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Original Title: Mech Dynamics 15.0 L08 Random

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Random Vibration

15.0 Release

ANSYS Mechanical

Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

February 5, 2014

Release 15.0

Topics covered

A. What is random Vibration

B. Power Spectral Density PSD

C.

Theory Overview

E.

Analysis Settings

F.

Workshop 8

February 5, 2014

Release 15.0

Random vibration analysis is another spectral method

The purpose of a random vibration analysis is to determine some

statistical properties of a structural response, normally the standard

deviation (1) of a displacement, force, or stress.

(1) is used to determine fatigue life of a structure

February 5, 2014

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This is vibration at one predominant frequency

This is vibration at many frequencies at the same time

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Vehicles travelling on a roadway

Airplanes flying or taxiing

Spacecraft during launch

Courtesy: NASA

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excitation be evaluated?

excitation does constantly change, but for many processes, its

average value tends to remain relatively constant.

This gives us the ability to easily characterize a random excitation.

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a Power Spectral Density plot

PSD amplitude versus frequency

design spec, building code, etc.

ANSYS does not provide tools for generating PSD spectra plots,

but general approach will be described in next several slides

February 5, 2014

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Random Vibration

PSD

Release

ANSYS Mechanical

Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

February 5, 2014

Release 15.0

is split into individual

ranges (called bins).

this can be done using

bandbass filters

real analyzers typically

have hundreds of bins

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and the average is

calculated for each bin.

called the mean square

gives (units RMS)2

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If a wider bin were used, the average value would be larger

a consistent definition is needed to account for different bin sizes

the bin bandwidth

gives (units RMS)2/Hz

leaves units2/Hz

acceleration

velocity

displacement

force

February 5, 2014

e.g. [(mm/s)2/Hz]

e.g. [(mm)2/Hz]

e.g. [N2/Hz]

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of the bin frequency.

each bin is referred to by its center frequency.

graph.

plot.

the limits defined in the plot.

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Spectral Density (PSD).

For a bandwidth of 1 Hz, the PSD value would be the RMS amplitude

squared. PSD=(6/sqrt(2))^2=18

40 Hz

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velocity, and displacement spectra by multiplying or dividing by the

square of the frequency.

remember to convert frequency units; rad/s = 2f Hz

S a S d 2f

S d S v / 2f

S a / 2f

S v S d 2f

S v 2f

S a / 2f

SG S a / g 2

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

February 5, 2014

14

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Random Vibration

C. Theory Overview

15.0 Release

ANSYS Mechanical

Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

February 5, 2014

15

Release 15.0

The structure has

no random properties

no time varying stiffness, damping, or mass

no time varying forces, displacement, pressures, temperatures, etc applied

light damping

damping forces are much smaller than inertial and elastic forces

the response will also be a stationary random process

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Excitation Distribution

A key concept is the fact that many random processes follow a Gaussian

distribution.

standard deviation (or sigma value) of the distribution.

By taking multiples of sigma, we can account for a greater percentage of all

possible excitations.

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Excitation Distribution

1 sigma:

~ 68.27 %

2 sigma:

~ 95.951 %

3 sigma:

~ 99.737 %

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Excitation Distribution

account for 100% of the possible excitations.

In reality, the distribution of excitations is more likely truncated.

Furthermore, high-sigma excitations occur very rarely.

3 2 1

1 2 3

if the excitation of a linear system is a Gaussian process, then the

response is generally a different random process, but still a normal one

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Random Vibration

excitation

determining its steady-state response to a sinusoidal input

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Random Vibration

= 30 Hz

ain = 40 mm/s2

= 30 Hz

aout = 119 mm/s2, = 116

angle defines the dynamic characteristics of the system at this one

frequency.

this is also called the transmission or transfer function

the input and output could be any quantity, not only acceleration

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Random Vibration

response (amplitude and phase angle) changes with frequency.

defines the dynamic characteristics.

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Random Vibration

can also be described as a single complex number, called the

(complex) frequency response function H() (FRF).

H A iB

By definition

the magnitude of the FRF is equal to the amplitude ratio, and

the ratio of FRF imaginary part to its real part is equal to the tangent of the

phase angle.

aout

H A B

ain

2

ImH B

tan

ReH A

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

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Random Vibration

system to a single input PSD is

Sout H Sin

2

or

a

Sout out Sin

ain

Where:

Sout

Sin

aout

ain

= spectral density input (value from PSD curve)

= calculated sinusoidal output

= sinusoidal input

Note: within ANSYS the spectral density response is typically called the

response PSD (RPSD) and the spectral density input is typically called the

input PSD.

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

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Random Vibration

by the response function

2

aout

Sin

Sout

ain

aout

input PSD

RPSD

ain

or

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

February 5, 2014

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Random Vibration

response of the system.

The area under the RPSD curve gives the mean square response.

the square root of the mean square is the root mean square (RMS)

the RMS is the average, or one standard deviation (1-sigma), response

RMS

S d

0

(requires special consideration)

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Random Vibration

We dont know exactly what the response will look like, but we do

know that it will respond to the given input with the RMS response,

on average.

Given our assumptions that (1) the input is Gaussian and (2) the

system is linear, then our output must also be Gaussian.

3 2 1

1 2 3

2 x RMS (2-sigma) accounts for ~ 95.951 % of the total response

3 x RMS (3-sigma) accounts for ~ 99.737 % of the total response

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

February 5, 2014

27

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Random Vibration

For multiple PSDs in the same model, the results are combined

using the SRSS method.

We could alternatively perform separate analyses and manually

SRSS the results together.

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Random Vibration

15.0 Release

ANSYS Mechanical

Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

February 5, 2014

29

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such in log-log space.

the curve.

For a good fit, the PSD values between consecutive points should not

change by more than an order of magnitude

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Once load entries are entered, the graph provides one of the

following color-code indicators per segment:

Green: Values are considered

reliable and accurate.

Yellow: This is a warming

indicator. Results produced are

not considered to be reliable and

accurate.

Red: Results produced are not

considered trustworthy. It is

recommended that you modify

your input PSD loads prior to the

solution process.

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Click the fly-out of the Load Data option and choose Improved Fit.

goodness of fit approximation.

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Random Vibration

E. Analysis Settings

15.0 Release

ANSYS Mechanical

Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

February 5, 2014

33

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Setup

Setup a random vibration analysis in the schematic by linking a modal system to a

random vibration system at the solution level.

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Analysis Settings

Analysis Settings > Options

1.

It is recommended to include the modes whose frequencies span 1.5 times the

maximum frequency defined in the input PSD.

2.

Model Significance Level:

0 (all modes selected), and

1 (no modes selected).

Any term whose significance level is

less than significance Level is considered

insignificant and is not contributed to the mode combinations

February 5, 2014

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Analysis Settings

Analysis Settings > Output Controls

Controls to No.

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itself.

The only applicable load is a PSD Base Excitation of spectral value vs.

frequency.

PSD Acceleration,

PSD G Acceleration,

PSD Velocity, and

PSD Displacement.

correlation between PSD excitations is not supported.

February 5, 2014

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Results

displacement, velocity and acceleration.

they cannot be combined in the usual way.

If strain/stress are requested, applicable results are normal strain and stress,

shear strain and stress, and equivalent stress.

February 5, 2014

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Results

relative to the base of the structure (the fixed supports).

include base motion effects (absolute).

February 5, 2014

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Results

Displacement boundary condition to view Reactions Results.

February 5, 2014

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Results

RPSDs are calculated for every node in every free direction at each

frequency

RPSDs can be plotted for each node in a specific direction versus frequency

a RMS value (sigma value) for the entire frequency range is calculated

for every node in every free direction

Z direction

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

February 5, 2014

41

Release 15.0

Results

The default output results are one sigma (1) or one standard deviation values

(with zero mean value).

The interpretation is that 68.3% of the time the response will be less than the

standard deviation value.

You can scale the result by 2 times to get the 2 sigma (2) values.

The response will be less than the 2 sigma values 95.45% of the time and 3

sigma values 99.73% of the time.

February 5, 2014

42

Release 15.0

Response Spectrum

Workshop 8.

15.0 Release

ANSYS Mechanical

Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

February 5, 2014

43

Release 15.0

assembly due to an acceleration PSD.

WS8: Random Vibration (PSD) Analysis of a Girder Assembly

February 5, 2014

44

Release 15.0

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