the interior column carries twice as much
shear as the exterior column
PORTLAND CEMENT
is the product obtained by finely pulveri?ing clinker produced by calcining to incipient
fusion an intimate and properly proportioned mixture of argillaceous and calcareous
materials with no additions subseEuent to calcinations except water and calcined or
uncalcined gypsum
PROPORTIONAL LIMIT
is the highest unit stress for which the deformation of a body is proportional to the
stress. .eyond this point, permanent deformation occurs
REDUNDANT MEMBER
is any framed structure or truss, is one which maybe omitted in the structure without
affect in the possibility of analy?ing the frame or truss by ordinary static method of
computations such as the counter diagonal truss
RIP-RAP
consist of rough stones of various placed compactly or irregularly to prevent scour by
water and protect material which maybe washed out by the water
SAGROD
structural member in the steel truss framing that counteracts forces in compression
because of high probability of the purlins to deflect and bend down during purlin
installation.
SAND DRAIN
it is provided to help in the compaction of natural soil which provide channels through
which water can escape much more rapidly then through the clay itself. (he weight of
the drain itself helps in the compaction.
SHEAR WALL
a wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of a wall
SOFFIT is the concave surface of an arch
SPANDREL BEAM
is a beam from column to column, carrying an exterior wall in a skeleton building
STIFFNESS RATIO 1H2
in moment distribution method= 1as used in analysis of indeterminate structures2 is the
ratio of moment of inertia of the cross section of its length
STRESS
is the cohesive force in a body, which resists the tendency of an external force to change
the shape of the body
STRAIN OR DEFORMATION
is the change in the shape of any material when sub4ected to the action force
TIE BAR
a deformed bar, embedded in a concrete construction at a 4oint and designed to hold a
butting edges together, not designed for direct load transfer
TORSION OR MOMENT OF INERTIA
is a Euality which measures the resistance of the mass to being revolved about a line
TRANSFORMED SECTION
is one in which the flexural steel is conceived to be replaced by large area of imaginary
concrete which can take tension. (his gives a homogeneous section of concrete to
which ordinary beam analysis may be applied
TREMIE
is a watertight pipe 655 mm to :55 mm in diameter with a flared top used in depositing
concrete under water
UNDERPINNING
is an art of placing new foundation under old foundation
VIBRATOR
is an oscillating power operated machine used to agitate fresh concrete so as to
eliminate gross voids including entrapped air and to produce intimate contact with form
surfaces and embedded materials
VOID- CEMENT RATIO
is the ratio of volume of air plus water to the volume cement
WALL FOOTING
a continuous type of spread footing the supports vertical load, the weight of the wall
itself and the weight of the footing
WATER CEMENT RATIO
the ration of the amount of water, to the amount of cement in a concrete or mortar
mixture
WEB CRIPPLING
local failure of a thin web plate of a steel beam or girder in the immediate vicinity of a
ASD
)##"/).#E '(!E'' E'IGN
LRFD
#") !E'I'()N3E \$)3("! E'IGN
SEISMIC DESIGN PROVISION
ARTIFICIAL RIGIDITY
will cause torsion 1twisting2
BASE
is the level at which the earthEuake motions are considered to be imparted to the
structure
BASE SHEAR
is the total designed lateral force or shear at the base of the structure
BEARING WALL SYSTEM 1shear type2
is a structural system without a complete vertical load carrying space frame
BOUNDARY ELEMENT
is an element at edges of opening or at the perimeters of shear walls or diaphragm
BRACED FRAME
is an essentially vertical truss system of the concentric or eccentric type which is
provided to resist lateral forces
BUILDING FRAME SYSTEM
is an essentially complete space frame which provides supports for gravity loads
CONCENTRIC BRACED FRAME
is a braced frame in which the members are sub4ected primarily to axial forces
COLLECTOR
is a member or an element provided to transfer lateral forces from a portion of a
structure to the vertical elements of the lateral force resisting system
DIAPHRAGM
is a hori?ontal or nearly hori?ontal system 1including hori?ontal bracing system2 acting to
transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements
DIAPHRAGM STRUT
also known as tie or collector, is the element of a diaphragm parallel to the applied load
which collects and transfer diaphragm shear to the vertical resisting elements or
distribute loads within the diaphragm. 'uch members may also take axial tension or
compression.
DIAPHRAGM CHORD
is the boundary element of a diaphragm or a shear wall which is assumed to take axial
stresses analogous to the flanges of the beam
DUAL SYSTEM
is a combination of a 'pecial or Intermediate *oment !esisting 'pace \$rame and
'hearwalls or .raced \$rame
ESSENTIAL FACILITIES
are those structures which are necessary for emergency post= earthEuake operations
FLEXIBLE ELEMENT
an element or system is one whose deformation under lateral load significantly larger
than ad4oining parts of the system
HARMONIC MOTION
the coincidence of the natural period of structural with the dominant freEuency in the
ground
MOMENT RESISTING FRAME
is a space frame in which the members and 4oints are capable of resisting forces
primarily by flexure
ORTHOGONAL EFFECT
is the effect of the structure due to earthEuake motions acting in directions other than
parallel to the direction of resistance under consideration
P- DELTA EFFECT
is the secondary effect on shears and moments of frame members induced by the
vertical loads acting on the laterally displaced building frame
PERT-CPM
+!"G!)* E0)#-)(I"N !E0IE/ (E3HNII-E= 3!I(I3)# +)(H *E(H"
it is a presentation of pro4ect plan by a schematic diagram or network that depicts the
seEuence and interrelation of all the component parts of the pro4ect, and the logically
analysis and manipulation of this network in determining the best overall program of
operation.
PLATFORM
is the lower rigid portion of a structure having vertical combination of structural system
PNEUMATIC MORTAR
mortar applied to a surface with a cement gun in the same manner as gunite, with such
mortar has a cube crushing strength of <5.:D *pa
at <D days with water& cement ratio of 5.;A
SHEAR WALL
is a wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of the wall 1sometimes
referred to or a structural wall2
SOFT STOREY
is a storey whose lateral stiffness is less than C5@ of the stiffness of the storey above
SOIL- STRUCTURE RESONANCE
is the coincidence of the natural period of structure which dominant freEuency in the
ground motion
STRENGTH
is the usable capacity of a structure or its members to carry loads within the deformation
limits prescribed in the code
SOIL STABILIATION
is the process of improving the properties of a soil to make it more suitable for a
particular purpose
SPACE FRAME
is a three dimensional structural system without bearing walls composed of members
interconnected so as to function as a complete self contained unit with or without the aid
of hori?ontal diaphragms or bracing systems
STOREY
is the space between levels. 'torey x is the storey below level x
STOREY SHEAR
is the summation of design lateral forces above the storey under consideration
STOREY DRIFT
is the displacement of one level relative to the level above or below
STOREY DRIFT RATIO
is the storey drift divided by the storey height
STRUCTURE
is an assemblage of framing members designed to support gravity loads and resist
lateral forces. (hey maybe categori?ed as building or non= building.
it is another term of a downspout. It is a vertical pipe, often of sheet metal, used to
conduct water from a roof drain or gutter to the ground.
TORSION RIGIDITY 1is used in seismic design2
refers to the relative stiffness of the structure to resist torsional stress
TOWER
is the upper flexible portion of a structure having a vertical combination of structural
system
is a space frame designed to carry all vertical 1gravity2 loads
WEAK STOREY
is a storey whose strength is less than D5@ of the strength of the storey
SEISMIC REQUIREMENT FOR TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT
9. maximum spacing of hoops shall not exceed <; times the diameter of the hoop bars
<. maximum spacing of hoops shall not be D times the diameter of the smallest longitudinal
bars
6. maximum spacing of hoops shall not be more than d&;
;. the first hoop shall be located not more than A5 mm from the face of the supporting
member
AS GRADED is the extent of surface conditions on completion of grading
BEDROCK is in=place solid rock
BENCH is a relatively level step excavated into earth material
on which fill is to be placed
BURROW is earth material acEuired from an off site location
for use in grading on a site
COMPACTION s the densification of a fill by mechanical means
EARTH MATERIAL is any rock, natural soil or fill or any combination
EROSION is the wearing away of the ground surface as a result of the
movement of the wind, water or ice
EXCAVATION s the mechanical removal of the earth material
FILL is a deposit of earth material placed by artificial means
GRADE is the vertical location of the ground surface
FINISH GRADE is the final grade of the site that conforms to the approved plan
GRADING is any excavating or filling or combination thereof
KEY is a designed compacted fill placed in a trench excavated material
beneath the toe of a proposed fill slope
REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN
a material used as ingredient of concrete and added to concrete before or during its
mixing to modify its properties
AGGREGATE
granular material such as sand gravel stone and iron blast furnace slag used with a
cementing medium to form a hydraulic cement concrete or mortar
AGGREGATE LIGHTWEIGHT
aggregate with a dry, loose weight of 955 kg&m or less
ANCHORAGE
in post tensioning, a device used to anchor tendon to concrete member, in pre=
tensioning, a device used to anchor a tendon during hardening of concrete
BONDED TENDON
pre=stressing tendon that is bonded to concrete either directly or through grouting
COLUMN
member with a ratio to least lateral dimension of 6 or greater used primarily to support
COMPOSITE CONCRETE FLEXURAL MEMBERS
concrete flexural members of pre=cast and&or cast in place concrete elements but so
interconnected that all elements respond to loads as a unit
CONCRETE
mixture of +ortland cement or any other hydraulic cement, fine aggregate, coarse
aggregate, and water, with or without admixtures
SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE "#\$
compressive strength of concrete used in design expressed in megapascals 1*pa2.
/henever the Euantity \$J
c
is under a radical sign, sEuare root of numerical value only is
intended, and result has units of megapascals 1*pa2.
CONCRETE% STRUCTURAL LIGHT WEIGHT
concrete containing lightweight aggregate and has an air=dry unit weight not
exceeding 9B55 kg&m
6.
lightweight concrete without natural sand is termed all= light
weight concrete and lightweight concrete in which of the fine aggregate consists of
normal weight sand is termed sand= lightweight concrete.
CURVATURE FRICTION
friction resulting from bends or curves in the specified pre=stressing tendon profile
DEFORMED REINFORCEMENT
deformed reinforcing bars, bar mats, deformed wire fabric and welded deformed fabric.
DEVELOPMENT LENGTH
length of embedded reinforcement reEuired to develop the design strength of
reinforcement at a critical section
EFFECTIVE DEPTH OF SECTION "&\$
distance measure from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement
EFFECTIVE PRESTRESS
stress remaining in prestressing tendons after all losses has occurred, excluding effects
EMBEDMENT LENGTH
length of embedded reinforcement provided beyond a critical section
!ACKING FORCE
in prestressed concrete, temporary force exerted into prestressing tendons
dead weight supported by a member.
#oads of constant magnitude that remains in one position.
loads that may change in magnitude and position
load multiplied by appropriate load factors, used to proportion a members by the
strength design method.
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
ratio of normal stress to corresponding strain for tensile or compressive stresses below
proportional limit of material
MODULUS% APARENT 1concrete2
also known as long term modulus, is determined by using the stress and strain obtained
after the load has been applied for a certain length of time
MODULUS% INITIAL 1concrete2
the slope of the stress strain diagram at the origin of the curve
MODULUS% SECANT 1concrete2
the slope of the line drawn from the origin to appoint on the curve somewhere between
<A@ and A5@ of its ultimate compressive strength
MODULUS% TENGENT 1concrete2
the slope of tangent to the curve to some point along the curve
PEDESTAL
an upright compression member with a ratio of unsupported height to average least
lateral dimensions of less than 6
PLAIN CONCRETE
concrete that does not conform to the definition of reinforced concrete
PLAIN REINFORCEMENT
reinforcement that does not conform to the definition of deformed reinforcement
POST TENSIONING
method of prestressing in which the tendons are tensioned after concrete has hardened
PRECAST CONCRETE
plain or reinforced concrete element cast elsewhere than its final position in the
structure
POSTENSIONING
method of prestressing concrete which the tendons are tensioned before concrete is
placed
REINFORCED CONCRETE
designed on the assumption that two materials act together in resisting forces
SPIRAL REINFORCEMNT
continuously wound reinforcement in the form of a cylindrical helix
STIRRUP
reinforcement used to resist shear and torsion stresses in a structural memberG typically
bars, wires or welded wire fabric 1smooth or deformed2 either single leg or bent into #, -
or rectangular shapes and located perpendicularly to or at angle to longitudinal
reinforcement 1(he term stirrups is usually applied to lateral reinforcement in flexural
members and the term ties to those in compression members.2
DEIGN STRENGTH
nominal strength reduction factor, K
NOMINAL STRENGTH
strength of a member or cross= section before application of any strength reduction
factors
REQUIRED STRENGTH
strength of a member or cross section reEuired to resist factored loads or related internal
moments and forces in such combinations
TENDON
steel element such as wire, cable, bar, rods or strand, or a bundle of such elements
used to impart prestress to concrete
TIE
loop or reinforcing bar or wire enclosing longitudinal reinforcement
TRANSFER
act of transferring stress in prestressing tendons from 4acks
or pretensioning bed to concrete member
WALL
member, usually vertical, used to enclose or separate spaces
WOBBLE FRICTION
in pre=stressed concrete, friction caused by unintended deviation of prstressing sheath
or duct from its specified profile
YIELD STRENGTH
specified minimum yield strength or yield point or reinforcing in *pa
BALANCED DESIGN
a design so proportioned that the maximum stress in concrete 1with strain of 5.5562 and
steel 1with strain of \$y&Es2 are reached simultaneously once the ultimate load is
reached, causing them to fall simultaneously
UNDERREINFORCED DESIGN
a design in which the steel reinforcement is lesser than what is reEuired for balanced
conditioned. \$ailure under this condition is ductile and will give warning to the user of
thee structure to decrease the load
OVERREINFORCED DESIGN
a design in which the steel reinforcement is more than what is reEuired for balanced
condition
AGGREGATES
\$ine aggregates= sand
are those that passes through a No.; sieve 1about :mm in si?e2
3oarse aggregate =gravel or crushed stone
3oarse aggregate shall not be less thanG
9&A the narrowest dimension between sides of forms
9&6 the depth of slabs
m%n%m*m &)ear spa&%n, 'et\$een %n(%.%(*a) re%n/or&%n, 'ars or \$%res, '*n()e o/ 'ars or
prestress%n, ten(ons or (*&ts
CONCRETE PROTECTION FOR REINFORCEMENT
'( )) =for concrete cast and permanently exposed to earth such as footings
*+-(+ )) for concrete members exposed to weather
*+ )) concrete cover of pipes, conduits or fittings and exposed to weather
*+ )) for beams and columns
,+ )) for concrete not exposed to weather or in contact with ground, such as slabs,
walls and 4oists
FOR BUNDLED BARS

a. groups of parallel reinforcing bars bundled in contact as a unit shall be limited to ; in any
one bundle
b. bundled bars shall be enclosed within stirrups or ties
c. bars larger than 6<mm shall not be bundled in beams
d. individual bars within a bundle terminated within the span of flexural members should
terminate at a different points at least ;5db stagger
(he minimum concrete cover for bundled bars shall beG
EEual to the eEuivalent diameter of the bundle but not exceeding A5 mm
CA mm= for concrete cast against and permanently exposed to earth
STANDARD HOOKS
). -.+/ bend plus *&
0
extension but not less than :A mm at free end
.. 1+/ bend plus -,&
0
extension, at free end of bar
3. for stirrups and tie hooksG
-6 )) bar and smaller, 1+/ bend plus 6&
0
extension at free end of bar or
,+ )) and <A mm bar, 1+/ bend plus 6&
0
extension at free end of bar or
,( )) bar and smaller, -3(/ bend plus 6&
0
extension at free end of bar
MINIMUM BEND DIAMETER
(he diameter of bend measured on the inside of the bar shall not be less than the followingG
1a.2 6&
0
for 95 mm to <A mm bar
1b.2 .&
0
for 95 mm to <D mm bar
1c.2 -+&
0
for 95 mm to 6: mm bar
*&
0
m%n%m*m %ns%(e (%ameter o/ 'en( o/ st%rr*ps an( t%es /or 01 mm 'ar an( sma))er %n (%ameter
ONE- WAY SLAB
) one=way slab is considered as wide shallow rectangular beam. (he reinforcing steel is usually
spaced uniformly over its width. (he flexural reinforcement of a one=way slab extends in one
direction only.
*aximum flexural reinforcement spacingG
3 times the slab thickness or *(+ ))
*inimum thickness of one=way slabG
S234& 256-7a8 93a0
L:,+ = simply supported
L:,* = one end continuous
L:,. = both end continuous
L:-+ = cantilever
2 Span )en,t3 L %s %n m%))%meter
R4006& 256-7a8 93a0
L:-6 = simply supported
L:-.;( = one end continuous
L:,- = both end continuous
L:. = cantilever
EarthEuake, ELLLLLLLLLLLLLLL.LLL. 9.DC
Earth or water pressure, HLLLLLLLL...LLL.L 9.C5
STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTOR <
)xial tension M axial tension w& flexureLLLLLLLLLLL. 5.B5
'hear and torsion LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. 5.DA
)xial compression M axial compression w& flexure
a. spiral reinforcement LLLLLLLLLLLLLLL5.CA
b. tie reinforcement LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. 5.C5
.earing on concrete LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL..5.C5
REQUIRED STRENGTH% U 2= P>
U? -;*DL @ -;'LL
/ind load / are included in design
U? +;'( "-;*DL @ -;'LL @ -;'W\$
EarthEuake loads or forces are included in design
U? +;'( "-;*DL @ -;'LL @ -;.'E\$
/here structural effect ( of differential settlement, creep, shrinkage or
temperature change are significant in design
U? +;'( "-;*DL @ -;*T @ -;'LL\$
but reEuired strength - shall not be less than
U? -;* "DL @ T\$
SIE AND SPACING OF MAIN BARS AND TIES
9. 3lear distance between longitudinal bars shall be not less than
-;( &0 nor *+ ))
<. -se -+ )) diameter ties for 6< mm bars or smaller and at least
-, )) in si?e for 6: mm and bundled longitudinal bars
6. 0ertical spacing of ties shall be the smallest of the followingG
a. -6 A &0 1db 8 longitudinal bar diameter2
b. *. x tie diameter
c. least dimension of columns
;. (ies shall be arrange such that every corner and alternate longitudinal
bar shall have lateral support provided by the corner of the tie with an
included angle of not more than -3(/ and no bar shall be farther than
-(+ )) clear on each side along the tie from such a laterally
supported bar. /here longitudinal bars are located around the
perimeter of a circle tie is allowed.
MINIMUM REQUIREMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF REINFORCEMNT
9. not less than 9< db
<. not less than 9&9: clear span
6. not less than d
whichever is greater
CRITERION FOR CONDUITS AND PIPES EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE
a. 3onduits and pipes embedded in slab, the wall or beam shall not be larger in outside
dimension than 9&6 the overall thickness of slab, wall or beam
b. !einforcement with an area not less than 5.55< times the area of cross= section shall be
provided normal to piping
c. 3onduits and pipes with their fittings, embedded within a column shall not displace more
than ;@ of the area of the cross section on which strength is calculated
d. 3oncrete cover for pipes, conduits and fittings shall not be less than ;5 mm for concrete
exposed to earth or weather
CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH BOLTED CONNECTION
9. High=strength bolted parts shall fit solidly together when assembled and shall not be
separated by gaskets or any other interposed compressive material.
<. .olts tightened by means of a calibrated wrench shall be installed with a hardened
washer under the nut or bolt head whichever is the element turned in tightening.
6. /hen assembled, all 4oint surfaces, including those ad4acent to the washer, shall be free
of scale, except tight mill scales, dirts and burns.
;. 'urface in contact with the bolt head and nut head shall have slope of not more than
9G<5 with respect to a plane normal to the bolt axis.