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THE ARCHEOLOGY OF DEATH

ANG6191 (section 7964)


Fall 2011
Instructor: Dr. James . Da!i"son
#ourse $e!el%&tructure: Gra"uate seminar
'ime: on"a( onl( )) *erio"s 7 t+rou,+ 9 (1:-- *m to 4:-- *m)
#lass .oom: A' (at+erl( /all)0 .oom 101
233ice: 'urlin,ton 4154
6mail: "a!i"son7u3l.e"u
233ice /ours: 8e" 1)5 (an" 9( a**ointment)
8e9site 3or electronic rea"in,s: +tt*:%%:::.clas.u3l.e"u%users%"a!i"son%courses.+tm
Course Description and Objectives: '+e seminar;s ,oal is to *ro!i"e a soli" ,roun"in,
in t+e ant+ro*olo,ical literature o3 ortuar( stu"ies< t+at is0 "ata "eri!e" 3rom a stu"( o3
t+e Deat+ 6=*erience. In a""ition to arc+aeolo,ical "ata0 a stron, em*+asis :ill 9e
*lace" on t+e t+eoretical un"er*innin,s o3 mortuar( "ata0 "ra:n 3rom cultural
ant+ro*olo,( an" et+no,ra*+(. Alon, :it+ more t+eoretical *a*ers0 s*eci3ic case stu"ies
:ill 9e use" to a""ress a !ariet( o3 to*ics an" issues0 suc+ as &ocial 2r,ani>ation an"
&ocial &tructure0 &*iritualit( an" .eli,ion0 &?eletal 4iolo,( (e.,.0 @aleo"emo,ra*+(0
@aleo*at+olo,(0 an" ot+er issues o3 4ioarc+aeolo,()0 Gen"er Issues0 '+e 6t+ics o3 usin,
/uman .emains0 an" @ost)@rocessual #ritiAues o3 ortuar( Arc+aeolo,(. '+e time
ran,e t+at :e :ill co!er in t+e course :ill s*an 3rom t+e Neolit+ic to t+e earl( 20t+
centur(0 an" numerous cultures 3rom all *arts o3 t+e ,lo9e :ill 9e our su9Bect matter.
Course Requirements:
#lass *artici*ation%atten"ance -C
$ea"in, #lass Discussion: -C
&(no*ses (o3 s*eci3ic rea"in,s) 20C
':o essa(%reaction *a*ers 20C
aBor researc+ *a*er -0C
Texts:
1). #+a*man0 .o9ert (e"itor)
1911 The Archaeology of Death. #am9ri",e Dni!ersit( @ress.
2). @ar?er @earson0 i?e
1999 The Archaeology of Death and Burial. 'e=as AE Dni!ersit( @ress.

5). '+e *rimar( te=ts :ill 9e "eri!e" 3rom in"i!i"ual rea"in,s (e.,.0 articles0 9oo?
c+a*ters) (see :e9site)
1
Attendance: .e,ular atten"ance an" *artici*ation in class "iscussions is a reAuirement.
&tu"ents are e=*ecte" to +a!e rea" t+e material 3or t+at "a(0 an" come to class *re*are"
to "iscuss t+e rea"in,s.
!nopses o" Readin#s$T%o Exercise or Reaction &apers:
For some ?e( rea"in,s0 a s(no*sis (i.e.0 a critical summar() ran,in, 3rom one to t+ree
*ara,ra*+s (not to e=cee" one *a,e in len,t+ 3or eac+ rea"in,) :ill 9e reAuire" an" "ue at
t+e 9e,innin, o3 eac+ class0 9e3ore :e 9e,in t+e "iscussion. .ea"in,s reAuirin, s(no*ses
are mar?e" :it+ a 9ol"0 un"erline" ' at t+e en" o3 eac+ citation.
':o smaller *a*er assi,nments0 on s*eci3ic rea"in,s0 :ill ran,e 3rom - to 10 *a,es eac+.
'+eir to*ics an" "ue "ates are ,i!en 9elo:.
Team Discussion:
6ac+ :ee?0 one an" t:o stu"ents :ill lea" class "iscussion. 6ac+ in"i!i"ual or ,rou*
:ill 9e e=*ecte" to meet outsi"e o3 class to or,ani>e rea"in,s an" to *re*are a list o3
Auestions%*oints o3 "iscussion. I3 (ou :is+0 (ou ma( meet :it+ me0 to tal? a9out t+e
rea"in,s *rior to class. As t+is constitutes a su9stantial *ortion o3 t+e ,ra"e (-C)0 eac+
team mem9er :ill 9e e=*ecte" to *artici*ate an" +a!e an acti!e !oice.
Researc( &aper:
2ne maBor researc+ *a*er :ill 9e "ue at t+e en" o3 t+e semester: ,ra"uate stu"ents (1- to
20 *a,es)< un"er,ra"uate stu"ents (10 to 1- *a,es).
6ac+ stu"ent :ill c+oose t+e in"i!i"ual to*ics o3 t+e *a*er0 a3ter consultation :it+ me. It
coul" in!ol!e ori,inal researc+0 an anal(sis o3 an e=istin, "ataset0 or a com*arison o3 t:o
or more *a*ers0 sites0 or t+eories. 6ac+ stu"ent :ill 9e reAuire" to *resent +is or +er :or?
to t+e class0 "urin, t+e last :ee? o3 t+e semester. '+e 3ormalit( o3 t+is *resentation (e.,.0
*o:er *oint0 etc) :ill 9e ne,otia9le.
@a*ers Are Due 9( 8e"nes"a(0 Decem9er 70 2011 (last "a( o3 classes).
Gradin#:
A 3inal letter ,ra"e :ill 9e assi,ne" at t+e en" o3 t+e semester0 accor"in, to t+is scale:
A (95)100C)
A) (90)92C)
4F (11)19C)
4 (15)17C)
4) (10)12C)
#F (71)79C)
# (75)77C)
#) (70)72C)
DF (61)69C)
D (65)67C)
D) (60)62C)
6 (-9C or 9elo:)
2
Attendance: .e,ular atten"ance is reAuire". 6=cessi!e une=cuse" a9sences :ill "etract
3rom t+e stu"ent;s 3inal ,ra"e (see a9o!e).
Accommodatin# tudents %it( Disabi)ities:
&tu"ents reAuestin, classroom accommo"ation must 3irst re,ister :it+ t+e Dean o3
&tu"ents 233ice. '+e Dean o3 &tu"ents 233ice :ill *ro!i"e "ocumentation to t+e stu"ent0
:+o in turn must *ro!i"e t+is "ocumentation to me :+en reAuestin, accommo"ation.
Academic Honest!:
'+e Dni!ersit( remin"s e!er( stu"ent o3 t+e im*lie" *le",e o3 Aca"emic /onest(: Gon
an( :or? su9mitte" 3or cre"it t+e stu"ent +as neit+er recei!e" nor ,i!en unaut+ori>e"
ai".H '+is re3ers to c+eatin, an" *la,iarism. #onsult t+e &tu"ent Gui"e at
:::."so.u3l.e"u%st,% 3or 3urt+er in3ormation. &tu"ents cau,+t c+eatin, :ill 9e re3erre"
to t+e Dni!ersit( a"ministration 3or "isci*linar( action0 t+e conseAuences o3 :+ic+ can
inclu"e (amon, ot+er t+in,s) 3ailure o3 t+is course.
c(edu)e$Topics$Readin#s:

8ee? 1 (Au, 22)
Intro"uctions0 "iscussion o3 u*comin, :ee?s0 assi,nin, :ee?s 3or ser!in, as "iscussion
lea"er.
8ee? 2 (Au, 29)
*ntroduction
Historica) &erspectives on t(e Ant(ropo)o#ica) and Arc(aeo)o#ica) tud! o" Deat(
Emphasis during the first class sessions will be on some of the fundamental literature
upon which contemporary interpretations of archaeological burials are based. The
readings include both summaries of historical developments and older works; some of
the latter have only historical value.
It may be helpful to read hapman and !andsborg "#$" %**. 1)24) first& as background.
/ert>0 .o9ert
1960 I1907J A contri9ution to t+e stu"( o3 t+e collecti!e re*resentation o3 "eat+. In
Death and the !ight 'and. '+e Free @ress0 Glencoe0 I$. '
Read only pp. 27-86 of Hertz %notes for these pages are between ""()"*+ +.
Kroe9er0 Al3re" $.
1927 Dis*osal o3 t+e "ea". American Anthropologist 29:501)51-
5
#+il"e0 L. Gor"on
194- Directional c+an,es in 3unerar( *ractices "urin, -00000 (ears. ,an 4-:15)19.
4in3or"0 $e:is .,
1962 Arc+aeolo,( as ant+ro*olo,(. American Anti-uity 21(2):217)22-. '
Dc?o0 @eter
1969 6t+no,ra*+( an" arc+aeolo,ical inter*retation o3 3unerar( remains. .orld
Archaeology 1: 262)10. '
#+a*man0 .o9ert0 an" Kla!s .an"s9or,
1911 A**roac+es to t+e arc+aeolo,( o3 "eat+. In The Archaeology of Death0 e"ite" 9(
.o9ert #+a*man0 I. Kinnes0 an" Kla!s .an"s9or,0 **. 1)24. #am9ri",e Dni!ersit( @ress.
upp)ementar! Readin# -not required. but use"u)+
@al,i0 @+(llis an" /enr( A9ramo!itc+
1914 Deat+: A #ross)#ultural @ers*ecti!e. Annual !eview of Anthropology 15:51-)417.
4artel0 4ra"
1912 A +istorical re!ie: o3 et+nolo,ical an" arc+aeolo,ical anal(ses o3 mortuar(
*ractices. /ournal of Anthropological Archaeology 1:52)-1.
@ar?er @earson ))) #+a*ter 2ne (*a,es 1)20)
8ee? 5 (&e*t -)
$a9or Da( M No #lass
/o:e!er0 it is stron,l( su,,este" t+at (ou ta?e t+e time to rea" t+e materials 3or ne=t
:ee?0 since t+e( constitute T%o c)asses/ :ort+ o3 material
8ee? 4 (&e*t 12)
T(eoretica) &ositions and *ssues
This class will focus on the framework within which the interpretation of human burials
developed in the "#(0s and "#$0s.
4in3or"0 $e:is ..
1971 ortuar( *ractices: t+eir stu"( an" t+eir *otential. In Approaches to the 1ocial
Dimensions of ,ortuary 2ractices& e"ite" 9( J. A. 4ro:n. &ociet( 3or American
Arc+aeolo,( emoir 2-: 6)29. '
Goo"enou,+0 8ar"
4
196- .et+in?in, GstatusH an" GroleH: 'o:ar" a ,eneral mo"el o3 t+e cultural
or,ani>ation o3 social relations+i*s. In The !elevance of ,odels for 1ocial Anthropology0
e"ite" 9( ic+ael 4lanton0 **. 1)24. A.&.A. ono,ra*+s No. 1. @rae,er0 Ne: Nor?. '
4ro:n0 James A.
1971 '+e "imensions o3 status in t+e 9urials at &*iro. In Approaches to the 1ocial
Dimensions of ,ortuary 2ractices0 e"ite" 9( J.A. 4ro:n0 **. 92)112. &ociet( 3or
American Arc+aeolo,( emoir 2-.
'ainter0 Jose*+ A.
1971 ortuar( *ractices an" t+e stu"( o3 *re+istoric social s(stems. Advances in
Archaeological ,ethod and Theory 1:10-)141. '
4raun0 Da!i"
1979 Illinois /o*e:ell 9urial *ractices an" social or,ani>ation: a ree=amination o3 t+e
Klun?)Gi9son moun" ,rou*. In 'opewell Archaeology3 The hillicothe onference0
e"ite" 9( D. 4rose an" N. Gre9er0 **. 66)79. #le!elan" useum o3 Natural /istor( an"
Kent &tate Dni!ersit( @ress0 Kent0 2+io. '
(&u**lementar( rea"in,: not reAuire" 9ut stron,l( recommen"e"0 es*eciall( &a=e;s
"iscussion an" "e3inition o3 +is +(*ot+eses)
&a=e0 Art+ur A.
1970 &ocial Dimensions o3 ortuar( @ractices. Dn*u9lis+e" @+.D. "issertation0
Dni!ersit( o3 ic+i,an. (6m*+asi>e **. 1)121)
4raun0 Da!i"
1911 A #ritiAue o3 &ome .ecent Nort+ American ortuar( &tu"ies. American
Anti-uity 41(2):591)416.
'ainter0 Jose*+ A.
1911 .e*l( to GA #ritiAue o3 &ome .ecent Nort+ American ortuar( &tu"ies.H
American Anti-uity 46(2):416)420.
@ar?er @earson )))) #+a*ter 4 (*a,es 72)94)
8ee? - (&e*t 19)
T(eoretica) &ositions and *ssues **
2;&+ea0 Jo+n .
1914 ,ortuary 4ariability3 An Archaeological Investigation. Aca"emic @ress0 Ne:
Nor?. (emphasi5e hapters "& 6& 7& (& $)
@ee9les0 #+risto*+er &. an" &usan . Kus
-
1977 &ome arc+aeolo,ical correlates o3 ran?e" societies. American Anti-uity
42(5):421) 441. '
/o""er0 Ian
1912 '+e i"enti3ication an" inter*retation o3 ran?in, in *re+istor(: A conte=tual
*ers*ecti!e. In !anking& !esource and E8change3 Aspects of the Archaeology of Early
European 1ociety0 e"ite" 9( A. #. .en3re: an" &. J. &+ennen0 **. 1-0)1-4. #am9ri",e
Dni!ersit( @ress0 #am9ri",e. '
@ar?er @earson ))))) #+a*ter 2 (*a,es 21)44)
8ee? 6 (&e*t 26)
Exp)anation and 0ortuar! tudies
ase studies highlighting specific applications of mortuary theory. The readings for this
week deal with the interpretation of the rise of sedentism and marking control over
critical resources. '+is is t+e su9Bect o3 &a=e;s (1970) /(*ot+esis 1.
#+a*man0 .o9ert
1911 '+e emer,ence o3 3ormal "is*osal areas an" t+e G*ro9lemH o3 me,alit+ic tom9s in
*re+istoric 6uro*e. In The Archaeology of Death0 e"ite" 9( .. #+a*man0 I. Kinnes0 an"
K. .an"s9or,0 **. 71)11. #am9ri",e Dni!ersit( @ress0 #am9ri",e. '
#+arles0 Dou,las an" Jane 4ui?stra
1915 Arc+aic mortuar( sites in t+e central ississi**i "raina,e: "istri9ution0 structure0
an" 9e+a!ioral im*lications. In Archaic 'unters and 9atherers in the American ,idwest0
e"ite" 9( J. $. @+illi*s an" J.A. 4ro:n0 **. 117)14-. Aca"emic @ress0 Ne: Nor?.
#+arles0 D. K.0 an" J. 6. 4ui?stra
2002 &itin,0 si,+tin, an" citin, t+e "ea". In The 1pace and 2lace of Death&
Arc+aeolo,ical @a*ers o3 t+e American Ant+ro*olo,ical Association0 no. 110 e"ite" 9( /.
&il!erman an" D. &mall0 **. 15)2-. Arlin,ton0 LA: American Ant+ro*olo,ical
Association. '
&a=e0 Art+ur A. an" @atricia $. Gall
1977 6colo,ical "eterminants o3 mortuar( *ractices: t+e 'emuan o3 ala(sia. In
ultural) Ecological 2erspectives on 1outheast Asia0 e"ite" 9( 8. 8oo"0 41: 74)12.
@a*ers in International &out+east Asia &tu"ies0 2+io Dni!ersit(0 At+ens.
Gol"stein0 $(nne
1911 2ne)"imensional arc+aeolo,( an" multi)"imensional *eo*le: s*atial or,ani>ation
an" mortuar( anal(sis. In The Archaeology of Death0 e"ite" 9( .. #+a*man0 I. Kinnes0
an" K. .an"s9or,0 **. -5)69. #am9ri",e Dni!ersit( @ress. '
Dille+a(0 'om D.
6
1990 a*uc+e ceremonial lan"sca*e0 social recruitment an" resource ri,+ts. .orld
Archaeology 22: 225)241. '
Gla>ier0 Jac?
1914 9eere ancestors an" t+e "omestication o3 "eat+. ,an (ns) 19:155)141.
@ar?er @earson )))) #+a*ter 5 (*a,es 72)94)
&aper 1o, 23 %rite an essa! -4 to 25 pa#es in )en#t(+. t(at discusses t(e axe6
7in"ord approac( to 0ortuar! data. emp(asi8in# t(e midd)e ran#e nature o" t(eir
e""orts. and (o% t(eir approac( ma! be de"ined as 9representationist,: Ho% can it
be app)ied to arc(aeo)o#ica) data. and %(at %ou)d be some potentia) pit"a))s in t(is
app)ication; &aper is Due 0onda!. October <. =522,
8ee? 7 (2ct 5)
7ioarc(aeo)o#ica) &erspectives
Topics covered in this class would include paleodemography& paleopathology& diet and
nutrition& and the biological costs and benefits of mai5e agriculture. onsider the
prehistoric and historic case studies; how do they differO
Am9rose0 &tanle( /.0 Jane 4ui?stra0 an" /arol" 8. Krue,er
2005 &tatus an" ,en"er "i33erences in "iet at oun" 720 #a+o?ia0 re!eale" 9( isoto*ic
anal(sis o3 9one. /ournal of Anthropological Archaeology 22:217)226.
.ose0 Jerome #.0 urra( K. ar?s0 an" $arr( $. 'ies>en
1991 4ioarc+aeolo,( an" &u9sistence in t+e #entral an" $o:er @ortions o3 t+e
ississi**i Lalle(. In .hat ,ean These Bones: 1tudies in 1outheastern Bioarchaeology0
e"ite" 9( .$. @o:ell0 @.&. 4ri",es0 an" A.. 8a,ner ires0 **. 7)21. Dni!ersit( o3
Ala9ama @ress0 'uscaloosa.
$arsen0 #lar? &*encer< ar? #. Gri33in0 Dale $. /utc+inson0 Li!ian 6. No9le0 $(nette
Norr0 .o9ert F. @astor0 #+risto*+er 4. .u330 Kat+erine F. .ussell0 ar,aret J.
&c+oenin,er0 ic+ael &c+ult>0 &cott 8. &im*son0 an" ar? F. 'ea3or"
2001 Frontiers o3 #ontact: 4ioarc+aeolo,( o3 &*anis+ Flori"a. /ournal of .orld
2rehistory 1-(1):69)125.
8esolo:s?i0 Leronica
2006 #aries *re!alence in s?eletal series ) Is it *ossi9le to com*areO ,em Inst ;swaldo
ru5& .io "e Janeiro0 Lol. "0"(&u**l. II): 159)14-.
Da!i"son0 James .0 Jerome .ose0 (ron Gutmann0 ic+ael /aines0 #in"( #on"on0
an" Keit+ #on"on
2002 '+e Pualit( o3 A3rican)American $i3e in t+e 2l" &out+:est near t+e 'urn o3 t+e
20t+ #entur(. In The Backbone of 'istory3 'ealth and <utrition in the .estern
7
'emisphere0 e"ite" 9( .ic+ar" &tec?el0 **. 226)277. #am9ri",e Dni!ersit( @ress0
#am9ri",e.
8oo"0 James 8.0 Geor,e .. ilner0 /enr( #. /ar*en"in,0 an" Kennet+ . 8eiss
1992 '+e osteolo,ical *ara"o=: @ro9lems o3 in3errin, +ealt+ 3rom s?eletal sam*les.
urrent Anthropology 55(4): 545)570.
8ri,+t0 $ori 6. an" #assa"( J. No"er
2005 .ecent @ro,ress in 4ioarc+aeolo,(: A**roac+es to t+e 2steolo,ical @ara"o=.
/ournal of Archaeological !esearch 11(1):45)70.
Kin,0 '.0 $.'. /um*+re(0 an" &. /illson
200- $inear 6namel /(*o*lasias as In"icators o3 &(stemic @+(siolo,ical &tress:
6!i"ence From ':o Kno:n A,e)at)Deat+ an" &e= @o*ulations From @ostme"ie!al
$on"on. American /ournal of 2hysical Anthropology.
upp)ementar! Readin#s -not required. but ma! be use"u). especia))! i" !ou (ave
)itt)e experience in s>e)eta) bio)o#!. pa)eopat(o)o#!. pa)eodemo#rap(!. etc,+
$arson0 #lar? &*encer
2002 4ioarc+aeolo,(: '+e $i!es an" $i3est(les o3 @ast @eo*le. /ournal of
Archaeological !esearch 10(2):119)166.
4oAuet)A**el0 Jean)@ierre an" #lau"e assett
1912 Fare:ell to @aleo"emo,ra*+(. /ournal of 'uman Evolution 11:521)555.
Lan Ger!en0 Dennis @. an" Geor,e J. Armela,os
1915 GFare:ell to @aleo"emo,ra*+(OH .umors o3 Its Deat+ /a!e 4een Greatl(
6=a,,erate". /ournal of 'uman Evolution 121:5-5)560.
8ee? 1 (2ct 10)
Arc(aeo)o#ica) Case tudies *3 1ort( America
4ro:n0 James A.
1911 '+e searc+ 3or ran? in *re+istoric 9urials. In The Archaeology of Death0 e"ite" 9(
.. #+a*man0 I. Kinnes0 an" K. .an"s9or,0 **. 2-)57. #am9ri",e Dni!ersit( @ress.
Gilman0 @atricia &.
1990 &ocial or,ani>ation an" #lassic im9res *erio" 9urials in t+e &8 Dnite" &tates.
/ournal of =ield Archaeology 17:4-7)469.
/o:ell0 'o"" $. an" Keit+ 8. Kinti,+
1
1996 Arc+aeolo,ical i"enti3ication o3 ?in ,rou*s usin, mortuar( an" 9iolo,ical "ata: an
e=am*le 3rom t+e American &out+:est. American Anti-uity 61(5):-57)--4. '
&+r(oc?0 An"re: J.
1917 '+e 8ri,+t oun" ree=amine": Generati!e structures an" t+e *olitical econom(
o3 a sim*le c+ie3"om. ,idcontinental /ournal of Archaeology 12:245)261. '
ain3ort0 .o9ert #.0 Jr.
1919 A"ena c+ie3"omsO 6!i"ence 3rom t+e 8ri,+t oun". ,idcontinental /ournal of
Archaeology 14(2):164)171. '
ilner0 Geor,e ..0 6!e An"erson0 an" Lir,inia G. &mit+
1991 8ar3are in late *re+istoric :est)central Illinois. American Anti-uity -6(4):-11)
605. '
8ee? 9 (2ct 17)
Arc(aeo)o#ica) Case tudies **3 out( America. Europe. t(e 1ear East
4(r"0 4rian F.0 an" #+risto*+er . ona+an
199- Deat+0 mortuar( ritual0 an" Natu3ian social structure. /ournal of Anthropological
Archaeology 14:2-1)217. '
Dille+a(0 'om D.
199- oun"s o3 social "eat+: Araucanian 3unerar( rites an" *olitical succession. In
Tombs for the >iving3 Andean ,ortuary 2ractices0 e"ite" 9( 'om D. Dille+a(0 **. 211)
515. Dum9arton 2a?s0 8as+in,ton. '
@olloc?0 &usan
1991 23 *riestesses0 *rinces an" *oor relations: '+e "ea" in t+e ro(al cemeter( o3 Dr.
ambridge Archaeological /ournal 1(2): 171)119.
.an"s9or,0 Kla!s
1911 4urial0 succession an" earl( state 3ormation in Denmar?. In The Archaeology of
Death0 e"ite" 9( .o9ert #+a*man0 I. Kinnes0 an" Kla!s .an"s9or,0 **. 10-)121.
#am9ri",e Dni!ersit( @ress0 #am9ri",e. '
8ee? 10 (2ct 24)
Et(no#rap(ic and Historica) Observations on Treatment o" t(e Dead
etcal30 @eter A.
1976 8+o are t+e 4era:anO 6t+nic classi3ication an" t+e "istri9ution o3 secon"ar(
treatment o3 t+e "ea" in central nort+ 4orneo. ;ceania 47:1-)10-. '
9
etcal30 @eter
1911 eanin, an" materialism: '+e ritual econom( o3 "eat+. ,an 16:-64)-71. '
@recourt0 8alter 6.
1914 ortuar( *ractices an" economic transaction: A +olo,eistic stu"(. !esearch in
Economic Anthropology 6: 161)170. '
Aries0 @+illi*e
1974 .estern Attitudes Toward Death. Jo+ns /o*?ins Dni!ersit( @ress0 4altimore.
8ee? 11 (2ct 51)
Et(no#rap(ic Observations **
6lliott0 Jo+n ..
1990 Funerar( Arti3acts in #ontem*orar( America. Death 1tudies 14: 601)612.
@earson0 ic+ael @ar?er
1912 ortuar( *ractices0 societ( an" i"eolo,(: an et+noarc+aeolo,ical stu"(. In
1ymbolic and 1tructural Archaeology0 e"ite" 9( Ian /o""er0 **. 99)115. #am9ri",e
Dni!ersit( @ress0 #am9ri",e. '
Farrell0 James J.
1910 Inventing the American .ay of Death& "$70)"#60. 'em*le Dni!ersit( @ress0
@+ila"el*+ia. (Read pa#es 2?6@<).
cGuire0 .an"all /.
1911 Dialo,ues :it+ t+e Dea": I"eolo,( an" t+e #emeter(. In The !ecovery of
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&resentations$Discussions o" *ndividua) &rojects and &apers
8ee? 16 (Dec -) (classes en" on 8e"nes"a(0 Dec. 7)
&resentations$Discussions o" *ndividua) &rojects and &apers -continued+
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