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ABSTRACT

This dissertation discusses the importance to learn on childrens architecture
based on the perception of the children. It focuses on the approach to design and
planning of built environment for young children, early to middle childhood. A
trans-disciplinary approach is introduced integrating the knowledge of
childhood development, architecture and landscape architecture. Therefore,
teaching on childrens architecture begins with the discussion on functioning of
children to the built environment. That is, how sensorial and motoric actions as
well as social activities of children are influenced by the elements of
architecture and landscape. Finally, the effects on childrens functioning are
discussed in terms of designing and planning buildings and landscape for the
children.
This also discusses other interesting features like what kind of interiors children
would like for their personal spaces, illustrated with pictures.
The idea behind doing this topic as dissertation, is to, understand the
psychology of children and to learn their considerations which would help as a
guide for design of child space in the future.
Dissertation also includes The Psychology of Abandoned children, as an
attempt to bring to light for social cause.

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Contents

ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................... 1
LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................. 5
1. DESIGN METHODOLOGY ......................................................................... 6
2. FUNCTIONING OF EARLY AND MIDDLE CHILDHOOD CHILDREN 9
3. CHILDRENS EXPERIENCE OF PLACE AND ARCHITECTURE ........ 11
4. METAPHOR OF THE HOUSE ................................................................... 14
5. DEVELOPMENT OF THREE DIMENSIONAL SPACE PERCEPTION IN
CHILDREN ........................................................................................................ 16
6. AN ENVIRONMENT THAT POSITIVELY IMPACTS YOUNG
CHILDREN. ....................................................................................................... 19
An Environment that Matches Young Children .............................................. 19
7. BRAIN DEVELOPMENT DURING THE EARLY YEARS .................. 20
7.1 WINDOWS OF OPPORTUNITY ......................................................... 21
7.2 VISUAL ENVIRONMENT ................................................................... 21
7.3 AUDITORY ENVIRONMENT ................................................................ 22
7.4 INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT ........................................................... 22
7.5 EMOTIONAL ENVIRONMENT ............................................................. 23
7.6 INDEPENDENT LEARNERS .................................................................. 23
8. INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT ON CHILDREN'S BEHAVIOURS . 24
9. CHILD-SPACE RELATIONS ..................................................................... 24
9.1 From architectural point of view ............................................................... 25
9.2 SPACE IN THE FUNCTION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STABILITY OF A
CHILD ............................................................................................................. 27
10. DISCOVERING WHAT KIDS LIKE. ..................................................... 29
10.1 Bedroom ................................................................................................... 29
10.2 Toddler Territory ..................................................................................... 30
10.3 Choosing Colour ...................................................................................... 30
10.4 Grand School Districts ............................................................................. 31
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10.5 The Right Mix Of Lighting. ..................................................................... 31
10.6 Pre Teens Preference ............................................................................... 32
10.7 Powering Up ............................................................................................ 32
11. EXPERIENCING DESIGN: IMPACT OF DESIGN ON CHILD
DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................................... 32
11.1 Importance of size and flexibility ............................................................ 32
11.2 Importance of inside-outside connections ............................................... 33
11.3 Importance of safety and supervision ...................................................... 33
12. IMPACT OF SPATIAL QUALITY:
SPACE, LIGHT, COLOUR, NOISE AND MATERIALS ................................ 34
13. INTERIOR DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ............................................. 34
14. 14. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ........................ 36
14.1 Natural and Artificial Light ..................................................................... 37
14.1.1 Natural ............................................................................................... 37
14.1.2 Artificial ............................................................................................. 37
14.2 Window Coverings .................................................................................. 38
14.3 Hardware .................................................................................................. 38
14.4 Doors ........................................................................................................ 39
14.5 Finishes .................................................................................................... 39
14.5.1 Floor - General ................................................................................... 39
14.5.2 Carpets ............................................................................................... 40
14.5.3 Walls .................................................................................................. 41
14.5.4 Paint ................................................................................................... 41
14.6 CABINETS - GENERAL ........................................................................ 41
14.7 SAFETY AND SECURITY .................................................................... 42
14.8 FURNISHINGS ....................................................................................... 44
15. LANDSCAPE CONSIDERATIONS ........................................................ 45
16. EXTERIOR DESIGN AND PLAY ELEMENTS ....................................... 46
16.1 ACTIVE PLAY ....................................................................................... 46
16.2 PHYSICAL PLAY AREA ...................................................................... 47
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16.3 SOCIAL PLAY AREA ............................................................................ 47
16.4 QUIET PLAY .......................................................................................... 48
16.5 NATURE PLAY ...................................................................................... 48
17. CONCLUSION ......................................................................................... 48
18. PSYCHOLOGY OF ABANDONED CHILDREN: ................................. 50
18.1 ABSTRACT ............................................................................................. 50
18.2 ABANDONED CHILD SYNDROME ................................................... 50
18.3 CAUSES .................................................................................................. 51
18.4 SYMPTOMS ........................................................................................... 51
18.5 CHILDREN DEPRIVED OF PARENTAL CARE ................................ 52
18.6 UNDERSTANDING THE PAIN OF ABANDONMENT .................... 53
18.7 PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ABANDONMENT ON CHILDREN
............................................................................................................................. 54
Low Self-Esteem .......................................................................................... 54
Anxiety .......................................................................................................... 54
Attachment .................................................................................................... 55
Insecurity ...................................................................................................... 55
End ................................................................................................................ 55
APPENDIX 1: ENVISIONING OUR FUTURE ENVIRONMENT AND CHILDREN .. 56
APPENDIX 2 : SCHEMES AND PROGRAMMES ON CHILD PROTECTION .......... 58
REFERENCES .................................................................................................... 60



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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Realms of childrens environmental experience.12
Figure 2: Interactive and explorative Montessori garden...14
Figure 3and 4: Space and equipment suitable for needs of a child
in certain age and architectural and ambiance values.26
Figure 5 and 6: Wavy wall line and new structures on it as dividing
element in spaces for children and simultaneously a gathering place.....27
Figure 7 and 8: Architectural expression finding place in the
child's mind and making emotional attachment..28
Figure 9: Simple bedroom with storage, study space, corner bed
and floor space29
Figure 10 and 11: Modern Toddler Room design.36
Figure 12: Psychology of abandoned child50




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1. DESIGN METHODOLOGY
Architectural planning and designing spaces for young children is generally
based on adults perception that may not relevant to the childrens functioning.
Form, shape, colour and function are the parameters applied in designing and
articulating the spaces inside and outside the architecture. The design approach
is somewhat not consistent with the literature on childrens functioning in
indoor and outdoor spaces, which suggests that the value of a place is
determined by its function rather than form and colour. In other words, adults
perceive space more on form, function and aesthetic whereas children see the
space more on its functions rather than aesthetic. As such, architects perceive a
pediatric ward of a hospital as a space that accommodates beds, aisle for
movement, toilets and bathrooms, a nurse station, a doctor room and a dressing
room. For play, a playroom is attached to the ward which housed toys and
television and a floor for rest. Studies in pediatric nursing suggest that such
setting leads to boredom, anxiety, and stress to hospitalized children. Among
the reasons that lead children to behave regressively are the healthcare setting
are: (i) strange place to stay, (ii) no sense of control, and (iii) little choice and
lack of things to manipulate. That is, hospital indoor environment limits
children to practice different motoric and sensorial activities. Thus studies in
landscape architecture suggest incorporating garden with the ward for children
to be away from the stress. Moreover, buildings designed by architectural
students are final, that is, leaving little room for children to change or
manipulate the architecture. According to the theory of childhood cognitive
development and literature on childrens perceptual psychology, such
architecture may not generate sense of place attachment. Consequently, the
children could not develop sense of favourite place to the architecture. As a
result children feel bore to go to school or feel fear to stay in hospital. In other
words, the architecture fails to stimulate the childrens cognitive functioning,
affords insufficient space for physical functioning on the childrens terms, and
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allows little opportunities for the children to socialize in their own choice and
control. The domination of adults on design and planning of childrens space
can be seen in kindergarten. The practice most likely confines the young
children inside the building and occasionally allows the children to engage with
outdoor space such as garden and lawn area. In the indoor, the children may
experience with a variety of furniture and plastic toys in a controlled micro-
climate where temperature, lighting and humidity are similar throughout the
duration of they stay in the building. In other words, much of the childrens
cognitive development is the result of routine experience in a confined space.
Eventually, the children understand the architecture is an element that affords
little changes.
On the other hand, the outdoor space is spacious and open towards the
surrounding that affords the children to move more freely than inside the
building. It is a space that their senses are readily stimulated by greenery and
animals. Its microclimate is natural and dynamic; changes in temperature and
wind and the presence of rain or snow. Such environment affords the children to
understanding the facts that nature is not man-made, it is dynamic and timeless.
In as much, outdoor experience allows the children to interpret and extrapolate
the differences of features and phenomena from the indoor experience.
Cognitively, therefore, the children will deduce that the architecture developed
by adults without their participation as two parts: building and outdoor space.
They can clearly understand the architecture is man-made and the landscape is
natural. In short, they perceive that architecture is not integrated with the
landscape.
In summary, even though we know that experience of childhood in built and
natural environments are diverse, but are often characterized by adult control,
restriction and helplessness. And, the design of spaces for children follows the
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standard requirement by the design authority or institutional agency. Such
practices did not allow the views of children to be part of the design process of
the architecture. Therefore, children participation in the design and planning of
their built environment is ignored. In other words, children have little voice in
the environment that shapes them and they are expected to obey the rules as
defined by adults. It also means that they has little sense of control and less
opportunity to loco mote themselves freely in space in the built environment
designed solely by adults. Inasmuch, the environment limits them to assume
different body postures, to create their own boundaries and to manifest power
and fulfil their potentials.
This paper presents a review of literature on the importance of teaching
architecture in designing childrens environment by trans-disciplinary approach
that is, integrating the knowledge of childhood development, architecture and
landscape architecture. The discussion focuses on designing architecture and its
outdoor space for the learning and growth development of early and middle
childhood children. It emphasizes the importance to teach the theory of
childrens cognitive developmenthow children perceive spatial and attributes
of place as well its meaningin designing and planning architecture and its
landscape.

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2. FUNCTIONING OF EARLY AND MIDDLE CHILDHOOD
CHILDREN
In the perspective of child development, posit that early childhood is a period of
incredible fantasy, wonder, and play. They learnt the world as a forum for
imagination and drama that is they reinvent the world, try on new roles, and
struggle to play their parts in harmony. Through sensorial and motoric activities
with peers and adults the children rapidly develop their language and
communication skills. Their physical movement is much influenced by the
functions of the features that they get in contact including furniture and toys in
the indoors and plants and animals in the outdoors.
Their responses to the environments are immediate and inseparable from the
sources of stimulation around them .For example, an empirical study found
that hospitalized children recognized the unfamiliar conditions of their ward,
thus they reacted regressively. Consequently, when they played in the wards
garden, they much aware to the presence of animals such as birds and insects
suggesting their cognitive functioning has improved.
In middle childhood, children are genetically programmed for exploration of the
world and bonding with nature. That is, they learnt on how the world works in
evocative way, their logical reasoning only about concrete objects that are
readily observed. As such the children are active in grasping and understanding
the natural world through play. The play stimulates their cognitive faculties of
sight, touch, taste, audio and olfactory. The children are emotionally affected to
outdoor settings through direct, literal, or tactile contacts. The cognition enables
the children to be active constructors of their own knowledge, leading them to
discover certain logical truths about objects and concepts of the environment.
Therefore, active experience with the environment affords the children to form
logical thought and able to draw logical inferences from the facts that they are
given. Direct contacts with the features and factors of the environment permit
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the children to explore, imagine and discover. The experience involves the
process of developing and refining fundamental movement skills in a wide
variety of stability, locomotors and manipulative movements.
Therefore, the design of children spaces must conform to their physical,
cognitive and social functioning and development. Physical functioning is the
motoric actions such as fluid rolling, jumping, tumbling, running, and skipping.
Physical development is the patterns of bodily growth and maturation of
children interacting with the surroundings, indoor and outdoor spaces and their
features. Cognitive functioning is the perceptual responses of the children with
the spaces and features. Visual, audio and tactile perceptions contribute much
on the development of the childrens cognitive development. The cognitive
development examines the systematic changes in childrens reasoning,
concepts, memory, and language. Social functioning is the transaction of
children with peers and adults that affords them to assimilate and accommodate
the actions of others. And, social development explores the changes in
childrens feelings, ways of coping and relationships with peers. It is clear that
the functioning and development of the children are shaped by the children
interaction and transaction in the physical features and people. Inasmuch,
children shape their environment and the environment shaped them.
Understanding of these knowledge enable architects and landscape architects to
design and plan a setting, building and landscape, that affords to harness the
three functioning, physical, cognitive and social.

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3. CHILDRENS EXPERIENCE OF PLACE AND ARCHITECTURE

Children physical movement, cognitive scanning and social transaction in a
space directly influenced by the spatial and properties of the environment.
These interactions involve complex sensorial and motoric actions. Perceptual
responses (sight, tactile, audio, smell and taste) and mobility in an environment
reveal a lot of significant information. In other words, perception is an active
experience, in which a child finds information through mobility. We must
perceive to be able to move around, and we must move around to be able to
perceive. This is an ecological perceptual psychology framework which
recognized by a few environmental psychologists. Since children contact with
architecture involves perception and movement, it is appropriate to teach
architecture using this framework. Therefore, studio project on childrens
architecture should begin with the introduction of how children perceive the
spatial and properties of the environment.
To give an example, found that architectural projects involving childrens
participation facilitate architects to create innovative design in accord with the
childrens perception and affection to space and building.
Notwithstanding, the architecture and its landscape should be designed both to
support function and to nourish the childs sensory and aesthetic sensibilities.
For example, a hospital ward functions as a place to recover health and its
garden for play and rest.
A built environment that affords a child to be cognitively alert to the external
stimuli through movement and social actions will encourage him or her to
affiliate or create bonding with it. According to Moore and Young, the bonding
is called as inner space (Figure1) created by children through three types of
sensual experiences: cognitive, affective and evaluative. Cognitive experience is
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the formation of thinking and problem-solving skills; affective experience is the
emerging of emotional and feeling capacities; and evaluative experience is the
creation of values, belief and perspectives to the environment. For example,
after experiencing more than two days in a hospital garden, ill children
established sense of attachment to the garden that is intending to come back to
the hospital if they get ill again.

Figure 1: Realms of childrens environmental experience
Referring to Figure 1, an architecture and its landscape is understood by
children as physiographic space affording a child to show his physical strength
and dexterity to make contacts, both perceptual and physical, with the elements
and climatic forces of the place, either routinely or occasionally. In other words,
the space is where childrens senses are stimulated through sensual and motoric
activities. Old posits that movement in play such as in playroom stimulates a
child senses in a rhythmic patterns of predictable sameness. However, the
playroom should also allow gradual change or moderate diversity that would
trigger fascination and satisfaction. In childhood psychology, the phenomenon
is known as difference-within-sameness that affords a child to develop a mental
construct that the architecture is a structure, and structure develops. Such
development occurs frequently in the natural world. For example, in a forest
setting, Fjorfort discovered that middle childhood Finnish children recognise the
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forest as a place affording them functional and construction plays, and these
plays improved their motor abilities. And, in hospital setting, 2006 found that
hospitalized children increased their locomotion and dexterity in experiencing
hospital garden. Moreover, childrens physical participation with the
architectural features and natural landscape elements extend to satisfaction and
the experience stay in their memory. And, memory is a derivative of place
attachment. Positive emotions to a place of play permit a multitude of affective
opportunities for engagement, discovery, creativity, revelation, and adventure
surprise. In turn, the affection allows the children to evaluate the place with
values. Therefore, experiencing the environment is an essential, critical and
irreplaceable dimension in the growth and functioning of children. The
empirical studies implicate that kindergarten or hospital ward should be
integrated with the outdoor spaces especially greenery. The architecture not
only a milieu for learning or health recovery but also a physical setting that
triggers the positive behavioural responses such as place attachment and place
identity.
Figure 2 illustrates a design of a kindergarten by an undergraduate student. The
design begins with rigorously understanding of childhood cognitive
development. And, the design views the building and outdoor landscape as
holistic entity to for young children to learn and grow. The design anticipates
the children are attached to a place. Place attachment is when they show
happiness at being in it and regret or distress at leaving it, and they value it not
only for satisfaction of physical needs but for its intrinsic qualities. It will not
surprise to find children longing to come back to school after leaving for home
or going back to hospital after being discharged.
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Finally the architecture and its landscape is also a social space where children
play with peers or adults and create friendship, acquaintanceship, reduced social
regressions and reduced social withdrawals. These are progressive responses of
childrens social development. This is because during social play children
expand their cognition of the place by assimilating the actions of others
particularly peer. Assimilation is a process of dealing with a feature or event
consistent with an existing schema. Overtime, through repetitive encounter,
children accommodate their actions creating a new schema which is an
expansion from the previous one. Thus, interaction in a social space such as
communication and turn taking offers more stimulations and feedbacks to the
children. Therefore, the childrens cognitive faculties including schema to the
place is expanded.
4. METAPHOR OF THE HOUSE
Any contemporary discussion of Architecture must coalesce, not only the
perceptual systems that produce buildings, but the human emotions connected
to our body image and the buildings we know as home. The house can be said
to be an extension of our bodies. Being vertical, the house rises upward like the
human body from the cellar to the attic. The attic provides a roof that gives
shelter from the rain, snow or sun. The cellar is said to contain our deepest
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fears. The concept of the house is considered to be much more than a building
that can be described by its appearance or simply as a space that is-inhabited.
All of the houses that we have lived in hold memories for us and bring forth
images that shape themselves in a continuous life long process. Our memories
of houses can provide us with the inner feelings of protection and intimacy that
provide a sense of stability.
The entrance of a house holds an important meaning since it is the boundary
that separates our private life from our public life in the community. The front
or facade of the house can be compared to the front of our bodies standing
symmetrically facing the world. Windows can permit a view in, out or shut out
the community. The backs of homes, not always symmetrical, exhibit the
private life of people. Boundaries are usually defined in backyards in order to
discourage interference from the outside. The interior of the house complements
the exterior with a vertical directionality moving up and down by means of
stairways. Stairs leading up may direct us to rooms that provide us with privacy
or separateness, while concealed stairs leading down to the basement may
exemplify the idea of a cave. Rooms within a house can either be those that are
utilized for group activities or those that provide individuals with seclusion.3
In order to further develop the incorporation of awareness of body image in
architectural design, research done in the area of proxemics can be
helpful. Proxemics studies the cultural influences of how we experience space.
As people throughout the world have developed their cultures uniquely and
distinctly from one another problems can and do arise when cultural groups
attempt to communicate with one another. For the purposes of this paper human
space perception is emphasized, while it needs to be remembered that we
interact with all of our perceptual systems. Research shows that people oriental
themselves in space according to the culture that they were reared in. Each of us
sense other people as close or distant. Four distance zones affect how we react:
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intimate distance, personal distance, social distance and public distance. These
distance zones greatly affect how people use their senses to distinguish between
the relationships of others, their feelings and what activity they are involved in.
What may be considered intimate in one culture might be public or personal in
another culture. Without going into detail describing the distance zones, the
awareness of these territorial spaces is particularly valuable when designing
urban environments. Crowding human beings into vertical buildings without
considering the negative effects of crowding upon the human needs within
different relationships is harmful. The result becomes evident when we observe
the stress found in many urban dwellers. Contemporary Americans have need
for urban environments that provide a variety of spatial experiences.

5. DEVELOPMENT OF THREE DIMENSIONAL SPACE
PERCEPTION IN CHILDREN
The study of space perception can be defined as the process by which we
acquire knowledge through the senses of the position of objects and their
relations in space to each other, their general surroundings and the perceiver.
Though this is a complex process; occurs in children gradually from birth. The
developmental growth in space perception for the child initiates with what is
known as Mouth Space. Mouth Space occurs during the first three or four
months of the infants life and is connected to sucking. During this time infants
look at objects that emit sounds, and appear to realize that they belong
together. Tactile Space is developed through the infant touching his or her own
body. In Visual Space the infant follows moving objects with its eyes. At about
four months the infant will look at an object held in front of him/her and reach
and grasp for it. The visual and the tactile impressions begin to combine at this
age towards an understanding of what shape is. Gradually the infant begins to
learn that the same object may appear differently when it is seen from a variety
of views at different distances. Throughout this process the infant sees that the
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shape he/she is looking at visually corresponds to the shape that he/she feels
with his/her hands. The infant is approximately two before he/she begins to
understand that objects have their own identity even when they are moved in
space. Young children begin to name concepts of space such as in, out, above
and below when they are about three. Yet, the objects are not yet perceived, as
wholes since the child is experiencing the object(s) haptically. This can be
interpreted to mean that the very young child remains almost passive when he
has to identify objects from touch. The childs grasping and handling is rather
haphazard.
Between the ages of 4 through 7 the tactile experiences with an object can be
translated visually. This happens when the child attempts to draw from tactile
perceptions. The childs drawing will reflect his/her ability to explore objects
and recognize shapes from tactile experience. Initially rounded shapes are
drawn followed by those shapes drawn with straight lines. One must be aware
that this process develops quite slowly in the child. In addition children can
match shapes more easily than they can draw them.
By the ages of 8 and 9 the child becomes aware of the bodys orientation to the
horizontal and vertical coordinates of space. Objects such as buildings and trees
can be perceived as upright forms as well as our bodies, due to the pull of
gravity. Our ears contain the mechanisms that indicate when our head is not
parallel to gravitational pull. It appears that the more active motor experience
the child has the greater awareness he/she has of the horizontal and vertical
condition of the environment. Active participation in such activities as walking,
bicycling and other sports can develop this skill when contrasted with passive
movement such as bus riding. The child is moving through a world that contains
objects scaled generally for adults. This observation suggests that playgrounds
need to be designed with the childs sense of scale; a scale that provides spatial
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learning activities between the levels of toy playing and the larger adult scaled
environment.
As the child of 8 to 9 is becoming more aware of depth and distance in space,
he/she is also developing perceptions of body image, as attitudes towards their
bodies and the bodies of other people. Research in the area of how children
perceive the size of their bodies appears to show that children will overestimate
or underestimate the size of their bodies in relation to what is culturally
desirable. Many variables influence how the child perceives his/her body: sex
differences, personality types, and emotional feelings of self-importance,
success and power. Generally, the child, as well as the adult, functions within
three dimensional boundaries that surround our bodies. For the child these
boundaries are not fixed since their growth processes are not complete.
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Children develop their awareness of distance and depth very slowly. Judgment
of distance becomes clearer as the child has more experience with actually
traversing the distance themselves. The child will gradually perceive the
changes in; the appearances or objects as they move towards them or away from
them. Older children through maturation, experience and training can usually
perceive that objects gradually recede into the distance. The focusing of both
eyes in what is known as binocular vision is necessary for accuracy in depth
perception. Changes in the size of objects will cause them to appear smaller as
they recede into the background. The texture of the surfaces of objects becomes
denser the further they are away from the viewer. As the older child becomes
less self-cantered and more aware of other viewpoints, what is known as linear
perspective (parallel lines converging to a vanishing point at the horizon) can be
understood. The horizon is relative to ones point of view and the surrounding
environment (urban, flat rural land, ocean, hills, mountains, etc.). Generally we
look up towards objects that are distant, and down at near objects. Movement
and the speed at which an object moves convey depth. Objects which are closer
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appear to move more and faster than similar objects at greater distances.
Shadows created as a result of a light source contribute to the impression of an
object being in three dimensional spaces.
In any discussion of developmental growth in children it must be remembered
that there are a multitude of variables affecting the learning process. The
perception of spatial relationships is a complex learning process that does not
complete itself in childhood; nor can it be isolated from other learning
processes. It is discussed here for the purpose of guiding one in planning art
activities that can improve the childs awareness of space. This awareness of
space is connected directly to our thoughts, feelings and imagination as we
experience buildings in our environment.
6. AN ENVIRONMENT THAT POSITIVELY IMPACTS YOUNG
CHILDREN.
An Environment that Matches Young Children
The first step in creating an appropriate environment for infants, toddlers, and
preschool children is to examine how young children learn and develop. Each
stage of development has unique characteristics that influence how a child will
experience his or her environment.
For example, infants and toddlers learn about their world by acting on objects
and materials in their environment. As the toddler feels the texture of a beach
ball, pushes the air filled object, and rolls it across the carpeted floor, he
constructs an understanding of the ball. Because infants and toddlers learn by
interacting with the environment, their space must be designed with many
opportunities for physically exploring real materials. Varied materials are stored
where the child can easily select them. Other items are placed where they are
not visible but can be retrieved when a specific activity or individual need
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occurs. Pre-schoolers are active learners who continue to examine materials
while beginning to use objects in more complex combinations. They are
developing symbolic representation as they take on roles and participate in
socio-dramatic play. Their language explodes during this period as they try to
find "labels" for the objects and people in their world. Language gives young
children the power to question and find answers. Learning centres are effective
ways to organize and support these developing abilities. The center areas clearly
communicate to pre-schoolers what activity occurs in this area and the available
materials that will stimulate their play. Traditional centers as well as unique
centers encourage language interactions, socio-dramatic play, and the
construction of experiences based on their level of understanding. By adding
literacy materials including books, paper and writing tools, this construction
will include "reading and writing" opportunities.
7. BRAIN DEVELOPMENT DURING THE EARLY YEARS

Early childhood educators and neurologists agree that the first eight years are a
critical time of brain development. Infants come into the world with a brain
waiting to be woven into the complex fabric of the mind. Some neurons in the
brain are wired before birth, but many are waiting to be programmed by early
experiences. The early environment where young children live will help
determine the direction of their brain development. Children who have severely
limited opportunities for appropriate experiences will be delayed; this may
permanently affect their learning. But, children who have the opportunity to
develop in an organized and appropriate environment are challenged to think
and use materials in new ways.

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7.1 WINDOWS OF OPPORTUNITY

New brain research indicates that there are important "windows of opportunity"
that exist during the early years. These are considered the "prime" times for
these areas to be developed. Experts have identified several areas that are
particularly critical during the early years these include: language, logical
thinking, music, vision, and emotion. Appropriate and interesting experiences,
during the early years, in these specific areas can have a positive impact on the
child's current development as well brain connections that will last a lifetime.
7.2 VISUAL ENVIRONMENT

During the first eight years, children are developing their visual acuity. Their
perceptions of objects, movement, and print are expanded as they have
opportunities for experiencing interesting visual images. Changes and variations
of design intrigue children and cause them to visually attend to the unusual. The
young child's environment that includes interesting visual aspects draws them to
examine a painting on the wall or recognize a drawing that they have
completed. Displays and panels provide visually interesting content to examine
as children move about in the classroom space. In the past, many early
childhood classrooms were so filled with commercial decorations, materials
and, "stuff" that young children were visually overwhelmed. Today, we are
working to have less clutter and a more organized display of materials and
work, so young children can visually attend to and enjoy the important features
of the environment.


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7.3 AUDITORY ENVIRONMENT

Music and sound patterns stimulate several portions of the young child's brain.
A variety of music and instruments can expand the sound world of young
children, while developing musical enjoyment. Singing in circle time and during
transitions encourages the children to discriminate sounds and identify familiar
patterns. Making music with simple rhythm instruments provides opportunities
for children to connect the object with the sound that it produces and to control
the production. Recordings of vocals, instrumentals, and folk instruments
provide another listening experience that expands the auditory environment for
young children. Providing a special area for group participation, as well as a
center where sounds can be explored individually, can add to the auditory
possibilities of the classroom.
7.4 INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT

Young children make many connections when they participate in meaningful
activities. Integrated activities that connect several types of learning are
particularly effective for preschool children. These experiences provide
stimulation for several portions of the brain and make additional connections
that extend learning. Some of the experiences that are particularly powerful for
integrated learning and building connections are learning centers, thematic
episodes, and projects. To support integrated learning, materials must be readily
accessible to the play areas and stored so that they can be selected and included
in the play. To encourage the continuation of projects, there must be places to
carefully store objects while the work is in progress.

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7.5 EMOTIONAL ENVIRONMENT

It has been suggested that the emotions of children are strongly influenced by
the responsiveness of the caregiver during the first years of life. If the child's joy
is reflected by the caregiver and the emotion is reciprocated, the child's security
is strengthened. If the child's emotion is interpreted as annoying by the
caregiver, the circuits become confused. A caring and responsive caregiver
provides a positive climate for young children that will impact not only
emotional security but also many aspects of cognitive development. Children
who feel secure and supported will experiment, try new things, and express their
ideas. The appropriate emotional environment also respects young children,
while understanding individual differences. This means that each child has a
place to collect "valuable" thingstheir pictures andwork are displayed in the
classroom. There is a place where the child can retreat when things get too busy,
or when he becomes tired.
7.6 INDEPENDENT LEARNERS
An independent learner is able to make personal choices and carry out an
appropriate plan of action. Beginning in infancy and toddlerhood and
continuing throughout childhood, there is the growing need to become an
independent person. Children want to do things for themselves and in their own
way. Pre-schoolers become increasingly competent in making choices, creating
a plan, and following through with a project or experience. If children's ideas
are valued and their interest followed they will work on projects for long
periods of time. This process is supported in an environment where children are
able to revisit and reflect on their plans, while using their knowledge in ways
that are meaningful for them.
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An effective environment is designed so even the youngest of children can
become independent. There are many opportunities for them to be successful as
they work to do things for themselves. They are not dependent on the teacher
and constantly asking for every material they need. An orderly display of
accessible materials grouped together will help children understand that they are
capable of making decisions. The environment will communicate to them, "you
can make the selection, you have good ideas, and you can carry out the plan for
yourself."
8. INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT ON CHILDREN'S BEHAVIOURS
The environment in which young children live tells them how to act and
respond. A large open space in the center of the classroom clearly invites young
children to run across the area. If few materials are available to use, children
will create interesting happenings, including conflict. If the procedures for using
learning centers are not predictable and easily understood, the children will
wander in and out of the areas with little involvement in play. The arrangement
and materials in the environment will determine the areas where children focus
their work. It will also influence the number of conflicts that occur or the way
the group works together. If the materials are hard plastic, the children are
invited to be rough with the objects with little concern for their treatment. If a
beautiful flower arrangement is on the table, they will learn to visually examine
the flowers and gently handle the delicate blooms. Children learn to be
respectful of their environment if they have opportunities to care for beautiful
objects and materials.
9. CHILD-SPACE RELATIONS
There are various concepts of the child-space relation. A widely accepted
concept is the "awareness of the place", which characterizes a larger scope and
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higher synthetic level because it includes other concepts describing human
relationship towards the space. The most cited concepts of this type are:
Binding to a place in space
Identification and
Belonging to a place
Trying to define a place that a child is attached to, it is often said that it is the
space in which a child is happy, and regrets leaving it and feels dissatisfied
when it has to go. However, the real reason for a child's bonding to a certain
place in space is that such place has some special attributes.
9.1 From architectural point of view, a certain space and its arrangement as
the structures with physical characteristics and measurable material attributes
are primarily suitable for physical needs of children. However, it is just one
aspect of child-space relation. The next and higher level of this relation is the
child's feeling of attachment to a certain architectural unit in space, as a
psychological connotation. Thus, the certain ambiance in which a child dwells
with its architectural attributes is not only an answer to child's physical needs
but has some essential qualities, primarily for psycho-social development
(fig. 3). Regarding those facts, it is considered that during latent years of mid
childhood the strong connection with family base gradually weakens and
decreases in the child's experience, and a physical surrounding becomes more
significant through bonding to those places that are architecturally designed in a
certain way.
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Fig. 3 and 4 Space and equipment suitable for needs of a child in certain age
and architectural and ambiance values (Kindergarten "Nido Stelia" in Modena
Italy, 2004.)
When talking about the concept of identification with some place in space, it is
considered that kind of identification represents a "factor in the substructure of
personal identity, which in a larger context consists also from the knowledge of
physical world in which the person lives. Such knowledge consists of
memories, ideas, attitudes, values, preferences, meanings and concepts of
behaviours and experiences which refer to the wide complex of physical
environment and defines, day in day out, existence of every human being". In
the essence of such relation with physical environment is the knowledge of
some architectural space (Fig. 4) in the form of the person's past, experienced in
a certain environment and ambiance. In that way, the past of the person
becomes the part of some place, and architectural space with what constitutes it
and what is set inside of it and makes it an architectural unit, becomes an
instrument that fulfils biological, social and cultural needs of the person using it.
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9.2 SPACE IN THE FUNCTION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STABILITY
OF A CHILD

Fig. 5 and 6 Wavy wall line and new structures on it as dividing element in
spaces for children and simultaneously a gathering place (The basis of ground
and upper level of kindergarten "The Little School", San Francisco, Mark
Horton, 2005.)
The most of knowledge about identification with certain environment suggests
that dwelling in the environment that children attach pleasant feelings to, causes
reduction of anxiety and helps them in daily social relations when certain
psychological "stresses" should be sustained and when a child needs a help in
self-preservation. Thus, a degree of attachment to certain architectural
environment and feelings that a child may develop for it, suggest that those
factors contribute in development of key aspects of persons identity, especially
regarding self-respect and self-pity. This model of person's identity holds
potential for understanding of phenomenon that formation of a personal identity
of a child is also achieved through development of certain feelings for some
architectural ambiances and building specific relations with them.
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Fig. 7 and 8 Architectural expression finding place in the child's mind and
making emotional attachment (The ground level layout and characteristic look
of kindergarten in Caesarea in Israel, T.Klimor and D.Knafo, 2006.)
The concept of phenomenon of a belonging feeling to a certain environment is
related to certain advantages of an architectural ambiance and potential to
achieve certain aims of behaviour. That concept gives an answer to the question
why a given specific environment is more suitable for something that someone
likes doing than the others. This principle is defined as a possibility of
belonging to a certain place in space and arises as a result of the way the quality
of relationship to a certain place is experienced. The belonging to a space is
different from attachment to a certain environment in two ways: May have a
negative connotation when a given space limits achieving a value as a result and
Strong impression of experiences in a certain environment can be less based
upon fulfilment of specific goals of behaviour than on feelings. Attachment to a
certain architectural space, identification with it, and possibility of regulating
privacy and recovering of environment results in appearance of favourite place
phenomenon. A place with such attributes has the role of regulating the relation
between personal and emotional in a person, after some sudden and conflict
situation. It is the place that allows an individual to amortize the negative and to
reactivate positive emotions. Sometimes there occurs an anthropomorphic
phenomenon when the favourite space is given a nickname. Thus, positive
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forms of relation to a certain place in the favourable space fulfil emotional
needs of a child and help in developing and maintaining identity.
10. DISCOVERING WHAT KIDS LIKE.
10.1 Bedroom
The best kids bedrooms are shaped around functions like sleep, play, be with
friends or spend solo time and around the kids themselves their ages, interests,
personalities, and imaginations.
The younger the child, the more simple the room should be. A toddler is happy
with a few open toy bins at floor level, while most preteens need ample shelving
and drawer space. A small childs room should have zones readied for crafts,
games, and reading, as well as generous floor space for active play. Older
children dont need such compartmentalized areas, but their rooms should still
have at least three zones: for homework, for sitting with friends, and for
sleeping.
Every child welcomes a place to relax or decompress. Reserve the quietest,
cosiest corner for the retreat, then structure the rest of the room around it.
Platforms, two-sided cabinetry, and archways help define different zones, while
lofts, nooks, pass-through and secret hide-away add intrigue.





Fig 9 . Simple bedroom with
storage, study space, corner
bed and floor space

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10.2 Toddler Territory

Whether rollicking on the floor, rolling a toy truck, or rapt in a storybook,
toddlers are keenly engaged in every experience. A toddlers room should not
only be a cheerful, enabling environment, but it should also be part of the
adventure. Stow toys where they are easy for toddlers to see and reach, using a
dynamic mix of colourful shelves and open bins. Add a storage/play structure
shaped like a car, horse or train or something.
Cover low walls with chalkboard or magnetic paint. Cluster colouring books,
puzzles, and skill-building games alongside a kid-size table and seats.
Reserve plenty of open floor space. Toddlers need room to run around, play
with big toys, or stretch out on the rug. Just as important: a soft-surfaced,
enveloping corner where kids can curl up and rest.
10.3 Choosing Colour

What colours are best for a childs room? The answer depends partly on the
room and partly on the childs nature.
Light colours expand space and darks lend intimacy. Cool colours such as blues
and greens are soothing, while warm reds, oranges and yellows are stimulating.
By age three or four, children have favourite colours. Use these colours to give
their rooms a personal flavour. To find a winning palette, let the child to choose
their favourite from primary and secondary colours. Next, ask for a second and
third choice. Sort through and refine the choices but a variety of selections.
The least intense shade probably is best as the dominant room colour. Use
another favourite colour for a third of the rooms finishes, such as on molding
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or cabinetry. Top off the scheme with accents in the third tone. Ensure the
colours stay true and appealing throughout the day and under different lighting.
10.4 Grand School Districts

Life is big and bold for grade school children. They are making new friends,
discovering new interests and activities, embracing the latest fads, and
delighting in make-believe. Thats why bold ideas are just right for school
childs bedroom. Go ahead with the vibrant colours, canopy beds etc. Kids this
age love surroundings drenched with atmosphere.
They also invest energy and enthusiasm in the sports and hobbies theyve
developed an interest in. Set up part of the room as a dedicated space for sports
equipment, model plane projects, jewellery making etc. Incorporate shelves and
display walls around the room for handiwork, collections, posters, and prizes.
10.5 The Right Mix Of Lighting.

With good lighting, a child room is safer and more pleasant to use. The room
needs both overall ambient lighting and channelled task lighting. Decorative
accent lights are icing on the cake.
Ceiling fixtures should illuminate the whole room, leaving no shadowy corners.
Adjustable track lighting can provide either ambient or task lighting, and they
can be repositioned easily if the room is reorganized.
Nonglare task lighting should evenly illuminate the entire work or play area.
For full coverage, ceiling lights for a desk should be as far behind as the desk
18 in. behind an 18 in. desk, for instance. Reading lights should beam over the
readers shoulder.
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Do not forget natural light. If windows are skimpy or absent, consider adding a
skylight.
10.6 Pre Teens Preference

Preteens want to express who they are, but they also want to be like their
friends. The result is a room that should make two statements: This is me, and
Im cool. Girls may prefer feminine themes while boys may go extreme themes,
featuring sports, science or outer space. Expansive storage space would be
required. Prominent display around the room defining as a source of
encouragement.
10.7 Powering Up

As kids grow up, so do their electrical needs. They steadily accumulate
electronic equipment, from computers and phones to audio systems, DVD
players, accent lights, hair irons etc. Plan ahead for this surge of power usage by
installing ample wiring and outlets.
11. EXPERIENCING DESIGN: IMPACT OF DESIGN ON CHILD
DEVELOPMENT

Three main elements of the physical environment are viewed as the key
contributors to a quality physical environment: size and flexibility, inside-
outside connections, and safety.
11.1 Importance of size and flexibility
Size is the primary consideration for all, describing how space and a feeling
of space were critical to quality. Concurrently, the flexibility of that space is
seen as an important contributor to quality. Educators describe how large space
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give children room to work, dilute the noise and make visual supervision easier.
Flexibility means a room could be easily changed to keep up with childrens
imaginations and ensure they were not bored.
11.2 Importance of inside-outside connections
The connections between the inside-outside is extremely important and having
a large and interesting natural outdoor space is critical for childrens learning.
They valued spaces that were light and airy, with large windows and
connections to the outdoors - one centre had a large veranda which was utilised
often and highly valued.
When questioned about how they would spend money to improve childrens
learning outcomes, a common response was to enhance the outdoor experience,
especially providing gardens that would grow food, were colourful and scented,
and incorporated wind chimes and stepping stones for exploration. Educators
also desired more outdoor access, natural spaces and obstacle equiptment (e.g.
Soft fall outside and a play fort). Interestingly, while one educator desired a
natural backyard and grass, she felt that as so many children now have grass
allergies that might be impractical.
11.3 Importance of safety and supervision
Safety and supervision were overarching issues associated with judgements of
quality about the physical environment. At a more abstract level, educators
explained how as this was childrens first time away from their families,
everyone needed to feel happy to leave mum and know that theyll be safe and
theyre capable and theyll enjoy being in this environment. Good design
enabled this transition giving children and parents a feeling of confidence and
enabling educators to focus on teaching, rather than on always monitoring
potential hazards. Educators commented that while safety was predominantly
for the child, the physical environment needed to be safe and usable by the
34

teachers. They emphasised windows between rooms for active and easy
monitoring and the elimination of design hazards, such as stairs and cords, so
the children would feel and be safe in the space.
12. IMPACT OF SPATIAL QUALITY:
SPACE, LIGHT, COLOUR, NOISE AND MATERIALS

Best practice design guidelines for early childhood centres emphasise how
specific elements of spatial quality (space, light, colour, noise and materials)
impact on childrens learning and development. Specifically, the best layout of
a learning environment is modified open-plan facilities, retaining the best of
open and closed plan facilities. Research has explored vertical space (i.e.,
height), found that continuous bland ceilings had a negative impact on a childs
cooperative behaviour whereas differentiated ceiling height have a positive
impact, creating different experiences and social exchange. Lighting should be
selected to suit the activity and the space, providing flexibility in natural and
artificial light to meet various tasks and mood requirements, whilst colour can
create a sense of place, communicate information, create landmarks for spatial
orientation and encourage cooperative behaviour through variation. Exposure to
uncontrollable noise has a negative impact on childrens cognitive development,
reducing memory, language and reading skills.
The sensory world is also a rich source of information, with the materials and
finishes used offering a good source of variety and tactile sensory stimulation.
13. INTERIOR DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Spaces should be designed to ensure safety, provide clear supervision and
contain a range of program areas that are age appropriate and support
35

development. The space should be designed, finished and furnished to
encourage children to be engaged in a safe and comfortable environment.
The space should include a variety of open spaces along with smaller more
intimate spaces. The space should be designed to be flexible and support a
variety of activities such as quiet and active play, creative play, resting, and
eating. The finishes, colours, layout, furnishings and staff amenities need to be
carefully considered to support these various activities. The design should
encourage children to both explore the room, engage in different activities while
providing the clues and the design elements that allow other activities to occur
simultaneously.
Planning for and providing ample storage for both materials and equipment is
important. Anticipating the areas in which cots will be stored must be
considered. If stored in the playroom, cots are counted as an obstruction and
cannot be included as part of the calculation for capacity. Well designed and
adequate storage contributes to the organization and accessibility to things
needed for each program and group of children. Keeping the space uncluttered
improves the flow of movement from one activity space to another and
minimizes children interrupting the play of others.
Toddler Room Considerations
A toddler room should be designed to encourage and support independence,
while strengthening social skills. Materials and developmentally-appropriate
toys should be easily accessible on open shelves. Child-sized furnishings and
equipment, designated areas with concrete guidance cues (i.e. quiet area,
cognitive area, and book corner) and the flow of the room must also be
considered.
36

Toddlers are busy children, so they need open spaces to move and experiment
with a variety of toys and equipment. Room colour, natural lighting, a space to
move and develop growing muscles, and a variety of textures must be factored
into an inclusive physical environment for toddlers. Areas for small group
activities with multiple toys that promote parallel and social play, will help the
toddler develop decision making skill

14.
Fig 10 and 11 Modern
Toddler Room design
37

14. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
The following should be considered in the design of a child space.
14.1 Natural and Artificial Light
14.1.1 Natural
Natural light and views are a high priority. Operable windows are preferred
even when building is air conditioned. Window openings should be at a higher
level, out of childrens reach.
Exterior windows promote engagement with the outside world.
Windows that open into corridors or between rooms help children to see
themselves as part of a larger community. They also permit visual surveillance
by staff from adjoining rooms.
Each room must have clear window glass that is the equivalent of 10% of the
floor space to ensure natural light. Light can be shared from one room to the
next by enlarging existing windows or cutting out windows between rooms,
however, it will not be counted in the calculation of direct light.
14.1.2 Artificial
Florescent lighting is the most efficient and cost effective form of artificial
lighting. If they are to be used, it is recommended that bulbs are selected that
provide the most natural colour mix. Fixture covers can lessen the glare of
florescent lighting. Whenever possible florescent lighting should be
supplemented with incandescent or halogen lights and sconces installed on a
separate light switch.
A range of lighting will provide program areas with the light needed for
specific tasks or atmosphere.
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Dimmer switches should be provided in sleep and/or quiet areas.
Each room should have its own light switch. Windows
Windows shall be provided with a regulator preventing them from opening
more than 100 mm (4 in.) where it is possible for a child to access the window
or for all windows located above the first floor.
Consider making the upper portion of the window a minimum 1000 mm (3)
above the floor.
Select high performance windows and screens to reduce operating costs and to
reduce drafts.
14.2 Window Coverings
Easily cleaned or vacuumed window treatments, such as shades should be
used. Curtains can cause health concerns.
Cords should be eliminated or secured in a manner that it they are kept out of
reach of children.
In sleep areas window coverings should effectively block the light, be
accessible to staff and easy to use.
Use of PVC mini-blinds can be hazardous to the health of children and should
not be used.
14.3 Hardware
Install lever door hardware throughout.
Consider accessibility, i.e. level of hardware etc.
All doors must be operable from the interior without the use of a key.
39

Building code requirements can conflict with program and security
requirements; therefore consider security and exiting issues early in the design
process.
Check with local fire and building departments regarding use of magnetic
locks and electronic hold open devices for doors.
Door closures should be slow-release as they close.
Analyse different keying and access systems. Options include proximity
readers, card system, numeric pads, and keys. Ensure selected system is
compatible with auto door opener and security system.
Install locks on all storage, closet, and cabinet doors.
14.4 Doors
At room entrance dutch doors with glazed top and bottom panels are
recommended.
Provide solid core doors with double glazed vision panels when sound
transmission is a concern. Provided sound seal gasket and impact bumpers to
further reduce noise.41
Sleep Room (if provided) and Play Activity Room doors should be wide
enough to allow easy manoeuvring and evacuation of cribs in case of
emergency. Consider 1000 mm (3 ft 4 in) wide doors.
14.5 Finishes
14.5.1 Floor - General
Consideration should be given to the existing floor temperature in infant and
toddler areas. For example, if the floor is a concrete slab over an unheated space
40

consideration may be given to selecting a floor material or a floor system to
mitigate this problem.
Select floors that are durable, easy to clean, and maintain.
Consider installing sheet flooring material and vinyl tile in various colours and
patterns.
The surfaces of ramps, landings and stair treads shall have a finish that is slip
resistant and have either a colour contrast or a distinctive pattern to demarcate
the leading edge of the stair tread, landing, as well as, the beginning and end of
ramp.
In rooms where: food and/or drink are prepared, stored, or served, and in
washrooms, floors and floor coverings shall be tight, smooth and non-absorbent.
A coved base should be installed.
It is recommended the entry vestibule floors should be non-slip with coved
base.
14.5.2 Carpets
If carpet is desirable, consider carpet tiles.
Choose non-abrasive materials with a non-slip backing.
Care should be taken that carpet edges are bound and flat to avoid tripping.
Secure area rugs to prevent tripping hazards.
In sleeping areas, carpet should be dense and low pile, glue down type for ease
of crib movement.
Conducive to high frequency of clean/washing.

41

14.5.3 Walls
Install abuse-resistant gypsum board.
Install cement board in all wet areas.
Install wall protectors and corner guards on the lower half of the wall in high
use areas.
Consider materials such as vinyl wall covering for durability and ease of
maintenance, Vinyl provides a tackable surface from floor to ceiling.
14.5.4 Paint
Choose high-quality, washable paint.
Carefully consider the various paint sheens available and the appropriateness
for each area and surface.
14.6 CABINETS - GENERAL
Counters to have post-formed, coved back-splash. Counters to be surfaced
with impervious material that is easy to maintain.
Provide solid edging in either vinyl or wood on all cabinet doors and shelves.
It is recommended that all millwork be constructed with durable and easily
cleanable surface such as plastic laminate or melamine (including the interior of
the cabinets).
Provide locks on door and drawers where required.
Use heavy duty 110 degree hinges and full extension drawer slides.


42

14.6.1 SIZE AND DESIGN
Cabinets designed to store equipment or personal belongings intended to be
accessible to children should be low to promote childrens independence.
The design of moveable storage units contributes to program flexibility.
Refer to specific program areas for recommended dimensions.
14.7 SAFETY AND SECURITY
14.7.1 GLAZING
Interior and exterior glazing: provide protective firm, laminated and or
tempered glass in areas that glass could be broken. Laminated glass and safety
film provides a higher level of security than tempered glass. Refer to OBC for
additional requirements.
Interior doors should have a view window 100mm x 610 mm (4 x 25) so
that all spaces in the building can be supervised. Provide interior windows to
improve sight lines.
14.7.2 ATTACHMENT OF EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
Provide solid blocking in walls. Attach cabinets, book cases, grab bars, hand
rails, guards, etc. through wall board and into blocking or other approved
fastening device.
14.7.3 PLUMBING
Provide gooseneck, single lever faucets with high limit temperature control for
all hand basins.
14.7.4 ELECTRICAL
Locate electrical outlets in sufficient number to prevent unnecessary extension
of cords for equipment and fixtures.
43

Install safety coverings on all electrical outlets not in use.
Ensure safety of children when specifying electric baseboard heaters.
Consider location of lighting in relation to security cameras.
Establish location for security monitor and recording device. Remote latches,
auto door openers, and intercom must also be coordinated with each other as
part of the entire system.
Consider use of sound monitoring devices in areas such as the sleep
room/area. Fire
Ensure heat detectors, smoke alarms, and carbon monoxide detectors are
installed in locations as required by OBC and local Fire Department. If
sprinklers are required ensure that adequate coverage is provided to all areas,
including storage rooms and closets.
Supply and install fire extinguishers.
Prepare and post a fire safety and emergency plan.
Safety plan to be submitted to Local Fire Department for approval.
The approved Fire Safety Plan must be used to prepare and post a fire safety
and emergency plan.
Ensure areas for posters, artwork, etc. do not exceed permitted wall area for
combustible materials. Consult with local Fire Department.
14.7.5 PROJECTIONS AND FURNITURE PLACEMENT
Controls of casement type windows tend to be at childrens eye level and may
cause injury.
Avoid window projections into room and outer playground. 44
44

Avoid protruding window sills with square edges.
All fire exists must remain accessible in the case of an emergency, this is a
Fire Code Requirement. Design entrance ways, corridors and all required exits
large enough to ensure furnishings, equipment, strollers etc. that are used in the
day-to-day activities of the centre have adequate space.
Ensure furnishings do not obstruct barrier free path of travel.
Secure furniture such as book cases or other items that could topple directly
off the wall.
Select place and design furnishings in a manner that dont create a hazard for
children. For example, do not have openings of a size where a child may get
their head stuck.
Carefully consider location of bulletin boards, dispensers or other objects that
have materials or contents that may spill, become detached or grabbed by
children.
14.8 FURNISHINGS
Indicate furniture layout on concept drawings. Selected equipment and
furnishings to be
co-coordinated with respect to electrical locations requirements, phone outlets
and data wiring. Furnishings and equipment should fit into proposed space.
When designing or purchasing moveable furnishings, ensure they are sturdy
and not prone to toppling.
Consider floor space and storage requirements for furnishings that are to be
stored or folded away.
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15. LANDSCAPE CONSIDERATIONS
Landscaping is a vital part of an outdoor play environment and is
complementary to all types of play activities. Landscape design should consider
the:
Topography.
A variety of colours, textures, and surfaces.
Protection from the sun, wind, and noise.
Select plants that are responsive to the changing seasons. Design proper
drainage of all surfaces.
Rocks and Debris
During the construction of a play area, remove all rocks and debris larger than
100mm (4 in.) to a depth of 300 mm (1 ft).
Drainage
Slope grade of playground away from the building.
Provide either concrete curbs, logs, or timbers around sand areas to seal in
water and impede drainage. Avoid locating sandboxes below ground level as
this creates the potential for a child to fall in.
Avoid crossing play areas with drainage swales which might cause children to
fall.
Provide a drainage system so that the playground is not greatly affected by wet
weather.
Drainage is important in sand play areas as well as the ground under the swings
and slides as these areas tend to become the lowest points.
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Recommended Surface Slopes for Drainage are:
0 to 2% slope for resilient surfacing, provided with under drainage.
2% minimum slope and cross-slope for asphalt surfaces.
1% minimum slope for concrete surfaces.
2% minimum slope for open lawn areas.
Maximum 5% longitudinal slope for paved areas.
Grass Hills and Slopes
If space permits, provide a grassy hill, natural or constructed, as part of each
play area.
Typical earth-form slopes should not exceed:
3:1for movable grass areas.
2:1 for cut of fill slopes with erosion-control matting and special non-movable
ground covers.
16. EXTERIOR DESIGN AND PLAY ELEMENTS
16.1 ACTIVE PLAY
The active play area of a playground should consist of both a physical play area
and a social play area. This will allow children to have the opportunity to
develop gross motor skills and to socialize with other children.
The equipment in the physical play area should provide challenges which
promote childrens overall development without creating hazards. The design of
this area should allow for sequential movement from activity to activity.
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16.2 PHYSICAL PLAY AREA
Play equipment and furnishings must be provided in numbers that are adequate
for the licensed capacity of the centre.
A range of type and design that meet the needs of the children enrolled should
be included with concern for all ages and with respect to their developmental
levels and the type of program offered at the centre.
The play equipment should be sufficient in quantity to allow for rotation and
include equipment for gross motor activity in the playground area.
All playground equipment must meet the standards contained in the CSA.
All play equipment must be age appropriate.
Play equipment should be arranged so that children are able to approach, use,
and exit from the equipment safely.
All ferrous metals should be treated to prevent corrosion.
Whenever possible, locate metal surfaces in shaded area.
16.3 SOCIAL PLAY AREA
The social play area should be inviting and comfortable. Consider a
landscaped enclosure to produce such an effect.
Design for a well-shaded garden table with chairs and benches placed in a
central location adjacent to, or bordering the physical play area, for discussions
with other children and with the teacher.
Consider including a non-climbable playhouse and other structures to
encourage imaginative play.
An outdoor storage cupboard or box is ideal for storing loose materials in the
social play area.
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Ensure that sight lines are unobstructed to ensure full supervision.
16.4 QUIET PLAY
Children can enjoy a quiet time out of doors for reflection, to discover the
wonders of nature, or to read a book. Areas set aside away from the more active
play areas can be peaceful and encourage individual and/or small group
learning.
The main elements for a quiet play area are sandplay, blockplay, seats, grass,
and shade.
To accommodate block play, provide a soft surface conveniently near the
building.
Avoid hard surfaces for block play as blocks are easily damaged when
dropped and are noisy on hard surfaces.
16.5 NATURE PLAY
The main elements for a nature play area are a variety of plant life and trees
which allow observation of the seasons, different natural textures (e.g.
smoothed boulders), and possibly a vegetable garden which allows the children
a sense of achievement through cultivation and observation of the vegetation.
17. CONCLUSION

Young children respond differently, based on the design of the environment in
which they live. An effectively designed space has the potential for positively
influencing all areas of children's development: physical, social /emotional, and
cognitive.
Language and learning are nurtured in an environment that values and plans
appropriate opportunities.
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The environment can support the development of behaviours that are valued in
our society, such as cooperation and persistence.
An aesthetically pleasing space can develop a child's appreciation for the
beautiful world around them.
There would not be any kind of activity if, first, the relationships on a personal
level and the use of Space had not been explored
The knowledge of childhood cognitive growth and development is crucial.
The researches exploring potential of the relations in child-space relationship
have found that when children are missing interpersonal support backup in their
daily environment need for such relations they compensate by relying on
themselves and resorting environmental resources.
The concept of "awareness" of some place as a general concept of synthetic type
consists of three different forms of the child-space relation and those are:
Attachment to some place in space, identification and belonging to a certain
place. A child attaches to a certain place in the period of increase of the
importance of physical environment while binding to a family base slowly
weakens. A child feels comfortable and happy in a certain place when he space
responds to a child's physical as well as psychological needs. The previous
experiences become a part of some place, the space and what belongs to it, that
is in it, becomes an instrument that may satisfy some biological, social and
cultural needs. That concept gives an answer to the question why given specific
environment is more suitable for something that someone likes doing and is in
advantage over the others. The possibility of regulating privacy and
renewability of a space of environment results in occurrence of favourite place
phenomenon. Thus, positive forms of relation to a certain place in the space that
is favourable for spending time fulfil emotional needs of a child and help in
developing and maintaining its identity.
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18. PSYCHOLOGY OF ABANDONED CHILDREN:

18.1 ABSTRACT

The intention behind bringing this topic into
dissertation is to bring to light the complex
psychological phenomenon so that it could be
useful in understanding and trying to be helpful
to people struggling with abandonment.
18.2 ABANDONED CHILD SYNDROME

Abandoned child syndrome is a behavioural or psychological condition that
results primarily from the loss of one or both parents, or sexual abuse.
Abandonment may be physical (the parent is not present in the child's life) or
emotional (the parent withholds affection, nurturing, or stimulation).
Parents who leave their children, whether with or without good reason, can
cause psychological damage to the child. This damage is reversible, but only
with appropriate assistance. Abandoned children may also often suffer physical
damage from neglect, malnutrition, starvation, and abuse.
Abandonment experiences and boundary violations are in no way indictments of
a child's innate goodness and value. Instead, they reveal the flawed thinking,
false beliefs, and impaired behaviours of those who hurt them. Still, the wounds
are struck deep in their young hearts and minds, and the very real pain can still
be felt today. The causes of emotional injury need to be understood and
accepted so they can heal. Until that occurs, the pain will stay with them,
becoming a driving force in their adult lives.

Fig 12.Psychology of abandoned
child
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18.3 CAUSES

When children are raised with chronic loss, without the psychological or
physical protection they need and certainly deserve, it is most natural for them
to internalize incredible fear. Not receiving the necessary psychological or
physical protection equals abandonment. And, living with repeated
abandonment experiences creates toxic shame. Shame arises from the painful
message implied in abandonment: "You are not important. You are not of
value." This is the pain from which people need to heal.
For some children abandonment is primarily physical. Physical abandonment
occurs when the physical conditions necessary for thriving have been replaced
by:
Lack of appropriate supervision
Inadequate provision of nutrition and meals
Inadequate clothing, housing, heat, or shelter
Physical and/or sexual abuse
18.4 SYMPTOMS

Symptoms may be physical or mental, and may extend into adulthood and
perhaps throughout a person's life.
Alienation from the environment - withdrawal from social activities, resistance
towards others
Guilt - the child believes that he/she did something wrong that caused the
abandonment (often associated with depression).
Fear and uncertainty - "clinginess", insecurities
Sleep and eating disorders - malnutrition, starvation, disturbed sleep,
nightmares.
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Physical ailments - fatigue, drug and alcohol abuse, anxiety, depression, lack of
energy and creativity, anger, grief.
18.5 CHILDREN DEPRIVED OF PARENTAL CARE

Children around the world are often raised outside of a home environment and
without the care of either biological or adopted parents. Without a parent as a
natural advocate and protector, these children are particularly vulnerable.
Every child who is temporarily or permanently deprived of his or her family
environment is entitled to special protection and assistance provided by the
state. Children may be placed in institutions such as orphanages, group homes,
foster family homes, relative placements, hospitals or other institutions charged
with their care. Through these alternative care settings, the government must
ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the
child.
Ironically, these placements are often harmful to children. Many children face
grossly substandard and over-crowded facilities, inadequate and at times
inhumane care, physical and sexual abuse, cruel and degrading treatment, and
life-threatening deprivation. Even in some institutions that are clean and provide
adequate food, staff neglect children; babies are left to lie alone in cribs or small
beds with no stimulation, play, or adult attention; adolescents are not provided
the guidance and care needed to prepare for adulthood. Children and youth are
often denied contact with extended family members and communities.
Educational opportunities are frequently lacking and medical care abysmal.
Denied the help and care of a natural family, many of these children and youth
are further disadvantaged by systems that perpetuate abuse and neglect.


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18.6 UNDERSTANDING THE PAIN OF ABANDONMENT

Children are totally dependent on caretakers to provide safety in their
environment. When they do not, they grow up believing that the world is an
unsafe place, that people are not to be trusted, and that they do not deserve
positive attention and adequate care.
Emotional abandonment occurs when parents do not provide the emotional
conditions and the emotional environment necessary for healthy development. I
like to define emotional abandonment as "occurring when a child has to hide a
part of who he or she is in order to be accepted, or to not be rejected."
Disapproval toward children is aimed at their entire beings or identity rather
than a particular behaviour, such as telling a child he is worthless when he does
not do his homework.
Many times abandonment issues are fused with distorted, confused, or
undefined boundaries such as:
o When parents do not view children as separate beings with distinct
boundaries
o When parents expect children to be extensions of themselves.
o When parents are not willing to take responsibility for their feelings,
thoughts, and behaviours, but expect children to take responsibility for
them
o When parents' self-esteem is derived through their child's behaviour
o When children are treated as peers with no parent/child distinction
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Abandonment plus distorted boundaries, at a time when children are developing
their sense of worth, is the foundation for the belief in their own inadequacy and
the central cause of their shame.
Abandonment experiences and boundary violations are in no way indictments of
a child's innate goodness and value. Instead, they reveal the flawed thinking,
false beliefs, and impaired behaviours of those who hurt them. Still, the wounds
are struck deep in their young hearts and minds, and the very real pain can still
be felt today. The causes of emotional injury need to be understood and
accepted so they can heal. Until that occurs, the pain will stay with them,
becoming a driving force in their adult lives.
18.7 PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ABANDONMENT ON
CHILDREN
Low Self-Esteem
Long-term effects of abandonment influence how a person feels about herself
and her sense of self-worth. As a teenager or adult, coping mechanisms may be
inadequate when managing painful situations, and a person with a history of
abandonment may have difficulty relating with a spouse or partner.
Anxiety
Children aware they were abandoned may later show signs of anxiety while
relating to caregivers or important people in their lives. Although if they were
adopted into loving families, the children still deal with severe anxiety as
manifested by difficulty separating from parents, sleep issues and controlling
behaviour.


55

Attachment
An abandoned child may have difficulty forming lasting bonds with others,
particularly new caregivers. A child being cared for after abandonment may not
attach with a new family and remain indifferent toward family members. He
may have a lack of trust in others, fearing the departure of someone else
important to him. By not allowing himself to bond with others, he rationalizes
that he will not feel hurt again if he is rejected.
Insecurity
Children with abandonment issues may have difficulty expressing their
emotions: Children who have experienced parental abandonment may also have
difficulty sharing their feelings. They tend to keep their emotions bottled up and
lack the trust necessary to share their true selves with others.
End
Theres no really good way to tell how a child will adapt to rejection or
abandonment from their parent. Children continue to readjust to the world
around them and their inner selves as they mature. What might have been very
difficult as a young child may be easier to comprehend as a teen. Or something
that an elementary school child was oblivious to might become painfully clear
when they get to middle school.
Mental health counselling is sometimes helpful for a child in this situation. But
not every child needs this much help necessarily. And even with all the love,
support, help, or counselling, there is no way to truly replace the missing parent.
There is no cure for the normal intense feelings of a child who knows they have
been abandoned by one of the people they should have counted on the most. No
matter why the parent has left, children in this situation have a hole in their
heart. They have a long hill to climb, but life can still be good.
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APPENDIX 1: ENVISIONING OUR FUTURE ENVIRONMENT AND
CHILDREN

The word Environment is quite ambiguous depending on to whom you talk.
Some may think just about nature, some may simply consider their
surroundings, or some may include the entire Earth. The connotation of the
Environment is diverse and many people treat it like air, i.e., something that is
always there, but not visible until something changes, or goes wrong. Public
awareness of our environment and peoples contributions for a better
environment has reached a critical point and it requires everyones, not just
professionals, daily effort to improve our environment at every level from the
backyard to the overall ecosystem. Because of the different way people
conceptualize the Environment, there are big disconnections in our actions
especially in-between natural and built environments. The effects of the built
environment are so significant, it cannot be ignored. Protecting and sustaining is
simply not enough. After all, both natural and built environments are a part of
the whole environment along with social and cultural environments. We cannot
solve our environmental problems and concerns without having an overall
picture of the integrated elements. Going forward, the future of environmental
education will require a more holistic approach as well as many invitations to
people with various interests to interact and work on interdisciplinary
collaborations from a scientist to an artist. We need innovative ideas that touch
peoples hearts and help people think creatively to the extent that everyone is
actually doing something and working together while fully utilizing their
different talents. What we are really creating is not limited to effective
sustainable materials and technology, but also a humanistic mentality and well-
rounded education that move the world and people of all ages with passion and
joy. Young children have a natural way of looking at their world full of
imagination and the sound of inner voices. The world and its environment were
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integrated before someone decided to separately teach math, science, etc., which
works in many respects, but sometimes, it loses its original configuration of
how things really are. Our environment holds all educational elements and
opportunities for children to learn just as it is without breaking it into pieces as
academic subjects. It is very important for children to have that holistic view of
their world, and to associate it with physical experiences through their five
senses. How can one imagine a beautiful forest if s/he only sees a leaf?
Our environment is always there. We are surrounded by lots of natural and
designed things, but do we really see what is around us? Not always, but
children do because they are the most sensitive and sensible creatures left in the
world. They can, and should, contribute to the design of their own environments
from the moment they enter the world to ensure a sustainable future and a
beautiful life.

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APPENDIX 2 : SCHEMES AND PROGRAMMES ON CHILD PROTECTION

Some of the existing child protection schemes and programmes include: A
Programme for Juvenile Justice for children in need of care and protection and
children in conflict with law. The Government of India provides financial
assistance to the State Governments/UT Administrations for establishment and
maintenance of various homes, salary of staff, food, clothing, etc. for children in
need of care and protection and juveniles in conflict with law. Financial
assistance is based on proposals submitted by States on a 50-50 cost sharing
basis.
An Integrated Programme for Street Children without homes and family ties.
Under the scheme NGOs are supported to run 24 hours drop-in shelters and
provide food, clothing, shelter, non-formal education, recreation, counselling,
guidance and referral services for children. The other components of the scheme
include enrolment in schools, vocational training, occupational placement,
mobilizing preventive health services and reducing the incidence of drug and
substance abuse, HIV/AIDS etc.
CHILDLINE Service for children in distress, especially children in need of
care and protection so as to provide them medical services, shelter, rescue from
abuse, counselling, repatriation and rehabilitation. Under this initiative, a
telephone helpline, number 1098, runs in 74 urban and semi-urban centres in the
country.
Shishu Greha Scheme for care and protection of orphans/abandoned/destitute
infants or children up to 6 years and promote in-country adoption for
rehabilitating them.
Scheme for Working Children in Need of Care and Protection for children
working as domestic workers, at roadside dhabas, mechanic shops, etc. The
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scheme provides for bridge education and vocational training, medicine, food,
recreation and sports equipments.
Rajiv Gandhi National Creche Scheme for the Children of Working Mothers in
the age group of 0- 6 years. The scheme provides for comprehensive day-care
services including facilities like food, shelter, medical, recreation, etc. to
children below 6 years of age.
Pilot Project to Combat the Trafficking of women and Children for
Commercial Sexual Exploitation in Source and Destination Areas for providing
care and protection to trafficked and sexually abused women and children.
Components of the scheme include networking with law enforcement agencies,
rescue operation, temporary shelter for the victims, repatriation to hometown
and legal services.
National Child Labour Project (NCLP) for the rehabilitation of child labour.
Under the scheme, Project Societies at the district level are fully funded for
opening up of Special Schools/Rehabilitation Centres for the rehabilitation of
child labourers. These Special Schools/Rehabilitation Centers provide non-
formal education, vocational training, supplementary nutrition and stipend to
children withdrawn from employment.
INDO-US Child Labour Project (INDUS): The Ministry of Labour,
Government of India and the US Department of Labour have initiated a project
aimed at eliminating child labour in 10 hazardous sectors across 21 districts in
five States namely, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh
and NCT of Delhi.


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3. Roger M. Downs and David Stea, Eds., Image and Environment:
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4. Sarah Scott, 2010, Architecture for children, Aust Council for Ed
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5. Shunsuke Itoh,2001,Children and the Physical Environment in School
Settings, Report submitted to Danish Building and Urban Research (By og
Byg)
6. Wendy A.Jordan, 2005, New Kidspace idea book, Taunton home.
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8. Abandoned child syndrome, Wikipedia.