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Original Title: Physics 1 to 4 Formulas

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d = displacement (in m)

d2 = final position (in m)

d1 = initial position (in m)

__________________________________________________________________________________

t = time interval (in s)

t2 = final time (in s)

t1 = initial time (in s)

__________________________________________________________________________________

v "bar" = average velocity (in m/s)

d = d = displacement (in m)

d2 = final position (in m)

d1 = initial position (in m)

t = t = time interval (in s)

t2 = final time (in s)

t1 = initial time (in s)

__________________________________________________________________________________

a "bar" = average acceleration (in m/s2)

v = change in velocity (in m/s)

v2 = final velocity (in m/s)

v1 = initial velocity (in m/s)

t = time interval (in s)

t2 = final time (in s)

t1 = initial time (in s)

__________________________________________________________________________________

a = acceleration (in m/s2)

v = change in velocity (in m/s)

vf = final velocity (in m/s)

vi = initial velocity (in m/s)

t = time interval (in s)

__________________________________________________________________________________

vf = final velocity (in m/s)

vi = inital velocity (in m/s)

a = acceleration (in m/s2)

t = time (in s)

d = displacement (in m)

__________________________________________________________________________________

vf = final velocity (in m/s)

vi = inital velocity (in m/s)

t = time (in s)

d = displacement (in m)

_________________________________________________________________________________

vi = inital velocity (in m/s)

a = acceleration (in m/s2)

t = time (in s)d = displacement (in m)

__________________________________________________________________________________

vf = final velocity (in m/s)

vi = inital velocity (in m/s)

a = acceleration (in m/s2)

d = displacement (in m)

g = - 9.80 m/s2

__________________________________________________________________________________

Forces

__________________________________________________________________________________

FNET = net force (in N)

m = mass (in kg)

a = acceleration (in m/s2)

____________________________________________________________________________________

W = weight (in N)

m = mass (in kg)

g = acceleration due to gravity (9.80 m /s2)

____________________________________________________________________________________

Ff = frictional force (in N)

= coefficient of friction (unitless)

FN = normal force (in N)

____________________________________________________________________________________

at constant velocity only

Ff = frictional force (in N)

FA = applied force (in N)

__________________________________________________________________________________ __

on a horizontal surface only

FN = normal force (in N)

W = weight (in N)

____________________________________________________________________________________

at constant velocity on a horizontal surface only

FA = applied force (in N)

= coefficient of friction (unitless)

W = weight (in N)

____________________________________________________________________________________

N)

K = Universal gravitation constant = 6.67 X 10-11 Nm2/kg2

m1 and m2 = masses of the two objects (each in kg)

d = distance between the centers of the objects (in m)

____________________________________________________________________________________

Vectors

____________________________________________________________________________________

Pythagorean theorem relating the lengths of the legs (a and b)

to the hypotenuse (c) in a right triangle

____________________________________________________________________________________

Trigonometric definition of sine as the ratio of the length of the

opposite side to the hypotenuse

____________________________________________________________________________________

Trigonometric definition of cosine as the ratio of the length of

the adjacent side to the hypotenuse

____________________________________________________________________________________

Trigonometric definition of tangent as the ratio of

the length of the opposite side to the adjacent side

__________________________________________________________________________________ __

Trigonometric identity equating the sine of an angle to cosine of its complement

____________________________________________________________________________________

Trigonometric identity equating the tangent of an

angle to reciprocal of the tangent of its complement

____________________________________________________________________________________

Ax = length of the x-component of vector A

Ay = length of the y-component of vector A

A = magnitude of vector A

= angle of vector A (in standard degrees

counterclockwise from the x-axis)

____________________________________________________________________________________

Statement showing that the x-component of a resultant vector is

equal to the sum of the x-components of the component vectors

____________________________________________________________________________________

Statement showing that the y-component of a resultant vector is

equal to the sum of the y-components of the component vectors

____________________________________________________________________________________

resultant vector given its components

____________________________________________________________________________________

Equation for the calculation of the direction of the resultant

vector given its components

____________________________________________________________________________________

F "perpendicular" = the perpendicular

component of the weight of an object on

an inclined plane (in N)

W = weight (in N)

= angle of inclination of an inclined plane (in degrees)

____________________________________________________________________________________

F "parallel" = the parallel component of the

weight of an object on an inclined plane (in N)

W = weight (in N)

= angle of inclination of an inclined plane (in degrees)

m = mass (in kg)

g = acceleration due to gravity (9.80 m/s2)

____________________________________________________________________________________

a = acceleration of an object down a frictionless inclined

plane (in m/s2)

g = acceleration due to gravity (9.80 m/s2)

= angle of inclination of an inclined plane (in degrees)

____________________________________________________________________________________

F "perpendicular" = the perpendicular component of the weight of an object on an

inclined plane (in N)

= coefficient of friction (unitless)

W = weight (in N)

= angle of inclination of an inclined plane (in degrees)

m = mass (in kg)

g = acceleration due to gravity (9.80 m/s2)

____________________________________________________________________________________

= coefficient of friction (unitless)

= angle of inclination of an inclined plane when an object

first

begins to move (as the angle is slowly increased) (in

degrees)

____________________________________________________________________________________

F "parallel" = the parallel component of the weight of an object on an inclined plane (in

N)

Ff = frictional force on an inclined plane (in N)

= coefficient of friction (unitless)

F "perpendicular" = the perpendicular component of the weight of an object on an

inclined plane (in N)

W = weight (in N)

= angle of inclination of an inclined plane (in degrees)

__________________________________________________________________________________ __

a = acceleration of an object down an inclined

plane (in m/s2)

g = acceleration due to gravity (9.80 m/s2)

= coefficient of friction (unitless)

= angle of inclination of an inclined plane (in degrees)

____________________________________________________________________________________

Kinematics: Two-Dimensional Motion

____________________________________________________________________________________

x = horizontal displacement (in m)

vx = horizontal velocity (in m/s)

t = time

____________________________________________________________________________________

y = vertical displacement (in m)

vy = initial vertical velocity (in m/s)

t = time

g = acceleration due to gravity (- 9.80 m/s2)

__________________________________________________________________________________ __

vx = initial horizontal velocity (in m/s)

v = initial velocity at an angle (in m/s)

= initial angle (in degrees)

____________________________________________________________________________________

vy = initial vertical velocity (in m/s)

v = initial velocity at an angle (in m/s)

= initial angle (in degrees)

____________________________________________________________________________________

vy = initial vertical velocity (in m/s)

t = time

g = acceleration due to gravity (- 9.80 m/s2)

____________________________________________________________________________________

t = total time in the air for a horizontally-launched projectile (in s)

y = vertical distance, or height (in m)

g = acceleration due to gravity (- 9.80 m/s2)

____________________________________________________________________________________

t = total time in the air for a projectile launched at an angle (in

vy = initial vertical velocity (in m/s)

g = acceleration due to gravity (- 9.80 m/s2)

s)

____________________________________________________________________________________

v = circular velocity (in m/s)

r = radius (in m)

____________________________________________________________________________________

Fc = centripetal force (in N)

m = mass (in kg)

v = circular velocity (in m/s)

r = radius (in m)

____________________________________________________________________________________

v = circular velocity (in m/s)

r = radius (in m)

T = period of rotation (in s)

____________________________________________________________________________________

ac = centripetal acceleration (in m/s2)

r = radius (in m)

T = period of rotation (in s)

____________________________________________________________________________________

Fc = centripetal force (in N)

r = radius (in m)

m = mass (in kg)

T = period of rotation (in s)

____________________________________________________________________________________

f = frequency of rotation (in s-1 or Hz)

____________________________________________________________________________________

l = length of the pendulum (in m)

g = acceleration due to gravity (- 9.80 m/s2)

____________________________________________________________________________________

Momentum, Work, and Power

____________________________________________________________________________________

Impulse expressed in Ns

F = force (in N)

t = t = time interval (in s)

____________________________________________________________________________________

p = momentum (in kg m/s)

m = mass (in kg)

v = velocity (in m/s)

____________________________________________________________________________________

F = force (in N)

t = time interval (in s)

m = mass (in kg)

v = change in velocity (in m/s)

vf = final velocity (in m/s)

vi = inital velocity (in m/s)

p = change in momentum (in kg m/s)

__________________________________________________________________________________ __

pA = initial momentum of object A (in kg m/s)

pB = initial momentum of object B (in kg m/s)

pA' = final momentum of object A (in kg m/s)

pB' = final momentum of object B (in kg m/s)

___________________________________________________________________________________ __

mA = mass of object A (in kg)

mB = mass of object B (in kg)

vA = initial velocity of object A (in m/s)

vB = initial velocity of object B (in m/s)

vA' = final velocity of object A (in m /s)

vB' = final velocity of object B (in m/s)

____________________________________________________________________________________

mA = mass of object A (in kg)

mB = mass of object B (in kg)

vA' = final velocity of object A (in m/s)

vB' = final velocity of object B (in m/s)

____________________________________________________________________________________

W = work (in J)

F = force (in N)

d = displacement in the direction of the force (in m)

____________________________________________________________________________________

Fh = horizontal component of the force (in N)

F = force (in N)

= angle between the directions of the force and the

horizontal displacement (in degrees)

____________________________________________________________________________________

W = work (in J)

Fh = horizontal component of the force (in N)

F = force (in N)

= angle between the directions of the force

and the horizontal displacement (in degrees)

d = horizontal displacement (in m)

__________________________________________________________________________________ __

P = power (in W)

W = work (in J)

t = time (in s)

F = force (in N)

= angle between the directions of the

force and the horizontal displacement (in degrees)

d = displacement (in m)

__________________________________________________________________________________ __

% Efficiency of a machine

Wo = work output (in J)

Wi = work input (in J)

____________________________________________________________________________________

Energy

__________________________________________________________________________________ __

W = work (in J)

E = change in energy (in J)

____________________________________________________________________________________

PE = gravitational potential energy (in J)

m = mass (in kg)

g = acceleration due to gravity (9.80 m/s2)

h = height above reference level (in m)

____________________________________________________________________________________

KE = kinetic energy (in J)

m = mass (in kg)

v = velocity (in m/s)

____________________________________________________________________________________

KEi = initial kinetic energy (in J)

KEf = final kinetic energy (in J)

PEf = final gravitational potential energy (in J)

____________________________________________________________________________________

m = mass (in kg)

vi = initial velocity (in m/s)

g = acceleration due to gravity

(9.80 m/s2)

hi = initial height above

reference level (in m)

vf = final velocity (in m/s)

hf = final height above reference level (in m)

____________________________________________________________________________________

vi = initial velocity (in m/s)

g = acceleration due to gravity (9.80 m/s2)

hi = initial height above reference level (in m)

vf = final velocity (in m/s)

hf = final height above reference level (in m)

__________________________________________________________________________________ __

Static Electricity and Electric Fields

____________________________________________________________________________________

F = force of electrical attraction between two charged objects (in

N)

K = Coulomb's Law constant = 9.0 X 109 Nm2/C2

q and q' = charges of the two objects (each in C)

d = distance between the centers of the objects (in m)

e = -1.60 X 10-19 C

1 C = 6.25 X 1018 e

____________________________________________________________________________________

V = potential difference or voltage (in V)

W = work done in moving the charged object (in J)

q = charge (in C)

____________________________________________________________________________________

C = capacitance (in F)

q = charge (in C)

V = potential difference or voltage (in V)

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Current Electricity and Circuits

_____________________________________________________________________________________

I = current (in A)

q = charge (in C)

t = time (in s)

____________________________________________________________________________________

I = current (in A)

R = resistance (in )

__________________________________________________________________________________ __

P = electrical power (in W)

V = potential difference or voltage (in V)

I = current (in A)

R = resistance (in )

____________________________________________________________________________________

E = electrical energy (in J)

V = potential difference or voltage (in V)

I = current (in A)

R = resistance (in )

t = time (in s)

____________________________________________________________________________________

RT = effective/equivalent/total resistance (in )

R1 and R2 and R3 = resistance of individual

resistors connected in series (in )

____________________________________________________________________________________

R1 and R2 and R3 = resistance of individual

resistors connected in parallel (in )

____________________________________________________________________________________

Waves and Sound

____________________________________________________________________________________

c = 3.00 X 108 m/s

Speed of Sound (Room Temp @ 20 C) = 343 m/s

v = velocity of a wave (in m/s)

f = frequency of the wave (in Hz or s-1)

= wavelength of the wave (in m)

____________________________________________________________________________________

T = period of a wave (in s)

f = frequency of the wave (in s-1 or Hz)

____________________________________________________________________________________

i = angle of incidence (in degrees)

r = angle of reflection (in degrees)

____________________________________________________________________________________

Light, Reflection and Refraction

____________________________________________________________________________________

E = illuminance (in lx)

P= luminous flux of the light source (in lm)

d = distance from source to surface (in m)

____________________________________________________________________________________

n = index of refraction (unitless)

i = angle of incidence (in degrees)

r = angle of refraction (in degrees)

____________________________________________________________________________________

ni = index of refraction of incident medium (unitless)

nr = index of refraction of refracting medium (unitless)

i = angle of incidence (in degrees)

r = angle of refraction (in degrees)

___________________________________________________________________________________

ns = index of refraction in a given substance (unitless)

c = speed of light = 3.00 X 108 m/s

vs = speed of light in the substance (in m/s)

___________________________________________________________________________________

c = critical angle (in degrees)

n = index of refraction (unitless)

sin c

n2

n1

____________________________________________________________________________________

Mirrors and Lenses

____________________________________________________________________________________

f = focal length of mirror or lens (in m)

di = image distance (in m)

do = object distance (in m)

____________________________________________________________________________________

m= magnification (unitless)

hi = image height (in m)

ho = object height (in m)

di = image distance (in m)

do = object distance (in m)

____________________________________________________________________________________

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