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Sedimentary Rocks
Sedimentary Rocks
Sedimentary Rocks Fluvial deposits Marine deposits Eolian deposits (deposited by wind) J N Malik
Sedimentary Rocks Fluvial deposits Marine deposits Eolian deposits (deposited by wind) J N Malik

Fluvial deposits

Marine deposits

Sedimentary Rocks Fluvial deposits Marine deposits Eolian deposits (deposited by wind) J N Malik

Eolian deposits (deposited by wind)

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Stages of formation of Sedimentary Rocks

• Weathering: Physical or chemical

• Transportation: by agents like water, wind, ice, gravity. Mode of transportation: rolling, suspension or in solution

• Deposition: on land (continent), in transitional zone (estuaries, deltas etc.) or in ocean (marine deposits)

• Compaction/solidification: lithification or cementation/diagenesis

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SEDIMENTARY ROCKS: are the secondary rocks which are formed from the loose fragments or detrital (clastic) sediments produced by weathering of older rocks.

Almost 90% of earth crust is made up of igneous rocks

75% of land surface on the earth is covered by thin veneer of sediments or sedimentary rocks

These sediments are transported and deposited by river water, wind or by movement of glacial ice. Transportation is either in suspension or in solution

When settle down after deposition undergo compaction/cementation to form

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

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IMPORTANCE OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK

“Present is the key to the past”

• Helps in knowing depositional environment viz. marine (ocean deposits), fluvial (river deposits), aeolian (wind deposits), glacial, estuarine, Lacustrine (lake deposits) etc.

• Helps in knowing the provenance (i.e. source area of the sediments); change in climatic conditions i.e. in knowing and understanding old climate=paleoclimate.

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TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

Clastic rocks

Inorganic & Organic rocks

TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Clastic rocks • • • • Inorganic & Organic rocks Sandstones Conglomerates
TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Clastic rocks • • • • Inorganic & Organic rocks Sandstones Conglomerates
TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Clastic rocks • • • • Inorganic & Organic rocks Sandstones Conglomerates

Sandstones

Conglomerates

Breccia

Shale/mudstones

Carbonate rocks

Organic rocks

Form due to decomposition of organic remains under temperature and pressure e.g. Coal/Lignite etc.

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Form basically from CaCO 3 – both by chemical leaching and by organic source (biochemical) e.g. Limestone; dolomite

Evaporitic rocks

These rocks are formed due to evaporation of saline water (sea water) e.g. Gypsum, Halite (rock salt)

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CLASTIC ROCKS

CLASTIC ROCKS • formed from broken rock fragments either by weathering or erosion by river, glacier,

formed from broken rock fragments either by weathering or erosion by river, glacier, wind and sea waves. These clastic sediments are deposited on floodplains, beaches, in desert and on the sea floors.

CLASTIC ROCKS • formed from broken rock fragments either by weathering or erosion by river, glacier,

solidify

CLASTIC ROCKS • formed from broken rock fragments either by weathering or erosion by river, glacier,

Clastic rocks

Clastic rocks are classified on the basis of

the

grain

shale etc.

size:

conglomerate,

sandstone,

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GRAIN SIZE

GRAIN SIZE Gravel >256-2 mm Sand 2- 0.062 mm Boulder: >256mm Cobble: 64-256 mm Pebble: 4-64

Gravel

>256-2 mm

Sand

2- 0.062 mm

Boulder: >256mm Cobble: 64-256 mm Pebble: 4-64 mm Granule: 2-4 mm Fine gravel

GRAIN SIZE Gravel >256-2 mm Sand 2- 0.062 mm Boulder: >256mm Cobble: 64-256 mm Pebble: 4-64

Silt

0.062-0.004 mm

Clay <0.004 mm

GRAIN SIZE Gravel >256-2 mm Sand 2- 0.062 mm Boulder: >256mm Cobble: 64-256 mm Pebble: 4-64
GRAIN SIZE Gravel >256-2 mm Sand 2- 0.062 mm Boulder: >256mm Cobble: 64-256 mm Pebble: 4-64
GRAIN SIZE Gravel >256-2 mm Sand 2- 0.062 mm Boulder: >256mm Cobble: 64-256 mm Pebble: 4-64

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Mud, Silt Mudstone, siltstone Æ= -log2(grain size mm)
Mud, Silt
Mudstone, siltstone
Æ= -log2(grain size mm)

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Shape of grains

Shape of grains • Angular: reflects less distance transport • Sub-rounded: far distance transport • Rounded:

• Angular: reflects less distance transport

• Sub-rounded: far distance transport

• Rounded: very far distance transport

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• Clastic rocks mainly broken older comprise fragment rock – of they are also know as

• Clastic

rocks

mainly

broken

older

comprise

fragment

rock –

of

they

are also

know as Terrigenous

rocks

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Matrix:

is the finer grains or material that surrounds the larger clasts. It consist of either clay, silt and sand.

Cement: dissolved substance that bounds the sediments. 1. Calcareous 2. siliceous
Cement:
dissolved
substance
that bounds
the
sediments.
1.
Calcareous
2.
siliceous
Matrix: is the finer grains or material that surrounds the larger clasts. It consist of either

Fine-gravel/ Granule (size <4mm)

Matrix: is the finer grains or material that surrounds the larger clasts. It consist of either

Any rock fragment (size is > 4 mm=Pebble)

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When clastic fragments are cemented or undergo consolidation they are called CONGLOMERATES Similarly when angular clasts

When clastic fragments are cemented or undergo consolidation they are called

CONGLOMERATES

When clastic fragments are cemented or undergo consolidation they are called CONGLOMERATES Similarly when angular clasts

Similarly when angular clasts undergo consolidation they are called BRECCIA

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• Sorting of the sediments also suggest the mode of deposition and transportation. • Long distance

Sorting of the sediments also suggest the mode of deposition and transportation.

Long

distance

transport= well-rounded and well-sorted

sediments. Short distance transport = poorly sorted angular grains.

Also helps in knowing the energy conditions of the river.

Sorting means sediment in terms various size

Poorly

sorted

(mixture

of

wide range of particle size)

Well sorted (most of the clasts are of same size)

Changes of grain size typically result from fluctuations in the velocity of the transporting agent, such as water or wind (mode)

• Sorting means sediment in terms various size – Poorly sorted (mixture of wide range of

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If the energy conditions are high: larger or heavier particles will be transported

Lighter particles will be carried for longer distance even if the energy or the carrying capacity of the agent reduces.

About the mode of transportation: Till deposits (comprising angular and variable size of sediments) are deposited by movement of glacial ice

Rounded to well-rounded sediments well sorted are transported by water and wind.

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DIFFERENT CATERGORIES OF CLASTIC ROCKS

RUDACEOUS ROCKS: are made up of rounded or

sub-rounded

Pebbles

and

cobbles

(4-256mm)

e.g.

conglomerate

ARENACEOUS ROCKS: are made up of mainly sand (0.062-2mm) e.g. Sandstone. These rocks are made of sediments either deposited by wind action/under water action/marine or lake environment

• ARGILLACEOUS ROCKS: are fine grained made up of clay size sediments (<0.004mm) e.g. Shale, mudstones, siltstones.

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IMPORTANCE

CONGLOMERATE

comprise

clastic

sediments

like

pebbles

 

and

cobbles

(heterogeneous)

 

If

the

cementation

is

good

(voids

between the clasts),

then

the

conglomerate will be hard and competent hence act as strong foundation, but not good rock for ground water source.

However, if the cementation is poor, it makes the rock more porous with high porosity; act as good reserve for ground

water (aquifer), but is undesirable at the

site for foundation structures.

 

of

major

CE

Due to heavy seepage the conglomerate may result in failure by sliding e.g. Failure of St. Francis dam, US.

IMPORTANCE • CONGLOMERATE comprise clastic sediments like pebbles and cobbles (heterogeneous) • If the cementation is

When clastic fragments are cemented or undergo

consolidation they are called

CONGLOMERATES

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Cementation:

Cementing material is usually secondary Silica (Siliceous cement), Calcium carbonate (Carbonate cement), Iron rich (ferruginous cement)

Cement itself to some extent is the source of weakness in the sedimentary rocks

• Because cementing material and the clastic sediments are usually of different composition, leading to heterogeneity in their physical characteristics.

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• Hence such rock will not behave homogeneously under stress, resulting into development of cracks or fissures which develops in cementing material.

• If the cement is Calcium Carbonate- it is undesirable, because it is susceptible to dissolve in water

• However, if cementation process continuous for longer span of time – cementation will become more complete, which reduce the porosity and permeability in the rock mass and increase the competency.

Shape of grains: i.e. if coarser grains are rounded or sub- rounded then the cement material will not have firm grip, hence such rocks will be incompetent.

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SANDSTONE:

Made up of sand grains dominantly of Quartz and Feldspars, where quartz is highly resistive to weathering

Cementation plays similar role in this rock as seen in conglomerate

However, Siliceous cement are best and highly desirable for CE purposes, also the ferruginous sst.

Quartz Sst.
Quartz Sst.
Arkose (Feldspar)
Arkose (Feldspar)

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Shale
Shale

Shales are clastic rocks, made up mainly fine silt/clay

They

are

most

abundant

sedimentary

rocks,

accounts

for

about 80% of them

 

Often contain fossils

Mostly hydrous-aluminum silicate in composition (sourced from weathered feldspars)

Deposition takes place under low fluvial regime or under weak water current e.g. Offshore or in Lagoon

Shales are made up of fine well sorted silt and clayey sediments, where clayey sediments have tendency to retain water

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CE IMPORTANCE

When shales are saturated with water – under pressure they are likely to produce slippery foundation for any structure- therefore not suitable for CE structures

Examples: Lafayette dam of US constructed on argillaceous rocks sunk by 20 feet.

Srisailam Dam in Andhra Pradesh (one of the 12 th largest Hydroelectric Projects in the India) faced similar problem, however, precautions were take by grouting to stop the seepage along the weak zones.

Because of its impermeable and porous nature it acts as cap rocks in the occurrence of Oil and Gas.

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EVAPORITIC ROCKS

EVAPORITIC ROCKS These rocks are formed within the a depositional basin from chemical substances dissolved in

These rocks are formed within the a depositional basin from chemical substances dissolved in the seawater or lake water.

Gypsum
Gypsum

CaSO 4 .2H 2 0

Halite (NaCl)
Halite
(NaCl)

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Economic importance of Evaporates

SALT: other then daily use of salt for cooking, it is used

For production of Paper Soap Detergents Antiseptics As chemical for dyeing etc.

GYPSUM:

is

used

for

plaster

and

in

manufacturing construction materials.

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CARBONATE ROCKS

CARBONATE ROCKS • Limestone: It is a non-clastic rock formed either chemically or due to precipitation

Limestone: It is a non-clastic rock formed either chemically or due to precipitation of calcite (CaCO 3 ) from organisms usually (shell).

• Limestones formed by chemical precipitation are usually fine grained, whereas, in case of organic limestone the grain size vary depending upon the type of organism responsible for the formation

Fossiliferous Limestone: is medium to coarse grained, as it is formed out of cementation of Shells.

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Chalk
Chalk

Chalk:

Is

made

up

of carbonate

shells of minute floating organisms (foraminefera). It is very fine grained

used as a building stone and in the manufacture of lime, cement etc.

• Massive and compact limestone are competent to support CE-structure

• However, if it occur in huge thickness then it is not advisable, because of its typical CAVING character.

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Sedimentary structures

Sedimentary structures • Bedding is most imp. Feature of a sedimentary rock • Beds are usually

Bedding is most imp. Feature of a sedimentary rock

Beds are usually > 1 cm

Laminae < 1 cm

Orientation of bedding helps in knowing the paleo-current direction of the old rivers

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Cross bedding refers to beds:

indicative of deposition under variable flow regime. Helpful to infer the depositional direction

Cross bedding refers to beds: indicative of deposition under variable flow regime. Helpful to infer the

Medium-coarse sandy lithounit (cross stratified)

Cross bedding refers to beds: indicative of deposition under variable flow regime. Helpful to infer the

Fine gravelly lithounit

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Graded bedding

Graded bedding • Shows sequence: fining upward • Indicative of depositional cycle and mainly deposited when

• Shows sequence:

fining

upward

• Indicative of depositional cycle and mainly deposited when the turbulent current slows down.

At

this

stage

the

heaviest/larger

particles

will

settle

down

first,

followed by the lighter and smaller ones.

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Varves: Rhythmic layers indicating deposition under lake environment

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Sand Dunes Cross stratification
Sand Dunes
Cross stratification

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Ripple marks

Ripple marks
Ripple marks
Ripple marks
Ripple marks

Biogenic structures

Foot prints
Foot prints
Snake Trails
Snake Trails

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Mud cracks

Mud cracks J N Malik
Mud cracks J N Malik

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