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< d'Angremond

E T J . M . Pluim-Van der Velden

CT4300

Introduction

Coastal Engineering

September 2001

Prof.ir. K. d ' A n g r e m o n d , ir. E.T.J.iVI. P l u i m - V a n d e r V e l d e n

710222

D e l f t University o f Technology Faculty of C i v i l Engineering and Geosciences


Section of Hydraulic Engineering
On behalf of the Section of Hydraulic Engineering published by:
VSSD
Leeghwaterstraat 42, 2628 C A Delft, The Netherlands
tel. +31 15 278 2124, telefax +31 15 278 7585, e-mail: hlf@vssd.nl
internet: http://www.vssd.nl/hlf

1. I N T R O D U C T I O N

1.1 T h e coast

1.2 C o a s t a l E n g i n e e r i n g

1.3 Structure of t h e s e lecture notes

1.3.1 Position in the c u r r i c u l u m

1.3.2 Contents of this book

1.4 A u t h o r s

10

1.5 M i s c e l l a n e o u s

10

2. F R O M G E N E S I S O F T H E U N I V E R S E T O P R E S E N T - D A Y C O A S T L I N E

11

2.1 Introduction

11

2.2 G e n e s i s of the u n i v e r s e , e a r t h , o c e a n , a n d a t m o s p h e r e

11

2.3 T h e G e o l o g y of planet earth

12

2.4 T e c t o n i c classification of c o a s t s

19

2.5 T h e D u t c h c o a s t

22

2.5.1 G e o l o g i c a l history of t h e D u t c h c o a s t

22

2.5.2 H u m a n intervention

32

2.5.3 S e d i m e n t b a l a n c e

35

3. C L I M A T O L O G Y

37

3.1 Introduction

37

3.2 M e t e o r o l o g i c a l s y s t e m

37

3.3 F r o m m e t e o r o l o g y to c l i m a t o l o g y

38

3.4 T h e hydrological cycle

38

3.5 Solar radiation a n d t e m p e r a t u r e distribution

40

3.6 A t m o s p h e r i c circulation a n d w i n d

43

4. OCEANOGRAPHY

49

4.1 Introduction

49

4.2 Variable density

50

4.3 G e o s t r o p h i c currents

52

4.3.1 Coriolis A c c e l e r a t i o n

53

4 . 4 T h e tide

54

4.4.1 T h e vertical tide

54

4 . 4 . 2 T h e horizontal tide

61

4.4.3 Special Effects

61

4.4.4 Deviations f r o m the a s t r o n o m i c a l prediction

62

4.4.5 S o u r c e s of information

64

4.5 Seiches

64

4.6 Tsunamis

66

Waves

67

4.7.1 (Linear) W a v e T h e o r y

67

4.7.2.

Breaking

76

4.7.3

Irregular w a v e s

77

5. C O A S T A L M O R P H O L O G Y

83

5.1 Introduction

83

5.2 S u r f z o n e p r o c e s s e s

85

5.3 S e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t

86

5.4 C o a s t l i n e c h a n g e s a n d coastline e q u i l i b r i u m

89

5.5 Quantification o f the l o n g s h o r e t r a n s p o r t p r o c e s s

92

6. C O A S T A L F O R M A T I O N S

95

6.1 Introduction

95

6.2 S e d i m e n t d o m i n a t e d c o a s t a l f e a t u r e s

97

6.2.1 E s t u a r i e s

97

6.2.2 T i d a l flats

100

6.2.3 Deltas

101

6.2.4 B e a c h e s

108

6.2.5 D u n e s

110

6.2.6 L a g o o n s

112

6.2.7 Barrier c o a s t s

114

6.2.8 T i d a l inlets

115

6.3 Biology d o m i n a t e d c o a s t l i n e s

116

6.3.1 Salt m a r s h e s

116

6.3.2 M a n g r o v e s w a m p s

117

6.3.3 D u n e v e g e t a t i o n

119

6.3.4 Coral reefs

120

6.4 R o c k y c o a s t s

123

6.4.1 O r i g i n of r o c k y c o a s t s

123

6.4.2 R o c k e r o s i o n

125

7. C O A S T A L Z O N E M A N A G E M E N T

127

7.1 Introduction

127

7.2 Global c h a n g e s

127

7.2.1 G r o w t h of t h e w o r l d population

127

7.2.2 C l i m a t e c h a n g e a n d s e a level rise

130

7.2.3 Pollution

131

7.3 T h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s u b s y s t e m

132

7.4 T h e n e c e s s i t y o f m a n a g e m e n t

135

7.5 M a n a g e m e n t tools

139

7.5.1 W e i g h i n g t h e interests

139

7.5.2 M a n a g e m e n t practice

140

7.6 Building with N a t u r e

142

8. T I D A L I N L E T S A N D E S T U A R I E S

143

8.1 Introduction

143

8.2 Tidal inlets

143

8.3 Tidal c h a n n e l s

145

9. P O L L U T I O N A N D D E N S I T Y P R O B L E M S

149

9.1 Introduction

149

9.2 Pollution

149

9.2.1 T y p e s of pollution

149

9.2.2 C o n t r o l m e a s u r e s

151

9.3 D e n s i t y c u r r e n t s in rivers

151

9.3.1 Salinity variations with tide

152

9.3.2 Static salt w e d g e

154

9.3.3 Horizontal stratification

155

9.3.4 Siltation in rivers

157

9.3.5 M e t h o d s to c o m b a t d e n s i t y c u r r e n t s in rivers

158

9.4 Density c u r r e n t s in h a r b o u r s

160

9.4.1 Siltation in h a r b o u r s

166

9.4.2 T h e practical p r o b l e m

167

9.4.3 M e t h o d s to c o m b a t d e n s i t y currents in h a r b o u r s

171

10. P R A C T I C A L P R O B L E M S A N D C O M M O N S O L U T I O N M E T H O D S

173

10.1 Introduction

173

10.2 C o a s t a l p r o t e c t i o n p r o b l e m s

173

10.2.1 Structural erosion of c o a s t s

173

10.2.2 B e a c h a n d d u n e e r o s i o n d u r i n g s e v e r e s t o r m s u r g e s

175

10.2.3 Protection of n e w l y r e c l a i m e d a r e a s

176

10.2.4 Stabilization of d y n a m i c tidal inlets

176

10.2.5 D i s c u s s i o n of coastal protection p r o b l e m s

176

10.3 U s e of structures in coastal protection

177

10.4 Solutions with s t r u c t u r e s to p r o b l e m s as m e n t i o n e d

181

10.4.1 Structural e r o s i o n of c o a s t s

181

10.4.2 B e a c h a n d d u n e erosion d u r i n g s e v e r e s t o r m s u r g e s

182

10.4.3 Protection of n e w l y r e c l a i m e d a r e a s

183

10.4.4 Stabilization of d y n a m i c tidal inlets

183

10.5 Solutions w i t h o u t structures to p r o b l e m s as m e n t i o n e d

184

10.5.1 Quality r e q u i r e m e n t s for the s a n d

184

10.5.2 Origin of t h e s a n d

184

10.5.3 P l a c e s w h e r e suppletion is u s e d

185

11. DREDGING

187

11.1 Introduction a n d Definitions

187

11.2 T h e W o r l d of D r e d g i n g

188

11.3 D r e d g i n g P r o c e s s a n d D r e d g i n g E q u i p m e n t

189

11.3.1 G e n e r a l

189

11.3.2 B r e a k i n g up t h e Soil Structure

189

11.3.3 Vertical T r a n s p o r t

190

11.3.4 Horizontal T r a n s p o r t

190

11.3.5 D e p o s i t i o n

191

11.3.6 Back to o n e p r o c e s s

191

12 U S E O F T H E O R Y IN D R E D G I N G

193

12.1 Soil M e c h a n i c s

193

12.1.1 Classification of Soils

193

12.1.2 Porosity a n d Bulk Density

193

12.1.3 P e r m e a b i l i t y

194

12.1.4 S t r e s s e s

195

12.1.5 D e f o r m a t i o n s

196

12.1.6 Stability of s l o p e s

197

12.2 Hydraulics

198

12.2.1 G e n e r a l

198

12.2.2 S e d i m e n t T r a n s p o r t in o p e n c h a n n e l s

198

12.2.3 Flow in c l o s e d conduits

199

12.2.4 S e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t in c l o s e d c o n d u i t s

200

13. D R E D G I N G C Y C L E

203

13.1 G e n e r a l

203

13.2 Disintegration

203

13.2.1 S u c t i o n

203

13.2.2 Jets

203

13.2.3 B l a d e s

203

13.3 Vertical t r a n s p o r t

204

13.3.1 M e c h a n i c a l T r a n s p o r t

204

13.3.2 Hydraulic t r a n s p o r t

204

13.4 Horizontal t r a n s p o r t

206

13.4.1 Pipeline

206

13.4.2 B a r g e

207

13.5 D i s p o s a l

208

14. C O M M O N D R E D G I N G E Q U I P M E N T

211

14.1 G e n e r a l

211

14.2 T y p e s of d r e d g e s

211

14.2.1 Trailing suction h o p p e r d r e d g e

211
5

14.2.2 Cutter suction d r e d g e

212

14.2.3 G r a b d r e d g e

212

14.2.4 Bacl<hoe d r e d g e

212

14.2.5 B u c k e t ladder d r e d g e

213

14.2.6 Plain suction d r e d g e

213

14.2.7 B a r g e u n l o a d i n g d r e d g e

213

15. C O S T A N D C O N T R A C T S O F D R E D G I N G P R O J E C T S
15.1 C o s t

215
215

15.1.1 G e n e r a l

215

15.1.2 D e p r e c i a t i o n a n d interest

215

15.1.3 M a i n t e n a n c e a n d repair

216

15.1.4 L a b o u r

216

15.1.5 Fuel a n d L u b r i c a n t s

216

15.1.6 I n s u r a n c e

216

15.1.7 O v e r h e a d s

216

15.1.8 Profit a n d risk

216

15.1.9 O t h e r c o s t e l e m e n t s

217

15.1.10 R e v i e w

217

15.2 C o n t r a c t s

217

16. L I S T O F R E F E R E N C E S

219

APPENDIX 1 HISTORY OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM

223

APPENDIX 2 RELATIVE MOTION

227

APPENDIX 3 THE CLOSURE OF THE AFSLUITDIJK

241

APPENDIX 4 DELTA PROJECT

251

APPENDIX 5 HYDROGRAPHIC CHARTS

261

APPENDIX 6 THE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

269

I <l ,1

1 n

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1.1 T h e c o a s t
If y o u w e r e to ask D u t c h C o a s t a l E n g i n e e r s to define "the coast", w h a t w o u l d be the reply?
M o r e o v e r , w h a t w o u l d a C h i n e s e c o l l e a g u e a n s w e r , if y o u a s k e d the s a m e q u e s t i o n ? If t h e s e
C o a s t a l E n g i n e e r s h a d read this b o o k properly, they w o u l d a n s w e r : " W h y d o y o u n e e d t h e
definition?" T h e simple a n s w e r is that t h e r e is no absolute definition of the coast a n d the c o a s t a l
z o n e . T h e area involved d e p e n d s o n t h e physical and social a s p e c t s of the c a s e in q u e s t i o n ,
w h i l e , in different countries, different definitions m a y be u s e d . For e x a m p l e : are river m o u t h s
i n c l u d e d ? T h e social a n d natural e n v i r o n m e n t in w h i c h the c o a s t is situated also c h a r a c t e r i z e s
it so that in every specific c a s e , o n e m u s t d e t e r m i n e w h a t definition of the c o a s t a l z o n e is best.
In s o m e countries, the coastal z o n e is narrowly defined as the a r e a b e t w e e n the High W a t e r line
a n d the L o w W a t e r line. H o w e v e r , a n o t h e r w i d e r definition is e q u a l l y possible; for i n s t a n c e t h e
a r e a b e t w e e n the location w h e r e w a v e s start to "feel" the b o t t o m a n d the m o s t l a n d w a r d s i d e
w h e r e tidal influence is n o t i c e d . In s o m e c a s e s , o n e t a k e s the a r e a b e t w e e n the - 1 0 m a n d t h e
+ 1 0 m c o n t o u r lines with r e f e r e n c e to M e a n S e a L e v e l . Essential f e a t u r e s of the c o a s t a l z o n e
i n c l u d e the interaction of the m a r i n e e n v i r o n m e n t with the land e n v i r o n m e n t , saline a n d f r e s h
w a t e r , m a r i n e a n d riverine s e d i m e n t s . T h i s c r e a t e s a region with a u n i q u e a n d w i d e v a r i e t y of
s p e c i e s a n d with t r e m e n d o u s o p p o r t u n i t i e s for m a n .
In g e n e r a l , a coastal z o n e has a n u m b e r of (often-conflicting) f u n c t i o n s . A m o n g t h o s e f u n c t i o n s
a r e very important o n e s : housing, fishing, agriculture, w a t e r supply, navigation, nature, recreation
(social well being). In the D u t c h c a s e , t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n of the d u n e c o a s t is p r o b a b l y
t h e d e f e n c e of the hinterland a g a i n s t i n u n d a t i o n . In addition to this, the recreational b e a c h is an
e x a m p l e of o n e f a r - d e v e l o p e d f u n c t i o n of the D u t c h coast. T h e s e t w o f u n c t i o n s a r e a l r e a d y in
conflict with e a c h other. T h e other f u n c t i o n s will further c o m p l i c a t e the situation.
Let's t a k e a closer look at this c o a s t a l z o n e , h o w e v e r w e m a y h a v e d e f i n e d it. T h e c o a s t a l z o n e
s y s t e m c a n be s c h e m a t i z e d in different w a y s . T h e s y s t e m e l e m e n t s c a n be g r o u p e d into t w o
s u b s y s t e m s : the natural a n d the artificial. T h e latter is c r e a t e d

by h u m a n

interference,

c h a r a c t e r i z e d by infrastructure a n d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f u n c t i o n s . It is the s u b j e c t of w h a t w e
g e n e r a l l y call C o a s t a l E n g i n e e r i n g . T h e natural s u b s y s t e m is e v e r y t h i n g else. It is not h a r d to
i m a g i n e that the t w o s u b s y s t e m s h a v e s t r o n g interactive links, a n d that a proper u n d e r s t a n d i n g
of the natural s u b s y s t e m is r e q u i r e d by e v e r y c o a s t a l e n g i n e e r .
It is also n e c e s s a r y to m e n t i o n t h e n e c e s s i t y for c o n s c i o u s c o a s t a l z o n e m a n a g e m e n t . It is
predicted (World Coast C o n f e r e n c e '93 [1994]) that m o r e than half of the h u m a n population of the
w o r l d will s o o n be living in the c o a s t a l z o n e (coastal z o n e in a rather b r o a d s e n s e in this c a s e ) .
M o s t of the largest m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s a r e located along the c o a s t : T o k y o , J a k a r t a , S h a n g h a i ,
H o n g K o n g , B a n g k o k , Calcutta, B o m b a y , N e w Y o r k , B u e n o s A i r e s , Los A n g e l e s . A l a c k of
b a l a n c e b e t w e e n the natural p r o c e s s e s a n d the h u m a n s o c i e t y in the c o a s t a l z o n e c a n l e a d to
g r e a t poverty, pollution, social p r o b l e m s a n d structural d e f i c i e n c i e s . In short: the w o r l d ' s f u t u r e
d e p e n d s largely on t h e future o f t h e c o a s t a l z o n e s .

1.2 Coastal Engineering


C o a s t a l e n g i n e e r i n g is the general term for all engineering activities related to the coast. T y p i c a l
e n g i n e e r i n g activities are:

s y s t e m , p r o c e s s a n d p r o b l e m analysis

m a n a g e m e n t of information a n d data acquisition p r o g r a m s

system schematization and modelling

p l a n n i n g , d e s i g n a n d construction of artificial s t r u c t u r e s

m e a s u r e s for t h e preservation of t h e natural s y s t e m

In o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e w h i c h e n g i n e e r i n g activities m i g h t in s e r v e a given situation, all r e l e v a n t


aspects of the coastal system m u s t be studied. Coastal processes have already been divided into
natural (for e x a m p l e , s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t ) a n d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c p r o c e s s e s (for e x a m p l e , z o n i n g
( D u t c h : R u i m t e l i j k e O r d e n i n g ) a n d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t of the coastal z o n e ) . For c o a s t a l
e n g i n e e r s , the s t u d y of the natural p r o c e s s e s is a focal point. T h e s t u d y of the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c
p r o c e s s e s t e n d s to be included in the s t u d y of c o a s t a l z o n e m a n a g e m e n t . This is a m u l t i disciplinary activity, in w h i c h the c o a s t a l e n g i n e e r m u s t play an active role.
A s stated a b o v e , the coastal z o n e b o r d e r s c a n n o t be clearly d e f i n e d . T h e coast d o e s n o t s t o p
w h e r e the s e a starts. However, w h e r e d o e s it e n d ? A t the e d g e of the continental shelf p e r h a p s ?
Or at the b o u n d a r i e s of one's t e c h n i c a l skills? T h e inland b o r d e r is e v e n m o r e difficult to
d e t e r m i n e . A river c a n influence a c o a s t via t h e s e d i m e n t it carries since it c a n be a s e d i m e n t
source. A n y c h a n g e in the river r e g i m e m a y thus have serious c o n s e q u e n c e s on the coast. T h u s ,
either the w h o l e river basin or at least part of it m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d as an e l e m e n t of the c o a s t a l
z o n e . In other w o r d s , the field of play of the c o a s t a l e n g i n e e r c o v e r s a variety of s u b j e c t s .
Engineering activities h a v e an ever-increasing influence on the coast b e c a u s e the tools available
to interfere in the coastal p r o c e s s e s (i.e. artificial s e d i m e n t transport by m e a n s of d r e d g i n g ) h a v e
b e c o m e very powerful. This m e a n s that the need for a d e q u a t e coastal z o n e m a n a g e m e n t is also
g r o w i n g rapidly.
B a c k to the e n g i n e e r i n g k e y w o r d s . M o s t of t h e m ( p r o b l e m , i n f o r m a t i o n , m e a s u r e m e n t , m o d e l ,
artificial m e a s u r e s , and structures) n e e d to be v i e w e d in a larger c o n t e x t a n d this c o n t e x t f o r m s
t h e c o n t e n t of this b o o k .

1.3 Structure of these lecture notes


1.3.1 Position in the curriculum
In order to i n t r o d u c e the reader to the b a s i c s of c o a s t a l e n g i n e e r i n g t h e s e lecture notes c o n t a i n
a selection of s u b j e c t s . This m e a n s that m a n y t h i n g s c a n n o t be treated in depth b e c a u s e t h e
practice of c o a s t a l e n g i n e e r i n g is t o o d i v e r s e to e n c o m p a s s e v e r y a s p e c t in o n e short c o u r s e .
H o w e v e r , the m a i n p r o c e s s e s that t a k e place a r o u n d the c o a s t are d e s c r i b e d . In the c u r r i c u l u m
of Delft University, the present introductory c o u r s e is f o l l o w e d by m o r e specific l e c t u r e s o n
morphology, coastal zone m a n a g e m e n t , tidal inlets and estuaries, a n d on coastal structures. T h e
lecture notes of t h o s e c o u r s e s t o g e t h e r p r o v i d e a m o r e c o m p l e t e a n d c o m p r e h e n s i v e v i e w o f
c o a s t a l e n g i n e e r i n g as a w h o l e . Literature, out of w h i c h m u c h information h a s been put into this
b o o k , is listed a n d r e c o m m e n d e d w a r m l y .

1.3.2 Contents of this book


First of all, Chapter 2 gives a brief description of the coast as a physical s y s t e m . A s an i m p o r t a n t
basis, t h e plate tectonics theory is d e s c r i b e d . This is the terrain of the geology. In addition to this,
the situation in the N e t h e r l a n d s is t r e a t e d . T h i s c o u n t r y h a s h a d a long history of e n g i n e e r i n g
w o r k s related to the c o a s t . T h e c o a s t a l history of the N e t h e r l a n d s d o e s not start, like history in
Dutch s c h o o l s , with R o m a n s c o n q u e r i n g G a u l but s o m e 18,000 years before the present. M u c h
of the b e d of the North S e a w a s land at that time but the s e a level started rising and brought t h e
coastline nearer to w h a t is n o w the D u t c h coast. M a n y c h a n g e s w e r e d o c u m e n t e d d u r i n g t h e
historical period a n d n o w the w o r k s of the Delta project a n d m a n y other equally visible a n d less
visible a s p e c t s illustrate c o a s t a l e n g i n e e r i n g practice.
C l i m a t o l o g y , o c e a n o g r a p h y a n d m o r p h o l o g y a r e the n a m e s u n d e r w h i c h the natural p r o c e s s e s
can be defined a n d t o g e t h e r they f o r m the c o m p l e x s y s t e m of natural p r o c e s s e s that give s h a p e
to the c o a s t w h i c h a r e d e s c r i b e d in C h a p t e r s 3 t h r o u g h 5.
C h a p t e r 6 is d e v o t e d to c o a s t a l f o r m a t i o n s . Different parts of t h e w o r l d are visited to give m o r e
detailed information a b o u t the d y n a m i c s of different c o a s t a l t y p e s .
C h a p t e r 7 deals with the cultural a s p e c t s of the c o a s t a l s y s t e m , as far as t h e y are relevant to
engineering practice a n d m o s t specifically to the social a n d e c o n o m i c aspects. T o m a n , the coast
has a l w a y s b e e n v e r y attractive. S o c i o - e c o n o m i c activities h a v e always b e e n i n t e n s e in t h e
coastal zone, and they are still g r o w i n g . T h e r e f o r e , global s o c i o - e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m s , like poverty,
are serious in the coastal z o n e , too. T h e a n s w e r to t h e m is c o m m o n l y thought to lie in Integrated
C o a s t a l Z o n e M a n a g e m e n t . A n introduction to this f o r m of m a n a g e m e n t is g i v e n .
W h e r e fresh and saline w a t e r m e e t , p r o b l e m s c a u s e d b y d i f f e r e n c e s in the density of the w a t e r
c a n be e x p e c t e d . A n o t h e r a s p e c t of the coastal z o n e is its vulnerability to pollution. C h a p t e r s 8
a n d 9 a r e d e d i c a t e d t o both types of p r o b l e m s .
Chapter 10 of this introduction into coastal engineering gives s o m e practical details of the subject.
S e v e r a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h m i g h t be e n c o u n t e r e d in t h e e v e r y d a y practice of t h e c o a s t a l e n g i n e e r
h a v e b e e n a d d e d . D e s i g n skills f o r m a m a j o r part of this practice a n d therefore attention paid to
s o m e coastal d e s i g n b a s i c s .
C h a p t e r s 11 to 15 d e s c r i b e t h e b a s i c a s p e c t s of d r e d g i n g .
Lastly, there are six a p p e n d i c e s with additional information o n t h e history of the planet earth, t h e
m e c h a n i c s of relative m o t i o n (Coriolis a c c e l e r a t i o n ) , the t w o largest c o a s t a l e n g i n e e r i n g w o r k s
in the Netherlands ( T h e reclamation of the "Zuiderzee w o r k s " a n d the Delta Project), the reading
of h y d r o g r a p h i c c h a r t s a n d on centrifugal p u m p s .

1.4 Authors
This b o o k has b e e n c o m p i l e d by a g r e a t n u m b e r of p e o p l e , on the staff of or a t t a c h e d to the
Section o f Hydraulic E n g i n e e r i n g of the Faculty of Civil E n g i n e e r i n g a n d G e o s c i e n c e s o f Delft
University of T e c h n o l o g y .
The main authors were:
Prof. I r K . d ' A n g r e m o n d , P r o f e s s o r of C o a s t a l E n g i n e e r i n g , Delft University of T e c h n o l o g y
Ir. E.T.J.M. P l u i m - v a n der V e l d e n , Delft University of T e c h n o l o g y
V a l u a b l e contributions in the f o r m of c o m m e n t s and/or text w e r e r e c e i v e d f r o m :
Dr ir J . v a n de Graaff, A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , Delft University of T e c h n o l o g y
Ir. T. v a n der M e u l e n , W L | Delft Hydraulics
Ir. G . J . S c h i e r e c k , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , Delft University of T e c h n o l o g y
I r C . M . G . S o m e r s , Staff m e m b e r , Delft University of T e c h n o l o g y
M a n y others contributed by correcting text or preparing figures. In this respect the contribution of
the following p e r s o n s is greatly a c k n o w l e d g e d :
V . L . v a n D a m - Foley
W . B . G . B i j m a n , Delft University of T e c h n o l o g y
P. R a v e n s t i j n , Delft University of T e c h n o l o g y
Ing. M.Z. V o o r e n d t , Delft University of T e c h n o l o g y

1.5 Miscellaneous
T h i s b o o k has b e e n written by a u t h o r s f r o m the N e t h e r l a n d s . S i n c e , s o m e of t h e t e c h n i q u e s
d i s c u s s e d w e r e d e v e l o p e d in t h e N e t h e r l a n d s centuries a g o the English s o m e t i m e s has a
distinctly D u t c h flavour, for w h i c h t h e a u t h o r s m a k e no a p o l o g y !
T o avoid m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , t h e r e a d e r is referred to a s e v e n - l a n g u a g e v o c a b u l a r y on c o a s t a l
e n g i n e e r i n g ( T h e Liverpool T h e s s a l o n i k i N e t w o r k [1996]).
In this book, the metric ( m k s ) s y s t e m ( b a s e d on the definition of m a s s [kg], length [ m ] , a n d t i m e
[s]) is u s e d , e x c e p t in the c a s e of s o m e w i d e l y - a c c e p t e d nautical a n d h y d r o g r a p h i c t e r m s s u c h
as k n o t s , f a t h o m s and miles.
W h e r e applicable:

t h e X - c o - o r d i n a t e is u s e d in t h e direction of current or w a v e p r o p a g a t i o n

the Y - c o - o r d i n a t e is u s e d for t h e horizontal direction, n o r m a l to t h e X - c o - o r d i n a t e

the Z-co-ordinate is defined in the vertical direction, positive u p w a r d , with the origin either at
the b o t t o m or at the s u r f a c e level

S i n c e data f r o m existing literature, often f r o m different disciplines, a r e u s e d a n d c o p i e d , the


r e a d e r c a n n o t expect a 1 0 0 % s y s t e m a t i c u s e of s y m b o l s t h r o u g h o u t the book. For i n s t a n c e , the
water depth m a y be indicated by the letters h, d or D, s t o n e size by d or D. T h e letter c r m a y thus
be u s e d for the stress in a material, or as a s y m b o l for the standard deviation. T h e r e f o r e , t h e list
of s y m b o l s m u s t be used with c a r e s i n c e it is not u n a m b i g u o u s . If serious c o n f u s i o n could arise,
t h e s y m b o l s will be defined a n d e x p l a i n e d w h e r e and as t h e y are u s e d . T h e a u t h o r s f e e l t h a t
students should be trained to a d a p t to different notations w h e n t h e y read literature f r o m different
sources.

10

2.1 Introduction
H o w w e r e the present coastlines of the world f o r m e d ? A n y single coast is the result of p r o c e s s e s
o p e r a t i n g over a n u m b e r of w i d e l y varying t i m e s c a l e s :

the slow geological processes of mountain formation and erosion that require millions of years

the g r a d u a l sea level c h a n g e s requiring t h o u s a n d s of years

the a n n u a l and b i a n n u a l m o r p h o l o g i c a l variations d u e to fluctuations of the c l i m a t e

s u p e r i m p o s e d o n t h e s e , the d a y - t o - d a y actions of the w i n d , w a v e s , c u r r e n t s , a n d tides

For a relatively short period, there has also been the influence of h u m a n s . Originally, people w e r e
causing little m o r e than scratches on the world m a p . T h e result of modern construction e q u i p m e n t
is that h u m a n influence on the coastal f o r m s is e v e n visible f r o m s p a c e . T h e reaction t i m e of the
natural s y s t e m to large-scale projects like the c l o s u r e of the Z u i d e r z e e and the Delta P r o j e c t is
in t h e o r d e r of d e c a d e s (50 to 100 y e a r s ) .
In t h e s a m e w a y as the t i m e s c a l e s differ widely, the spatial scales of the p r o c e s s e s differ
c o n s i d e r a b l y . W e h a v e to d i s t i n g u i s h :

the interaction b e t w e e n w a v e a n d s a n d grain in the b r e a k e r z o n e (on a scale of m e t r e s )

the m o r p h o l o g i c a l effects of l o n g s h o r e a n d cross s h o r e transport (on a s c a l e of k i l o m e t r e s )

the effect of glacial periods and associated sea level variations (on a scale of hundreds of k m )

t h e effect of drifting c o n t i n e n t s (on a s c a l e up to 10 0 0 0 k m )

T o understand the present i m a g e of the world coasts, it is n e c e s s a r y to start briefly at the genesis
of t h e u n i v e r s e , to d i s c u s s s o m e m a j o r e v e n t s in geological history, a n d to f o c u s o n the m o s t
r e c e n t geological history of the e a r t h . Finally, the g e n e r a l review will be illustrated by a m o r e
detailed description of the r e c e n t history of the D u t c h coast.

2.2 G e n e s i s of the universe, earth, o c e a n , and atmosphere


W h e n w e d i s c u s s t h e g e n e s i s of the u n i v e r s e , o u r solar s y s t e m , the creation of t h e e a r t h , w e
t o u c h issues that a r e s u b j e c t to m o r e than a single interpretation. In this b o o k , w e will follow t h e
t h e o r i e s that are s u p p o r t e d by m o s t scientists. T h e oldest history of the u n i v e r s e b e l o n g s to t h e
w o r l d of the a s t r o n o m y , a s c i e n c e that is b a s e d o n the o b s e r v a t i o n of e v e n t s that a r e still t a k i n g
p l a c e a r o u n d us, or rather that t o o k place a r o u n d us, s i n c e the d i s t a n c e s a r e s o g r e a t t h a t w e
c o u n t t h e delay b e t w e e n e v e n t a n d o b s e r v a t i o n in t e r m s of light y e a r s . T h i s field of s c i e n c e is
m a r k e d b y a very rapid d e v e l o p m e n t b e c a u s e v e r y s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n s t r u m e n t s a r e n o w at o u r
d i s p o s a l o w i n g to the start the s p a c e e x p l o r a t i o n .
It is widely accepted that the universe originated in a great explosion, the so-called 'big b a n g ' . This
m o d e l is consistent with o b s e r v a t i o n s first m a d e in 1929 that distant galaxies a r e r e c e d i n g f r o m
the earth at velocities proportional to their distance from earth. In 1948 G e o r g e G a m o w predicted
that a s t r o n o m e r s w o u l d o n e d a y detect b a c k g r o u n d m i c r o w a v e radiation left o v e r f r o m t h e big
b a n g . In 1965, P e n z i a s a n d W i l s o n p r o v e d G a m o w right w h e n they d e t e c t e d this r a d i a t i o n , a n d
s u b s e q u e n t m e a s u r e m e n t s p r o v i d e d further c o n f i r m a t i o n . O t h e r theoretical m o d e l s h a v e b e e n
p r o p o s e d to explain the origin of the u n i v e r s e , but t h e s e h a v e p r o v e d deficient w h e n t e s t e d
a g a i n s t o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d physical m e a s u r e m e n t s .
F r o m o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d calculations it has b e e n d e d u c e d that it took a b o u t 15 billion y e a r s f r o m
the big b a n g to the f o r m a t i o n of o u r solar s y s t e m with the planets, as w e k n o w t h e m at p r e s e n t .
T h a t sets the start of the history of "planet e a r t h " in a stricter s e n s e at a b o u t 4 to 5 billion y e a r s
11

before the present. In T a b l e 2 - 1 , the chronology is s h o w n f r o m the big bang to the creation of our
planet. For t h o s e w h o are interested in the f o r m a t i o n of our solar s y s t e m , A p p e n d i x 1 gives
additional i n f o r m a t i o n .
T i m e before oresent
20 billion vears
20 billion y e a r s
2 0 billion y e a r s
19.7 billion years
18-19 billion years
17 billion y e a r s
16 billion y e a r s
15.9 billion y e a r s
4.8 billion years
4.7 billion years
4.6 billion years

Event
Bia B a n c
Particle creation
U n i v e r s e b e c o m e s matter d o m i n a t e d
Universe becomes transparent
G a l a x y f o r m a t i o n begins
G a l a x y clustering begins
O u r proto-galaxy collapses
First stars f o r m
O u r parent interstellar cloud f o r m s
Proto-solar n e b u l a c o l l a p s e s
Planets f o r m ; rock solidifies
T a b l e 2-1

F r o m the 'big b a n g ' to f o r m a t i o n of p l a n e t s (1 billion = 10)

2.3 T h e geology of planet earth


W h e n w e d e s c r i b e the physical history of planet earth s i n c e it c a m e into e x i s t e n c e s o m e 4 to 5
billion years a g o , w e leave a s t r o n o m y a n d w e enter t h e r e a l m s of geology. G e o l o g i s t s do not g o
b a c k to the big b a n g in their descriptions. T h e y h a v e their o w n w a y of subdividing the p a s t t i m e
into e r a s , periods, a n d e p o c h s . For m a n y years this subdivision w a s b a s e d o n the interpretation
of s a m p l e s from the earth crust and on the p r e s e n c e of characteristic fossils. Before the m i d - 2 0 t h
century, the only available technique w a s fossil t i m e - s c a l i n g . This technique only g a v e information
a b o u t the relative age of certain layers, c o m p a r e d to e a c h other. Radiometric dating is a relatively
n e w t e c h n i q u e u s e d to d e t e r m i n e the a g e of units. T h i s m o d e r n technology, b a s e d on t h e d e c a y
of radioactivity in certain isotopes, yields a m o r e accurate result. It m u s t be kept in m i n d , h o w e v e r
that t h e d e c a y e x p r e s s e d in isotopic years (for i n s t a n c e 0 1 4 years^) is not a l w a y s exactly e q u a l
to t h e a g e in s u n - y e a r s .
In this way, G e o l o g y has p r o d u c e d a t i m e s c a l e that c o v e r s t h e roughly 4 to 5 billion y e a r s s i n c e
the f o r m a t i o n of t h e planet. This t i m e scale is divided in s o m e m a i n periods a n d s u b d i v i d e d in a
m u c h larger n u m b e r of s u b - p e r i o d s . T h e m o r e recent p e r i o d s a r e d e s c r i b e d in far g r e a t e r detail
t h a n the initial s t a g e s of d e v e l o p m e n t . W h e n looking at the g e o l o g i c a l t i m e s c a l e , o n e s h o u l d
realise that the s u b - p e r i o d s that c a n be distinguished b e c o m e ever shorter. T a b l e 2-2 s h o w s t h e
geological t i m e s c a l e .
A n e x a m p l e of the significance of fossils in dating geological events is the b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n t h e
M e s o z o i c ("interval of middle life") a n d the G e n o z o i c ("interval of m o d e r n life") eras. It is m a r k e d
by t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e of h u n d r e d s of s p e c i e s , including the d i n o s a u r s , f o l l o w e d b y

the

a p p e a r a n c e or s u d d e n proliferation of m a n y n e w s p e c i e s (Stanley [1986]). T h e G e n o z o i c is


s u b d i v i d e d into t h e Tertiary and the Quaternary. T h e Q u a t e r n a r y consists of the Pleistocene a n d
the H o l o c e n e .
T h e e p o c h s of m o s t c o n c e r n to coastal e n g i n e e r s a r e the Pleistocene a n d R e c e n t or H o l o c e n e ,
e x t e n d i n g b a c k a total of 1.8 million years b e f o r e p r e s e n t . D u r i n g the P l e i s t o c e n e , p r o n o u n c e d
climatic f l u c t u a t i o n s o c c u r r e d . Continental g l a c i e r s periodically c o v e r e d v a s t a r e a s of t h e

10

is a radioactive carbon isotope, which originates from Nitrogen-14. Cosmic radiation causes the

production of C^"* in the atmosphere. This radioactive isotope is incorporated in the biosphere. It decays
with a half-life time of 5730 years. It is mainly used to date the younger geological processes (of the
past 50,000 years)
12

c o n t i n e n t s in w t i a t is called the m o d e r n Ice A g e . T o d a y m a n y of the g e o m o r p h o l o g i c f e a t u r e s


s h a p e d or d e p o s i t e d at that t i m e are still clearly r e c o g n i s a b l e . F r o m a r o u n d 18 to 15 t h o u s a n d
years a g o , the global climate w a s w a r m i n g a g a i n . A t the s a m e time the Holocene T r a n s g r e s s i o n
started with the beginning of global rise in sea level. M a n y morphological features associated with
the coastal e n v i r o n m e n t are Holocene in age, but the pre-existing geology is often visible, as well.
This m o s t recent history of the earth also contains e v i d e n c e of primitive h u m a n life. It reflects the
d e p e n d e n c e of m a n k i n d o n global c h a n g e s .
W i t h i n t h e period e n c o m p a s s e d by geological history, t w o a s p e c t s d e s e r v e special attention in
lectures a b o u t coastal engineering. T h e y are the p r o c e s s of continental drift (plate tectonics) a n d
the relative c h a n g e s in s e a level.

Plate t e c t o n i c s : the c h a n g i n g m a p of the earth


T h e t h e o r y of plate t e c t o n i c s has a c o m p l i c a t e d history that r e a c h e s back to the global m a p s
created after the great o c e a n v o y a g e s of the 16th a n d 17th centuries. A s the m a p s b e c a m e m o r e
a c c u r a t e , the l a n d m a s s e s took o n the a p p e a r a n c e of pieces of a giant puzzle. Sir Francis B a c o n
is c r e d i t e d as t h e first to note this r e s e m b l a n c e : in 1 6 2 0 he w r o t e that t h e c o a s t l i n e s of S o u t h
A m e r i c a a n d A f r i c a w o u l d fit t o g e t h e r perfectly if the o c e a n w e r e not b e t w e e n t h e m .

13

Remarks

Main period

1='subdivlslon

2' " subdivision

3"' sub-division

Fanerozoic

Genozoic

Quarternary

Holocene
(or old name:
Alluvium)

Pleistocene
(or old name:
Diluvium)
(Glacial Periods)

Time scale
in years
before
present
(BP)
Sub-Atlanticum
Sub-Boreal
Atlanticum
Boreal
Pre-Boreal
Weichselian
glacial age
Eemian
Soalian
glacial
age
Holsteinian
Elsterian glacial
age
Cromerlan
Menapian glacial
age
Waalian
Eburonian glacial
age
Tiglian

2 900 BP

10 000 BP

1.8* 10" BP
Tertiary

Africa, America
separated
End of dinosaurs
Abundant life

Mesozoic

Cretaceous
Jurassic

Triassic

Paleozoic

Permian
Carboniferous

Start of reptiles
Devonian

Pliocene
Miocene
Oligocene
Eocene
Paleocene
Late Cretaceous
Early Cretaceous
Malm
Dogger
Lias
Keuper
Muschelchalk
Bont sand stone
Zechstein
Rotliegendes
Silesian
Dinantian
Late Devonian
Middle Devonian
Early Devonian

6 5 * 10" BP

2 2 5 * 10" BP

Silurian
Ordovician
Cambrian
Precambrian

Cryptozoic

600 * 10" BP

First primitive life


Formation of
planet

3.2 * 10" BP
4.75 * 10"
BP

T a b l e 2-2 G e o l o g i c a l time s c a l e
In 1912 Alfred Lothar W e g e n e r presented a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s c h e m e to explain the distribution of
t h e continental l a n d m a s s e s . He believed that t h e continents had s l o w l y drifted apart f r o m a
primordial s u p e r - c o n t i n e n t , w h i c h he called P a n g a e a ( G r e e k for "all e a r t h " ) . He e n v i s i o n e d a
single world o c e a n , Panthalassa ("ail ocean"), with a shallow s e a , T e t h y s (from G r e e k mythology,
t h e m o t h e r of all o c e a n s ) , located b e t w e e n Laurasia a n d G o n d w a n a l a n d , the n o r t h e r n a n d
southern

portions

of

the

super-continent

(Figure

2-1).

Using

accepted

geologic

and

paleontological d a t a , W e g e n e r provided g o o d supporting e v i d e n c e for the continuity of g e o l o g i c


features a c r o s s the n o w w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d c o n t i n e n t s . T h r e e years later, W e g e n e r p r o d u c e d his

14

m a j o r w o r k , "Die E n t s t e h u n g d e r K o n t i n e n t e und O z e a n e " , in w h i c h he p r e s e n t e d an e n o r m o u s


a m o u n t o f e v i d e n c e in s u p p o r t of his theory.

F i g u r e 2-1

C o n t i n e n t a l l a n d m a s s e s d u r i n g the early T r i a s ( D a v i s , 1994)

T h e continental l a n d m a s s e s that f o r m e d P a n g a e a gradually drifted f r o m their original positions.


In Figure 2-2 this p r o c e s s is illustrated. T h e y r e a c h e d i n t e r m e d i a t e locations 135 million y e a r s
a g o , between the Jurassic and C r e t a c e o u s Periods. After almost 200 million years, the continents
r e a c h e d their present positions, t h o u g h w e c a n o b s e r v e that t h e y are still drifting! N o w a d a y s , it
is k n o w n that e v e n b e f o r e the f o r m a t i o n of P a n g e a , the continents w e r e a l r e a d y drifting. E v e n
b e f o r e t h e start of the P e r m i a n , a proto-Atlantic O c e a n e x i s t e d . C l o s u r e of this o c e a n c a u s e d
m o u n t a i n f o r m a t i o n in S c o t l a n d , N o r w a y a n d North A m e r i c a .
Plate t e c t o n i c t h e o r y states that the c o n t i n e n t s , being part of the lithosphere, the Earth's
u p p e r m o s t layer c o n t a i n i n g the crust, drift on the s e m i - m o l t e n underlying material w e call t h e
a s t h e n o s p h e r e , or the upper mantle. By the 1960's, scientists had c o n c l u d e d that the lithosphere
is d i v i d e d into 12 large, tightly fitting plates a n d s e v e r a l small o n e s . Six of t h e large plates b e a r
the c o n t i n e n t s ; t h e other six a r e o c e a n i c . A n d , as W e g e n e r a s s e r t e d , all of t h e plates a r e in
m o t i o n (Figure 2-3).

15

2 0 0 million y e a r s B.P.

135 million y e a r s B.P.

today

F i g u r e 2-2 C o n t i n e n t a l drift ( W e g e n e r , 1924)

Correlated to the process of plate drift, at certain places, the semi-molten asthenosphere material
c a n be driven to the earth surface. This h a p p e n s in the so-called oceanic ridges. Following f r o m
that, n e w ( o c e a n i c ) earth crust is being f o r m e d ( F i g u r e 2-4). T h i s p r o c e s s is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
d i v e r g e n c e . T h e a g e of the crust on both sides of the m i d - o c e a n ridges i n c r e a s e s with d i s t a n c e .
T h e oldest crust is f o u n d in the trenches (Figure 2-4). Therefore, to geologists, the characteristics
of the s e a b o t t o m reveal information a b o u t earth history.
A t other p l a c e s , instead of d i v e r g e n c e there is c o n v e r g e n c e . In the o c e a n i c t r e n c h e s , o n e p l a t e
dives under the other. A t those places the earth crust is returning to the a s t h e n o s p h e r e and partly
m e l t i n g a g a i n . T h i s p r o c e s s of c o n v e r g e n c e is often a c c o m p a n i e d by s e i s m i c a n d v o l c a n i c
activity.

S i n c e W e g e n e r p u b l i s h e d his theory, m a n y y e a r s of d e b a t e and r e s e a r c h h a v e p a s s e d . O n l y


d u r i n g t h e last t h r e e d e c a d e s , has proof for the t e c t o n i c m o v e m e n t of plates b e e n f o u n d . T h i s
p r o o f h a s b e e n p r o v i d e d by:

t h e O c e a n Drilling P r o g r a m m e ( O D P )

t h e w o r l d w i d e installation of sensitive i n s t r u m e n t s for the detection of nuclear t e s t s

satellite o b s e r v a t i o n s of the earth

T h e O c e a n Drilling P r o g r a m m e consists of basic research into the history of the o c e a n basins a n d


t h e n a t u r e of the crust beneath the o c e a n floor. M a n y countries t a k e part in this project, a n d it is
still in progress. Special drilling equipment is used in order to t a k e s a m p l e s of the o c e a n floor f r o m
g r e a t d e p t h s (up to 9 kilometres b e l o w the w a t e r s u r f a c e ) . H u n d r e d s of b o r e h o l e s h a v e b e e n
drilled in a n internationally c o - o r d i n a t e d r e s e a r c h project.
In the O c e a n Drilling P r o g r a m m e , the top layers of b o t t o m s e d i m e n t a r e e x a m i n e d with r e s p e c t
to their o r i g i n . In this way, plate velocities c a n be e s t i m a t e d . S e c o n d l y , fossils f o u n d in t h o s e
layers c a n tell their story of t e m p e r a t u r e c h a n g e . O n e of the things that m a k e s the o c e a n b e d s o
i n t e r e s t i n g is that it provides a w a y to d e t e r m i n e a c o n t i n u o u s earth history by m e a n s o f a
relatively thin b o t t o m layer. Usually, the a n c i e n t continental m a s s e s are c o v e r e d by h u g e
q u a n t i t i e s of s e d i m e n t , w h i c h a r e precipitated d u r i n g relatively short p e r i o d s .
In c o n n e c t i o n with the test ban treaty for nuclear w e a p o n s , a c c u r a t e s e n s o r s h a v e b e e n installed
a r o u n d t h e globe to detect nuclear blasts. T h e s e instruments also detect e a r t h q u a k e s . F r o m t h e
o b s e r v a t i o n s , it a p p e a r s that frequent s e i s m i c activity t a k e s place along the e d g e s of the m o v i n g
p l a t e s . In this w a y , t h e b o u n d a r i e s of t h e plates could also be d e t e c t e d .
17

N o w a d a y s the rates of plate m o v e m e n t are also m e a s u r e d with the aid of satellites that use v e r y
a c c u r a t e g e o d e t i c positioning s y s t e m s (like D G P S ) . T h e m o v e m e n t s a p p e a r to v a r y f r o m a b o u t
1 c m a year at the Mid-Atlantic ridge to 10 c m a year at the East Pacific rises in the south-eastern
Pacific. Last but not least, the mid-Atlantic rift b e c o m e s visible at t h e s u r f a c e on Iceland in a v e r y
s p e c t a c u l a r w a y (Figure 2-5).

F i g u r e 2-5 Mid-Atlantic Rift at T h i n g v i l l e r National P a r k , I c e l a n d


S e a level c h a n g e s
S i n c e it w a s f o r m e d , the o c e a n has never b e e n c o n s t a n t or static. T h e p r o c e s s of " n e w w a t e r
f o r m a t i o n " by v o l c a n i c activity (see A p p e n d i x 1) p r o d u c e d v e r y s m a l l w a t e r level c h a n g e s . But
t h e r e h a v e b e e n , a n d t h e r e still are, other p r o c e s s e s , w h i c h h a v e a m u c h stronger effect o n t h e
g l o b a l s e a level. T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t of t h e s e is certainly t e m p e r a t u r e c h a n g e . If the g l o b a l
t e m p e r a t u r e rises, this leads to the m e l t i n g of ice c a p s a n d e x p a n s i o n of the total w a t e r m a s s .
T h i s has h a p p e n e d often d u r i n g earth's history, a n d it is still h a p p e n i n g . Melting of the ice c a p s
also r e d u c e s the load on the crust as a result of which areas previously c o v e r e d by ice are rising,
w h e r e a s other a d j a c e n t a r e a s that w e r e n e v e r c o v e r e d with ice t e n d to sink d u e to the e f f e c t of
isostacy (equilibrium flotation) on the earth crust. In this w a y , s e a level c h a n g e s are relative
m o v e m e n t s ; t h e y c a n be c a u s e d by a b s o l u t e c h a n g e s of the s e a level and/or by a b s o l u t e
m o v e m e n t s of t h e continental crust.
S e a level c h a n g e s c a n affect the coastal z o n e very strongly. S e a level c h a n g e s a r e relative
m o v e m e n t s a n d b e c a u s e of their nature, they vary f r o m place to p l a c e . A s the shoreline m o v e s ,
it either e x p o s e s or i n u n d a t e s coastal a r e a s a n d , in s o d o i n g , c a u s e s the c h a r a c t e r of t h e c o a s t
to c h a n g e . Additionally, the position of the shoreline influences c o a s t a l p r o c e s s e s that s h a p e t h e
c o a s t a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . Inundation is also called t r a n s g r e s s i o n , w h e r e a s drying of the l a n d is
referred to as r e g r e s s i o n .

18

T h e following p r o c e s s e s ( D a v i s , 1 9 9 4 ) c a u s e s e a level c h a n g e s in the p r e s e n t d a y c o n d i t i o n s :


1

tectonic activity

climatic fluctuations (natural or m a n m a d e )

regional s u b s i d e n c e d u e to c o m p a c t i o n and fluid w i t h d r a w a l

s u b s i d e n c e a n d r e b o u n d of t h e lithosphere

c h a n g e s in t h e v o l u m e of t h e w o r l d o c e a n

a d v a n c e and retreat of ice s h e e t s

continental r e b o u n d

In

order

to

understand

these

processes,

the

geological,

climatic,

oceanographic

and

m o r p h o l o g i c a l influences o n c o a s t l i n e s m u s t be d e s c r i b e d . T h e g e o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s will be
explained in the following sections of this chapter. T h e other factors will be treated in s u b s e q u e n t
chapters.
Rising s e a levels are a d a n g e r to t h e p e o p l e in m a n y countries a n d s i n c e c o a s t a l d e f e n c e is a n
e x p e n s i v e b u s i n e s s , t h e poor c o u n t r i e s a r e the m o s t v u l n e r a b l e to this d a n g e r .

2.4 Tectonic classification of c o a s t s


C o a s t s a r e strongly influenced by plate tectonics. If a coast is situated close to a plate b o u n d a r y ,
it develops differently f r o m a coast that is not. Inman and N o r d s t r o m (1971) m a d e a classification
of c o a s t s , w h i c h divides all the c o n t i n e n t a l coasts into t h r e e m a j o r types:

leading e d g e or collision c o a s t s ( t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d with the leading e d g e of a crustal p l a t e )

trailing e d g e c o a s t s ( t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d with the trailing e d g e of a plate)

marginal sea coasts (those b o r d e r i n g a sea enclosed b e t w e e n the l a n d m a s s a n d a v o l c a n i c


island arc at t h e plate b o u n d a r y )

Island a r c coasts are not c o n s i d e r e d in this classification.


T h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e first t w o t y p e s , t h e leading e d g e a n d the trailing e d g e c o a s t , is d r a w n in
Figure 2 - 6 .

OCEAN BASIN

CONTINENT
COLLISION
COAST

OCEAN

BASIN

TRAILING-EDGE
COAST

YW(K

F i g u r e 2-6 F o r m a t i o n of l e a d i n g a n d trailing e d g e c o a s t s

Leading e d g e coasts (or collision c o a s t s ) develop along the border of a l a n d m a s s w h e r e t h e


o c e a n i c e d g e of o n e plate c o n v e r g e s with the continental e d g e of a n o t h e r . T h e y a r e
d i s t i n g u i s h e d by r u g g e d , cliffed s h o r e l i n e s . T h e c o n v e r g e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o plates m a y
p r o d u c e s u b d u c t i o n z o n e s a s t h e d e n s e r o c e a n i c plate d e s c e n d s b e n e a t h t h e c o n t i n e n t a l
19

e d g e of the other plate. T h e t r e m e n d o u s friction created by t h e c o n v e r g i n g plate e d g e s


c a u s e s the lighter continental crust to fold a n d buckle, creating the m o u n t a i n r a n g e s that c a n
often be f o u n d near leading e d g e c o a s t s . M o r e o v e r , the s t r e s s e s that d e v e l o p d u r i n g t h e
subduction process cause earthquakes. T h e W e s t Coast of the A m e r i c a n continent is a g o o d
e x a m p l e of a leading e d g e coast. T h e A n d e s M o u n t a i n s are the result of the b u c k l i n g
p r o c e s s . This is illustrated by Figure 2-7, the c o a s t near A n t o f a g a s t a , Chile. T h e rising
m a g m a m a y also create volcanic activity, w h i c h is the c a s e in the A n d e s a n d t h e m o u n t a i n
r a n g e s a l o n g the W . coast of N. A m e r i c a .
O t h e r e x a m p l e s of leading e d g e coasts are f o u n d along the coast of Malaysia a n d S u m a t r a ,
in T u r k e y a n d G r e e c e and in J a p a n a n d N e w G u i n e a . This c a n be n o t e d f r o m F i g u r e 2 - 3 !

F i g u r e 2-7 L e a d i n g e d g e c o a s t n e a r A n t o f a g a s t a ( C h i l e ) After D a v i s (1994)


T h e s t e e p m o u n t a i n slopes of leading e d g e c o a s t s hold rapidly flowing s t r e a m s a n d s m a l l
rivers that quickly e r o d e their b e d s . B e c a u s e the w a t e r s h e d is at a high elevation n e a r t h e
c o a s t , the rivers are short, s t e e p , a n d straight. T h e y transport large quantities o f s e d i m e n t s
directly to t h e coastal a r e a s , giving no o p p o r t u n i t y for s e d i m e n t s to b e c o m e e n t r a p p e d in a
m e a n d e r , on a natural levee, or on a flood plain. T h e rivers deposit their s e d i m e n t l o a d s into
c o a s t a l bays or directly onto o p e n b e a c h e s .
E v e n t h o u g h mountain s t r e a m s deposit large a m o u n t s of s e d i m e n t on the coast, t h e y d o not
p r o d u c e deltas (Davis [1994]). In fact, none of the world's 25 largest deltas occurs o n l e a d i n g
e d g e coasts, because this tectonic setting d o e s not have a shallow, nearshore a r e a o n w h i c h
t h e s e d i m e n t c a n a c c u m u l a t e , a n d b e c a u s e w a v e s are usually large a l o n g l e a d i n g e d g e
c o a s t s . If s e d i m e n t eventually d o e s a c c u m u l a t e , it is s o o n d i s p e r s e d by the large w a v e s
c o m i n g f r o m the d e e p o c e a n .
Trailing e d g e c o a s t s d e v e l o p in a s s o c i a t i o n with a part of the continental l i t h o s p h e r e t h a t is
not at the leading e d g e of a plate (Figure 2-6) a n d that typically has b e e n tectonically s t a b l e
for at least tens of millions of years. All t h e s e years, erosion p r o c e s s e s have t a k e n p l a c e a n d
c o n v e r t e d hills a n d cliffs into coastal a n d s u b m a r i n e plains. A l o n g t h e s e coasts, o n e c a n find
h u g e d e p o s i t s of s e d i m e n t . T h e y a r e s h a p e d a n d r e s h a p e d by c u r r e n t s , w i n d a n d w a v e s .
T h e s e a r e the coasts w h e r e o n e finds barrier islands, deltas a n d other s e d i m e n t a r y s h a p e s .
I n m a n a n d N o r d s t r o m h a v e c a t e g o r i s e d trailing e d g e c o a s t s on the basis of t h e i r plate
t e c t o n i c settings as Neo-trailing e d g e c o a s t s , Afro-trailing e d g e c o a s t s , a n d A m e r o - t r a i l i n g
e d g e c o a s t s . T h e three subtypes refer to details of the erosion p r o c e s s after the b r e a k i n g up
of a l a n d m a s s .

20

A Neo-trailing e d g e c o a s t o c c u r s as plates d i v e r g e f r o m an active s p r e a d i n g c e n t r e . If t h e


n e w l y p r o d u c e d crust f o r m s a coast, it r e p r e s e n t s the first stage of c o a s t a l d e v e l o p m e n t . It
is only a f e w million years old. Coasts like this m u s t h a v e existed just after the proto-Atlantic
d e v e l o p e d , as the continents (Africa and S o u t h A m e r i c a ) split up during the Triassic p e r i o d ,
190 million y e a r s a g o . T h e c o a r s e gravel b e a c h a l o n g a high-relief coast on the S e a of
C o r t e z , M e x i c o , p r o v i d e s an e x a m p l e of a Neo-trailing e d g e coast. Its p h o t o g r a p h is s h o w n
in Figure 2-8.

F i g u r e 2-8 C o a r s e g r a v e l b e a c h a l o n g a high-relief c o a s t on the S e a of C o r t e z , M e x i c o


T h e African continent occupies a position in the middle of a crustal plate that has little tectonic
activity a l o n g its m a r g i n s , a n d has been relatively stable for m a n y millions of y e a r s . T h e
typical coastal f e a t u r e s of this continent have led to the n a m e Afro-trailing e d g e coast. A f r o trailing e d g e c o a s t s h a v e d e v e l o p e d p r o n o u n c e d continental shelves and coastal plains, but
t h e s e features lack the extent of m o r e mature coasts, and sedimentary features s u c h as large
d e l t a s a r e rare. T h e African continent has b e e n relatively stable for a long t i m e , s o n o
e x t e n s i v e , high m o u n t a i n ranges are present. T h e m o d e s t to large river s y s t e m s drain a r e a s
of only m o d e s t relief, s o s e d i m e n t gets a lot of t i m e to be deposited before arriving in the river
mouth.
A m e r o - t r a i l i n g c o a s t s , geologically the m a t u r e s t c o a s t a l a r e a s , a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by the e a s t
c o a s t s of North a n d S o u t h A m e r i c a . Both a r e tectonically stable portions of the c o n t i n e n t s ,
well a w a y f r o m t h e plate b o u n d a r y , a n d h a v e b e e n located so for at least s e v e r a l t e n s of
millions of years. T h e combination of long-term tectonic stability a m o d e r a t e climate, a n d the
d e v e l o p m e n t of a broad coastal plain has provided huge quantities of s e d i m e n t to the c o a s t a l
s y s t e m . During this t i m e n u m e r o u s large, m e a n d e r i n g river s y s t e m s h a v e d e v e l o p e d . F o r
m o r e than 150 million y e a r s , t h e s e rivers h a v e b e e n carrying s e d i m e n t a c r o s s a g e n t l e
incline. A s they h a v e d e p o s i t e d s e d i m e n t at or near their m o u t h s , t h e y h a v e c r e a t e d b r o a d ,
l o w relief c o a s t a l plains on t h e l a n d w a r d side a n d , o n the s e a w a r d side gently s l o p i n g
c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l v e s . W a v e action along A m e r o - t r a i l i n g c o a s t s is limited, b e c a u s e t h e w a t e r
of t h e gently sloping inner continental shelf is shallow. L a r g e m i d - o c e a n w a v e s lose e n e r g y
a s t h e y p r o g r e s s a c r o s s the shelf, a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y d o not inhibit d e p o s i t i o n of s e d i m e n t
a l o n g the coast. A n e x a m p l e is the e x t e n s i v e m a n g r o v e s w a m p a n d tidal flats, w h i c h c o v e r
t h e l o w relief A m e r o - t r a i l i n g e d g e c o a s t near t h e m o u t h of the A m a z o n River in Brazil, in
F i g u r e 2-9.
Marginal s e a coasts are near to the plate boundary w h e r e a collision is occurring, but are kept
a p a r t f r o m its influence. In t h e s e places, a m o d e r a t e - s i z e d marginal sea separates a p a s s i v e
21

a n d tectonically stable continental margin from the volcanic island arc at the plate e d g e near
a s u b d u c t i o n z o n e . A l t h o u g h fairly close to the c o n v e r g e n c e z o n e , t h e m a r g i n a l s e a c o a s t is
far e n o u g h a w a y to be u n a f f e c t e d by c o n v e r g e n c e tectonics - it b e h a v e s like a trailing e d g e
c o a s t . W e l l - d e v e l o p e d rivers carry large quantities of s e d i m e n t to the coast, w h e r e a b r o a d
and gently sloping continental shelf provides an ideal resting-place for large quantities of landderived sediment.
T h e restricted size of the m a r g i n a l sea limits the size of w a v e s that d e v e l o p . In a d d i t i o n , t h e
g e n t l e s l o p e and s h a l l o w w a t e r s of the continental s h e l v e s in t h e s e a r e a s attenuate w a v e
energy. H e n c e , the c o m b i n a t i o n of relatively l o w - e n e r g y c o a s t a l conditions a n d s i z e a b l e
s e d i m e n t loads allows the f o r m a t i o n of large deltas a n d other c o a s t a l s e d i m e n t a r y d e p o s i t s
s u c h as tidal flats, m a r s h e s , b e a c h e s a n d d u n e s . T h e great rivers of s o u t h e a s t e r n A s i a a n d
the Gulf region of t h e U S , both a r e a s of mild climate a n d a b u n d a n t rainfall, h a v e d e p o s i t e d
their s e d i m e n t loads on marginal seacoasts to create s o m e of the largest deltas of the w o r l d .

F i g u r e 2-9 C o a s t n e a r the m o u t h of the A m a z o n R i v e r in B r a z i l

2.5 T h e Dutch c o a s t
2.5.1 Geological history of the Dutch coast
T h e a c t u a l history of t h e p r e s e n t D u t c h coast starts f r o m the e n d of the P l e i s t o c e n e . A t t h e e n d
of the Pleistocene, s o m e 10,000 years ago, the area presently k n o w n as the s o u t h e r n North S e a
w a s completely dry, f o r m i n g a plain that connected England with the rest of W e s t e r n E u r o p e . T h i s
plain w a s intersected by the m a i n rivers like T h a m e s , Rhine, S c h e l d t a n d M e u s e . T h e e n d of t h e
P l e i s t o c e n e a n d the start of the H o l o c e n e w e r e m a r k e d by a rise in t e m p e r a t u r e . T h e rising
t e m p e r a t u r e c a u s e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e rise of the s e a level as indicated roughly in T a b l e 2 - 3 , a n d
m o r e in detail in Figure 2 - 1 0 .
T a b l e 2-3 s h o w s the t i m e s c h e d u l e for the m o s t recent ( H o l o c e n e ) part of the geological h i s t o r y
of t h e Dutch c o a s t e x p r e s s e d in s u n (calendar) years (years A D ) a n d in C-14 y e a r s ( y e a r s B P ) .
D e p o s i t s f r o m t h e P l e i s t o c e n e a r e still visible on t h e p r e s e n t s u r f a c e in the e a s t e r n part of t h e
N e t h e r l a n d s ; the W e s t e r n part is a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y c o v e r e d with t h e m o r e recent d e p o s i t s f r o m
22

t h e H o l o c e n e . In t h e P l e i s t o c e n e d e p o s i t s w e c a n still d i s t i n g u i s h nunnerous i c e - p u s h e d r i d g e s
(often c o n t a i n i n g m o r a i n e m a t e r i a l or glacial till).

sea level
position
AGE
C14
calendar! (m)

GEOLOGICAL
TIME SCALE

OBSERVATIONS COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

Late Weichsellen
10 000

iHolocene
Prae-Boreal

9 000
Boreal

8700 BP Sea protrudes into Strait of Dover/Calais


8300 BP Connection between Northern and
Southern part of Nortti Sea is formed
8 000

25

Atlanticum

7800 BP Average coast line position 25 km West of


the present position
7 000

5500

15

BC
Period of coastal retreat
Dutch coast develops into open Wadden Coast
6 000

5 000
Sub-Boreal

- 7

5000 BP Start of closure dutch coast, coastal propagation


and formation of the old dunes;
Coastline on average 8 l<m East from present
position;
Old Rhine IVlouth Is activated

3850
BC

H 4 OOO

- 3.0

3200 BP Closure of Bergen inlet


V

3 000

1.7
1100

Sub-Atlanticum

BC
h

2 000

AD

Period in which coastal progradation stops and


retreat starts again;
Old Rhine mouth non-active

1.0
ca.

500 AD

c a . l l O O AD
i 000

Inundations in the SW-part of the Netherlands


(Zeeland)
Inundations in the NW-part of the Netherlands
(kop van Noord Holland)

1000-1600 AD Formation of the young dunes

.1999 _ L NAP.

T a b l e 2-3

T i m e T a b l e w i t h t h e m a i n e v e n t s for t h e D u t c h c o a s t d u r i n g t h e H o l o c e n e

23

Pre- Boreal
bor.
10000

8000

Atlantic

Subboreal

6000

4000

Subatlantic

2000

0 14

F i g u r e 2-10 R e l a t i v e H o l o c e n e s e a level r i s e a l o n g the D u t c h c o a s t


In t h e early y e a r s of t h e H o l o c e n e , the s e a level rise a m o u n t e d to I m / c e n t u r y or m o r e . A b o u t
9 0 0 0 years a g o , the plain b e t w e e n E n g l a n d and Europe started to f l o o d . A t first, t h e w a t e r c a m e
in f r o m the s o u t h , t h r o u g h t h e English C h a n n e l . In the m e a n t i m e , the northern N o r t h S e a w a s
f o r m e d d u e s o u t h of the retreating polar ice. T h e separation b e t w e e n the s o u t h e r n a n d n o r t h e r n
parts of the North S e a e x t e n d e d f r o m the present Dutch W a d d e n S e a to the west. T h e plain w a s
c o m p l e t e l y f l o o d e d b e t w e e n 8 5 0 0 B P a n d 8 0 0 0 B P . A s the icecaps c o n t i n u e d to m e l t , a n d the
land s u b s i d e d in other places, the s e a t r a n s g r e s s e d further. A b o u t 7 5 0 0 B P , the D u t c h coastline
w a s situated s o m e 2 5 k i l o m e t r e s w e s t of its present position and it m i g r a t e d c o n t i n u o u s l y in
l a n d w a r d direction (see Figure 2-11 a n d Figure 2 - 1 3 ) .

24

F i g u r e 2-11 F o u r s t a g e s in the f o r m a t i o n of the North S e a (after Z a g w i j n , 1986)


T h e P l e i s t o c e n e l a n d s c a p e in w h a t is n o w the N e t h e r l a n d s had a distinct relief. G e n e r a l l y
s p e a k i n g , the height i n c r e a s e d to t h e east. T w o large, e a s t - w e s t t r e n d i n g valleys d i s s e c t e d t h i s
landscape:

one

running

from

North-Holland,

between

Alkmaar

and

Gastricum,

to

the

Noordoostpolder, and o n e further s o u t h , approximately at the present position of the rivers R h i n e


a n d M e u s e (see Figure 2 - 1 2 ) . In the n o r t h e r n part of T h e N e t h e r l a n d s , t h e r e w e r e t w o s m a l l e r ,
S S W - N N E r u n n i n g valleys. T h e n o r t h - w e s t e r n part of the N e t h e r l a n d s had a relatively h i g h
elevation d u e to i c e - p u s h e d ridges in the s u b s u r f a c e . This feature called "Texel High" d o m i n a t e d
the c o a s t a l evolution in the a r e a for a long t i m e .

25

F i g u r e 2-12 T h e N e t h e r l a n d s d u r i n g P r e - B o r e a l : 7500-8500 B C ( Z a g w i j n , 1991)


T h e fast rising sea level resulted in an overall retreat of the coastline, since the available a m o u n t s
of s e d i m e n t w e r e too s m a l l to stabilise the coast. T h e transgression of the s e a took place via the
valleys in the late-glacial l a n d s c a p e . T h e s e valleys c h a n g e d into l a g o o n s a n d e s t u a r i e s that
b e c a m e m a j o r s i n k s f o r s e d i m e n t s of p r e d o m i n a n t l y m a r i n e origin ( c o m p a r e Figure 2 - 1 3 a n d
Figure 2-14). In periods of rising sea level, a coastal plain has the tendency to maintain a more-orless constant level of t h e shoals with reference to the m e a n s e a level by a c c u m u l a t i n g s e d i m e n t .
R e p e a t e d f l o o d i n g of t h e inter-tidal a r e a s d e p o s i t e d s e d i m e n t s o n t h e s h o a l s . M o r e o v e r , finegrained s e d i m e n t s t e n d to a c c u m u l a t e in lagoons. T h e s e d i m e n t originates f r o m the s u r r o u n d i n g
c o a s t s that s h o w a t e n d e n c y to e r o d e in the vicinity of the tidal inlets. At p r e s e n t w e t e r m this
p h e n o m e n o n t h e " s a n d h u n g e r of the W a d d e n Sea". T h e s e d i m e n t s w e r e t r a n s p o r t e d t o w a r d s
the tidal basins by wave-driven longshore and cross-shore transport a n d by tidal action. T h e rivers
R h i n e a n d M e u s e d e p o s i t e d s a n d a n d clay in their valley, thus k e e p i n g the i n v a d i n g s e a out.

26

F i g u r e 2-13 T l i e N e t h e r l a n d s d u r i n g E a r l y A t l a n t i c u m : 5 5 0 0 B C ( Z a g w i j n , 1991)

F i g u r e 2-14 T h e N e t h e r l a n d s d u r i n g L a t e A t l a n t i c u m : 4 1 0 0 B C ( Z a g w i j n , 1 9 9 1 )
27

A t the e n d of the Atlantic period, a b o u t 6 0 0 0 to 5 5 0 0 B P , the rate of sea-level rise h a d d e c l i n e d


significantly (Figure 2 - 1 0 ) . T h i s c a u s e d a c h a n g e in the coastal evolution. T h e tidal b a s i n s in
Z e e l a n d a n d S o u t h - a n d N o r t h - H o l l a n d (up to A l k m a a r ) started to silt up. T h e s e d i m e n t s u p p l y
g r a d u a l l y b e c a m e sufficient to fill in t h e s e b a s i n s , w h i c h resulted in c l o s u r e of the tidal inlets.
S u b s e q u e n t l y , the c o a s t a l barrier started to p r o g r a d e to the w e s t . Eventually this r e s u l t e d in a
c l o s e d coastline that w a s only d i s s e c t e d by the m o u t h s of the rivers Scheldt, R h i n e / M e u s e , t h e
O l d Rhine n e a r Leiden a n d the O e r - I J n e a r G a s t r i c u m (Figure 2 - 1 5 ) .
Behind this coastal barrier the m a r i n e influence had completely disappeared and large-scale peat
f o r m a t i o n s t a r t e d . T h e coast

b e t w e e n A l k m a a r a n d the present island of Vlieland w a s still

d o m i n a t e d by the T e x e l High. This 'high' c a u s e d to coastline to retreat m u c h m o r e slowly than it


did to the s o u t h of it. C o n s e q u e n t l y , this part of the coast w a s a p r o m o n t o r y . T h e s e d i m e n t that
w a s e r o d e d f r o m the Texel High w a s transported to the north east and south, into the tidal basins.
T h e tidal b a s i n s east of Vlieland n e v e r silted up completely. This m e a n s that t h e r e h a s a l w a y s
b e e n a p r e d e c e s s o r of the p r e s e n t - d a y W a d d e n S e a ( c o m p a r e Figure 2-15 to Figure 2 - 1 7 ) .

F i g u r e 2 - 1 5 T h e N e t h e r l a n d s d u r i n g E a r l y S u b - B o r e a l : 3000 B C ( Z a g w i j n , 1991)

28

F i g u r e 2-16 T h e N e t h e r l a n d s d u r i n g Mid S u b - B o r e a l : 2100 B C ( Z a g w i j n , 1991)

F i g u r e 2-17 T h e N e t h e r l a n d s d u r i n g L a t e S u b - B o r e a l : 1250 B C ( Z a g w i j n , 1991)


29

F r o m 3 0 0 0 y e a r s a g o o n w a r d s d e v e l o p m e n t s in our region w e r e no longer d e t e r m i n e d by t h e


f o r c e s of n a t u r e alone. T h e c o n d i t i o n s for h u m a n s e t t l e m e n t i m p r o v e d and gradually t h e land
b e c a m e inhabited by p e o p l e w h o increasingly interfered with the flow of w a t e r and the f l o w of
s e d i m e n t . T h u s , d e v e l o p m e n t s f r o m a b o u t 1000 B C o n w a r d s included a mixture of natural a n d
h u m a n i n f l u e n c e s , the h u m a n factor b e c o m i n g m o r e i m p o r t a n t as technical skills g r a d u a l l y
i n c r e a s e d . D e v e l o p m e n t s after 3 0 0 0 B C w e r e no longer revealed only by g e o l o g y but by
a r c h a e o l o g y a s w e l l , later s u p p o r t e d by early written history.
T h e S u b a t l a n t i c u m , f r o m 2 9 0 0 y e a r s a g o up to the present, is c h a r a c t e r i s e d by an e v e n s l o w e r
rate of s e a level rise. A l t h o u g h o n e w o u l d e x p e c t that this w o u l d lead to further c o n s o l i d a t i o n of
t h e coastline, that did not o c c u r . S u b s i d e n c e of the a r e a s b e h i n d the coastal barrier led t o n e w
incursions of the s e a , resulting in the d e v e l o p m e n t of n e w tidal basins. In Z e e l a n d , this eventually
resulted in the formation of large estuaries. T h e coast of Holland between Schouwen and A l k m a a r
s t o p p e d p r o g r a d i n g . T h e delta of the O l d R h i n e w a s e r o d e d after the a b a n d o n m e n t of this river
c o u r s e . T h i s stretch of coast started e r o d i n g slowly, w h i l e t h e r e m a i n d e r of the T e x e l H i g h ,
b e t w e e n A l k m a a r a n d Vlieland w a s finally f l o o d e d , c r e a t i n g t h e w e s t e r n W a d d e n S e a . S e v e r a l
b r e a c h e s d e v e l o p e d . O n e of t h e m e x p a n d e d at the cost of the o t h e r s , a n d finally b e c a m e t h e
M a r s d i e p , the largest tidal inlet of the p r e s e n t - d a y W a d d e n S e a . T h e M a r s d i e p c o n n e c t e d t h e
A l m e r e , a large inland lake, with the North S e a . T h e Vlie f o r m e d another connection, to the north.
T h e e a s t e r n part of the W a d d e n S e a e x p a n d e d again ( s e e Figure 2-18 to Figure 2 - 2 0 ) .

F i g u r e 2-18 T h e N e t h e r l a n d s d u r i n g E a r l y S u b - A t l a n t i c u m : 100-400 B C ( Z a g w i j n , 1 9 9 1 )

30

F i g u r e 2-19 T h e N e t h e r l a n d s d u r i n g R o m a n E m p i r e : 100 A D ( Z a g w i j n , 1991)

ure 2-20 T h e N e t h e r l a n d s d u r i n g E a r l y Middle A g e s : 500-700 A D ( Z a g w i j n , 1991)


31

A s a result of the new inlets, e x t e n s i v e peat areas w e r e being drained, partly by a natural s y s t e m
of creeks and gullies, partly by h u m a n interference that b e c o m e s noticeable f r o m the R o m a n a g e
(say 2 0 0 0 years a g o ) . T h e better d r a i n a g e of the peat a r e a s also c a u s e d s o m e s e t t l e m e n t .
Slightly later during this period, the coastal erosion w a s interrupted in s o m e w a y , since w e k n o w
that d u r i n g the R o m a n a g e river m o u t h s a n d tidal inlets (Rhine near Katwijk a n d " O e r IJ") w e r e
c h o k e d . ( E v e n at p r e s e n t w e c a n distinguish the c o u r s e of the "Oer I J " in the vicinity of
A m s t e r d a m by the d e e p location of firm foundation layers). A remarkable event in this period also
w a s the creation of the W e s t e r n part of the W a d d e n S e a by inundation of t h e m a s s i f a r o u n d
T e x e l . T h e sea level in this period m u s t h a v e b e e n a r o u n d N A P - 0.5m (see Figure 2 - 1 9 ) .

2.5.2 Human intervention


T h e situation d e s c r i b e d at the e n d of section 2.5.1 is a p p r o x i m a t e l y the situation of t h e c o u n t r y
w h e n the R o m a n s e n t e r e d a n d built their f o r t r e s s e s at strategic points along the s e a s h o r e a n d
t h e r i v e r b a n k s . In the s a m e p e r i o d , inhabitants of other origin started to m a n i p u l a t e t h e w a t e r
m a n a g e m e n t in the lagoon area behind the d u n e s by d a m m i n g small creeks a n d by constructing
small-scale discharge sluices. Excavations near Vlaardingen s h o w primitive hydraulic engineering
w o r k s consisting of piled r e v e t m e n t s a n d hollow trees to drain w a t e r dating f r o m as early a s 100
AD.
Centuries later, medieval rulers constructed d a m s in larger creeks and rivers thus influencing the
distribution of w a t e r o v e r the v a r i o u s outlets of the m a i n rivers. T h e p u r p o s e of t h e d a m s v a r i e d ,
s o m e w e r e m e a n t to e n h a n c e land traffic, others w e r e m e a n t to obstruct navigation in o r d e r to
levy t a x e s or to p r e v e n t salt w a t e r intrusion. T h e result w a s not only a c h a n g e in the hydraulic
c o n d i t i o n s , but also a c h a n g e in the s e d i m e n t distribution, with m u c h of the s e d i m e n t t r a p p e d
b e h i n d the d a m s a n d not r e a c h i n g the coast.
T h u s in t w o w a y s (by natural influences a n d by h u m a n interference), the extra s a n d s o u r c e s ,
w h i c h had m a d e the g r o w t h of the D u t c h c o a s t possible, b e c a m e e x h a u s t e d . A s t h e s e a level
c o n t i n u e d rising, the d e m a n d for s a n d also c o n t i n u e d . T h e a m o u n t of s e d i m e n t carried by t h e
rivers b e c a m e insufficient and the coast retreated again. This is the reason w h y R o m a n fortresses
in front of Katwijk

a n d in v a r i o u s parts of Z e e l a n d are n o w i n u n d a t e d . T h e situation at t h e

beginning of the Middle A g e s is s h o w n in Figure 2-20. If is r e m a r k a b l e that in spite of the erosion


the barrier in the W e s t r e m a i n s in tact, w h e r e a s the gully s y s t e m in the North e r o d e s further f r o m
the W a d d e n S e a into the later Z u i d e r z e e a n d L a k e IJssel.
During the ninth century A D , extensive cultivation of the peat lands, which had been f o r m e d under
the favourable climatic conditions, started. T h e cultivation of the land w a s n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e of
the population p r e s s u r e . L a r g e parts of the land c o n s i s t e d of peat m a s s e s , situated s o m e (1-3)
m e t e r s a b o v e s e a level, a n d t h u s not too v u l n e r a b l e to f l o o d i n g during s t o r m s . In the N o r t h a n d
the S o u t h , marine s e d i m e n t fields w e r e f o u n d , w h i c h w e r e inundated only during high floods. Peat
a n d m a r i n e s e d i m e n t deposits w e r e a buffer against the s e a . A t that time, the c o a s t w a s c l o s e d ,
apart f r o m a f e w river m o u t h s a n d s e a a r m s . T h e r e w e r e s a n d d u n e r o w s , parallel to t h e c o a s t
(Old D u n e s ) .
In the eleventh century, the rate of population growth i n c r e a s e d . Peat excavation for h e a t i n g a n d
salt extraction w e a k e n e d the w a t e r - w e i r f u n c t i o n of the peat lands. Cultivation of t h e l a n d w a s
further intensified. In the c a s e of peat lands, artificial drainage (first by gravity, later by w i n d m i l l s )
led to greater land s u b s i d e n c e ; this contributed to t h e g r o w i n g vulnerability to inundation a n d a n
e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g n e e d for artificial d r a i n a g e .
B e t w e e n the twelfth and the fourteenth centuries, the extensive peat area between the Old D u n e s
a n d the Utrechtse Heuvelrug w a s cultivated (Grote Ontginning = Big Cultivation). In the thirteenth
32

a n d fourteenth c e n t u r i e s , this land s u b s i d e d s o m u c h ( s o m e t i m e s e v e n 4 to 5 m e t e r s ) , t h a t it


b e c a m e situated at or e v e n b e l o w s e a level. D r a i n a g e w a s a g r o w i n g p r o b l e m ; t h e r e f o r e
agriculture yielded to cattle b r e e d i n g . T h e s e a level rose, the land s u b s i d e d , a n d l a k e s w e r e
f o r m e d d u e to peat m i n i n g . Rivers c a u s e d i n u n d a t i o n s , as the u p p e r parts of their c a t c h m e n t
a r e a s w e r e also a f f e c t e d by deforestation a n d s u b s e q u e n t cultivation.
W e a k e n i n g of the s a n d y coast by erosion a n d s u b s i d e n c e of the land b e h i n d t h e barrier c o a s t
c r e a t e d the b o u n d a r y conditions for m a j o r f l o o d disasters during s t o r m f l o o d s . T h e d u n e c o a s t
g a v e w a y several times in the late Middle A g e s . Extensive areas in the lower part of Holland w e r e
inundated and lost to the sea. In this way, large parts of the province of Z e e l a n d w e r e lost and the
Zuiderzee (now Lake IJssel) w a s f o r m e d , or rather extended (Figure 2-21). In spite of the ongoing
e r o s i o n o f the s a n d y coast in t h e Middle A g e s , n e w d u n e s w e r e f o r m e d all the t i m e in quieter
periods. T h e m e c h a n i s m of these slightly contradictory d e v e l o p m e n t s is still not c o m p l e t e l y clear.
T h e threat of the s e a did not d i s c o u r a g e t h e p o p u l a t i o n . O n the contrary, d u r i n g t h e first half of
t h e thirteenth century t h o s e t h r e a t e n e d by the f r e q u e n t f l o o d s f o r m e d t h e o l d e s t m o r e or less
d e m o c r a t i c institutions in the country: the W a t e r B o a r d s ( D u t c h : W a t e r s c h a p p e n ) .

These

institutions co-ordinated the efforts to c o n s t r u c t dikes and d a m s . T h e first polders w e r e c r e a t e d :


t h e r e w e r e areas e n c l o s e d by dikes w h e r e a lower artificial w a t e r level w a s m a i n t a i n e d t h a n t h a t
in t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s . W a t e r B o a r d s got their o w n political power, b a s e d on t h e land t h e y
" c o n t r o l l e d " . In this w a y , the basis w a s laid for the later Dutch proficiency in d r e d g i n g a n d s h o r e
p r o t e c t i o n . M a n k i n d w a s o n t h e loosing s i d e , h o w e v e r , until the industrial revolution p r o v i d e d
p o w e r f u l tools.
In the first place these tools w e r e powered by s t e a m engines that could replace the windmills. T h e
g r e a t e r c a p a c i t y of t h e s t e a m d r i v e n p u m p i n g stations facilitated the r e c l a m a t i o n of large inland
l a k e s that h a d b e c o m e a threat in their o w n right. L a k e H a a r l e m ( H a a r l e m m e r m e e r ) w a s
r e c l a i m e d , a n d s o w e r e the c r e e k s

between Amsterdam

a n d I J m u i d e n , a l o n g with

the

construction of the North Sea C a n a l , giving A m s t e r d a m a m o d e r n connection with the North S e a .


T o stabilise the eroding d u n e coast, groynes w e r e constructed. T h e " H o n d s b o s s c h e Z e e w e r i n g " ,
a h e a v y s e a w a l l w a s c o n s t r u c t e d south of D e n Helder.

33

F i g u r e 2-21

T h e N e t h e r l a n d s d u r i n g L a t e IWiddle A g e s : 1000-1200 A D ( Z a g w i j n , 1991)

Still, the North S e a f o r m e d a s e r i o u s threat. In 1 9 1 6 , l a r g e - s c a l e inundations took place in t h e


province of N o o r d Holland a n d a r o u n d the f o r m e r Z u i d e r z e e . Eventually, t h e s e i n u n d a t i o n s led
to the decision t o c l o s e the Z u i d e r z e e a n d to c o n s t r u c t a n u m b e r of large polders in the newly
f o r m e d Lake IJssel. T h e construction of the closure d a m (Afsluitdijk) in 1932 m u s t be considered
as the starting point of m o d e r n coastal engineering in the Netherlands. This is not only d u e to the
scale of the w o r k s , but e v e n m o r e to t h e application of scientific m e t h o d s to predict t h e
c o n s e q u e n c e s o f s u c h w o r k s (see A p p e n d i x 2 ) .
In this respect, m e n t i o n m u s t be m a d e of the w o r k of the Lorentz C o m m i s s i o n , w h i c h d e v e l o p e d
a t e c h n i q u e for tidal c o m p u t a t i o n s to predict current velocities during the closing o p e r a t i o n , a n d
also c h a n g e s in t h e tides in t h e W a d d e n S e a after c o m p l e t i o n of the closure. Similarly, hydraulic
m o d e l studies w e r e initiated to study the d i s c h a r g e capacity of discharge sluices in the Afsluitdijk
a n d s c o u r d u e to tidal c u r r e n t s . T h e s e m o d e l investigations w e r e c o n d u c t e d at Delft University
of T e c h n o l o g y u n d e r the direction of Prof. Thijsse. A f e w years later, the laboratory w a s privatised
a n d it b e c a m e t h e w e l l - k n o w n W a t e r l o o p k u n d i g L a b o r a t o r i u m ( W L I Delft H y d r a u l i c s ) .
A n e w disaster o c c u r r e d in 1944, w h e n the island of W a l c h e r e n w a s inundated, following b o m b i n g
of the dikes by t h e R A F in an attempt to gain a c c e s s to the Port of A n t w e r p . T h e dikes could only
be repaired with g r e a t difficulty, using t e c h n i q u e s t h a t h a d n e v e r b e e n u s e d b e f o r e , i.e. s i n k i n g
of large c o n c r e t e c a i s s o n s in the g a p s of a c l o s u r e .
Even m o r e serious w a s the storm flood of February 1953, w h i c h c a u s e d extensive flooding in the
S W part of the country and took over 1800 lives. After repair of the d a m a g e , it w a s c o n c l u d e d that
the c o m m o n p r a c t i c e of raising the level of d i k e s a little higher than the highest r e c o r d e d flood
level posed great risks. For the first time, a real statistical risk analysis w a s carried out to establish
an acceptably s m a l l c h a n c e of a n e w m a j o r flood disaster. T h e Delta c o m m i s s i o n advised taking
34

a flood level with a probability of e x c e e d a n c e of 10"'* per a n n u m a s the b a s e for design of the s e a
d e f e n c e s y s t e m . T h i s w o u l d require s u c h m a j o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g w o r k s of the existing dikes in t h e
Delta region that it w a s considered better to close the estuaries in the S W part of the country. T h e
Delta project w a s b o r n . It took m o r e than 2 5 y e a r s to finalise t h e project. A m o r e detailed
description is given in A p p e n d i x 3.
Coastal erosion c o n t i n u e s a n d therefore the Dutch G o v e r n m e n t recently decided to maintain t h e
North S e a Coast at its present position by artificial m e a n s , these mainly consisting of large b e a c h
n o u r i s h m e n t projects. T h e technical b a c k g r o u n d of t h e s e w o r k s will be e x p l a i n e d e l s e w h e r e in
this b o o k .

2.5.3 Sediment balance


After all t h e s e qualitative c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , it is g o o d to realise h o w m u c h s e d i m e n t w a s m o v e d
during the Holocene. W e h a v e s e e n that the Dutch coast is a s e d i m e n t importing s y s t e m . During
the H o l o c e n e 2 0 0 to 2 5 0 billion m^ of s e d i m e n t , c o n s i s t i n g of s a n d ( 7 0 % ) , silt ( 2 5 % ) a n d p e a t
( 5 % ) , w a s d e p o s i t e d . T h e greater part of the s a n d w a s e r o d e d f r o m t h e P l e i s t o c e n e a r e a of t h e
present North S e a ; a b o u t 1 0 % w a s t r a n s p o r t e d by the H o l o c e n e R h i n e .
T h e H o l o c e n e is t h u s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by the great mobility of s e d i m e n t s a n d by a large influx of
s e d i m e n t . T h e geological division within the H o l o c e n e w a s b a s e d m a i n l y o n the d e v e l o p m e n t of
vegetation in North-west Europe after the melting of the ice c a p s . T h e different geological periods
can be traced in the soil structure. T h e Holocene s e d i m e n t covers the area s h o w n in Figure 2 - 2 2 .

peat
coastal sedlmenlatlon

F i g u r e 2-22 H o l o c e n e s e d i m e n t s in the N e t h e r l a n d s

35

T h e Pleistocene deposits c a n be f o u n d u n d e r the H o l o c e n e layers in the W e s t e r n part of the


country. O n m a n y o c c a s i o n s , t h e s e Pleistocene layers f o r m the b a s e for pile f o u n d a t i o n s , since
thick layers of ice h a v e s u r c h a r g e d t h e m . T h e P l e i s t o c e n e d e p o s i t s can still be f o u n d at the
s u r f a c e in the e a s t e r n part of the country.
T h e s e d i m e n t import during the H o l o c e n e d e c r e a s e d consistently f r o m an a v e r a g e of 4 2 million
m^ per year b e t w e e n 8 0 0 0 a n d 5 0 0 0 B P , via 2 7 million m^ per year between 5000 and 3 0 0 0 B P
to an a v e r a g e of + 7 million m^ per y e a r after 3 0 0 0 B P . This s e e m s to be partly linked to the
velocity of the rise in s e a level. This m e c h a n i s m is thought to have w o r k e d o w i n g to the p r e s e n c e
of big s a n d d e p o s i t s d u r i n g fast s e a level rise, c o u p l e d with t h e retreating c o a s t l i n e . At a lower
rate in sea level rise, the coast could b e c o m e more-or-less stabilised; r e m a i n d e r s of the deposits
w e r e e x h a u s t e d . After that, n e w s e d i m e n t could be d r a w n by n e w retreat of the coast.
F r o m the geological analysis the conclusion c a n be d r a w n that for several millennia the import of
sand from outside the coastal system has probably been too little to stabilise the coast. T o d a y the
it c a n n o t be anticipated that this import will increase. Recently, a decision w a s m a d e to m a i n t a i n
the coastline in its p r e s e n t position. T h i s decision implies t h e n e c e s s i t y to find artificial w a y s to
e n s u r e s a n d import. A t this s t a g e , ( 1 9 9 9 ) , a b o u t 6 million m^ per a n n u m is supplied artificially. It
m u s t be e x p e c t e d t h a t a n a c c e l e r a t i o n of t h e rise in s e a level u n d e r the influence of t h e
g r e e n h o u s e effect will c a u s e a n increasing d e m a n d for s a n d f r o m the W a d d e n S e a , resulting in
stronger e r o s i o n of t h e existing c o a s t . It is e x p e c t e d that i m p r o v e d t e c h n i c a l

capabilities

(dredging) will e n a b l e us to c o p e with this increased erosion. F r o m the geological analysis at the
s a m e time it can be learned that m a j o r natural c h a n g e s c a n take place in a relatively short period
with i m m e n s e effects o n the population of the c o a s t a l z o n e .

36

1 ^

> V.

'

3.1 Introduction
Y o u do not n e e d to b e a m o u n t a i n c l i m b e r to k n o w the effect of the t o p o g r a p h y o n t h e w e a t h e r .
T h e p r e s e n c e of mountains, o c e a n s , and other natural features influences the climate of an area,
a n d the climatic conditions influence t h e t o p o g r a p h y . In other w o r d s : the c l i m a t e and t h e
t o p o g r a p h y of a region are closely related to e a c h other.
T h e c l i m a t e is important for coastal e n g i n e e r i n g , as it d e t e r m i n e s the w a y in w h i c h the naturally
available w a t e r b e h a v e s . T h i s i n f l u e n c e s the m o v e m e n t of s e d i m e n t s , w h i c h h a s a m a j o r
influence on the physical properties of the Coastal Z o n e a n d on the design of coastal structures.

3.2 Meteorological s y s t e m
T h e climate is the s u m of the annual effects of the weather. In s o m e area (equatorial rain forests)
t h e r e is little difference between the data relating to climate and w e a t h e r . W h e r e t h e r e is g r e a t e r
s e a s o n a l or daily variation, w e a t h e r e f f e c t s m a y vary greatly.
T h e r e f o r e , w e a t h e r effects are quantified by so-called m e t e o r o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s , w h i c h a r e :
1.

Temperature

2.

Atmospheric pressure

3.

A t m o s p h e r i c humidity

4.

Air density

5.

V e r t i c a l air velocity

6.

Horizontal air velocity (wind)

T h e m o t o r of all m e t e o r o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s on the earth is the e n e r g y c o m i n g f r o m t h e s u n . T h e


a t m o s p h e r e a n d the s u r f a c e of the earth r e c e i v e this e n e r g y by radiation a n d lose it in t h e s a m e
w a y . T h e e n e r g y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s e s ( c o n v e r s i o n s ) in b e t w e e n give a n u m e r i c a l v a l u e to
t h e m e t e o r o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s . If t h e different c o n v e r s i o n p r o c e s s e s are q u a n t i f i e d , an e n e r g y
b a l a n c e of the a t m o s p h e r e can be c o n s t r u c t e d . T h i s balance s h o w s the different c o m p o n e n t s of
the e n e r g y cycle, w h i c h is g o v e r n e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g m e t e o r o l o g i c a l e q u a t i o n s :
1. the g a s l a w
2. the first law of t h e r m o d y n a m i c s (heat e q u a t i o n )
3. the e q u a t i o n of continuity ( m a s s c o n s e r v a t i o n )
4. the m o i s t u r e e q u a t i o n ( c o n s e r v a t i o n of m o i s t u r e )
5. the vertical e q u a t i o n of m o t i o n ( N e w t o n ' s s e c o n d law)
6. the horizontal e q u a t i o n of m o t i o n (Nev\rton's s e c o n d law)
G i v e n t h e six variables a n d the six e q u a t i o n s , in principle it is p o s s i b l e to solve m e t e o r o l o g i c a l
p r o b l e m s by integrating the e q u a t i o n s f r o m a given state f o r w a r d . In this integration, p r o p e r
b o u n d a r y conditions m u s t be applied at t h e b o t t o m a n d top. F i n a l l y w h e n the d o m a i n of interest
d o e s not e x t e n d a r o u n d the g l o b e , lateral b o u n d a r y conditions h a v e to be p r e s c r i b e d as w e l l .

37

3.3 From meteorology to climatology


In order to quantify a climate, it is usual to a v e r a g e t h e w e a t h e r effects over 30 years. In addition
to t h e a v e r a g e v a l u e s of the m e t e o r o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s , other v a l u e s a r e n e e d e d in o r d e r to
c h a r a c t e r i s e a c l i m a t e properly, especially for e n g i n e e r i n g p u r p o s e s . For e x a m p l e m o n t h l y or
a n n u a l m i n i m a , m a x i m a , a n d threshold v a l u e s for a g i v e n lifetime are n e c e s s a r y statistical
information.
P r i m a r y s o u r c e s for climatological data a r e the m o n t h l y tables in the archives of m e t e o r o l o g i c a l
services. O t h e r s are bulletins and y e a r b o o k s for meteorology. Climate atlases a n d global c l i m a t e
m a p s are a l s o available.
G o i n g f r o m m e t e o r o l o g y to climatology, w e s e e the t i m e s c a l e g r o w i n g (via statistics). A
s o m e w h a t c o m p a r a b l e step can be taken with respect to the spatial d i m e n s i o n s . It is also possible
to m a k e g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s in t h e c a s e of m a n y spatial p r o c e s s e s . M a n y of t h e s e are d e s c r i b e d in
literature. In this s e c t i o n , a f e w p r o c e s s e s only a r e s u m m a r i s e d briefly ( H a r v e y [1976]):
1

t h e hydrological cycle a n d cloud f o r m a t i o n s

solar radiation a n d t e m p e r a t u r e distributions

p r e s s u r e gradients a n d w i n d s

a t m o s p h e r i c circulation

3.4 T h e hydrological c y c l e
T h e cyclic s t a g e s a n d p r o c e s s e s of w a t e r are d r a w n in Figure 3 - 1 .

F i g u r e 3-1

The hydrological cycle

T h e p r o c e s s w h e r e b y w a t e r is t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m o c e a n a n d land s u r f a c e s into the a t m o s p h e r e is


k n o w n as e v a p o r a t i o n . W h e n it o c c u r s f r o m plant s u r f a c e s it is called transpiration, and w h e n it
o c c u r s directly f r o m an ice or s n o w surface to the v a p o r o u s state it is k n o w n as s u b l i m a t i o n . T h e
38

w a t e r vapour, w h i c h is thus a d d e d to the g a s e s in the a t m o s p h e r e , increases the pressure within


the a t m o s p h e r e . T h e part of the total p r e s s u r e that is attributable to the w a t e r v a p o u r is referred
to as the v a p o u r p r e s s u r e (e). A n alternative w a y of specifying the a m o u n t of w a t e r v a p o u r
p r e s e n t in the air is by using the humidity m i x i n g ratio, w h i c h is the ratio of the m a s s of w a t e r
v a p o u r a n d the m a s s of dry air.
T h e o p p o s i t e p r o c e s s to e v a p o r a t i o n is c o n d e n s a t i o n . W h e n the p r o c e s s e s of e v a p o r a t i o n a n d
c o n d e n s a t i o n b a l a n c e o n e another, equilibrium is r e a c h e d ; the air is said to be s a t u r a t e d w i t h
w a t e r vapour. T h e pressure at w h i c h this is the c a s e is called saturation vapour pressure e^. T h i s
saturation v a p o u r p r e s s u r e is very t e m p e r a t u r e - d e p e n d e n t , increasing m o r e and m o r e rapidly as
t e m p e r a t u r e increases. Therefore, w h e n , while cooling an a m o u n t of partly saturated air, the d e w
point is r e a c h e d , that is the t e m p e r a t u r e at w h i c h the air is fully saturated (at c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e ) .
W h e n t h e r e is no s u r f a c e of any kind for w a t e r to c o n d e n s e o n , air c a n b e c o m e s u p e r s a t u r a t e d
and still retain its w a t e r vapour. A m e a s u r e of the a m o u n t of w a t e r v a p o u r in the air is the relative
h u m i d i t y (U).

U = -100%

(3.1)

where:
U

relative h u m i d i t y (%)

water vapour pressure (mb)

Bw

saturation v a p o u r p r e s s u r e ( m b )

T h e relative h u m i d i t y is i n c r e a s e d not only by a n i n c r e a s e in t h e w a t e r v a p o u r content, but a l s o


by a d e c r e a s e in t e m p e r a t u r e (if the w a t e r v a p o u r r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t ) . For this r e a s o n the diurnal
variation in relative h u m i d i t y often m i r r o r s t h e diurnal variation in air t e m p e r a t u r e .
A l t h o u g h no s u r f a c e s s e e m to b e available in a f r e e c l o u d l e s s a t m o s p h e r e , t h e r e are m a n y
impurities s u c h as salt particles f r o m the evaporation of s e a s p r a y dust f r o m deserts a n d volcanic
e r u p t i o n s a n d s m o k e f r o m fires on w h i c h c o n d e n s a t i o n c a n t a k e place. T h e s e a r e k n o w n a s
c o n d e n s a t i o n nuclei. O n m o s t types of nuclei, c o n d e n s a t i o n already t a k e s place b e l o w a relative
h u m i d i t y of 1 0 0 % .
T h e saturation of air leading to c o n d e n s a t i o n is usually c a u s e d by air being c o o l e d . T h i s cooling
h a p p e n s , for instance, w h e n air rises, or d u e to the daily t e m p e r a t u r e fluctuation. T h e r e is another
i m p o r t a n t p r o c e s s l e a d i n g to c o n d e n s a t i o n , w h i c h is illustrated by Figure 3-2.
C o n s i d e r s a m p l e s of air r e p r e s e n t e d by points D a n d E. Neither is s a t u r a t e d with w a t e r v a p o u r ,
but if t h e y a r e t h o r o u g h l y m i x e d t o g e t h e r in e q u a l quantities t h e resultant m i x t u r e will b e
r e p r e s e n t e d by point F - w h i c h is s a t u r a t e d . H e n c e it is s e e n that m i x i n g of t w o different types of
air c a n lead to saturation a n d c o n d e n s a t i o n .
B a c k to cooling of t h e air by air a s c e n t . T h e r e a r e t h r e e principal c a u s e s of air rising in t h e
atmosphere:
1.

W h e n air w h i c h is m o v i n g horizontally, e n c o u n t e r s a hill or m o u n t a i n range, it m u s t rise to


continue

2.

Horizontal c o n v e r g e n c e of air, w h i c h c a n lead t o uplift of the w a r m e s t (lightest) air (frontal


uplift)

3.

C o n v e c t i o n by w a r m i n g of the air near the g r o u n d ( m a k i n g it less d e n s e )

39

3.5 Solar radiation and temperature distribution


T h e s u n emits e l e c t r o - m a g n e t i c radiation, w h i c h is the m a i n s o u r c e of t h e r m a l e n e r g y f o r the
earth. The intensity of the radiation c o m i n g f r o m the sun is d e n o t e d by E and e x p r e s s e d in e n e r g y
per unit s u r f a c e a r e a . It c a n b e c a l c u l a t e d by using Stefan's L a w :

= a r;

(3.2)

where:
a

Ts =

constant o f S t e f a n - B o l z m a n n = 5 . 6 7 * 10 " W m " ^ K "


absolute t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e s u n s u r f a c e , w h i c h c a n be c o n s i d e r e d to be 6 0 0 0 K.

U s i n g Equation (3.2), the a m o u n t of radiation per unit surface area is 3.402 * 10"^ W / m ^ . This s u n
radiation is divided o v e r a r a n g e of f r e q u e n c i e s or w a v e l e n g t h s ( F i g u r e 3-3).

40

wavelength \im

F i g u r e 3-3 Distribution of radiation intensity o v e r w a v e l e n g t h


for a b l a c k b o d y w i t h a s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e of 6 0 0 0 K ( s u n )
T h e radiation that r e a c h e s the e a r t h , including its a t m o s p h e r e , d e p e n d s o n t h e v a r y i n g d i s t a n c e
b e t w e e n s u n a n d e a r t h . A s the radiation t h e n p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e a t m o s p h e r e , it is s u b j e c t to
a b s o r p t i o n , s c a t t e r i n g , a n d reflection by c l o u d s (Figure 3-4). T h e proportion t h a t the cloud (or
a n o t h e r s u r f a c e ) reflects is called its a l b e d o .

clear sky

cloudy sky

incoming radiation (100 units)


scattering back to space
(-7 units)
absorption in upper
atmosphere mainly by
ozone (-3 units)
absorption in lower
atmosptiere mainly by
water vapour (-10 units)

80 units
reacti ground

reflection from
clouds to space
45 units)
absorbtion in
clouds (-10 units)

25 units
reacti ground

F i g u r e 3-4 R e d u c t i o n of s o l a r radiation i n t e n s i t y
a s it is t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h the a t m o s p h e r e
T h e radiation which r e a c h e s the earth surface m a y be absorbed there, be transmitted d o w n w a r d s
if it e n c o u n t e r s a m a t e r i a l w h i c h is t r a n s p a r e n t to it, or be reflected. T h e a l b e d o of t h e s u r f a c e
d e p e n d s o n its s u b s t a n c e a n d t e x t u r e , o n the a n g l e of i n c i d e n c e of the radiation, a n d on t h e
w a v e l e n g t h of the r a d i a t i o n . T h e a b s o r p t i o n of radiation leads to h e a t i n g . T h e heat m a y be
t r a n s m i t t e d d o w n w a r d s by c o n d u c t i o n or, in the c a s e of fluids, by c o n v e c t i o n .
41

If the earth continued to absorb solar radiation without any loss of heat, its t e m p e r a t u r e w o u l d rise
indefinitely. T h i s d o e s not h a p p e n , b e c a u s e the e a r t h , in its turn also e m i t s e l e c t r o - m a g n e t i c
radiation into s p a c e . T a k i n g m e a n annual v a l u e s , a n d ignoring a n y c h a n g e in the earth's m e a n
a n n u a l t e m p e r a t u r e f r o m o n e year to the next, a b a l a n c e m u s t exist b e t w e e n i n c o m i n g solar
radiation a n d o u t g o i n g terrestrial radiation.
T h e earth m a i n l y e m i t s visible and infrared radiation ( w a v e lengths > 4 p m ) . T h e g a s e s in the
a t m o s p h e r e , w h i c h absorb this low-frequent terrestrial radiation, are water vapour, carbon dioxide
a n d o z o n e . T h e y e m i t long w a v e radiation in all directions, w h i c h is called s e c o n d a r y reflection.
T h e y t h e r e f o r e act as a layer of insulation a r o u n d the earth a n a l o g o u s to t h e g l a s s of a
g r e e n h o u s e , a n d their effect o n earth t e m p e r a t u r e s h a s b e e n called the g r e e n h o u s e effect.
T h e earth follows an elliptical path around the s u n ; its m e a n distance being about 150 million k m ,
but this varies at the p r e s e n t t i m e by about 5 million k m in the c o u r s e of a year. T h e a m o u n t of
radiation received in a day depends upon the length of time the area is e x p o s e d to the sun's rays,
the angle b e t w e e n the sun's rays and the earth's s u r f a c e , and the distance of the earth f r o m the
s u n . T h e s e factors v a r y with latitude a n d s e a s o n .
T h e process of absorption and reflection leads to distinct differences at distinct locations a r o u n d
the g l o b e . At high latitudes (near the p o l e s ) , the i n c o m i n g radiation is less t h a n t h e o u t g o i n g
radiation: a net loss of heat by radiation is f o u n d . A t low latitudes (near the equator), there is a net
gain (Figure 3-5). Horizontal transfer (advection) of heat is t h e result. T h e c h a n g e - o v e r f r o m a
s u r p l u s to a deficit in t h e net annual radiation b a l a n c e o c c u r s at about 37 latitude N a n d S. T h e
w i n d s and o c e a n currents are responsible for the advective heat transport. T h e s e heat t r a n s p o r t
p r o c e s s e s t h e m s e l v e s are generated by the u n e v e n distribution of heat over the earth's s u r f a c e .

300 n

OL)I
90 70

60

50

40
30
20
L a t i t u d e (scaled proportional to area)

10

F i g u r e 3-5 L o n g - t e r m a v e r a g e i n c o m i n g a n d o u t g o i n g radiation i n t e n s i t y
In short, the days a n d nights, a n d the s e a s o n s , c a u s e variations in t e m p e r a t u r e . A n o c e a n
r e s p o n d s differently to t h e s e variations t h a n a c o n t i n e n t d o e s . In water, t h e solar r a d i a t i o n
p e n e t r a t e s further t h a n in land; w a t e r has a g r e a t e r heat capacity t h a n land; w a t e r h a s a big
s t o r a g e possibility for heat by the process of mixing a n d evaporation. T h e s e differences b e t w e e n
w a t e r and land c a u s e differences in the air t e m p e r a t u r e distribution over the earth surface (Figure
3-6).

42

F i g u r e 3-6 A i r t e m p e r a t u r e s r e d u c e d to s e a level in J a n u a r y a n d J u l y
T h e distribution of air t e m p e r a t u r e o v e r t h e earth's s u r f a c e d e p e n d s o n f o u r m a j o r f a c t o r s :

Latitude

2
3

Altitude
N a t u r e of t h e s u r f a c e , in particular t h e distribution of land a n d s e a

A d v e c t i o n of h e a t by w i n d s a n d c u r r e n t s

T h e advective transport .=y winds wiil be d i s c u s s e d in this Chapter; the O c e a n Currents will be
t r e a t e d in C h a p t e r 4 .

3 6 Atmospheric circulation and wind

e a c h ( F i g u r e 3-8).

2 Troposphere Is that part of the atmosphere where the temperature decreases with increasing altitude
43

Equator
F i g u r e 3-7 C o n v e c t i o n cell c i r c u l a t i o n o n a n o n - r o t a t i n g uniform earth

F i g u r e 3-8 S i m p l e t h r e e - c e l l c o n v e c t i o n
W i t h o u t earth rotation, a s y m m e t r i c a l global a t m o s p h e r i c circulation pattern c o u l d be e x p e c t e d .
H o w e v e r , this s y m m e t r y is disturbed by rotation of the e a r t h . T h e Coriolis

effect, w h i c h is t h e

result of the earth rotation, w o r k s in different directions in e a c h h e m i s p h e r e . It c a u s e s a deviation


to the right (starboard side) o n the N. h e m i s p h e r e a n d a deviation to the left (port side) on t h e S.
h e m i s p h e r e . This is also referred to as the L a w of Buys Ballot. T h e r e f o r e , the global a t m o s p h e r i c
circulation s y s t e m is a s y m m e t r i c a l (Figure 3-9). It consists of t h r e e m a j o r cells on

each

h e m i s p h e r e . T h e lowest latitude cells are called H a d l e y Cells. This series of p r e s s u r e belts a n d


w i n d s y s t e m s is kept going by this so-called A - e n g i n e (a combination of solar radiation a n d earth
rotation). In Figure 3-9, o n e c a n clearly distinguish regions with mainly w e s t e r l y w i n d s at latitudes
between 30

a n d 6 0 , w h i c h w e k n o w e x t r e m e l y well in t h e N e t h e r l a n d s . A l s o t h e r e g i o n w i t h

m a i n l y N E a n d S E t r a d e w i n d s near the e q u a t o r a r e o b v i o u s .

44

POLAR HIGH

Polar Easterlies^
POLAR HIGH

Figure 3

-9 S c h e m a t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of p r e s s u r e b e l t s a n d w i n d s y s t e m s at the earth
surface

When

the non-uniformity

of t h e earth's surface is introduced, the situation

^1-^^2Z^ TZ

m o r e c o m p l e x , a n d t h e influence of t h e c o n t i n e n t s c a n b e f o u n d ,

-nm^ence of t h e

o c e a n / c o n t i n e n t contrasts is called the B - e n g i n e . T h e s e a s o n s c a n generate t h e r m a l effects, f o


e x a m p l e p e s s u r e s y s t e m s c a n be stable during the s u m m e r a n d alternate into another relatively
s t a r

onf g u at o n d u r i n g the winter. T h i s is very evident in S E A s i a , w h e r e the A s i a n c o n t i n e n t

Irms

up in JuTy t h u c r e a t i n g a L o w a b o v e C h i n a , c a u s i n g a S W w i n d . In J a n u a r y , w h e n t h e

w a t e r o t e ndian O c e a n m a i n t a i n a higher t e m p e r a t u r e t h a n t h e continent, the s u a t i o n is


r e v e r s e causing a N E w i n d . Seasonally reversing w i n d s correlated with this seasonal c h a n g e a r e
called m o n s o o n s .
T h e last m a j o r influence on the c l i m a t e is the t o p o g r a p h y of a certain area^ f o u n t a i n s affe^^^^^^^
p r e s s u r e distribution in their o w n w a y . Local p h e n o m e n a like land or s e a b r e e z e s t o g e t h e r f o r m
the C - e n g i n e T h e m o s t terrif^ng p h e n o m e n o n c o m i n g f r o m this is the h u m c a n e , w h i c h d e v e l o p s
a b o v e the o c e a n . It follows a path, w h i c h is partly predictable, a n d is s t o p p e d only after c r o s s i n g
into a continent.
T h e c o m b i n a t i o n of the A - e n g i n e a n d t h e B-engine leads t o v e r y typical w i n d patterns f o r t h e
m o n t h s of J a n u a r y a n d July (Figure 3-10). It c a n be clearly o b s e r v e d that s o m e tropical a r e a s a r e
Z

n ted by t r a r i d s (blowing the s a m e direction t h r o u g h o u t the year), w h e r e a s other a r e a s

a L T o r J ^ n l d by r e v e r s i n g w i n d s ( m o n s o o n ) . It will be clear t h a t s u c h o b s e r v a t i o n s will h a v e a


s t r o n g influence on civil e n g i n e e r i n g a s p e c t s .
A l t h o u g h w i n d conditions c a n n o t be predicted accurately long in a d v a n c e , w i n d conditions c a n b e
de ^ r b e d statistically. T h e w i n d c l i m a t e c o n s i s t s of both velocity data

direc.^^^^^^^^

V e l o c i t i e s c a n be e x p r e s s e d by w i n d s p e e d ( w h e n m e a s u r e d ) or as a certain n u m b e r on t h e
" s c a ^ ^ ^ ^

(When visually

Observed).

T h e s e data c a n

be f o u n d in

a n d in v a r i o u s a t l a s e s . A s t o t h e latter, r e f e r e n c e is m a d e t o specific h y d r o g r a p h i c a t l a s e s t h a t
c o n t a i n data collected at s e a .

45

F i g u r e 3-10 G l o b a l w i n d p a t t e r n s in J a n u a r y a n d J u l y
Beaufort, a Britisfi naval officer, i n t r o d u c e d tfie Beaufort w i n d s c a l e in 1 8 0 5 . It is still u s e d at
present. For tactical r e a s o n s t l i e scale w a s intended to e x c h a n g e objective information b e t w e e n
sailing vessels of the British Navy. T h e lower scales (2 to 4) refer to sailing s p e e d s of the c o m m o n
naval v e s s e l o f that t i m e ( m a n - o f - w a r ) u n d e r full sail. T h e i n t e r m e d i a t e s c a l e s (5 to 9) refer t o
conditions that required reefing of sail. T h e higher scales (10 to 12) d e a l with survival of ship a n d
c r e w . T h e c r e w s of m o d e r n p l e a s u r e craft m a y find the definitions of B e a u f o r t a little r o u g h as is
indicated in Figure 3 - 1 1 . T h e Beaufort scale is s u m m a r i s e d in T a b l e 3-1 in the f o r m that is u s e d
at present. Bold printed e x p r e s s i o n s refer to the official t e r m s of t h e W o r l d

Meteorological

O r g a n i s a t i o n ( W M O ) . S t a n d a r d pictures a r e available to illustrate t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e s e a


s u r f a c e that h a v e b e e n a d d e d

to assist o b s e r v e r s on b o a r d of s e a - g o i n g v e s s e l s to r e p o r t

accurately.

46

47

Beaufort
No.

Windspeed

Description

Wave
Height

m/s

Knots

Phenomena observed on
land

State of the s e a
surface

0-0.2

0-1

Sea like mirror.

0.3-1.5

1-3

Calm: Still; Smoke will rise


vertically
Light Air: Rising smoke
drifts; weather vane is
inactive

1.6-3.3

3-6.5

Light Breeze: Leaves


rustle, can feel wind on
your face, weather vane is
inactive.
Gentle Breeze: Leaves and
twigs move around. Light
weight flags extend.

3.4-5.4

6.5-11

5.5-7.9

11-16

Moderate Breeze: Moves


thin branches, raises dust
and paper.

8-10.7

16-21

Fresh Breeze: Moves trees


sway.

10.8
13.8

21-28

Strong Breeze: Large tree


branches move, open wires
(such as telegraph wires)
begin to whistle, umbrellas
are difficult to keep under
control.
Near Gale: Large trees
begin to sway, noticeably
difficult to walk.

13.9
17.1

28-34

17.2
20.7

34-42

Gale: Twigs and small


branches are broken from
trees, walking into the wind
is very difficult.

20.8
24.4

42-49

Strong Gale: Slight damage


occurs to buildings, shingles
are blown off of roofs.

10

24.5
28.4

49-57

storm: Large trees are


uprooted, building damage
is considerable.

11

28.5
32.6

57-65

Violent Storm: Extensive


widespread damage. These
typically occur at sea, and
rarely Inland.

12

>32.7

>65

Hurricane: Extreme
destruction.

T a b l e 3-1

Ripples with
appearance of
scales; no foam
crests.
Small wavelets;
crests of glassy
appearance, not
breaking.
Large wavelets;
crests begin to
break; scattered
whitecaps.
Small waves,
becoming longer;
numerous
whitecaps.
Moderate waves,
taking longer form;
many whitecaps;
some spray.
Larger waves
forming; whitecaps
everywhere; more
spray.

Sea heaps up; white


foam from breaking
waves begins to be
blown in streaks.
Moderately high
waves of greater
length; edges of
crests begin to break
into spindrift; foam is
blown in well-marked
streaks.
High waves; sea
begins to roll; dense
streaks of foam;
spray may reduce
visibility.
Very high waves with
overhanging crest;
sea takes white
appearance as foam
is blown in very
dense streaks;
rolling is heavy and
visibility is reduced.
Exceptionally high
waves; sea covered
with white foam
patches; visibility still
more reduced.
Air filled with foam;
sea completely white
with driving spray;
visibility greatly
reduced.

Beaufort scale

48

As used fay Navy in time


of sailing v e s s e l s

In Dutch a s
used by
KNMI
Windstil

Zwakke
wind

0.1 0.2

1 t o 2 knots

Zwakke
wind

0.3
0.5

3 to 4 knots

Zwak tot
matige wind

0.6
1.0

5 to 6 knots

Matige wind

1.5

Royals, etc.

Vrij
krachtige
wind

2.0

Single-reefed
topsails and
top-gal. Sail

Krachtige
wind

3.5

Double
reefed
topsails, jib,
etc.
Treblereefed
topsails etc.

Harde wind

5.0

Stormachtig

7.5

Storm

9.5

She should scarcely bear


close-reefed main-topsail
and reefed fore-sail.

Zware storm

12.0

Would reduce her to storm


staysails.

Zeer zware
storm

15.0

No canvas would
withstand.

Orkaan

>15

Just sufficient to give


steerage way.

A man-ofwar with
all sail set
and clean
full would
go in
smooth
water
from:

A wellconditione
d man-ofwar could
just carry
in chase,
full and by:

Close-reefed
topsails and
courses

4.1 Introduction
O c e a n o g r a p h y has b e e n studied s i n c e 1725, w h e n the Italian C o u n t Luigi Marsigli w r o t e o n e of
t h e first b o o k s o n the subject. M a t t h e w Maury, a United States N a v a l Officer, w r o t e the first
" m o d e r n " o c e a n o g r a p h y b o o k in 1855. M a n y of his observations - c o m p i l e d f r o m ship logs - a r e
excellent; all are interestingly e x p l a i n e d , e v e n t h o u g h he h a d no k n o w l e d g e of g e o p h y s i c s .
T h e first systematic, specific study of the o c e a n s w a s carried out by the H.M.S. Challenger. T h i s
ship sailed f r o m P o r t s m o u t h , England on the 21st of D e c e m b e r 1872, and in SVa years s h e sailed
m o r e t h a n 100,000 k m . T h e m e a s u r e m e n t s a n d observations resulted in a 50-volume report. T h i s
w a s also the first report to s u b d i v i d e o c e a n o g r a p h y into its four m o d e m m a j o r fields:
0

biological o c e a n o g r a p h y

chemical oceanography

geological oceanography

physical o c e a n o g r a p h y

In this section, s o m e aspects of physical o c e a n o g r a p h y are described. However, o n e m u s t realise


that biological, c h e m i c a l , and geological processes have a major influence o n , a n d are influenced
d e e p l y b y c o a s t a l e n g i n e e r i n g m e a s u r e s in t h e m a r i n e e n v i r o n m e n t .
T h e m e a n depth of the o c e a n s is about 3.8 k m (the a v e r a g e depth of the North Sea is 94 m ) . T h e
s h a l l o w e s t part of the o c e a n s , a d j a c e n t to the l a n d m a s s e s is called the continental shelf. T h i s
m a k e s u p 7.6 % of t h e total o c e a n a r e a (Figure 4 - 1 ) . T h e continental shelf r e a c h e s d e p t h s u p to
2 0 0 m e t e r s T h e o c e a n s a r e s u b d i v i d e d into a s e r i e s of i n t e r c o n n e c t e d b a s i n s in w h i c h m o s t of
t h e interesting physical o c e a n o g r a p h i c activity t a k e s place. T h e s e basins are 3 to 5 k m d e e p w i t h
o c c a s i o n a l d e e p e r or s h a l l o w e r s e c t i o n s . M o s t of t h e interesting p r o c e s s e s in t h e o c e a n s t a k e
place in the upper 1 to 2 k m . Deeper than this, the o c e a n s are of rather uniform salinity (35%o) a n d
t e m p e r a t u r e (3 - 4 C ) . Currents in the d e e p z o n e are v e r y w e a k - often a s s u m e d to b e z e r o . In
S e c t i o n s 4 . 2 a n d 4 . 3 , p r o c e s s e s in the upper z o n e of t h e o c e a n are d e s c r i b e d .

I Conlinenldl Shelf

F i g u r e 4-1

Continental shelf

49

T h e three primary forces that produce a disturbance of the sea surface are w i n d (wind w a v e s a n d
p r o b a b l y s e i c h e s ) , earthqual<es (tsunamis), and gravitational attraction within the s u n , m o o n a n d
e a r t h s y s t e m (tides). T i d e s are described in Section 4.4. S e i c h e s are the s u b j e c t of S e c t i o n 4 . 5 ;
T s u n a m i s a r e t r e a t e d in S e c t i o n 4.6. In Section 4.7, a short description of short w a v e t h e o r y is
g i v e n . O n l y t h e basic principles a r e treated in this chapter. T h o s e desiring to learn m o r e details
a b o u t the s u b j e c t s t r e a t e d in this c h a p t e r a r e referred to h a n d b o o k s or to specific lectures a n d
lecture notes c o n t a i n i n g a m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e discussion^.

4.2 Variable density


T h e d e n s i t y of s e a w a t e r is a function of three variables:

salinity

temperature

pressure

T h e i n f l u e n c e of p r e s s u r e on the d e n s i t y can be n e g l e c t e d unless the d e p t h is m o r e t h a n 5 0 0


m . In contrast t o p u r e water; s e a w a t e r will c o n t i n u o u s l y i n c r e a s e in density a s it cools until it
r e a c h e s its f r e e z i n g t e m p e r a t u r e .
M o s t s e a w a t e r h a s salinity varying b e t w e e n 34 a n d 36%o. H o w e v e r , s o m e smaller isolated s e a s
c a n s h o w significant variations: For e x a m p l e , the Baltic S e a s o m e t i m e s has a salinity as l o w as
7%o, w h i l e t h e salinity of t h e R e d S e a m a y be as high as 4 1 % o .
Salinity and t e m p e r a t u r e are not constant throughout the water depth. W i t h increasing d e p t h , both
salinity a n d t e m p e r a t u r e usually decrease. Evaporation is responsible for the higher salinity of the
s u r f a c e layer. A higher salinity m e a n s a higher d e n s i t y w h e r e a s a higher t e m p e r a t u r e c a u s e s a
l o w e r density. Still, in g e n e r a l , the t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e s are sufficient to m a i n t a i n a s t a b l e
d e n s i t y profile, i.e. w h e r e d e n s i t y i n c r e a s e s with d e p t h . T h e r e are e x c e p t i o n s to this rule, w h i c h
a r e i m p o r t a n t w h e n a c o u s t i c s u r v e y i n g is in p r o g r e s s . In a r e a s w h e r e an inversion is p r e s e n t , it
is p o s s i b l e for o b j e c t s ( s u b m a r i n e s ) to e s c a p e f r o m d e t e c t i o n by sonar.
T h e salinity S is d e f i n e d a s t h e total a m o u n t of solid material in g r a m s c o n t a i n e d in 1 kg of
seawater, when:

all the b r o m i n e a n d iodine h a v e b e e n replaced by the e q u i v a l e n t a m o u n t of chlorine

all the c a r b o n a t e c o n v e r t e d to oxide

all o r g a n i c m a t t e r h a s b e e n c o m p l e t e l y oxidised ( F o r c h , S o r e n s e n a n d K n u d s e n , 1 9 0 2 )

T h e salinity d e f i n e d in this w a y c a n be d e t e r m i n e d with great a c c u r a c y .


C h l o r i d e c o m p o u n d s (NaCl

a n d MgCI)

constitute t h e m a j o r portion of the d i s s o l v e d salts.

T h e r e f o r e , t h e total salinity S c a n be derived f r o m the C h l o r i n e c o n t e n t by the f o r m u l a


S = 0.030 + 1.8050 0 /

(4.1)

in w h i c h CI is t h e chlorine c o n t e n t that c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d relatively easily by titration w i t h silver


nitrate (AgNOs).

A l t h o u g h t h e relation b e t w e e n S a n d CI is not exact, t h e a p p r o x i m a t i o n is

a d e q u a t e for practical e n g i n e e r i n g p u r p o s e s . Further details c a n be f o u n d in h a n d b o o k s o n


physical o c e a n o g r a p h y (Defiant, 1961).
T h e r e are s e v e r a l m e t h o d s to m e a s u r e the salinity of water:

At TU Delft, these specific lectures are: CT3310 (open channel hydraulics), OT3620 (oceanography

and waves), CT4320 (short waves), CT5316 (wind waves) and CT5317 (physical oceanography).
50

titration w i t l i silver nitrate as indicated a b o v e

d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e density p

m e a s u r e m e n t of electric conductivity

Calibration of the m e t h o d u s e d is always i m p o r t a n t . For this p u r p o s e , " s t a n d a r d s e a water" c a n


be p u r c h a s e d f r o m well k n o w n h y d r o g r a p h i c institutes. T h e s a m p l e s a r e s t o r e d in s e a l e d glass
t u b e s to prevent e v a p o r a t i o n . T h e density a n d chlorinity of e a c h s a m p l e a r e g i v e n with g r e a t
accuracy.
S i n c e t h e density of salt w a t e r usually is a little higher t h a n 1 0 0 0 k g / m ^ o c e a n o g r a p h e r s o f t e n
subtract 1000 f r o m t h e density v a l u e s a n d d e n o t e the v a l u e by a. If this is d o n e for conditions
u n d e r a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e a subscript f is usually a d d e d :
a, = 9-1000

[kg/m'l

(4.2)

Since t h e scientific equations and tables to calculate the density are a bit c u m b e r s o m e in use, W L
I Delft H y d r a u l i c s u s e s a s i m p l e r relationship for e n g i n e e r i n g p u r p o s e s :
= 0.75S

(4-3)

where:
S = salinity [in % o ]
T h i s relationship n e g l e c t s influences of t e m p e r a t u r e and p r e s s u r e a n d is t h e r e f o r e m o r e liniited
in u s e . In practice it is sufficient for situations in w h i c h density d i f f e r e n c e s result exclusively f r o m
salinity d i f f e r e n c e s .
Density variations c a n be used in ingenious w a y s . Imagine that w e t a k e a long (1 k m ) pipe and put
it vertically d o w n f r o m t h e o c e a n s u r f a c e . Next, w e attach a p u m p a n d slowly d r a w u p the d e e p
w a t e r W e d o this slowly so that the rising w a t e r c a n be w a r m e d by the s u r r o u n d i n g o c e a n A f t e r
w a t e r f r o m the d e p t h s reaches the surface w e r e m o v e the p u m p and find that t h e water continues
to flow Why-? It is not perpetual motion; the process stops as s o o n as the upper 1-km layer of the
o c e a n has b e c o m e m i x e d . T h e c a u s e for t h e m o t i o n is the lower density of t h e w a t e r in the pipe
s y s t e m By the s l o w flow, w e e v e n out t e m p e r a t u r e effects, but in t h e c l o s e d s y s t e m w e prevent
e v a p o r a t i o n , w h i c h c a u s e s t h e higher d e n s i t y n e a r t h e s u r f a c e in t h e f r e e o c e a n .
This f o r m of e n e r g y c o n v e r s i o n has been the subject of m a n y research projects. Under the n a m e
OTEC

(Ocean Thermal

Energy Conversion), now

part of

DOWA

(Deep

Ocean

Water

A p p l i c a t i o n s ) , m a n y c o u n t r i e s are trying to d e v e l o p p o w e r plants b a s e d o n the d i f f e r e n c e in


t e m p e r a t u r e and the difference in density. Tropical areas are particularly suitable for o c e a n e n e r g y
s y s t e m s , w h e n d e e p (> 1 0 0 0 m ) gullies are f o u n d close to the shore. O n Hawaii, s u c h a plant h a s
been constructed.
Until n o w

d e n s i t y d i f f e r e n c e s in the vertical profile have b e e n d e s c r i b e d . Horizontal d e n s i t y

variations c a n occur, too. For e x a m p l e : in a tidal river m o u t h , salt w a t e r enters the estuary during
rising tide ( u n l e s s t h e r e is m o r e t h a n e n o u g h f r e s h w a t e r f l o w in t h e river to c o m p l e t e l y fil t h e
entire tidal prism; f e w rivers have sufficient f l o w over the entire year to prevent the intrusion of salt
water). Accordingly, at s o m e point in a river salinity c a n be e x p e c t e d to vary a c c o r d i n g to the tide^
O f t e n , a d e n s i t y g r a d i e n t c a u s e s a density current. T h i s d e p e n d s o n t h e stability of the a c t u a l
c o n f i g u r a t i o n , a n d will b e d i s c u s s e d in o n e of t h e following c h a p t e r s .

51

4.3 Geostrophic currents


T h e o c e a n is not a static body of water. (If it w e r e , then "bottle mail" w o u l d n e v e r w o r k out, right!)
W e have s e e n that there are d o m i n a n t wind patterns around the globe. T h e y c a u s e friction at the
interface with t h e w a t e r and are thus the driving force for very characteristic f l o w patterns a r o u n d
the globe as well. W e c a n recognise a strong w e s t w a r d current around the e q u a t o r a n d e a s t w a r d
currents at latitudes b e t w e e n 4 0 and 60 in both the N. and S. h e m i s p h e r e . In the N h e m i s p h e r e ,
the circulation cells a r e m o v i n g clockwise, while in the S. h e m i s p h e r e , they run anti-clockwise. In
the North Atlantic, t h e Gulf S t r e a m , running f r o m Florida to N o r w a y is best k n o w n . S i m i l a r flows
a r e k n o w n near J a p a n ( K u r o - S h i o ) , along the coast of Latin A m e r i c a (Brazil s t r e a m , a n d along
t h e E. c o a s t of A f r i c a the m i g h t y A g u l h a s drift. T h e m a j o r driving f o r c e for t h e s e

geostrophic

o c e a n currents is t h e prevailing w i n d at different latitudes. T h e m a x i m u m velocities o c c u r in the


u p p e r layer (the u p p e r 500 to 1 0 0 0 m ) a n d a r e small (< 1m/s). A l t h o u g h the total b o d y of m o v i n g
w a t e r is e n o r m o u s , b o t t o m friction is relatively unimportant. O n the other h a n d , the Coriolis effect
d o e s play a v e r y i m p o r t a n t role.

T h e g e o s t r o p h i c currents play a d o m i n a n t role in t h e re-distribution of solar e n e r g y a r o u n d the


globe. T h e m a s s e s of w a r m tropical w a t e r m o v i n g f r o m the equator to the poles constitute about
5 0 % of the heat transfer b e t w e e n the tropical and the polar z o n e s . T h e other 5 0 % is t r a n s f e r r e d
via t h e a t m o s p h e r e .
T h e current patterns are not completely static. Short-term variations that are related to short term
climatic variations (El Nino) a r e o b s e r v e d . It is s u g g e s t e d by s o m e s o u r c e s t h a t long t e r m
variations in t h e c l i m a t e are related to long t e r m variations of the g e o s t r o p h i c c u r r e n t p a t t e r n s .
T h a t m a k e s o b s e r v a t i o n of t h e s e patterns e x t r e m e l y relevant.
T h e considerations s o far, have b e e n limited to the surface currents. O c e a n o g r a p h i c expeditions
h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d that e v e n in tropical a r e a s , d e e p o c e a n water is very c o i d . In Polar R e g i o n s ,
the density of s e a w a t e r increases d u e to the lower t e m p e r a t u r e . W h e n the s e a s u r f a c e f r e e z e s ,
the salt c o n t e n t of t h e r e m a i n i n g w a t e r i n c r e a s e s (ice contains no salt). T h i s also a d d s to t h e
density of the s e a w a t e r in Polar Regions. This high density leads to sinks in t h e polar z o n e s . T h e
w a t e r carried by the G u l f S t r e a m to the N o r w e g i a n coast attains an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g d e n s i t y not
only d u e to the l o w e r t e m p e r a t u r e s , but also d u e to a strong e v a p o r a t i o n . T h e entire m a s s of
w a t e r d o e s not turn s o u t h w a r d as a s u r f a c e current along the Nonwegian c o a s t . Part of it
s u b m e r g e s d u e to the high d e n s i t y a n d flows s o u t h w a r d at a m u c h g r e a t e r d e p t h , t h u s
contributing to t h e l o w t e m p e r a t u r e in the d e e p e r parts of the o c e a n . T h i s is c a l l e d t h e
t h e r m o h a l i n e c i r c u l a t i o n . T h e cold u n d e r t o w f l o w s s o u t h w a r d t h r o u g h the A t l a n t i c O c e a n , a l o n g
Antarctica and eventually suri'aces in the Pacific O c e a n . T h e r e , it forces w a r m e r a n d lighter w a t e r
to return as a s u r f a c e current m o v i n g via the Indonesian Archipelago a r o u n d C a p e of G o o d H o p e
to the Atlantic s y s t e m . A n o t h e r part flows via C a p e H o r n b a c k into the A t l a n t i c O c e a n . It is
e s t i m a t e d that t h e circulation period is in the o r d e r of 1000 years. G o r d o n a n d B r o e c k e r h a v e
familiarised the t h e o r y u n d e r the n a m e " O c e a n C o n v e y o r Belt". ( S e e Figure 4 - 2 ) .

52

F i g u r e 4-2 O c e a n c o n v e y o r belt [ A . L . G o r d o n , 1986]

4.3.1 Coriolis Acceleration


in all considerations about air or w a t e r currents around the globe, w e a r e confronted w th he f a c t
t h a t N e w t o n ' s e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n (i.e. d i s p l a c e m e n t s , velocities a n d a c c e l e r a t i o n s ) re er to a
f i x e d grid, w h e r e a s our observations of velocity and acceleration refer to a g n d s y s t e m a t t a c h e d
0 t h e m o v i n g a n d rotating e a r t h . T h i s s y s t e m is not at rest as m e a n t by N e ^ ^ o n w -

he

f o r m u l a t e d his equations of m o t i o n . T h e deviations arising b e c a u s e w e s p e a k ab^^^^^^


m o v e m e n t s instead of absolute m o v e m e n t s w e r e investigated by Coriolis ( 1 7 9 2 - 8 4 3 ) J n b n e ,
t h e Coriolis effect c a u s e s a free current in t h e N o r t h e r n H e m i s p h e r e to turn ^ ' ' ^ h t l y o t h e r g h t
a n d in the Southern H e m i s p h e r e to the left. It is complicated to visualise

^^^^^^^ " ^ ^ i o n T a

e f f e c t in a s i m p l e physical m a n n e r . For a p r o p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o n e n e e d s the e x p l a n a t i o n v ^ a


m

e h e n s i v e analysis of the t h e o r y of relative m o t i o n , a n d in particular t h e th-^^^^^^^^^

rotating vehicles. This theory is treated in a very clear m a n n e r by Den Hartog (1948). T h e relevant
c h a p t e r s f r o m his w o r k h a v e b e e n a d d e d as A n n e x 2.
T h e d e v i a t i o n f r o m the straight p a t h c a n b e quantified by t h e introduction of t h e Coriolis
acceleration:
a=

2co,Vsin(l>

(4-4)

where:
ac
= Coriolis a c c e l e r a t i o n
. ,
,^ ^
OJ, = a n g u l a r velocity of the earth = 7 2 . 9 * 10-rad/s ( b a s e d o n sidereal d a y )
V

= c u r r e n t velocity

(p

= latitude

T h e acceleration acts towards the right in the Northern H e m i s p h e r e and to the left

the S o u t t i e r n

H e m i s p h e r e . T h e influence of latitude is d u e to the fact that all forces h a v e to be split into a

53

c o m p o n e n t parallel to tfie local earth surface and a normal c o m p o n e n t that w o r k s along t h e s a m e


v e c t o r a s gravity.

If the flow t a k e s place in a confined conduit or channel that prevents a deviation of the c o u r s e (i.e.
a s t e a d y c u r r e n t ) , the Coriolis a c c e l e r a t i o n c a u s e s a p r e s s u r e gradient a c r o s s the c o n d u i t :

= 2(o,\/s/n(j)

(4.5)

p dn
where:
p
p
n

= water density
= water pressure
= n o r m a l to the current

In o p e n c h a n n e l flow, the p r e s s u r e gradient b e c o m e s visible as a gradient of the w a t e r s u r f a c e .


This c a n be illustrated by c o m p u t i n g the s e a level difference across the Strait of Florida, the result
is 0.52 m (elevation d i f f e r e n c e ) .
T h e Florida C u r r e n t is located at latitude 2 6 N ; the current velocity is a b o u t 1.0 m/s; the w i d t h of
the Strait of Florida is a b o u t 80 k m .

2x0.729

*10-*xsin26x1.0

=6.4*10^'

(4 6 )

p dn
T h e elevation d i f f e r e n c e over 80 k m is c o m p u t e d as follows:

Az

6 . 4 * - i i ^ x 8 0 * 10' =
9.81

0.52*10^'m

(4.7)
^
'

T h e o b s e r v e d v a l u e is 0.45 m , w h i c h is very close. (Similar c o m p u t a t i o n s c a n be m a d e f o r t h e


W e s t e r n S c h e l d t , the British C h a n n e l , or the Z e e g a t v a n T e x e l )

4.4 T h e tide
4.4.1 The vertical tide
T h e N e w t o n i a n l a w s apply to the m o v e m e n t o f celestial bodies a n d their m u t u a l i n f l u e n c e s . T h e
planet earth is part of the solar s y s t e m , a n d within this s y s t e m , it f o r m s a c l o s e relation w i t h t h e
s u n o n o n e h a n d a n d with the m o o n o n the other h a n d .
S u n a n d earth rotate a r o u n d a c o m m o n centre of gravity. T h e y attract e a c h other by a f o r c e t h a t
is proportional to the m a s s e s a n d inversely proportional to the s q u a r e of their d i s t a n c e . T h e
rotation a r o u n d t h e c o m m o n c e n t r e of gravity c a u s e s a centrifugal f o r c e that is e q u a l t o t h e
attracting force. A similar balance exists between the earth a n d the m o o n . T h e difference b e t w e e n
t h e t w o s y s t e m s is that in the c a s e of t h e s u n - e a r t h relation, the m a s s of the s u n is d o m i n a t i n g ,
a n d in the c a s e of the e a r t h - m o o n interaction t h e m a s s of the earth is d o m i n a t i n g . C o m p a r i n g t h e
mutual forces in the t w o systems, one m a y state that they are of the s a m e order of m a g n i t u d e (the
lunar i n f l u e n c e slightly (factor 4 ) larger t h a n t h e solar influence). T h e larger m a s s of the s u n is
c o m p e n s a t e d b y its greater d i s t a n c e f r o m the e a r t h . T h e d i f f e r e n c e in m a s s b e t w e e n s u n a n d
m o o n c a u s e s t h e gravitation c e n t r e of the s o l a r s y s t e m to be l o c a t e d inside the s u n , a n d t h e
centre of t h e lunar s y s t e m within the earth. In a simplification, w e c a n therefore say that the e a r t h
circles a r o u n d t h e s u n a n d that the m o o n circles a r o u n d the e a r t h .

54

centre of gravity
of tfie S u n

attracting f o r c e s

resulting forces

resulting water
shell

F i g u r e 4-3 C e n t r i f u g a l a n d attracting f o r c e s of t h e E a r t h - S u n s y s t e m
T h e m a i n f a c t s a b o u t the t w o s y s t e m s a r e ( a p p r o x i m a t e f i g u r e s ) :

T h e m a s s of the s u n is: 1.99 x 10^ i<g

T h e m a s s of the e a r t h is: 5.98 x 10^" kg

T h e m a s s of the m o o n is: 7.35 x 10 k g


^
T h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n s u n a n d earth is 150.10 k m

T h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n earth a n d m o o n is 4 0 0 0 0 0 k m

T h e earth circles the s u n in 3 6 5 days

T h e earth rotates a r o u n d its o w n axis in 24 h o u r s

T h e m o o n circles the earth in 2 9 d a y s

T h e f o r c e s d e s c r i b e d in the f o r e g o i n g not only apply to t h e e a r t h a s a w h o l e , but also w o r k o n


individual m a s s e l e m e n t s o n earth s o w a t e r particles in t h e o c e a n s are also s u b j e c ^ t o
gravitational a n d centrifugal f o r c e s of both the solar a n d t h e lunar s y s t e m s . T h e gravitational
f o r c e s w o r k in o n e direction, the centrifugal f o r c e s in the o p p o s i t e direction.
If t h e earth w e r e c o m p l e t e l y c o v e r e d by water, its equilibrium configuration w o u l d be a n ellipsoid
(Figure 4 - 4 ) . A s the earth also turns around its o w n axis, a n o b s e r v e r could s e e t w o high a n d t w o
Lw w a t e r s passing e v e r y d a y T h i s is true for the solar i n f l u e n c e , ^ h e n
influence, o n e m u s t realise that the next d a y the m o o n h a s c h a n g e d P ^ ' t ' " .

(J^^gth o

j^^^^^^

orbit a r o u n d the earth); the w a t e r ellipsoid has t u r n e d , t o o . T h e r e f o r e , the p e n o d of the lunar t i d e


is 12 h o u r s a n d 25 m i n u t e s .
Earth

Moon

-X"'^

F i g u r e 4-4 E q u i l i b r i u m ( m o o n ) tide

55

W h e n s u n , earth and m o o n are in o n e line (full a n d new m o o n ) , the solar and lunar tides reinforce
e a c h other. T h e ellipsoid b e c o m e s m o r e p r o n o u n c e d a n d the tide gets a bigger amplitude a n d is
called spring

tide. W h e n the solar a n d lunar tide are 9 0 out of p h a s e , their effects c a n c e l e a c h

other (first a n d last quarter). T h e ellipsoid a p p r o a c h e s a circle, a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y the tide gets a


s m a l l e r a m p l i t u d e . T h i s situation is called neap tide (Figure 4 - 5 ) .
ONLY MOON
luna, tide

F i g u r e 4-5 S p r i n g a n d n e a p tide
S o far, t h e e a r t h w a s s c h e m a t i s e d as if it w e r e c o m p l e t e l y c o v e r e d with water. In reality,
continents prevent the d e v e l o p m e n t of the tidal ellipsoid. In the S o u t h e r n H e m i s p h e r e , h o w e v e r ,
the original ellipsoid c a n d e v e l o p ; t h e r e , the tidal w a v e travels a r o u n d the earth at a latitude of
a b o u t 65 S, south of Africa, South A m e r i c a and Australia. From there, the tidal w a v e p r o p a g a t e s
to the North into t h e Atlantic, Indian a n d Pacific O c e a n s .
T h e tidal w a v e is a long w a v e {L

d). T h e w a t e r motion c a n be e x p r e s s e d by the long w a v e

e q u a t i o n in t w o d i m e n s i o n s . If friction c a n be n e g l e c t e d , the w a v e p r o p a g a t i o n s p e e d is:

c =

49d

(4.8)

where:
c

= w a v e p r o p a g a t i o n s p e e d [m/s]

= gravitation a c c e l e r a t i o n [m/s^]

= w a t e r d e p t h [m]

A s s u m i n g a n a v e r a g e d e p t h in t h e O c e a n of 4 0 0 0 m , t h e p r o p a g a t i o n s p e e d of the tidal w a v e is
a b o u t 2 0 0 m / s , o r over 750 k m / h ! In this w a y , it t a k e s t h e tidal w a v e up to s e v e r a l days to r e a c h
the m o s t r e m o t e spots in t h e N. h e m i s p h e r e . O n its w a y , t h e tidal w a v e is distorted by t h e n o n uniform depth contours of the o c e a n s a n d coastal waters a n d , since the propagation of t h e w a v e
involves the m o t i o n of water, it is a l s o influenced by the Coriolis a c c e l e r a t i o n . It is p o s s i b l e to
visualise the propagation of the tidal w a v e by m a p p i n g the lines of simultaneous H W (in s u n hours
after m o o n culmination) and the lines of equal tidal range (vertical distance between H W a n d L W
in m ) . A t s o m e locations, t h e a m p l i t u d e of t h e vertical tide c a n b e c o m e z e r o . This is c a l l e d a n
a m p h i d r o m i c point. T h i s is illustrated in Figure 4-6 a n d Figure 4 - 7 .

56

F i g u r e 4-6 P r o p a g a t i o n of t h e tide in t h e A t l a n t i c O c e a n
T h u s every place along the coasts of the world has its o w n specific tidal curve. At s o m e locations,
the difference b e t w e e n high and low water is up to 12 m . T h e further the location ,s a w a y roni t h e
S o u t h Pole the longer is the t i m e shift b e t w e e n the celestial event and its a p p e a r a n c e in the f o r m
of the tide. In this w a y , in t h e N e t h e r l a n d s , t h e o c c u r r e n c e of s p r i n g tide a n d n e a p tide is a b o u t
t w o d a y s after the c o r r e s p o n d i n g m o o n c o n f i g u r a t i o n s .

57

F i g u r e 4-7 P r o p a g a t i o n of t h e tide in the North S e a


S o far celestial influences h a v e b e e n simplified to the direct gravitational influences of s u n a n d
m o o n . O t h e r p h e n o m e n a a l s o play a role a n d of t h e s e

the declination is o n e that c a n n o t b e

o v e r l o o k e d . T h e earth's axis ( f r o m North to S o u t h Pole) is not p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the e a r t h - m o o n


c o n n e c t i o n line (Figure 4 - 8 ) . T h e angle b e t w e e n the equatorial plane a n d the e a r t h - m o o n line is
called declination, 5. Following f r o m that, the two high a n d low w a t e r s o n a d a y a r e not e q u a l . A t
s o m e latitudes, this daily inequality b e c o m e s s o big, that there is only o n e high and o n e low water.
earth

F i g u r e 4-8 Daily inequality of the l u n a r tide

58

B e c a u s e t h e tide is c a u s e d by regular a s t r o n o m i c a l p h e n o m e n a , ,t c a n b e predicted a c c u a ely


a long t i m e a h e a d (although n o t including m e t e o r o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s . T e "method u s e d for

^e

prediction is called h a r m o n i c analysis. T h e w a t e r level a t a certain location a s a function of t i m e


is e x p r e s s e d by t h e following f o r m u l a :

h(t) = h, + j^h^cos{(0,t~a;)

(4-9)

where:
h(t)

= m e a s u r e d (or predicted) tidal level with r e f e r e n c e t o a fixed level ( m )

ho

= m e a n level ( m )

hi

= a m p l i t u d e of c o m p o n e n t n u m b e r i ( m )

a,

= a n g u l a r velocity of c o m p o n e n t n u m b e r i (1/h)

ai

= p h a s e angle (-) of c o m p o n e n t n u m b e r i (-)

= t i m e (h)

C o n t r a r y t o t h e traditional h a r m o n i c analysis, the f r e q u e n c i e s c, are k n o w n h e r e , h a v i n g b e e n


d e r i v e d f r o m a s t r o n o m i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . T h e p h a s e a n g l e s a, h a v e t o b e d e r i v e d

from

o b s e r v a t i o n s as they are e x t r e m e l y site specific. T h i s a p p l i e s t o t h e a m p l i t u d e h; a s w e l l .


E a c h c o m p o n e n t h a s a n intemationally a g r e e d a b b r e v i a t i o n . T h e

f/'^^fjj^f J^^J^

c h a r a c t e r i s e d b y the letter S, t h e influence of t h e m o o n b y h e letter M.

Jh^'-^^ex 2

p h e n o m e n a that o c c u r t w i c e daily, t h e so-called s e m i - d i u m a l effects. iW, a n d


the m o s t c o m m o n tidal c o m p o n e n t s . W h e r e , d u e to the daily inequality only

r^^^^^^^^^^^^

thus represent

^^^ ^^l^""

per d a y a p p e a r , there is a diurnal tide. D i u m a l c o m p o n e n t s carry a s u b s c n p t 1 . H i g h e r o r d e r


c o m p o n e n t s carry a s u b s c r i p t 3, 4 or higher.
A n e x a m p l e of t h e result of a h a r m o n i c analysis f o r s o m e ports along the D u t c h c o a s t is
presented in T a b l e 4-1 . T h i s table s h o w s the m a i n h a r m o n i c c o m p o n e n t s u s e d

fo^P-'^d'^t

the a s t r o n o m i c tide. Nota b e n e : In t h e T a b l e Ao gives t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n N A P a n d M S L


C l o s e t o t h e coast this d i f f e r e n c e c a n b e n e g l e c t e d ; but if o n e looks a t a nver farther u p s t r e a m ^
t h e river g r a d i e n t influences t h e m e a n s e a level. T h e m e a n level Ao c h a n g e s a httle d u r i n g t h e
year, a s c a n b e s e e n f r o m t h e s m a l l a m p l i t u d e of S A . T h e a n g u l a r velocity of this c o m p o n e n t
( 0 . 0 4 1 ) leads t o a period of 3 6 5 d a y s .
C o n t r a r y t o t h e D u t c h tide t a b l e s , in other s u c h t a b l e s Ao r e p r e s e n t s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a
C h a r t D a t u m a n d M e a n S e a Level. Chart D a t u m is t h e n d e f i n e d a s a low level that ,s e x c e e d e d
rarely, f o r i n s t a n c e L L W S . B e c a u s e of this site-specific definition of t h e D a t u m ' e v e U t s n o t
n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e D a t u m plane t o b e horizontal. U t m o s t c a r e ,s
hydraulic calculations in this c a s e . ( S e e also A p p e n d i x 5 ) .

'^^^^'^^^"^^^"l ^^fZ'^^

D a t u m level u s e d b y

countries f o r t h e s a m e w a t e r w a y c a n also b e different, w h i c h leads t o different d e p t h f i g u r e s f o r


the s a m e l o c a t i o n . T h i s is t h e c a s e for t h e W e s t e r n S c h e l d t , w h e r e D u t c h a n d B e l g i a n c h a r t s
show such differences.

59

Componen

Angular
Velocity
In per tiour

Ao
SA

Amplitude cm
Phase lag g "
ref. to MET

Qi

ref. to NAP in cm
0.041
H cm
g"
1.016
H cm
g
13.399
H cm

Oi

13.943

g
H cm

Pi

14.959

g
H cm

Ki

15.041

3MS2

26.952

MNS2

27.424

NLK2

27.886

SM

27.968

g
H cm
g"
H cm
g
H cm
g
H cm
g
H cm
g
H cm
g
H cm
g
H cm
g
H cm
g
H cm
g
H cm
g
H cm
g
H cm
g
H cm

N2

28.440

NU2

28.513

MPS2

28.943

M2

28.984

^2

29.456

2MN2

29.528

S2

30.000

K2

30.082

2S M2

31.016

2M K3

42.927

MK3

44.025

3MS4

56.952

MN4

57.424

M4

57.968

g
H cm
g
H cm
g
H cm

MS4

58.984

g
H cm

MK4

59.066

2MN6

86.408

Ms

86.952

2MS6

87.968

g
H cm
g
H cm

g
H cm
g
H cm
g"
H cm

Mb

115.936

g"
H cm
g
H cm

3MS8

116.952

9
H cm
g"

T a b l e 4-1

Vlissingen
51''-27^ N
3"-36' E

Euro Platform H. of Holland


52''-00' N
S"-!?' E
4''.07^ E

-1
7
216
4
33
3
133

0
9
213
3
31
4
126
11
188
3
340
8
358
2
288
1
154
2
1
6
174
12
26
4
25
1
107
74
54
3
80
6
261
i8
111
5
111
2
358
1
141
1
281
1
193
4
105
10
130
7
185
2
184
2
64
4
92
4
146
1
142
2
194

11
195
3
353
7
10
3
281
3
143
4
354
13
161
29
35
9
26
3
110
175
59
6
76
13
257
48
117
14
117
4
348
3
162
2
316
2
196
4
94
13
120
9
181
2
178
5
82
9
109
9
161
3
115
5
166

7
8
222
3
32
3
131
11
191
3
346
8
359
2
312
2
182
2
26
8
200
12
59
5
52
1
170
79
86
3
110
7
290
19
147
6
147
2
25
1
191
1
288
2
235
6
137
17
165
11
222
3
221
2
95
5
128
4
188
2
230
4
281

Rotterdam
SI^-SS^ N
4''-30' E
24
7
241
3
43
3
148
9
209
2
11
6
17
2
344
2
211
2
58
8
232
10
95
5
86
1
206
72
121
3
144
7
325
17
184
5
184
2
61
1
225
1
349
2
303
5
204
15
230
9
291
'3
290
2
211
4
243
4
302
1
358
2
51

IJmuiden
52''-28^N
4''-35^ E
2
10
220
3
22
4
133
11
193
3
346
8
358
2
338
2
210
2
54
9
227
10
108
4
88
2
205
68
129
3
142
7
323
17
198
5
198
3
54
1
263
0
279
3
268
7
157
20
186
12
246
4
244
2
269
4
290
5
343
3
330
4
23

Main c o n s t i t u e n t s of t h e tide at s e v e r a l p l a c e s in the N e t h e r l a n d s

60

Delfzijl
53''-20' N
6-56' E
7
9
219
4
32
3
179
9
247
3
48
8
43
4
167
3
33
4
245
15
55
21
310
8
288
5
27
136
333
5
348
12
168
34
46
10
43
4
270
1
120
1
278
4
216
5
118
17
145
10
224
3
222
4
321
7
352
7
61
1
217
2
276

4.4.2 The horizontal tide


The variation of the water level is called vertical tide. The currents resulting from this variation are
called horizontal tide. These currents can be calculated using
the driving force of the vertical tide
the friction
,
the storaoe capacity of the area concerned
Depend ng on he local conditions, friction or storage can be simplified or neglected. CaIcula.ons
of this kind are dominated by the boundary conditions imposed. It ,s necessary to select
0 ndaries carefully, far enough from the area of interest to eliminate ~
possibly at a place where they can be simplified to merely level variation or flow variation. If the
model I used to study the effect of changes in the physical surroundings d ^ ^ d ^ ^
construction), the boundaries must be chosen at such a distance that they are not affected by the
changes.
Because of the uncertainty about storage capacity and friction, emulations of tidal - - n t s must
be calibrated by flow measurements. Such measurements must last a
hours 25 min ) and must preferably be done from slack water to the next slack water. (Slack water
ee n o t ^ n c i d e with HW or LJ). It is specifically recommended that
s^^^^^^^^^^
should be carried out during both regimes when the difference between neap tide and spring tide
is considerable,.

^^^if^^J^''^^^^^^

When considering horizontal tides in a river mouth, one must also take into account the influence
of the upland discharge.
4.4.3 Special Effects
Some rivers located at the landward end of an estuary experience another extreme tidedependrnTconcJtL - a tidal bore, an abrupt and migrating rise in the -teM^^^^^^^^^^
of the flood tide (Figure 4-9). This "wall of water" is a response to the quick reversal from an
ebb ng i^^^^^^^
to a flooding one. Bores are uncommon, forming ony in special
cl'stances that depend on tida, conditions and the morphology of
" ^ ^ ^
Truro River of the Bay of Fundy is typically only about half a metre high J he Bay of s , Malo on
the northern coast of France, a bay with the world's second largest tidal range the bore rarely
exceeds a meter in height. Large tidal bores occur in the Pororoca River, a branch of the Amazon
and in the Chien-tang estuary in China. The bore reaches 5 m in the Pororoca and nearly that
height in the Chien-tang.

61

F i g u r e 4-9 T i d a l b o r e o n the P e t i t c o d i a c R i v e r , N e w B r u n s w i c k ( S t o w e , 1987)


4.4.4 D e v i a t i o n s f r o m t h e a s t r o n o m i c a l p r e d i c t i o n
S o far, w a t e r level variations a l o n g t h e c o a s t h a v e only b e e n attributed to the influence o f tides.
It has been pointed out that the a s t r o n o m i c a l tides c a n be predicted accurately long in a d v a n c e .
T h e w a t e r level in t h e vicinity of the c o a s t , or e v e n in a n estuary or bay, is i n f l u e n c e d b y m o r e
p a r a m e t e r s t h a n the a s t r o n o m i c a l tide a l o n e . P a r a m e t e r s that play a n additional role a r e :

Atmospheric pressure differences

W i n d s h e a r o v e r the w a t e r s u r f a c e

Coriolis a c c e l e r a t i o n

Rainfall a n d river d i s c h a r g e

Surface waves and associated wave set-up

Storm motion effects

T h e influence of a t m o s p h e r i c pressures c a n be u n d e r s t o o d by considering the w a t e r level at s e a


a s being c o n t a i n e d in o n e large c o m m u n i c a t i n g v e s s e l . A relative d r o p in air p r e s s u r e in a
particular region will result in a c o r r e s p o n d i n g rise of the s e a level a n d v i c e v e r s a , t a k i n g into
a c c o u n t the d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the d e n s i t y of air a n d water.
W i n d s h e a r s t r e s s e s o v e r the w a t e r s u r f a c e g e n e r a t e a f l o w of water, w h i c h in its turn c a u s e s a
gradient of the w a t e r level / = Ah/As. T h e gravity f o r c e g e n e r a t e d by this gradient m u s t eventually
c o m p e n s a t e the s h e a r f o r c e that w o r k s in the o p p o s i t e direction. T h i s leads to t h e w e l l - k n o w n
empirical f o r m u l a for w i n d s e t - u p in a c l o s e d b a s i n :
' = 0-^
in w h i c h
/

= gradient of the w a t e r s u r f a c e

= w i n d s p e e d in m/s

= a c c e l e r a t i o n of gravity in m/s^

= w a t e r d e p t h in m

= empirical coefficient (3.5 to 4 * 10"*^)


62

(4.10)

T h e f o r m u l a clearly indicates that this effect is i m p o r t a n t in s h a l l o w w a t e r s , i.e. in a r e a s w i t h a n


e x t e n s i v e a n d shallow continental shelf.
Rainfall plays a role w h e n an enclosed area is considered and the quantity of rainfall is e x c e s s i v e .
This c a n be the c a s e in a tropical h u r r i c a n e . River d i s c h a r g e plays a role in e s t u a r i e s a n d river
m o u t h s . T h e discharge can be c a u s e d by a n independent event or by the s a m e event that c a u s e s
atmospheric depression and storm.
W a v e s e t - u p by s u r f a c e w a v e s is c a u s e d by t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of kinetic e n e r g y into potential
energy. It is not treated h e r e in detail. T h e r e a d e r is referred to s p e c i a l i s e d literature o n s h o r t
waves.
M o s t of t h e s e p a r a m e t e r s exert their i n f l u e n c e in relation with the t o p o g r a p h y , that is the layout
of the coastline and t h e depth c o n t o u r s in front of it.
It is e v i d e n t that m o s t of t h e additional p a r a m e t e r s m e n t i o n e d here are closely related to t h e
prevailing w e a t h e r conditions. Since it is still not feasible to give accurate w e a t h e r predictions over
a longer p e r i o d , it will be clear t h a t t h e prediction of t h e actual w a t e r level a l o n g t h e c o a s t or a
given m o m e n t or a given period is s c a r c e l y p o s s i b l e . T h e r e f o r e the c h a r a c t e r of e a c h of t h e
p a r a m e t e r s in itself is stochastic, a n d this certainly applies for their c o m b i n e d effect. T h e r e o r e
e x t r e m e w a t e r levels c a n not be p r e d i c t e d l o n g in a d v a n c e , their o c c u r r e n c e m u s t be t r e a t e d
statistically.
In the N e t h e r l a n d s , w e are f o r t u n a t e e n o u g h t o h a v e a series of o b s e r v a t i o n s of e x t r e m e w a t e r
levels that c o v e r s a l m o s t t w o c e n t u r i e s . For a p r o p e r statistical e v a l u a t i o n

(subsequent

observations m u s t b e independent of e a c h other) only the annual m a x i m u m levels are t a k e n into


account. This leads to the well-known probability curve for e x t r e m e sea levels along the North S e a
(Figure 4-10).

z
>

annual exceedance frequency

F i g u r e 4-10 Probability c u r v e for e x t r e m e s e a l e v e l s , H o e k v a n H o l l a n d 1859 / 1 9 5 8


from: F i n a l R e p o r t of t h e Delta C o m m i t t e e , Part 1

63

In other countries, it m a y be possible to derive similar statistics f r o m the occurrence, strength a n d


path of h u r r i c a n e s , c y c l o n e s or other s t o r m e v e n t s .
T h e availability of statistical data o n e x t r e m e w a t e r levels is very i m p o r t a n t for the d e s i g n of
s t r u c t u r e s a l o n g the coast, ranging f r o m b r e a k w a t e r s , d i k e s a n d s e a w a l l s to j e t t i e s . T h e
o c c u r r e n c e of e x t r e m e w a t e r levels is a l s o i m p o r t a n t with regard to t h e b e h a v i o u r of natural
s y s t e m s like d u n e s a n d sandbars. T h e s h a p e of a s a n d y coast m a y c h a n g e completely under the
c o m b i n e d i n f l u e n c e of a high Still W a t e r Level a n d high w a v e s .
A l t h o u g h the o c c u r r e n c e of e x t r e m e w a t e r levels c a n n o t be predicted long in a d v a n c e , t h e
availability of a w a r n i n g s y s t e m with a s h o r t lead t i m e c a n be very i m p o r t a n t in relation to t h e
mitigation of f l o o d d a m a g e , a n d certainly to the reduction of the loss of lives, (provided a d e q u a t e
e v a c u a t i o n facilities a r e p r e s e n t ) .

4.4.5 S o u r c e s o f information
It is possible that a civil e n g i n e e r n e e d s tidal data for a certain location. T h e first a n d m o s t
i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e is t h e tide table p u b l i s h e d by the local authorities. Information on g l o b a l tide
predictions and tidal constants c a n best be obtained from the Admiralty Tide Tables, edited by the
British Hydrographic D e p a r t m e n t . O n e m u s t realise that a tidal curve is strictly b o u n d to a certain
location. A l o n g c o a s t s , big d i f f e r e n c e s c a n o c c u r e v e n within short d i s t a n c e s . W h e r e

no

a c c e p t a b l e tidal prediction is readily available the e n g i n e e r c a n m a k e a r e a s o n a b l e p r e d i c t i o n


himself, b a s e d o n a limited period of hourly o b s e r v a t i o n s d u r i n g 2 8 c o n s e c u t i v e d a y s .
Tidal observations cannot be m a d e without the use of instruments, ranging from a simple tide pole
to a n automatic recording g a u g e . T h e first reliable tide g a u g e w a s invented in 1882 by Sir W i l l i a m
T h o m s o n , later Lord Kelvin, a Scottish physicist. It consists of a float inside an o p e n pipe a t t a c h e d
to a pier. T h e t o p of the pipe e x t e n d s f r o m near t h e floor of the s e a b e d to a b o v e H W level. T h e
base of the pipe is a b o v e the bottom; only the slow rise a n d fall of the tide invades the pipe. A p e n
records the m o v e m e n t of the float o n a g r a p h - p a p e r c o v e r e d cylinder that is driven at a c o n s t a n t
s p e e d . N o w a d a y s m o s t stations h a v e m o r e m o d e r n electronic r e c o r d e r s that a u t o m a t i c a l l y
t r a n s m i t digital information to a c o m p u t e r .

4.5 S e i c h e s
Between long periodic w a v e s , like the tide, a n d short w a v e s , like w i n d w a v e s , a category of w a v e s
exists with p e r i o d s ranging f r o m 100 to 10 0 0 0 s. A l t h o u g h their a m p l i t u d e in t h e o p e n s e a m a y
be s m a l l , they c a n be amplified b y r e s o n a n c e , for instance in harbour basins. This effect is called
seiche. It w a s first o b s e r v e d as a standing w a v e in a m o u n t a i n lake, f r o m w h i c h the n a m e s e i c h e
is d e r i v e d . Driving f o r c e s c a n be p r e s s u r e variations, d i s c h a r g e variations, tidal i n f l u e n c e s a n d
swell. S e i c h e s c a n c a u s e h a v o c in a h a r b o u r by setting up reversing currents at the e n t r a n c e or
by rocking ships free of their moorings. T h e y c a n also abruptly surge onto piers and b e a c h e s a n d
s w e e p p e o p l e a w a y . T h e G r e a t L a k e s of North A m e r i c a a n d s o m e of the large l a k e s in
Switzerland are especially prone to seiches, b e c a u s e they are enclosed basins with large f e t c h e s
and strong winds.

Figure 4 - 1 1 s h o w s an e x a m p l e of a s t a n d i n g w a v e in a lake. Figure 4 - 1 2 s h o w s the p o s s i b l e


amplification in a s e m i - e n c l o s e d b o d y of w a t e r .

64

antinode

node ~ i

F i g u r e 4-11 S t a n d i n g w a v e in a c l o s e d b o d y of w a t e r

F i g u r e 4-12 S t a n d i n g w a v e in a s e m i - e n c l o s e d b o d y of w a t e r
In simple cases tiie wavelength is twice or four times the basin length, but other possibilities exist:

4U

(4.11)

where:
Tj = period of w a v e c o n f i g u r a t i o n n u m b e r i
Lb /

length of the basin

= w a v e configuration number (harmony number)

Usually, t h e vertical a m p l i t u d e of a s e i c h e , e v e n at an a n t i n o d e , is s m a l l . However, especially at


a n o d e , the horizontal d i s p l a c e m e n t of the w a t e r c a n be significant. T h i s c a n c a u s e m o o r i n g
difficulties for s h i p s . A n o t h e r related influence o n large ships is t h e effect of the w a t e r s u r f a c e
slope.
A s s e i c h e s a r e a r e s o n a n c e p h e n o m e n o n , it is o b v i o u s that t h e basin size in relation to t h e
w a v e l e n g t h is an important factor. T h e r e f o r e , m e a s u r e s against generation of seiches are usually
b a s e d o n size restrictions of h a r b o u r a n d other b a s i n s , a n d o n the u s e of irregularly s h a p e d
basins.
In the Port of R o t t e r d a m , a seiche w a s observed in the morning of 1st M a r c h 1990. It appears first
as a m i n o r fluctuation of a r o u n d 1 0 c m at Lichteiland G o e r e e (an o b s e r v a t i o n post s o m e
k i l o m e t r e s o f f s h o r e ) at 0.00 h o u r s . T h e n , at a b o u t 0 1 . 3 0 h o u r s , it a p p e a r s as a h u g e s t a n d i n g
w a v e of 1.75 m at R o z e n b u r g s e Sluis, a navigation lock s o m e 15 k m inland. ( S e e Figure 4 - 1 3 )

65

observed
astronomical

250
200
150
\

100

/)

1
\

-50
-100
1
0
4
28-2-90

\
\

/ f \ \
- - / - Y i - i - -\/
''
\
/i0.1m-\-l
' !
M

--x-y

i
- - -It - ---\\
//
//'
Ti
^ /

50
O

\
\ \

i
1
4

12

16

20

0
1-3-90

'1
i\
.
: v/'

12

Light Island Goeree

^+350

4+300
-4+250
+200
-[ + 150
+ 100
A

"

000
i -050
28-2-90

1-3-90
Rozenburg Lock

F i g u r e 4-13 S e i c h e in t h e port of R o t t e r d a m

4.6 T s u n a m i s
A t s u n a m i , also called seismic w a v e , originates w h e n a forceful e a r t h q u a k e or landslide s u d d e n l y
shifts or d i s p l a c e s a large a m o u n t of s e a w a t e r a n d sets a train of w a v e s in m o t i o n on t h e s e a
s u r f a c e . It m o v e s at great s p e e d , d e p e n d i n g o n t h e d e p t h (c = Vg/?) w h i c h , for e x a m p l e in 4 0 0 0
m of water a m o u n t s to 200 m/s (700 k m / h r ) . Its length d e p e n d s o n the period {L=cT).

If 7 = 1 0 sec,

L = 2 k m . In d e e p w a t e r a t s u n a m i o f t e n p a s s e s unnoticed b e c a u s e it is not s o high in d e e p water.


A s it a p p r o a c h e s the continental c o a s t , it a l r e a d y b e g i n s to s l o w d o w n a n d s t e e p e n in relatively
d e e p w a t e r (at d e p t h s of h u n d r e d s of m e t e r s ) b e c a u s e of its e n o r m o u s w a v e l e n g t h . T h i s
steepening can begin as far out as 50 k m offshore, and the w a v e that finally hits the coast is huge
a n d f o r c e f u l , possibly high as 2 5 m - a prescription for disaster.
T h e most life-destroying t s u n a m i o n record appears to have hit A w a , J a p a n , in 1703. It killed m o r e
than 100,000 people. A m o n g the u n c o u n t e d victims of the Lisbon e a r t h q u a k e of 1755 w e r e t h o s e
d r o w n e d by t s u n a m i w a v e s in L i s b o n a n d in n e a r b y c o a s t a l villages of Portugal a n d S p a i n . T h e
trough of the t s u n a m i arrived first, drawing water out of the bay and exposing the sea floor. (Recall
that w a t e r in a w a v e m o v e s b a c k w a r d in the t r o u g h ) . A m o n g the d r o w n e d w e r e t h o s e w h o c a m e
to s e e the s t r a n g e sight of the r e c e d i n g w a t e r s a n d w e r e s w e p t a w a y w h e n the crest a r r i v e d .
Unfortunately, the s a m e situation

has r e c u r r e d n u m e r o u s t i m e s

phenomenon.

66

in a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h

this

In Figure 4 - 1 4 , ttie situation after ttie 1983 t s u n a m i in Minehialia is s t i o w n . Tfie t s u n a m i lifted large
fistiing boats a b o u t 6 t o 8 m a b o v e s e a level. After the 1946 t s u n a m i , seismologists b e g a n work
o n a s e i s m i c s e a - w a v e w a r n i n g s y s t e m . By ttie early 1 9 6 0 s , a network of s e i s m i c m o n i t o r i n g
stations covered tfie entire Pacific O c e a n , the only basin w h e r e strong earthquakes a r e c o m m o n .
K n o w i n g the location of t h e e a r t h q u a k e , s e i s m o l o g i s t s c a n n o w predict the path a n d rate of
t s u n a m i m o v e m e n t a n d provide w a r n i n g s for m o s t a r e a s , t h e r e b y allowing at least a f e w h o u r s
of preparation time before the w a v e s hit a given coast. Generally this is e n o u g h time to e v a c u a t e
p e o p l e . A l t h o u g h c o a s t s near the origin of the e a r t h q u a k e m a y receive as little a s 10 to 15
m i n u t e s a d v a n c e notice, loss of life has b e e n greatly r e d u c e d since the s y s t e m c a m e into effect.

F i g u r e 4-14 S i t u a t i o n in iVIinehaha ( J a p a n ) after t s u n a m i s t r u c k the c o a s t

4.7 W a v e s
4.7.1 ( L i n e a r ) W a v e T h e o r y
S u r f a c e Elevation
In t e x t b o o k s the t r e a t m e n t of w a v e s usually starts with a description of linear w a v e theory.
A l t h o u g h this theory is s o m e t i m e s quite far f r o m reality it d o e s help the student to acquire insight
the b a s i c s principles. A s s u m i n g that the w a v e height is s m a l l with r e f e r e n c e to w a v e length a n d
water depth, it is possible to describe the pressure field and the flow field, and to analyse c h a n g e s
in t h e b e h a v i o u r of w a v e s w h e n t h e y travel f r o m d e e p w a t e r into s h a l l o w e r water. It s h o u l d a l s o
be n o t e d that s u c h t h e o r y refers only to m o n o c h r o m a t i c , regular w a v e s . It is t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l e
to d i s t i n g u i s h the f o l l o w i n g basic e l e m e n t s ( S e e Figure 4 - 1 5 ) :
H

= w a v e height in m

= w a v e period in s

= wave length in m

= w a t e r d e p t h in m (i.e. b o t t o m at -h)

67

F i g u r e 4-15 D e f i n i t i o n s of a r e g u l a r w a v e
T t i e application of tfie linear w a v e t h e o r y leads to a w e l l - k n o w n set of e q u a t i o n s , t h e m o s t
i m p o r t a n t of w h i c h a r e given below:
Surface elevation:
H
(2nx
/? = c o s

Int.

(4.12)

Or if 271/7 is s u b s t i t u t e d by m, a n d 27r/L b y k.
H
ri = cos[kx-(ot)

H
= cosd

(4.13)

V\lave celerity:
c =j

(4.14)

and

c = Jtanh

(4.15)

W a v e length:
2^^'

(4.16)

2n

O w i n g to the specific properties of the hyperbolic f u n c t i o n s , it is p o s s i b l e to s i m p l i f y the a b o v e


f o r m u l a s into a p p r o x i m a t i o n s that a r e valid for d e e p (/?/L > 1/2) and s h a l l o w (hIL < 1/25) w a t e r
( S e e Figure 4 - 1 6 ) . It m u s t be noted that the limits for s h a l l o w w a t e r a n d d e e p w a t e r a r e
a p p r o x i m a t i o n s in t h e m s e l v e s that have no a b s o l u t e m e a n i n g . T h e v a l u e s of h/L indicated h e r e
have b e e n c h o s e n in s u c h a w a y that the errors in calculating the w a v e p a r a m e t e r s r e m a i n within
r e a s o n a b l e proportions for "engineering p u r p o s e " .

68

For s h a l l o w w a t e r , t h e w a v e celerity b e c o m e s i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e w a v e p e r i o d , b e c a u s e
tanh(/(/7) = kh:
c = Jgh

A full list with a p p r o x i m a t i o n s is g i v e n in T a b l e 4 - 2 .

69

(4

relative d e p t h

shallow water

1. wave profile

f/

25

c = - = 4gd
T

3. wave length

= T^gd = CT

4. group velocity

5. w a t e r particle

same

as in

c = c =-

Ht

Ig . ^
. sind
T Vrf

w =m

T
gT'

(27id\
y

transitional

water

gT
^
2ji

And/L

C
sinh{And/L)\

smh{27td/L)

2
z^
w =
1 + \sind
T K
dJ
a
'

25 " Z.

2;r

u= m

H7rf

accelerations

1
gT
=-c =
'
2
An

H cosh[27r(z + d)/ L]
COS

a) hiorizontal

6. water particle

gT'
L=-tanh\
2;r
^\
C =nC=1+
2[

2 Vd

b) vertical

[g

U = ./

velocity

H
[27tx
27ttl
H
rj = cos
= cos 0
2
I L
T j
2
L
gT
(2nd\

same as in transitional water

2. wave celerity

deep water

transitional water

nH
u =

-cose

cose

H sinh\2;t(z + d)/ L]

- sin e
2
sinti{27rd/L)

gjrH cosli r2;r ( z + d ) / L]


a =
-sine
L
cosii{2nd/L)

ttH

w =

e '- sine
T

a, =2HI j e <- sine

a) horizontal
gnH sinli[2n:(z + d}/ L\

b) vertical
a

cose

H cos/7 [ 2 ; r ( z + d)/L]
i
'-- sine
2
sinti{2Kd/L)

7. water particle
displacements

f =

4;T V

cosii(27id / L)

f^r
a^ = - 2 H l 1 e " cose

H
, =

e ^ sine

a) horizontal
Hf
z^
f = 1 + - cos
2 I
dJ

b) vertical

8.

P=

subsurface

f =

H sinli[27t{z + d)/L]
^
'- icOS
2
sinh{27td/L)

pg{'l''z)

cosli [ 2 ; r ( z + d)/L]
;
cosli{2nd/ L)

p = pgt]

pressure

l-l
( = e
cos e
2
pg

p = pgil e '

-pgz

Table 4-2 L i n e a r w a v e theory - w a v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s

Orbital Motion
Still, within t h e linear s m a l l a m p l i t u d e w a v e t h e o r y it is possible to d e r i v e t h e periodic c h a n g e s of
t h e position, the velocity a n d the acceleration of w a t e r particles. In d e e p water, the particles follow
a circular p a t t e r n , in s h a l l o w e r w a t e r the circular m o t i o n is t r a n s f o r m e d into a n elliptical p a t t e r n .
T h i s orbital m o t i o n can be d e s c r i b e d by splitting position, velocity a n d a c c e l e r a t i o n into horizontal
a n d vertical c o m p o n e n t s {^and

H
^ = -11

coshr2.^(z + / 7 ) / L l

"= -^
2

u a n d w, a n d

L_J^

L-^sind

and

respectively).

C = -

sinh(2;r/7/L)

coshr2;T(z + / 7 ) / L ]

/-/sinhr2;/r(z + / ? ) / / .

V ^ c o s

sinh(2;r/7/L)
H

. /o , , s cos^

sinhr2;^(z +

(4.20)

/7)/L

w = o}^ .4./^ , ,\ sin^ (4.21)

s\nh{27rh/L)

2
70

s\nh{27vh/L)

N o t e that at the w a t e r s u r f a c e (z = 0 ) , t h e e x p r e s s i o n s for f and t] b e c o m e identical, a n d that at


the b o t t o m , for z = -h, all vertical m o v e m e n t s b e c o m e zero d u e t h e influence of sinh (0).
Finally, t h e r e is a similar e x p r e s s i o n for the p r e s s u r e at a level z b e l o w t h e w a t e r s u r f a c e :

p = -pgz

In this e x p r e s s i o n pgz

+ pgn

coshl27i:(z
+h)/L]
^
\
J
cosh(2;^n/L)

r e p r e s e n t s the hydrostatic p r e s s u r e , a n d pgr]

(4.22)

cosh(..) / cosh(..) the

h a r m o n i c c o m p o n e n t of t h e p r e s s u r e .

W a v e E n e r g y and G r o u p S p e e d
If w e e x a m i n e a finite n u m b e r of w a v e s (group) in othenwise still water, w e will o b s e r v e that w a v e s
s e e m to originate at t h e rear of the g r o u p , m o v e fonward t h r o u g h the g r o u p and die out near t h e
front of the g r o u p . S i n c e the celerity of the individual w a v e w a s called c, w e m u s t c o n c l u d e t h a t
t h e r e is a g r o u p velocity Cg, w h i c h is s m a l l e r t h a n c. Linear t h e o r y s h o w s that:

c 4

2kh
1+s\nh{2kh)

(4.23)

T h e ratio b e t w e e n g r o u p velocity a n d celerity c/Cg is often s y m b o l i s e d by the letter n.


T h e e n e r g y c o n t a i n e d in a w a v e of unit w i d t h (1 m ) , a n d length L is:

Er=lpgH'L
o

(4.24)

O f t e n it is m o r e c o n v e n i e n t to e x p r e s s the e n e r g y in t e r m s of e n e r g y per s q u a r e m e t e r of w a t e r
surface:

E = lpgH'
o

(4.25)

T h i s e n e r g y is p r o p a g a t e d at the w a v e g r o u p s p e e d Cg, thus c a u s i n g a n e n e r g y flux U, with


U = E

Cg=E

(4.26)

W a v e s entering s h a l l o w water
W h e n a w a v e is a p p r o a c h i n g perpendicular to the coast, the depth d e c r e a s e s , but the e n e r g y flux
m u s t r e m a i n c o n s t a n t . It is further a s s u m e d that t h e w a v e period also r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t . If t h e
d e e p w a t e r c o n d i t i o n is d e n o t e d by the s u b s c r i p t o, a n d the c o n d i t i o n at the limited w a t e r d e p t h
by s u b s c r i p t i , t h e n :
1
1
-pgHfn,c,=-pgH^noC,

o
s i n c e no = ^ i , this e x p r e s s i o n c a n be rewritten a s :

71

(4.27)

(4.28)

or

tanh(2;r/7/L)

(4.29)

-+-

{Anh/L)
^

smh{A7th/L)

T h e coefficient /fs/,, or the s h o a l i n g coefficient indicates the c h a n g e in w a v e height d u e to a


variation in the water depth. Since the derivation is b a s e d on conservation of energy, this s h o a l i n g
c o e f f i c i e n t c a n only be used if there is no dissipation of energy. Note that the t h e o r y of s h o a l i n g
is equally valid for decreasing as for increasing w a t e r d e p t h . This m e a n s that a w a v e that p a s s e s
o v e r a local s h o a l r e s u m e s its original height if no b r e a k i n g has o c c u r r e d .
T h e result is s h o w n in Figure 4 - 1 7 , w h i c h clearly indicates that first w a v e heights a r e slightly
r e d u c e d , b e f o r e they increase c o n s i d e r a b l y w h e n the w a v e s c o m e nearer to the s h o r e .

0.001 A
0.001

II

I I II
0.010

\I

I I I I 11
0.100

\I

II

11 11
1.000

F i g u r e 4-17 T h e effect of s h o a l i n g
T h i s o c c u r s only w h e n no e n e r g y is d i s s i p a t e d , or in other w o r d s w h e n no b r e a k i n g t a k e s p l a c e .
B r e a k i n g a n d t h e limits of b r e a k i n g a r e d i s c u s s e d a little later in this chapter.
W h e n , d u e to increasing w a v e height, the conditions for the linear (small a m p l i t u d e ) w a v e t h e o r y
are n o longer fulfilled, deviations will occur. This m e a n s that different (often higher-order) t h e o r i e s
have to be applied, taking into a c c o u n t d e f o r m a t i o n and the breaking of w a v e s . A c o m p r e h e n s i v e
m a t h e m a t i c a l review is p r e s e n t e d b y M i c h e ( 1 9 4 4 ) . A review of t h e validity of v a r i o u s w a v e
t h e o r i e s is g i v e n by Le M e h a u t e ( 1 9 6 9 ) . S e e also Figure 4 - 1 8 .

72

0.05

2
H/gT"

1
r
deep'
transitional
Miche breaking limit (H/L=0.142)
.1, I .
.. I

I-Shallow

I order theor/

0.02

3rd order theoiy


0.01

0.005

0.002

NON-BREAKING

Miche
breaking
limit
(H/h=0.88)

2nd order theoiy

cnoldal
theory
0.001

7
0.0005
0 0005

0.001

0.002

0.005

linear theory
0.01

0.02

0.05

0.1

0.5

0.2

ii/gT

F i g u r e 4-18 Validity of w a v e s t h e o r i e s
O n e of the c o n s e q u e n c e s of w a v e s breaking in o p e n w a t e r is that the crest of the w a v e b e c o m e s
s h o r t e r a n d higher, a n d that the t r o u g h b e c o m e s less p r o n o u n c e d a n d longer. D u e to this
a s y m m e t r y , t h e orbital velocities in the direction of w a v e m o v e m e n t b e c o m e higher, a n d t h e
orbital velocities against the w a v e direction b e c o m e smaller. However, it is r e m a r k a b l e h o w w e l l
t h e linear w a v e t h e o r y w o r k s , e v e n b e y o n d t h e strict limits of its validity!
T h e t h e o r y fails c o m p l e t e l y w h e n w a v e s a p p r o a c h t h e s t a g e of b r e a k i n g , either d u e to high
s t e e p n e s s {HIL) or to entering s h a l l o w w a t e r {Hlh).

T h e o r e t i c a l limits are HIL < 0.14 a n d H/h <

0.78. T h e s e limits o c c u r w h e n the particle velocity in the crest e x c e e d s the w a v e celerity, in o t h e r


w o r d s w h e n the w a t e r particles t e n d to leave the w a v e profile. T h i s initiates a p r o c e s s of e n e r g y
d i s s i p a t i o n that c o n s i d e r a b l y r e d u c e s the w a v e height.
C a l c u l a t i o n s of the s h o a l i n g coefficient are greatly facilitated by the availability of m o d e r n
c o m p u t e r s a n d calculators. B e c a u s e an iteration p r o c e s s is r e q u i r e d in s o m e c a s e s , it m a y b e
helpful to u s e s t a n d a r d tables containing the values of the hyperbolic functions. T h e s e tables c a n
b e f o u n d in t h e S h o r e Protection M a n u a l . A brief extract of t h e s e t a b l e s is given in T a b l e 4 - 3 .

73

h / L tanh(kh

h/L

kh

sinh(kh cosh(kh) H / H o ' h / L o tanh(kh

h/L

kh

sinh(kh) cosh(kh

H/Ho'

)
0.000

0.000 0.0000 0.000

0.000

1.000

OO

0.200

0.888 0.225

1,41

1.926

2.170

0.002

0.112 0.0179 0.112

0.112

1.006

2.12 0.210

0.899 0.234

1,47

2.060

2.290

0.920

0.004

0.158 0.0253 0.159

0.160

1.013

1.79 0.220

0.909 0,242

1.52

2.177

2.395

0,923

0.006

0.193 0.0311 0.195

0.196

1.019

1.62

0.230

0.918 0,251

1.57

2.299

2.507

0,926

0.008

0.222 0.0360 0.226

0.228

1.026

1.51

0.240

0,926 0,259

1.63

2.454

2.650

0.929

0.010

0.248 0.0403 0.253

0.256

1.032

1.43

0.250

0.933 0,268

1.68

2.590

2.776

0.932

0.015

0.302 0.0496 0.312

0.317

1.049

1.31

0.260

0.940 0,277

1.74

2.761

2.936

0.936

0.020

0.347 0,0576 0.362

0.370

1.066

1.23

0.270

0.946 0,285

1.79

2.911

3.078

0.939

0.025

0.386 0.0648 0.407

0.418

1.084

1.17

0.280

0.952 0.294

1.85

3.101

3.259

0.942

0.030

0.420 0.0713 0.448

0.463

1.102

1.13

0.290

0.957 0.303

1.90

3.268

3.418

0.946

0.035

0,452 0.0775 0.487

0.506

1.121

1.09

0,300

0.961 0,312

1.96

3.479

3.620

0,949

0.040

0.480 0,0833 0.523

0.547

1.140

1.06

0.310

0.965 0,321 2.02

3.703

3.835

0,952
0.955

0.918

0.045

0.5,07 0.0888 0.558

0.587

1.160

1.04 0,320

0.969 0.330 2.08

3.940

4.065

0.050

0.531 0.0942 0.592

0.627

1.180

1.02

0.330

0.972 0.339 2.13

4.148

4.267

0.958

0.055

0.554 0.0993 0.624

0.665

1.201

1.01 0.340

0,975 0.349 2.19

4.412

4.524

0,961

0,060

0.575

0.104 0.655

0.703

1.222

0.993 0.350

0.978 0.358 2.25

4.691

4.797

0.964

0.065

0.595

0.109 0.686

0.741

1.245

0.981 0.360

0.980 0.367 2,31

4.988

5.087

0.967

0.070

0.614

0.114 0.716

0.779

1.267

0.971 0.370

0.983 0.377 2.37

5.302

5.395

0.969

0.075

0.632

0.119 0.745

0.816

1.291

0.962 0.380

0,984 0.386 2.43

5.635

5.723

0.972

0.080

0.649

0.123 0.774

0.854

1.315

0.955 0.390

0.986 0.395 2.48

5,929

6.013

0.974

0.085

0.665

0.128 0.803

0.892

1.340

0.948 0.400

0,988 0,405 2.54

6.300

6.379

0.976

0,090

0.681

0.132 0.831

0.930

1.366

0.942 0.410

0.989 0.415

2.60

6,695

6.769

0.978

0.095

0.695

0,137 0.858

0.967

1.391

0.937 0.420

0.990 0,424 2,66

7.113

7.183

0.980

0.100

0,709

0.141 0.886

1.007

1.419

0.933 0,430

0.991 0.434 2.73

7.634

7.699

0.982

0.110

0.735

0.150 0.940

1.085

1.475 0.926 0,440

0.992 0.443 2,79

8.110

8.171

0.983

0,120

0.759

0.158 0.994

1.166

1.536

0.920 0,450

0.993 0.453 2.85

8.615

8.673

0.985

0.130

0.780

0.167

1.05

1.254

1.604

0.917 0,460

0.994 0,463 2.91

9,151

9.206

0.968

0.140

0.800

0.175

1,10

1.336

1.669

0.915 0.470

0.995 0.472 2.97

9.720

9.772

0.987

0.150

0.818

0.183 J . 1 5

1.421

1.737 0.913 0.480 : : 0.996 0,482 3.03

10,324

10,373

0.988

0,160

0.835

0.192

1.20

1.509

1.811

0,913 0.490

0.996 0.492 3.09

10.966

11.011

0.990

Q.170

0.850

0.200

1.26

1.621

1.905

0.913 0.500

0.996 0,502 3,15

11,647

11.689

0.990

0.180

0.864

0.208

1.31

1.718

1.988

0.914

1.000

1.000

1.000

6.28 266.893

266,895

1.000

0.190

0.877

0.217

1.36

1.820

2.076

0.916

oo

1,000

OO

oo

1,000

0.200

0.888

0.225

1.41

1.926

2.170

0.918

oo

OO

T a b l e 4-3 S i n u s o i d a l w a v e f u n c t i o n s

Refraction
W l i e n w a v e s travel f r o m d e e p w a t e r into s h a l l o w e r water, s o m e significant c h a n g e s o c c u r . F r o m
e q u a t i o n s ( 4 , 1 5 ) a n d ( 4 . 1 9 ) , it c a n clearly be s e e n that t h e w a v e c e l e r i t y d e c r e a s e s w i t h d e p t h .
W h e n a w a v e a p p r o a c h e s u n d e r w a t e r c o n t o u r s at a n a n g l e , it is e v i d e n t that t h e s e c t i o n s of t h e
c r e s t in t h e d e e p e r parts t r a v e l f a s t e r t h a n t h o s e in t h e s h a l l o w e r s e c t o r s . T h i s c a u s e s t h e w a v e
c r e s t to turn t o w a r d s t h e d e p t h c o n t o u r . T h i s b e n d i n g e f f e c t is called r e f r a c t i o n , a n d is a n a l o g o u s
to s i m i l a r p h e n o m e n a in p h y s i c s (light, s o u n d ) . T h e e f f e c t is s h o w n in F i g u r e 4 - 1 9 .

T h e r e f r a c t i o n t h e o r y , a s s u m e s that no w a v e e n e r g y m o v e s laterally a l o n g t h e w a v e c r e s t . T h e
e n e r g y r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t b e t w e e n o r t h o g o n a l s , n o r m a l t o t h e w a v e c r e s t . T h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e
o r t h o g o n a l s c h a n g e s p r o p o r t i o n a l l y to t h e w a v e celerity a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l a w of S n e l l i u s :

74

(4.30)

sin a.

coastline
F i g u r e 4-19 W a v e refraction
By applying e q u a t i o n (4.30), it is possible to construct a field of o r t h o g o n a l s o v e r a given b o t t o m
configuration for a g i v e n w a v e direction a n d w a v e p e r i o d . During this p r o c e s s , the d i s t a n c e b
b e t w e e n the o r t h o g o n a l s m a y v a r y . C o n s i d e r a t i o n s of e n e r g y c o n s e r v a t i o n t h e n s h o w that:
(4.31)
T h e factor V(b< / 2) is also called t h e refraction factor kr a n d is u s e d to calculate the c h a n g e in
w a v e height w h e n a w a v e a p p r o a c h e s at an angle to t h e s h o r e . Designing a field of o r t h o g o n a l s
is a c u m b e r s o m e t a s k , specifically w h e n it has to be r e p e a t e d for v a r i o u s w a v e directions a n d
v a r i o u s w a v e p e r i o d s . T h e o u t c o m e is not always satisfactory; a n d certainly not w h e n , o w i n g to
the b o t t o m t o p o g r a p h y s o m e of t h e o r t h o g o n a l s intersect. This leads to infinitely high w a v e
heights!
N o w a d a y s , m a t h e m a t i c a l m o d e l s are available to calculate the transport of w a v e e n e r g y t h r o u g h
a grid. T h e effects of s h o a l i n g , r e f r a c t i o n , b o t t o m friction a n d w i n d c a n be i n c o r p o r a t e d in t h e
m o d e l s . E x a m p l e s of s u c h m o d e l s are H I S W A a n d S W A N , both d e v e l o p e d at Delft University of
T e c h n o l o g y . Use of t h e s e m o d e l s eliminates need to d e s i g n of w a v e rays. E s t i m a t i n g (not
c a l c u l a t i n g ) w a v e rays is still a quick m e t h o d by m e a n s of w h i c h qualitative (not q u a n t i t a t i v e )
a n s w e r s c a n be o b t a i n e d .
Diffraction
W h e n w e d i s c u s s e d refraction, w e a s s u m e d that no lateral t r a n s f e r of w a v e e n e r g y w o u l d t a k e
p l a c e a l o n g the w a v e crest. T h i s a s s u m p t i o n is correct as long as t h e lateral g r a d i e n t is not t o o
great. H o w e v e r , this a s s u m p t i o n is no longer valid w h e n a n infinitely high g r a d i e n t o c c u r s , for
i n s t a n c e w h e n at o n e location the w a v e e n e r g y is a l l o w e d to p a s s , w h e r e a s next to it, t h e w a v e
p r o p a g a t i o n is p r e v e n t e d by a n o b s t r u c t i o n (island or b r e a k w a t e r ) . In s u c h c a s e t h e r e is s o m e
lateral transfer of w a v e e n e r g y . T h e p h e n o m e n o n c a n clearly be d i s t i n g u i s h e d in Figure 4 - 2 0
T y p i c a l E x a m p l e of Diffraction.

75

F i g u r e 4 - 2 0 Diffraction pattern
T h e t h e o r y of w a v e diffraction is s o l v e d m a t h e m a t i c a l l y by application of the " C o r n u - s p i r a l " .
Practical c o n t o u r s for considerations a b o u t diffraction are given in the S h o r e Protection M a n u a l ,
A n o n y m o u s (1984).

4.7.2.

Breaking

W h e n w a v e s a p p r o a c h the shore, the w a v e celerity is r e d u c e d . In addition, w e have s e e n t h a t the


w a v e height increases d u e to shoaling a n d the orbital motion within the w a v e s is also c h a n g i n g .
A l t h o u g h the orbit in d e e p w a t e r is a circle, in s h a l l o w w a t e r the orbit b e c o m e s a n ellipse w i t h a
horizontal axis longer t h a n the vertical axis. T h e vertical axis of the orbit at the w a t e r s u r f a c e is
e q u a l to the w a v e height. S i n c e s h o a l i n g c a u s e s an i n c r e a s e in the w a v e height, t h e v e r t i c a l
m o t i o n of the w a t e r particles at the s u r f a c e m u s t also increase. In addition to this, the h o r i z o n t a l
m o v e m e n t s g r o w in relation to the vertical m o v e m e n t s , w h i c h m e a n s that t h e r e m u s t b e a
significant i n c r e a s e of the particle velocity near the s u r f a c e . W h e n the particle v e l o c i t y e x c e e d s
t h e w a v e celerity, the crest of the w a v e is no longer stable, so b r e a k i n g m u s t occur. S i n c e m o s t
w a v e theories a r e based on energy conservation, their validity ends w h e n energy dissipation takes
place. T h e a s s u m p t i o n that the w a v e period remains constant is also no longer true. This h a s very
s e r i o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s o n the d e s i g n of c o a s t a l structures, specifically w h e n t h e w a v e p e r i o d is
part o f the d e s i g n f o r m u l a e .

T h e p r o c e s s of b r e a k i n g t a k e s place in v a r i o u s different w a y s . W e c a n r e c o g n i s e distinct t y p e s


o f b r e a k e r s . A distinction is m a d e b e t w e e n spilling, plunging and surging b r e a k e r s (Figure 4 - 2 1 ) .
T h e p a r a m e t e r t h a t g u i d e s the b r e a k e r type is (Battjes [1974]):
tan

where:
a

= s t e e p n e s s of the b e a c h

Lo = w a v e length in d e e p w a t e r

76

(4.32)

F i g u r e 4-21

Breaker types

Spilling breakers are usually f o u n d along flat b e a c h e s . W a v e s begin breaking at a relatively g r e a t


d i s t a n c e f r o m shore a n d break gradually as they a p p r o a c h still shallower water. During b r e a k i n g ,
a f o a m line d e v e l o p s at t h e crest a n d leaves a thin layer of f o a m over a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e .
T h e r e is v e r y little reflection of w a v e e n e r g y b a c k t o w a r d s the s e a .
A p l u n g i n g b r e a k e r is a type that is often f o u n d o n t h e travel posters for t h e Pacific Islands w i t h
a beautiful windsurf professional below it; it is spectacular. T h e curling top is characteristic of s u c h
a w a v e . W h e n it b r e a k s , a lot of e n e r g y is dissipated into turbulence; little is reflected b a c k to t h e
s e a , a n d a little is t r a n s m i t t e d t o w a r d s the coast, w h i l e f o r m i n g a " n e w " w a v e .
S u r g i n g b r e a k e r s o c c u r along rather s t e e p s h o r e s s u c h as might be e n c o u n t e r e d a l o n g r o c k y
c o a s t s . T h e breaker z o n e is very narrow, a n d m o r e t h a n half of the e n e r g y is reflected b a c k into
d e e p e r water. T h e breakers f o r m up like plunging breakers, but the toe of e a c h w a v e surges u p o n
t h e b e a c h before the crest c a n curl o v e r a n d fall.

4.7.3

Irregular w a v e s

Unlike w h a t is stated in the w a v e t h e o r y d i s c u s s e d in the previous s e c t i o n s , natural w a v e s a r e


neither s m a l l a m p l i t u d e w a v e s , nor regular in c h a r a c t e r with r e s p e c t of Height H a n d period T.
Irregularity o c c u r s o n at least t w o distinctly different t i m e s c a l e s , characterised by the short t e r m
a n d the long tern variations respectively. T h e e a s i e s t w a y to distinguish t h e s e t w o p h e n o m e n a
is to a s s u m e that d u r i n g a particular s t o r m , the w a v e pattern is stationary. In other w o r d s , w e
neglect t h e g r a d u a l g r o w t h a n d d e c a y of the w a v e field, and w e consider the s t o r m m o r e or less
a s a b l o c k f u n c t i o n . E v e n t h e n , the w a v e m o t i o n is irregular, as is d e m o n s t r a t e d by the w a v e
r e c o r d s h o w n in Figure 4 - 2 2 .

77

F i g u r e 4-22 Irregular w a v e
Short T e r m S t a t i s t i c s
Individual w a v e s c a n be distinguished a c c o r d i n g to international s t a n d a r d s by c o n s i d e r i n g t h e
w a t e r s u r f a c e e l e v a t i o n b e t w e e n t w o s u b s e q u e n t u p w a r d or d o w n w a r d c r o s s i n g s of the m e a n
w a t e r level. T h e t i m e s p a n b e t w e e n t h e s e c r o s s i n g s is the w a v e p e r i o d ; the r a n g e b e t w e e n t h e
highest crest a n d the lowest trough is the w a v e height. Since all heights a n d periods of individual
w a v e s are different, it is logical to apply statistical m e t h o d s to c h a r a c t e r i s e t h e set of d a t a . T h e
e a s i e s t w a y is t o d e t e r m i n e the statistical properties of the w a v e heights only.
It a p p e a r s that in d e e p w a t e r , the probability of e x c e e d a n c e of w a v e heights follows a R a y l e i g h
distribution:
P(H>H)

= e ^"^^

(4.33)

In w h i c h Hs, the significant w a v e height is equal to the a v e r a g e of t h e 1/3 h i g h e s t w a v e s . H c a n


also be defined a s the w a v e height that is e x c e e d e d by 1 3 . 5 % of the w a v e s . A third definition a n d
m e t h o d to d e t e r m i n e Hs is given later.
A graphical presentation of the recorded w a v e pattern is often m a d e o n so-called Rayleigh g r a p h
p a p e r (Figure 4 - 2 3 ) . O n s u c h paper, a data set that follows t h e Rayleigh distribution

is

r e p r e s e n t e d by a straight line t h r o u g h the origin. In view of the definitions, the value of Hs c a n be


r e a d at t h e 1 3 . 5 % e x c e e d a n c e v a l u e . In this w a y , t h e strength of the s t o r m c o n s i d e r e d is
apparently d e t e r m i n e d by just one value: Hs. A stronger storm w o u l d lead to a steeper distribution
c u r v e , w h i c h is a g a i n d e f i n e d by a specific v a l u e of the significant w a v e height.

78

w a v e h e i g h t ratio H/Hsig H

F i g u r e 4-23 " R a y l e i g h - p a p e r "


W a v e p e r i o d s a r e g e n e r a l l y t r e a t e d in a slightly different w a y . It is p o s s i b l e to c o n s i d e r t h e
irregular s u r f a c e level i]{t) to be the s u m of a large n u m b e r of periodic w a v e s :
7]{t) = YaiCos{27rf,t

+ (Pi)

(4.34)

In w h i c h
a; = a m p l i t u d e of c o m p o n e n t /
fi

= MTi=

f r e q u e n c y of c o m p o n e n t /

Pi = p h a s e a n g l e of c o m p o n e n t /
T h e s p e c t r a l e n e r g y d e n s i t y S{(o) c a n t h e n be e x p r e s s e d a s :
Ao)
S{o)) = y2Yaf/Aco

(4.35)

T h e e n e r g y c o n t a i n e d in t h e entire f r e q u e n c y r a n g e is proportional to 7]^ , a n d d e n o t e d by moConsequently:


^ o = 7 =X a / '

(4.36)

In p r a c t i c e t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of S{o}) b a s e d o n a m o r e m a t h e m a t i c a l c o n c e p t using

the

a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n R{T) a n d its Fourier t r a n s f o r m . In this p r o c e s s , s o m e m a t h e m a t i c a l


h i c c u p s m a y occur. It is t h e r e f o r e r e c o m m e n d e d to ascertain that a direct analysis of the w a v e
height distribution yields t h e s a m e significant w a v e height as t h e s p e c t r a l a p p r o a c h . In o t h e r
words, check whether

H s = 4 J ^

79

= H,,,,.,

(4.37)

W h e n the w a v e e n e r g y s p e c t r u m h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d in this w a y , in m o s t c a s e s it is p o s s i b l e
to distinguish a f r e q u e n c y f= I / T o r period T w h e r e the m a x i m u m e n e r g y is c o n c e n t r a t e d . This
value is called the peal< period Tp. Of course, o n e can also count the total n u m b e r of w a v e s during
the r e c o r d i n g period a n d thus d e f i n e an a v e r a g e period.
It is s t r e s s e d that t h e spectral analysis a n d t h e Rayleigh distribution a r e only valid to a n a l y s e a
stationary p r o c e s s . It is n e c e s s a r y to e n s u r e that the c h o s e n m e a s u r i n g period that is not s o long
that it is a l m o s t certain that the w a v e c l i m a t e will c h a n g e during the o b s e r v a t i o n period. O n t h e
other h a n d , the c h o s e n observation period m u s t be long e n o u g h to e n s u r e that the s a m p l e leads
to statistically reliable results. It has b e c o m e c o m m o n practice to m e a s u r e w a v e s during a period
of 2 0 to 30 m i n u t e s at intervals of 3 or 6 h o u r s .
S u m m a r i s i n g , o n e can state that the short-term distribution of w a v e heights, i.e. the w a v e heights
in a s t a t i o n a r y s e a state exhibits s o m e v e r y characteristic relations:
Name

Notation

S t a n d a r d deviation free s u r f a c e

HHmo
1

0.250
0.706

H = H^

2V2
2Vln 2

R M S height

Hrms

M e a n Height
Significant Height

0.588

Hs- H'^iz

4.005

A v e r a g e of 1/10 highest w a v e s

HMW

5.091

1.271

A v e r a g e of 1/100 highest w a v e s

H-\noo

6.672

1.666

W a v e height e x c e e d e d by 2 %

H2%

1.4

T a b l e 4-4 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c w a v e h e i g h t s
N o t e : t h e s e relations a r e valid only for d e e p water, i.e. in the a b s e n c e of breal<ing w a v e s .
In a similar w a y , w a v e periods c a n b e r e l a t e d :
Name

Notation

R e l a t i o n to s p e c t r a l

T i n

moment
Peal< period

M e a n period

V(mo/m2)

//d

Significant period

1
0.75 to 0.85
0.9 to 0.95

T a b l e 4-5 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c w a v e p e r i o d s
W h e n irregular w a v e s enter shallow water, the highest w a v e s will break first. This m e a n s t h a t t h e
Rayleigh distribution is no longer a p p l i c a b l e . T h e breaking limit for regular w a v e s is HI

h=0.78,

but for irregular w a v e s the value H / Hs=0.5 is often used as the breaking limit. This indicates that
for b r e a k i n g w a v e s Hs will not i n c r e a s e b e y o n d 5 0 % of the w a t e r d e p t h .

L o n g T e r m Statistics
A s indicated a b o v e there is no point in d e t e r m i n i n g the either the significant w a v e h e i g h t or a
s p e c t r u m if the w a v e train is not part of a stationary process. T h e r e f o r e , w a v e s a r e m e a s u r e d at
regular intervals of 3 to 6 hours d u r i n g a relatively short p e r i o d . It is highly unlikely t h a t t w o
s u b s e q u e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s will lead to identical values of Hs a n d Tp.
T h e results of series of w a v e o b s e r v a t i o n s covering a longer period will therefore again b e c o m e
a set of r a n d o m data that r e p r e s e n t t h e l o n g - t e r m w a v e climate of the location.

80

For s o m e p r o b l e m s , it is sufficient to e x p r e s s this long-term w a v e c l i m a t e in t e r m s of t h e


probability of e x c e e d a n c e of s t o r m s with a particular strength (Hs) but for o t h e r s , it is n e c e s s a r y
to h a v e a n idea of the probabilities of individual w a v e heights o c c u r r i n g . In s u c h c a s e s , the s h o r t
t e r m and the l o n g - t e r m expectations m u s t be c o m b i n e d into a g r a p h or table that e x p r e s s e s t h e
probability of e x c e e d a n c e of individual w a v e heights during a fixed period, for e x a m p l e the lifetime
of a s t r u c t u r e .
B e c a u s e in shallow water there is a direct relation b e t w e e n m a x i m u m breal<ing w a v e height a n d
w a t e r d e p t h , the w a v e height distribution is not independent of the o c c u r r e n c e of e x t r e m e w a t e r
levels. C l o s e to the s h o r e , this could m e a n that the l o n g - t e r m distribution of w a v e h e i g h t s
c o i n c i d e s with the distribution of e x t r e m e w a t e r levels as given in section 4 . 4 . 4 .

81

82

5.1 Introduction
In the c o a s t a l z o n e , o c e a n o g r a p h y , geology, e c o l o g y a n d m o r p h o l o g y a r e strongly i n t e r r e l a t e d .
T h e r e a r e three types of p r o c e s s e s that influence the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the c o a s t : p h y s i c a l ,
c h e m i c a l , a n d biological p r o c e s s e s . F o r e m o s t are t h e physical p r o c e s s e s : tides, w a v e s , w i n d s
a n d currents that continuously influence the m a i n c o a s t a l f e a t u r e s c r e a t e d during t h e g e o l o g i c a l
history. T h e s e processes w e a r d o w n the coast in s o m e places and build it up in others. T r a n s p o r t
of all kind of sediments (sand, clay and shell) plays an important role in these processes. Barriers,
spits, the s h a p e of a coastal b a y a n d the c o u r s e of a river, a r e all f e a t u r e s d o m i n a t e d by
s e d i m e n t transport. T r a n s g r e s s i o n a n d progradation of c o a s t s a r e the result of b o t h , s e d i m e n t
t r a n s p o r t a n d other, less visible geological e v e n t s .
M o r p h o l o g y is best understood w h e n it is considered as a s e d i m e n t balance for a given situation
a n d a given balance area. In s u c h a balance, all p r o c e s s e s with sediment-transporting capacities
m u s t be t a k e n into a c c o u n t . In this chapter, t h e s e p r o c e s s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d with e m p h a s i s o n
c o a s t a l m o r p h o l o g y . M a n y of t h e m t a k e place in the surf z o n e ; t h e r e f o r e t h e s u r f z o n e is
described separately in section 5.2. T h e sediment transporting m e c h a n i s m s are treated in section
5.3. Section 5.4 is f o c u s s e d on coastline c h a n g e s a n d coastline equilibrium in g e n e r a l . In section
5.5, attention is paid to the quantification of the t r a n s p o r t p r o c e s s e s , w h i c h m a k e s

them

a c c e s s i b l e for an e n g i n e e r i n g a p p r o a c h . Eventually, the m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h


certain geological f e a t u r e s , lead to clearly different c o a s t a l f o r m a t i o n s , w h i c h are d i s c u s s e d in
C h a p t e r 6.
M o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s a r e strongly correlated. S a n d t r a n s p o r t is c a u s e d by w a v e s , w i n d a n d
c u r r e n t s , but w a v e s , w i n d a n d currents also influence e a c h other. M o r e o v e r , the s a n d t r a n s p o r t
c a u s e s c h a n g e s in t h e t o p o g r a p h y , w h i c h in turn lead to c h a n g e s in t h e w a v e w i n d a n d c u r r e n t
p a t t e r n s . In Figure 5 - 1 , a s c h e m e of this c o h e r e n c e in the m o r p h o l o g i c a l s y s t e m is s h o w n . It is
a c o m p l e x s y s t e m . T h e e l e m e n t s (input variables) a r e :

original coastal t o p o g r a p h y

w a t e r level

wind

waves

tide

T h e p r o c e s s e s driven by the input variables lead to s a n d t r a n s p o r t , w h i c h eventually leads t o a


c o a s t a l t o p o g r a p h y that c h a n g e s as a function of t i m e .

83

average sea level


tide movement

tide difference

tide-driven
current

wind setup

wind-driven
current

wind

atm. pressure
oscilations
waves

water depth

wave setup

wave-driven
current

water level

current

'dry' sediment
transport

'wet' sediment
transport
morphology

F i g u r e 5-1

T h e morphological system

W h e n studying m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s , w e m u s t realise that w e c a n d o s o on c o m p l e t e l y


different scale levels. For e x a m p l e , w e m a y study w h a t h a p p e n s instantaneously in the b o u n d a r y
layer under a w a v e in a f l u m e in the laboratory. T h e time scale is then in the order of s e c o n d s , the
length scale in t h e order of m e t r e s . W e m a y also study t h e e r o s i o n near the toe of a s e a w a l l . In
that c a s e the t i m e scale will be m o n t h s or m a y b e years, a n d the length scale will be h u n d r e d s of
m e t r e s . W h e n w e consider the stability of an entire coastline, the time scale m a y be centuries a n d
the length s c a l e h u n d r e d s of l<ilometres. A t first sight it will be difficult to integrate

these

a p p r o a c h e s , but r e s e a r c h o n t h e s m a l l - s c a l e is s o m e t i m e s i n d i s p e n s a b l e if o n e w i s h e s to
u n d e r s t a n d the large-scale e f f e c t s . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , w e m u s t r e m e m b e r that in t h e p r e s e n t
state-of-the-art it is virtually i m p o s s i b l e to predict the long-term effects f r o m a s i m p l e integration
of s m a l l - s c a l e p r o c e s s e s .

84

5.2 Surfzone p r o c e s s e s
In t h e surf z o n e , c o m p l e x h y d r o d y n a m i c p r o c e s s e s t a k e place. T h e m o s t o b v i o u s o n e is t h e
e n e r g y dissipation d u e to breaking. It can easily be o b s e r v e d that w a v e e n e r g y is t r a n s f o r m e d into
t u r b u l e n c e and noise. Less visible, but still very important, is the c h a n g e of the m e a n w a t e r level
in t h e surf z o n e . Mathematically,

this c a n be derived f r o m a calculation of t h e t r a n s p o r t of

m o m e n t u m . This p h e n o m e n o n is called radiation stress. For details, o n e is referred to a textbook


o n short w a v e s (Battjes 1986). For w a v e s a p p r o a c h i n g p e r p e n d i c u l a r to t h e s h o r e this leads to
a slight d e c r e a s e of the m e a n w a t e r level outside the surf z o n e ; inside the surf z o n e it leads t o a
rise in

the m e a n level w h e n o n e gets closer to the s h o r e ( w a v e s e t u p ) . Physically,

we can

u n d e r s t a n d that in the crests of b r e a k i n g w a v e s an e x c e s s of w a t e r is t r a n s p o r t e d t o w a r d s the


s h o r e . T h i s m u s t lead to a rise in w a t e r level close to the s h o r e l i n e . T h e g r a d i e n t t h u s f o r m e d
drives an u n d e r t o w in s e a w a r d direction that c o m p e n s a t e s the m a s s t r a n s p o r t in t h e crest of the
breaker.
W h e n the w a v e s a p p r o a c h the s h o r e at a n a n g l e , the p r o c e s s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e will also c r e a t e
a current parallel to the s h o r e . S i n c e the w a v e s e t u p t a k e s place in the b r e a k e r z o n e , this
l o n g s h o r e current will also be c o n c e n t r a t e d in the b r e a k e r z o n e (See Figure 5-2)

F i g u r e 5-2 L o n g s h o r e c u r r e n t
In a real situation, with slight irregularities, t h e u n d e r t o w will not be e v e n l y distributed a l o n g t h e
length of the b e a c h . T h e return flow will - at least partially- concentrate into so-called rip currents
(in D u t c h : m u i s t r o o m ) . In this w a y both vertical cells a n d horizontal cells c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d .
In F i g u r e 5-3 a n d Figure 5-4, t h e s e different current patterns a r e s h o w n .

85

A
y
wave crests

water line

X
F i g u r e 5-3 Horizontal c i r c u l a t i o n cell with rip c u r r e n t

breaker line

F i g u r e 5-4 V e r t i c a l c i r c u l a t i o n cell with u n d e r t o w

5.3 Sediment transport


T r a n s p o r t by w a v e s a n d c u r r e n t s
S e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t plays an i m p o r t a n t role in n e a r l y e v e r y coastal e n g i n e e r i n g p r o b l e m . A n
important goal of coastal engineering is to u n d e r s t a n d ttie natural morpliological c t i a n g e s d u e to
s e d i m e n t transport a n d to predict the s e d i m e n t transport rates along a coast in general a n d in t h e
vicinity of s t r u c t u r e s in particular. Frequently a s h o r t a g e of material o c c u r s at s o m e l o c a t i o n
( u n d e s i r e d e r o s i o n ) ; w h i l e at other places an o v e r a b u n d a n c e of material c a n be j u s t

as

t r o u b l e s o m e (siltation of a navigation c h a n n e l , for e x a m p l e ) .


W h e n d i s c u s s i n g s e d i m e n t transport, it is c o m m o n to distinguish bottom transport a n d t r a n s p o r t
in s u s p e n s i o n . For s e d i m e n t transport in rivers both m o d e s of transport are s o m e t i m e s c o m b i n e d
into o n e g e n e r a l f o r m u l a . In m a n y c a s e s this is a valid simplification b e c a u s e the direction of t h e
t r a n s p o r t is identical d u e to the unidirectional c h a r a c t e r of the flow. A l o n g the coast, w e h a v e to
be careful with s u c h simplifications b e c a u s e b o t t o m transport and s u s p e n d e d transport n e e d not
86

follow the s a m e path. This m a y be d e m o n s t r a t e d by the e x a m p l e of a w a v e that a p p r o a c h e s t h e


s h o r e perpendicularly. It creates only orbital velocities n o r m a l to the c o a s t . T h i s m e a n s t h a t
b o t t o m t r a n s p o r t is also restricted to the c r o s s - s h o r e d i r e c t i o n . Material that c o m e s

into

s u s p e n s i o n , however, for instance in the breaker zone under the influence of breaking w a v e s , c a n
be t r a n s p o r t e d parallel to the coast u n d e r t h e influence of a w e a k tidal current along the s h o r e ,
e v e n if this current w o u l d be too w e a k to c a u s e a n y b o t t o m transport.
T h e r e are m a n y f o r m u l a e for the quantification of s e d i m e n t transport. Most of t h e s e f o r m u l a e a r e
rather c o m p l i c a t e d a n d none of t h e m provides a n ideal a n s w e r to all questions. It is important t o
realise that it is c o m m o n practice to accept a threshold value for b o t t o m s h e a r stress introduced
by S h i e l d s . A p a r t f r o m that, m o s t t r a n s p o r t f o r m u l a e u s e d in rivers a n d c a n a l s e x p r e s s t h e
s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t per unit width s a s :
s = mU"

(5.2)

in w h i c h
s

s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t in m^/s/m(width)

coefficient

( a v e r a g e ) current velocity in m/s

p o w e r varying f r o m 3 to 5

F r o m t h e t h e o r y of s e d i m e n t transport, w e k n o w that t u r b u l e n c e e n h a n c e s the p i c k - u p a n d


t r a n s p o r t of s e d i m e n t , since it c a u s e s s e d i m e n t to be in s u s p e n s i o n . W h e n s u s p e n d e d , t h e
s e d i m e n t will be carried by a n y resulting net current, t h e t r a n s p o r t rate being the p r o d u c t of
i n s t a n t a n e o u s velocity a n d c o n c e n t r a t i o n . W e m u s t t h e r e f o r e e x p e c t that the b r e a k e r z o n e is a
v e r y active z o n e w h e r e s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t is c o n c e r n e d . Interruption or w e a k e n i n g of t h e
b r e a k i n g p r o c e s s automatically leads to less t u r b u l e n c e a n d thus to less material in s u s p e n s i o n .
A t t h e s a m e t i m e , it leads to a reduction of the w a v e d r i v e n l o n g s h o r e current.
C a l c u l a t i o n s in c o a s t a l engineering t e n d to be m o r e difficult t h a n similar predictions for river
s e d i m e n t transport; oscillating w a t e r m o v e m e n t s c a u s e d by w a v e s and t h e multitude of c u r r e n t c a u s i n g f o r c e s c o n s i d e r a b l y increase the n u m b e r of v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d . A n o t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n is
the n o n - s t a t i o n a r y b e h a v i o u r of both current velocity a n d s e d i m e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n .
S u s p e n d e d s e d i m e n t transport in a vertical c a n be d e s c r i b e d quite g e n e r a l l y as t h e p r o d u c t of
velocity u a n d s e d i m e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n c. B o t h are a f u n c t i o n of t i m e (f) a n d location (z) a s
indicated in e q u a t i o n (5.3).

S(t)=]c(z,t)

u(z,t)dz

(5.3)

and:

S = - ] ] c(z,t)u(z,t)dzdt
^1 -h 0

(5.4)

S o l v i n g e q u a t i o n s (5.3) a n d (5.4) is not s i m p l e , certainly not w h e n the s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t is at


least partly c a u s e d b y w a v e s . For instance. Figure 5-5 s h o w s t h e s e d i m e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n a s a
f u n c t i o n of t i m e for a large n u m b e r of individual r e c o r d s .

87

F i g u r e 5-5

S e d i m e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n a s a f u n c t i o n of time

If tlie s e d i m e n t concentration c is constant in time, as is the c a s e for a stationary current, equation


(5.3) c a n be s i m p l i f i e d into:

S{t)

= S=

j^^c(z)-u(z)dz

(5.5)

T r a n s p o r t by w i n d
A l o n g the c o a s t , s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t by w i n d s h o u l d not be n e g l e c t e d , a l t h o u g h it is often
overlool<ed. S e d i m e n t transport by wind plays a d o m i n a n t role in the f o r m a t i o n of d u n e s a n d thus
in the s h a p e of t h e c o a s t i m m e d i a t e l y l a n d w a r d of the waterline.
T h e p r o c e s s of d i s p e r s i v e m o v e m e n t by w i n d is d e p e n d e n t on g e o m e t r y a n d vegetation (Figure
5-6 a n d T a b l e 5-1).

height [m]

r
20

F i g u r e 5-6

distance [m]

Wind blowing over a vegetated dune

88

30

T a b l e 5-1

wind force

windspeed

sediment transport

(Beaufort)

( m / s ) (approx.)

{10^m^/s/m)

4.5

7.0

10.0

12.5

14

15.5

31

19.5

86

22.5

165

10

26.5

310

11

31.0

408

Correlation between wind force, wind velocity and blown s a n d transport

5.4 Coastline c h a n g e s and coastline equilibrium


Whien considering s e d i m e n t transport in t i i e coastal zone, it is convenient to distinguisli s e d i m e n t
transport normal to t i i e coast ( c r o s s - s l i o r e transport) a n d s e d i m e n t transport parallel to ttie coast
(longstiore transport) (Figure 5-7). C r o s s - s l i o r e transport and longstiore transport are d e t e r m i n e d
by the prevailing m o r p h o l o g i c a l a n d hydraulic c o n d i t i o n s . C r o s s - s h o r e t r a n s p o r t is g e n e r a l l y
caused

by the orbital velocities a n d , in t h e c a s e of breal<ing w a v e s , by t h e u n d e r t o w . G r a v i t y

along the slope also plays a role. L o n g s h o r e transport is usually c a u s e d by the longshore current
that is driven by radiation s t r e s s of w a v e s a p p r o a c h i n g under an a n g l e . C r o s s - s h o r e t r a n s p o r t is
o f t e n a c o m b i n a t i o n of b o t t o m t r a n s p o r t a n d s u s p e n d e d transport, l o n g s h o r e transport

is

d o m i n a t e d by s u s p e n d e d t r a n s p o r t .

longshore transport
(tide movement)
breaker line

surf

cross-shore
transport
(wet)

zone

longshore transport
(surf current)
water line

cross-shore
transport
i(dry)

longshore transport
(wind-blown transport)

F i g u r e 5-7 L o n g s h o r e a n d c r o s s s h o r e t r a n s p o r t
S e d i m e n t transport in itself d o e s not c a u s e a n y c h a n g e s in the t o p o g r a p h y of the coastline. O n l y
w h e n there are gradients in the transport rate [dsldx, ds/dy) will there be erosion or s e d i m e n t a t i o n .
Gradients in the cross s h o r e direction will lead to a steeper or m o r e gentle slope, gradients in t h e
l o n g s h o r e direction will lead to s y s t e m a t i c e r o s i o n or s e d i m e n t a t i o n a l o n g the coastline.
In C h a p t e r 4, w e h a v e already s e e n that m o d e r a t e (non-breaking) w a v e s in shoaling w a t e r s h o w
a n a s y m m e t r y in the orbital velocity near the bottom. Velocities t o w a r d s the s h o r e are higher t h a n
89

velocities in ttie opposite direction. Alttiougti ttie duration of ttie stioreward velocity is sliorter, tfie
p o w e r relation b e t w e e n s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t a n d velocity (see e q u a t i o n (5.4)) c a u s e s a net
s h o r e w a r d s e d i m e n t transport.
Breal<ing w a v e s , however, c a u s e a net s h o r e w a r d m a s s (water) transport, which results in a w a v e
s e t - u p s h o r e w a r d of the breal<er z o n e . T h i s p r o c e s s ultimately leads to the creation of an
u n d e r t o w along the b o t t o m t o w a r d s the s e a . S i n c e a lot of s e d i m e n t is in s u s p e n s i o n in the
breal<er z o n e d u e to t u r b u l e n c e , the u n d e r t o w c a n carry c o n s i d e r a b l e a m o u n t s of s e d i m e n t in a
seaward direction.
T h e g e n e r a l s h a p e of a coastal profile is the result of a d y n a m i c equilibrium in the c r o s s - s h o r e
direction. S u c h a n equilibrium profile c a n be c h a r a c t e r i s e d by its slope. T h i s slope d e p e n d s o n
the w a v e height, the grain size and the d i s t a n c e f r o m the shore. Higher w a v e s a n d finer s a n d will
c a u s e a m o r e gentle profile, w h e r e a s lower w a v e s a n d coarser sand give rise to a steeper profile.
B a s e d o n a large n u m b e r of field o b s e r v a t i o n s . W i e g e l ( 1 9 6 4 ) p r e s e n t e d a g r a p h indicating the
relation b e t w e e n slope a n d grain size for v a r i o u s w a v e conditions (Figure 5-8).

1:19

1:20

1:30

1:60

1:60

1:70 1:60 1:90 l:CO

S L O P E O F B E A C H FACE

F i g u r e 5-8 B e a c h s l o p e v e r s u s grain s i z e after W i e g e l (1964)

D e a n ( 1 9 8 3 ) s u g g e s t e d a m a t h e m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the equilibrium profile:


h = Ay""

(5.6)

in w h i c h h is the w a t e r depth at a d i s t a n c e y f r o m t h e shoreline. V a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e u s e d


a n d modified this f o r m u l a , indicating v a l u e s for A a n d m d e p e n d i n g o n grain size, w a v e c l i m a t e ,
w a t e r level variation a n d tidal c u r r e n t s . T h e m o s t c o m m o n value for m is in the o r d e r of 2 / 3 ; the
coefficient/A is often r e p l a c e d b y B.D^'^, indicating the influence of t h e grain size D.
Vellinga ( 1 9 8 4 ) d e s c r i b e s the s l o p e that d e v e l o p s w h e n a d u n e c o a s t is e x p o s e d to a s t o r m :

90

y = 0.4714

7.6

x + 18

-2.0

(5.7)

0.0268

In w h i c h :
Hso =

significant w a v e height in d e e p w a t e r ( m )
fall velocity of b e a c h s a n d in s e a w a t e r of 5 C (nn/s)

horizontal d i s t a n c e to shoreline (= d u n e b a s e )

d e p t h b e l o w w a t e r level a s s o c i a t e d with equilibrium profile

For a better u n d e r s t a n d i n g refer to Figure 5-9.

storm surge level

erosion profile

/ H \
y. 5.717(^)

accretion

=: 0.75H

^ - 5^

>.-#^
profile

F i g u r e 5-9 B e a c h profile after d u n e e r o s i o n


E q u a t i o n (5.7) d e s c r i b e s t h e c u r v e d profile f r o m t h e w a t e r l i n e (x=0, y = 0 ) to the point w h e r e t h e
gently c u r v i n g profile e n d s a n d the s e a b e d has a m o r e or less steep s l o p e of 1:12.5. T h i s point
has c o o r d i n a t e s :

and
y = 5 . 7 1 7 ( ^ g ) = 0.75H

In practice, t h e c u r v e d profile, a s given by D e a n , is s o m e t i m e s replaced by a straight slope f r o m


the w a t e r line d o w n to a horizontal level that is not c o n s i d e r e d to c h a n g e .
B e c a u s e w a v e h e i g h t s c h a n g e d u r i n g the s e a s o n , t h e resulting profiles a r e called s u m m e r a n d
winter profiles. E x t r e m e s t o r m s , specifically s t o r m s t h a t a r e a s s o c i a t e d with a rise in m e a n s e a
level, m a y c r e a t e s u c h a gentle profile that the r e q u i r e d s a n d for this profile is e r o d e d f r o m t h e
d u n e s . If no s a n d is p e r m a n e n t l y lost f r o m the cross s e c t i o n , the original condition is restored by
n a t u r e in the long r u n .
In this w a y d u r i n g a short t i m e (a s t o r m ) , a c h a n g e of the profile c a n o c c u r that c r e a t e s t h e
i m p r e s s i o n of s e v e r e e r o s i o n . T h i s is not t h e s a m e as p e r m a n e n t , structural e r o s i o n , w h i c h is
often d u e to a longshore transport gradient. N B : T h e difference b e t w e e n structural a n d t e m p o r a r y
e r o s i o n c a n n o t be s e e n a b o v e t h e w a t e r s u r f a c e . For m o r e details a b o u t c o a s t profiles a n d
e r o s i o n s e e S e c t i o n 7.4.
91

G r a d i e n t s in the ( l o n g s h o r e ) transport c a n result fronn incident w a v e s u n d e r a different a n g l e ,


w a v e height d i f f e r e n c e s along the c o a s t , b o t t o m material c h a n g e s and w i n d a n d w a v e driven
currents (Figure 5-10).

Sl,b > SL,A


B

X
increasing
tide-driven
currents

t
y

increasing
wave lielght

increasing
breaker zone
current +
increasing
suspension

increasing
angle of
approach

increasmg
breaker zone
current

F i g u r e 5-10 C a u s e s of a g r a d i e n t in l o n g s h o r e t r a n s p o r t

5.5 Quantification of the longshore transport p r o c e s s


T h e longshore transport is essentially c a u s e d by w a v e s a p p r o a c h i n g at an angle to the coastline.
D u e to w a v e b r e a k i n g t h e r e is a z o n e with an increased t u r b u l e n c e level, w h e r e b o t t o m m a t e r i a l
is brought into s u s p e n s i o n . O n c e s u s p e n d e d , the material is transported by the longshore current
that is c a u s e d by the b r e a k i n g w a v e s . T h e l o n g s h o r e t r a n s p o r t is t h e r e f o r e c o n c e n t r a t e d in t h e
breaker zone.

92

For a long time the a m o u n t of s a n d transported in this w a y has b e e n a p p r o x i m a t e d by a f o r m u l a


d e v e l o p e d by the Coastal E n g i n e e r i n g R e s e a r c h C e n t r e ( C E R C ) of t h e U S A r m y C o r p s of
Engineers:
S = 0.020 Hi,
in w h i c h :
S
= s a n d transport
Co

Co Kf sm(p, cos4>,

(m%)

w a v e celerity in d e e p w a t e r ( m / s )

(/)i,r =

a n g l e b e t w e e n d e p t h c o n t o u r s a n d w a v e crest at breal<er line

Hso =

significant w a v e h e i g h t at d e e p w a t e r ( m )

Kr

refraction coefficient

(5.8)

T h e formula appears in different s h a p e s , depending on the use of particular values and definitions
for H c K a n d 4>. Use of this f o r m u l a is complicated because both w a v e height and w a v e direction
vary throughout the year. For a reliable result, the w a v e climate over the year m u s t be divided into
a n u m b e r of characteristic periods with conditions that are c o n s i d e r e d to be representative of
certain periods of t i m e . T h i s leads to t r a n s p o r t rates in t w o directions. T h e c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e s e
leads to a net t r a n s p o r t rate. Net t r a n s p o r t m a y v a r y f r o m s a y 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 to 1,000,000 m

per

annum.
Although there are more sophisticated expressions for the longshore transport rate, the final result
is often not m u c h better than the result of the C E R C formula b e c a u s e of the great uncertainty with
respect to the b o u n d a r y conditions H a n d ^. It is r e m a r k a b l e that the C E R C f o r m u l a neglects a n y
influence of grain size. It m u s t also be r e m e m b e r e d that the f o r m u l a d o e s not consider t r a n s p o r t
d u e to tidal currents if any.
Considering the f o r m u l a in m o r e detail, it is evident that longshore transport is zero w h e n (po= 90,
i.e. w h e n the w a v e s are a p p r o a c h i n g at right a n g l e s to the c o a s t . T h e t r a n s p o r t r e a c h e s a
m a x i m u m for (pb = 4 5 .

93

6.1 Introduction
In the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s , w e h a v e s e e n h o w c o a s t l i n e s have initially b e e n f o r m e d by long t e r m
geological p r o c e s s e s , a n d h o w climatic c o n d i t i o n s , w a v e s a n d tides are constantly c h a n g i n g t h e
initial f o r m s by erosion and t h e transportation of s e d i m e n t . A l t h o u g h every location o n earth h a s
its o w n character c a u s e d by its history and by the prevailing conditions, general f o r m s c a n still b e
r e c o g n i s e d t h a t give at least s o m e p r e l i m i n a r y insight into the p r o c e s s e s that d o m i n a t e t h e
d e v e l o p m e n t of that specific location. In this chapter, an attempt is m a d e to develop a systematic
a p p r o a c h that leads to the identification of characteristic coastal s h a p e s .
T h e central c o n c e p t b e h i n d all a t t e m p t s to u n d e r s t a n d coastal c h a n g e s is the idea of t w o m a j o r
steering p r o c e s s e s : progradation a n d t r a n s g r e s s i o n . T h e s e p r o c e s s e s s h a p e a c o a s t a c c o r d i n g
to the s e d i m e n t supply in relation to the relative sea-level rise. If the sea-level rise is high, and/or
the s e d i m e n t supply relatively low, t h e n m a r i n e transgression of a coast is taking place. If the s e a level rise is low, in c o m b i n a t i o n with a high s e d i m e n t s u p p l y t h e n c o a s t a l p r o g r a d a t i o n is
h a p p e n i n g . In Figure 6 - 1 , this c o n c e p t of p r o g r a d i n g a n d t r a n s g r e s s i v e coasts is s h o w n .
T h e left side of Figure 6-1 r e p r e s e n t s p r o g r a d i n g situations. T h e n the landside is on the w i n n i n g
h a n d , either b e c a u s e of a falling s e a level relative to the land, or b e c a u s e of a n e x c e s s i v e
s e d i m e n t s u p p l y T h e right side represents the transgressive c a s e , either because of a rise in s e a
level, or b e c a u s e of insufficient s e d i m e n t s u p p l y N B : the c h a n g e in sea level is relative, m e a n i n g
that s u b s i d e n c e of the land with a c o n s t a n t s e a level has t h e s a m e effect.
In t h e prograding c a s e , deposition of river s e d i m e n t leads to delta f o r m a t i o n . W h e n w a v e p o w e r
a n d tidal p o w e r a r e low, the s e d i m e n t of t h e river will build up long n a r r o w b a n k s o n both s i d e s
of its c o u r s e . D u e to t h e gradient of the river flow, w a t e r levels at a fixed point along the river will
g r a d u a l l y rise since this the d i s t a n c e of this point f r o m t h e actual river m o u t h is i n c r e a s i n g . A t a
certain m o m e n t , probably w h e n the river d i s c h a r g e is high, the river starts o v e r f l o w i n g the b a n k
a n d it will e r o d e a n e w shorter c h a n n e l t o w a r d s the s e a . T h e s a m e p r o c e s s is c o n t i n u o u s l y
r e p e a t e d , w h i c h leads to a n " e l o n g a t e " or "birdfoot" delta. Strong w a v e s with l o n g s h o r e c u r r e n t s
tend to stretch the delta coast parallel to the general orientation of the shoreline, while strong tidal
action usually creates patterns perpendicular to the shoreline. O u t s i d e the influence of the river,
a strand plain d e v e l o p s w h e n w a v e action is d o m i n a n t a n d tidal flats develop w h e n tidal action is
the s t r o n g e s t .
In the t r a n s g r e s s i v e c a s e , an estuary is the equivalent of a delta in the prograding c a s e , but n o w ,
the s e d i m e n t supply is not e n o u g h to k e e p p a c e with t h e relative s e a level rise. T h e s e d i m e n t is
no l o n g e r m e r e l y fluvial, but also has a m a r i n e s o u r c e , since the f l o o d tide or w a v e s bring in
s e d i m e n t f r o m t h e s e a . A l a g o o n has a m a r i n e s e d i m e n t s o u r c e o n l y as no river is flowing into
it.

95

ESTUARY EVOLUTION

High Riverine Sediment Input

Estuary
Wave Energy
Marine
Sediment
Supply

or
\ .
Tide Energy

Prograding
Delta
Beach Ridges
or
strand Plains

Drowned
River Valley

Estuary

. Open Coast
Tidal Flats
. Sediment Supply .
Reduced

Sediment Supply High


Rate of Sea Level Rise Low
= Coostal Progradotion

Rote of Sea Level


Rise High
= Marine Tronsgression

SAND

_-J MUD

MARSH

F i g u r e 6-1

C o a s t a l f o r m s for p r o g r a d i n g a n d t r a n s g r e s s i v e c o a s t s ( B o y d et a l , 1 9 9 2 )

B a s e d on ttie v a r i o u s m o r p t i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s . Figure 6-2 g i v e s a classification for p r o g r a d i n g


and transgressive coasts. T t i e ternary d i a g r a m presents ttie fluvial power o n ttie vertical axis, a n d
the coastal p o w e r s o n the horizontal axis, w a v e power to the left a n d tidal power to the right. T h e
top of the triangle represents deltas; the bottom strand plains a n d tidal flats; estuaries are situated
in b e t w e e n . In this d i a g r a m lagoons f o r m the e n d m e m b e r of the e s t u a r y s p e c t r u m . T h e " d e p t h "
96

in the figure gives a possible idea of the evolution in t i m e , relative to the c h a n g e in s e a level a n d
s e d i m e n t supply. W i t h a rising s e a level, all deltas c h a n g e into estuaries a n d vice v e r s a . S t r a n d
plains a n d tidal flats v a n i s h a n d b e c o m e shelf w h e n the s e a level rises.

RIVER

IF

WAVE
Wave/Tide Power

F i g u r e 6-2 T e r n a r y s h o r e l i n e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d i a g r a m
( B o y d et a l , 1992 a n d D a l r y m p l e et a l , 1992)
In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , different t y p e s of shoreline a n d s h o r e l i n e e l e m e n t s in w h i c h s e d i m e n t
t r a n s p o r t c a u s e s t h e typical s h a p e s a r e d i s c u s s e d . T h e s e c o a s t s c a n belong either to t h e
transgressive type or to the prograding type. In s o m e cases the distinction is not very clear without
proper measurements.
T h e n in S e c t i o n 6.3, s o m e types of c o a s t in w h i c h biological i n f l u e n c e s play a d o m i n a n t role in
t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of characteristic s h a p e s are c o n s i d e r e d . T h e s e biological influences c a n b e
related to flora or f a u n a .
Finally, in S e c t i o n 6.4, typical f e a t u r e s of r o c k y c o a s t s will be t r e a t e d .

6.2 Sediment dominated c o a s t a l features


6.2.1 E s t u a r i e s
A n estuary is a tidal a r m of the s e a or part of a river that is affected by tides. It is the region in t h e
vicinity of t h e m o u t h of a river w h e r e f r e s h a n d salt w a t e r m i x . E s t u a r i e s f o r m a d y n a m i c
e n v i r o n m e n t , receiving f r e s h w a t e r f r o m rivers, a n d salt w a t e r f r o m t h e s e a . S e e n f r o m he s e a
side a n e s t u a r y is a n a r m of the o c e a n that is thrust into t h e m o u t h a n d lower c o u r s e of a river
a s far a s the tide will t a k e it. E v e r y e s t u a r y has t h r e e m a i n s e c t i o n s . T h e inland e n d w h e r e t h e
river e n t e r s , is called the h e a d . T h e middle part is the fully estuarine a r e a , w h e r e fresh w a t e r a n d
salt w a t e r o c c u r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . T h e s e a w a r d e n d is called t h e m o u t h .
E s t u a r i e s with w i d e m o u t h s a n d n a r r o w h e a d s h a v e a large tidal r a n g e . A tidal w a v e carries a
g i v e n a m o u n t of w a t e r into an increasingly narrower part of the estuary. This g e o m e t r y p r o d u c e s
a n i n c r e a s e in t h e tidal a m p l i t u d e w h e n t h e tidal w a v e e n t e r s t h e n a r r o w e r u p s t r e a m parts. A n
e x a m p l e of this effect c a n be s e e n in C a n a d a ' s f u n n e l - s h a p e d St. L a w r e n c e River. T h e r e , the tide
i n c r e a s e s in r a n g e f r o m 0.2 m at t h e m o u t h of the river up to 5 m at Q u e b e c City, a relatively
97

r e m o t e part of the e s t u a r y located at t h e l a n d w a r d e n d . In the N e t h e r l a n d s also this c a n be


o b s e r v e d in t h e W e s t e r n Scheldt, a l t h o u g h the d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the tidal r a n g e s in F l u s h i n g
a n d A n t w e r p is not equally s p e c t a c u l a r .
S e a w a t e r has a salinity of a b o u t 3.5 percent; f r e s h w a t e r has essentially z e r o salinity. T h i s
d i f f e r e n c e in salinity leads to different densities for the t w o types of water: 1 0 0 0 k g / m ^ f o r f r e s h
w a t e r and 1.025 kg/m^ for seawater. More details about the salinity-density relationship are f o u n d
in Section 4.2. This density difference plays a dominant rofe in the flow patterns in an estuary, and
also in the behaviour of s e d i m e n t s . T h e principles of the density currents a r e e x p l a i n e d in m o r e
detail in C h a p t e r 9. A t this point it is sufficient to state that the lighter river w a t e r t e n d s to f l o w
t o w a r d s the s e a near the surface, a n d that the heavier s e a w a t e r is c o n c e n t r a t e d near the b o t t o m
w h e n it enters the estuary during f l o o d tide. T h u s , with the tide, a salt w e d g e t h u s m o v e s in a n d
out the estuary. T h e angle of the interface b e t w e e n the f r e s h w a t e r a n d the salt w a t e r v a r i e s . If
the a n g l e of the interface is close to horizontal the e s t u a r y is t e r m e d stratified (layered) a n d if
c a s e the interface is close to being vertical it is called m i x e d . In Figure 6-3, stratification in an
e s t u a r y is s c h e m a t i s e d .

F i g u r e 6-3 Stratification in a n e s t u a r y : d e n s i t y v a r i a t i o n s a n d v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e s

98

T h e a c t u a l t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l distribution of salinity in a n estuary is v e r y d y n a m i c It c a n v a r y in


as short a t i m e period as a single tidal c y c l e . It also varies with the s e a s o n s , a n d in relation to
e v e n t s lil<e a storm s u r g e at s e a or a high river d i s c h a r g e .
T h e g e o l o g i c lifetime of a n e s t u a r y is short b e c a u s e of s e d i m e n t deposition S o m e e s t u a r i e s fill
s o rapidly that they h a v e a short life e v e n in historical t e r m s . W h e n , in the late thirteenth century,
M a r c o Polo visited t h e port of H a n g h o u (he called it Kinsai) o n t h e C t i i e n - t a n g e s t u a r y in
northeastern China, it w a s a great c o m m e r c i a l city with over a million inhabitants. L e s s t h a n 2 0 0
y e a r s later, the bay h a d filled with s e d i m e n t a n d t r a d e had m o v e d e l s e w h e r e .
River-carried s e d i m e n t t e n d s to b e a m i x t u r e of s a n d , silt a n d clay, w h e r e a s s e d i m e n t s b r o u g h t
in f r o m the s e a generally consist of s a n d m i x e d with m a r i n e shells. W i t h i n the estuary, he finer
fractions are typically transported as s u s p e n d e d load a n d s a n d is carried as bed load, rolling a n d
b o u n c i n g along the b e d of t h e estuary.
W i t h i n a n estuary it is possible to distinguish three regions with a specific c h a r a c t e r on t h e basis
of the driving force behind sediment distribution and deposition. W e c a n , therefore, s p e a k of riverd o m i n a t e d , t i d e - d o m i n a t e d , a n d w a v e - d o m i n a t e d z o n e s in estuaries. T h e different p r o c e s s e s in
t h e e s t u a r i e s are located differently, a s c a n be s e e n in Figure 6-4. Figure 6-5 s h o w s h o w t h e
d o m i n a t i n g p r o c e s s e s c h a r a c t e r i s e t h e estuary. In Figure 6-6, s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t p r o c e s s e s
a v e r a g e d over t i m e a r e situated in the e s t u a r y profile.
Open Marine Salinity
(30-35%p)

Boundary Between
Estuarine Sand Body and
Normal Marine Sediments

Limit of
Tidal Influence

Fluviol
Sediment
Boundary Between
Morlne (Tido'lly) Influenced
and Fluvial Sediments

Marine

Estuory

River

F i g u r e 6-4 P l a n v i e w of d i s t r i b u t i o n of e n e r g y a n d p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s e s in e s t u a r i e s

Estuary
100

Figure

50

=J_

6-5 S c h e m a t i c definition of e s t u a r y a c c o r d i n g to D a l r y m p l e , Zaitlin a n d B o y d


(1992)

99

Sediment
Marine-'
Sediment

Estuarine Sand Bodies

F i g u r e 6-6 T i m e - a v e r a g e d s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t p a t h s
C o a r s e material like s a n d and gravel is typically t r a n s p o r t e d as bed load. Finer particles, r a n g i n g
f r o m fine s a n d to silt a n d clay, a r e t r a n s p o r t e d as s u s p e n d e d load. B e c a u s e of ttie d i f f e r e n c e in
fall v e l o c i t y sorting takes place in the estuary, with the c o a r s e r material settling first a n d t h e finer
materials settling only in quiet a r e a s . In the z o n e w h e r e f r e s h a n d salt w a t e r mix, the v e r y s m a l l
clay particles c o a g u l a t e to f o r m larger s t r u c t u r e s : floes.

U n d e r the influence of the i n c r e a s e d

salinity, e l e c t r o c h e m i c a l f o r c e s bind the clay particles. B e c a u s e of their size, the floes h a v e a


higher fall velocity t h a n the individual clay particles, w h i c h e n h a n c e s s e d i m e n t a t i o n . T h u s , large
deposits of silt a n d clay are f o u n d particularly in the middle z o n e of estuaries, w h e r e fresh a n d salt
w a t e r meet. Initially, the w a t e r content of the bottom layers is very high, a n d thus the s e d i m e n t is
v e r y m o b i l e a n d b e h a v e s as h e a v y w a t e r rather t h a n as b o t t o m material (sling m u d ) .
E s t u a r i e s h a v e a n o t h e r f o r m of s e d i m e n t in addition, w h i c h is contributed by t h e rivers a n d t h e
s e a , n a m e l y : t h e biogenic material p r o d u c e d in the e s t u a r y itself, b y the e s t u a r i n e p o p u l a t i o n of
plants and animals. N u m e r o u s o r g a n i s m s use the c a l m e n v i r o n m e n t a n d the nutritious conditions
to live p e r m a n e n t l y , to pass the winter or to s p a w n . O s t r a c o d s (tiny shrimp-iike c r u s t a c e a n s in a
bivalve shell), f o r a m i n i f e r a , m a r i n e w o r m s , a n d v a r i o u s snails, c r u s t a c e a n s , a n d bivalves a r e
c o m m o n estuarine animals. Shells and hard body parts f r o m these o r g a n i s m s m a k e an important
contribution to the sediment of the estuary. Higher o r g a n i s m s like fish and birds live o n the smaller
a n i m a l s a n d also leave m u c h organic material in the e s t u a r i e s . T h e r e f o r e , estuaries f o r m a v e r y
i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t in the ecological structure of t h e c o a s t a l z o n e .

In industrialised a n d densely populated regions, rivers a n d estuaries have long been (and still are)
u s e d as s e w e r s . T h e industrial waste usually contains considerable a m o u n t s of heavy metals a n d
c o m p l e x p e t r o - c h e m i c a i a n d o t h e r c o m p o u n d s that a r e b o n d e d

( a t t a c h e d by e l e c t r o c h e m i c a l

f o r c e s ) to the clay particles. T h u s the deposits of m u d in t h e estuaries a r e often heavily polluted


a n d f o r m a threat to t h e o r g a n i s m s living in the e s t u a r y B e c a u s e of the f o o d c h a i n w i t h i n a n
e s t u a r y this f o r m s a threat not only to the lower o r g a n i s m s , but e v e n to h u m a n society.
W i t h i n an estuary, o n e c a n often distinguish a pattern of c h a n n e l s a n d gullies that s e p a r a t e t h e
inter-tidal shoals. T h e d e e p e r continuous channels are mainly responsible for the d i s c h a r g e of the
river w a t e r a n d the e b b flow, s h o r t e r c h a n n e l s with d e a d e n d s are m a i n l y flood c h a n n e l s .

6.2.2 T i d a l flats
Large parts of m o s t estuaries consist of tidal flats or w e t l a n d s . T h e s e are areas that are e x p o s e d
at l o w tide a n d f l o o d e d at high tide. Their extent is d e t e r m i n e d by the s h a p e of t h e e s t u a r y a n d
by t h e tidal r a n g e . O b v i o u s l y a large tidal r a n g e will usually p r o v i d e a b r o a d e r

inter-tidal

e n v i r o n m e n t u n d e r a n y g i v e n set of c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Not s o o b v i o u s is the influence of t h e s l o p e


of the shoreline a l o n g the estuary. S o m e slopes are v e r y gentle a n d therefore provide w i d e tidal
flats. H o w e v e r w h e n slopes a r e steep for e x a m p l e , t h e s i d e s of f j o r d s or tectonically f o r m e d
100

e s t u a r i e s , ttie tidal flats, are narrow, e v e n in a setting witti a large tidal r a n g e . IVIuch of ttie a r e a
of m a n y e s t u a r i e s all o v e r the w o r l d is m a d e up of tidal flats intersected by tidal c h a n n e l s .
T h e s a m e currents that distribute s e d i m e n t s t h r o u g h o u t the estuary and along the shoreline also
d e p o s i t t h e m onto t h e tidal flats. Local w a v e s play a part, but m o s t tidal flat s y s t e m s a r e
d o m i n a t e d by tidal c u r r e n t s . Tidal flat s e d i m e n t is c o m p o s e d of m u d and fine-grained s a n d a n d
the shells of the small animals that have lived there; coarser grains settle out in the tidal channels.
W h e n e x p o s e d at low tide, the tidal flats have the a p p e a r a n c e and texture of sandy m u d or m u d d y
sand.
A s the tide e b b s a n d f l o o d s , the grains sort t h e m s e l v e s a c c o r d i n g to size. T h e s e d i m e n t o n t h e
tidal flat is d e p o s i t e d in thin, regular layers called tidal b e d d i n g . Each individual bed or stratum in
this s e q u e n c e c a n b e f r o m a f e w millimetres up to m o r e t h a n a c e n t i m e t r e thick. T h e tidal cycle
leaves its o w n imprint o n this b e d d i n g , p r o d u c i n g alternating layers of s a n d a n d m u d . T w o s a n d
layers r e p r e s e n t t h e f l o o d a n d the ebb portions of the cycle w h e n currents are flowing rapidly.
T h i n n e r m u d layers a r e d e p o s i t e d b e t w e e n t h e s a n d layers at, or near, slack tide, w h e n f i n e
s e d i m e n t settles out of s u s p e n s i o n . W i t h the spring tides, neap tides, and storm tides also leaving
their o w n s p e c i f i c r e c o r d of s e d i m e n t a c c u m u l a t i o n , it is s o m e t i m e s possible to r e c o g n i s e
h u n d r e d s of layers a n d reconstruct a c o a s t a l c a l e n d a r of e v e n t s . G e o l o g i s t s s t u d y i n g a n c i e n t
stratigraphic r e c o r d s c a n r e c o g n i s e a n c i e n t tidal flats a n d tidal c h a n n e l s f r o m their b e d d i n g
characteristics a n d c a n e v e n reconstruct t h e b e h a v i o u r of tides.

6.2.3 D e l t a s
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of deltas
Deltas a r e typically c o n n e c t e d to a p r o g r a d i n g c o a s t , w h i l e the o p p o s i t e is true of e s t u a r i e s .
H o w e v e r , it is p o s s i b l e to find c o m b i n a t i o n s of t h e t w o , w h e n o v e r t h e geological history
p r o g r a d a t i o n a n d t r a n s g r e s s i o n have a l t e r n a t e d . T h e s o u t h w e s t part of the Netherlands prior to
the e x e c u t i o n of t h e Delta project w a s an e x a m p l e of s u c h c o m b i n a t i o n , within the delta of t h e
River R h i n e , e s t u a r i e s like the Haringvliet a n d the w e s t e r n S c h e l d t could be d i s t i n g u i s h e d .
In S e c t i o n 6.1 it has b e e n s h o w n that deltas are f o r m e d w h e r e a river carries large quantities of
s e d i m e n t a n d d e p o s i t s t h e m in the s e a . T h u s , d e l t a s a r e transitional coastal e n v i r o n m e n t s t h a t
a r e neither fully terrestrial nor fully marine. T h e y have no easily recognisable landward or s e a w a r d
b o u n d a r i e s , but c h a n g e by a l m o s t i m p e r c e p t i b l e s t a g e s f r o m o p e n s e a to solid g r o u n d . A delta
begins at the point w h e r e a large, sediment-laden river leaves its upland drainage basin and f l o w s
onto a region a d j a c e n t to the o c e a n . Built primarily f r o m river-borne s e d i m e n t , deltas f o r m w h e n
t h e a m o u n t of s e d i m e n t delivered at the m o u t h of a river e x c e e d s the a m o u n t r e m o v e d by w a v e s
a n d tidal c u r r e n t s .
Like estuaries, a l t h o u g h their "morphological opposites", deltas are strongly influenced by rivers,
w a v e s , a n d t i d e s . T h e i r influence d e t e r m i n e s t h e s h a p e a n d the c h a r a c t e r of e a c h e s t u a r y to a
large extent. W i l l i a m G a l l o w a y ' s triangular d i a g r a m classifies deltas a c c o r d i n g to t h e relative
i n f l u e n c e of t h e s e t h r e e m a j o r factors a f f e c t i n g their d e v e l o p m e n t . It is g i v e n in Figure 6-7.

101

Mississippi

RIVERS

WAVES

TIDES

S&o Francisco

Copper

F i g u r e 6-7 W i l l i a m G a l l o w a y ' s t r i a n g u l a r delta c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d i a g r a m

S h a p e s of deltas
T h e f o r m a t i o n of a delta d e p e n d s o n the interaction b e t w e e n the f l o w a n d distribution of t h e river
s e d i m e n t , the w a v e s a n d tidal c u r r e n t s . A s t h e w a t e r f l o w s f r o m t h e river m o u t h , its v e l o c i t y
d e c r e a s e s a n d it loses its capacity to carry s e d i m e n t . C o n s e q u e n t l y s e d i m e n t s a c c u m u l a t e in the
river m o u t h a r e a . A s t h e v e l o c i t y of the out f l o w i n g river w a t e r d e c r e a s e s , t h e c o a r s e m a t e r i a l
s e t t l e s first, f o l l o w e d by t h e finer s e d i m e n t s .

At the seaward edge of the delta front, the

s u s p e n d e d s e d i m e n t in the river w a t e r finally settles out into t h e d e e p e r c o a s t a l water. T h i s m u d


a c c u m u l a t i o n is g e n e r a l l y v e r y thick a n d e x t e n d s a c r o s s part of t h e c o n t i n e n t a l shelf.
T h e a m o u n t a n d c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f s a n d a c c u m u l a t i n g in t h e d e l t a - f r o n t d e p e n d s o n t h e relative
roles o f the interacting river, w a v e , a n d tidal c u r r e n t s . A c o m m o n type of s a n d a c c u m u l a t i o n is a
s a n d b a r that f o r m s j u s t s e a w a r d of the c h a n n e l m o u t h a n d typically c a u s e s t h e c h a n n e l to
bifurcate. A n o t h e r is t h e f o r m a t i o n o f b a n k s a l o n g the sides of the c h a n n e l . A s the river d e p o s i t s
s a n d in the m o u t h , the situation c a n be r e a c h e d in w h i c h the w a t e r level is a f f e c t e d b y t h e s a n d
d e p o s i t s . T h e river c a n t h e n o v e r f l o w its b a n k s a n d t h e n divide into distributary

channels.

Each

distributary c h a n n e l t h e n c o n t i n u e s t o t r a n s f e r m a s s i v e a m o u n t s of f i n e - g r a i n e d s e d i m e n t t o t h e
c o a s t a l a r e a . W h e n this n e w - b o r n delta is s i t u a t e d in a n e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h little t i d e a n d w a v e
a c t i o n , it is c a t e g o r i s e d as b e i n g river d o m i n a t e d . It c a n g r o w out into a birdfoot t y p e of delta.
E x a m p l e s of this type o f e s t u a r y a r e s h o w n in F i g u r e 6-8 a n d Figure 6-9 ( M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r a n d
D a n u b e Delta r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .
102

F i g u r e 6-8 iWississippi d e l t a

103

T i d e - d o m i n a t e d deltas d e v e l o p w h e r e a large r a n g e b e t w e e n the high a n d low tides l e a d s to


strong tidal currents. O n these coasts, the w a v e height is moderate to low, and longshore currents
a r e w e a k . T h e s e deltas r e s e m b l e estuaries b e c a u s e of their e m b a y e d setting of salt m a r s h e s ,
s w a m p s , a n d tidal flats. A n e x a m p l e of s u c h t i d e - d o m i n a t e d delta is the delta of the river Fly o n
t h e S o u t h c o a s t of P a p u a N e w G u i n e a (Figure 6-10).

F i g u r e 6-10 Delta of t h e river F l y , P a p u a New G u i n e a


If t h e w a v e c l i m a t e is m o r e s e v e r e , the bars at the river m o u t h a r e a f f e c t e d by t h e w a v e s . A s a
result of the w a v e action, s a n d is re-positioned by longshore a n d c r o s s - s h o r e effects. D e p e n d i n g
o n the w a v e direction, this can lead to a delta that is s y m m e t r i c a l or a s y m m e t r i c a l in s h a p e . T h e
s y m m e t r i c a l c a s e (with w a v e s p e r p e n d i c u l a r to t h e s h o r e ) is indicated s c h e m a t i c a l l y in F i g u r e
6-11.

F i g u r e 6-11 F o r m a t i o n of a w a v e - d o m i n a t e d delta
W a v e - d o m i n a t e d deltas typically have a rather s m o o t h shoreline with well-developed b e a c h e s a n d
d u n e s . T h e delta plain tends to have f e w distributaries; s o m e deltas of this type have only a single
c h a n n e l . A w a v e - d o m i n a t e d delta is generally s m a l l e r than other types, b e c a u s e the distributing
104

p o w e r of t h e w a v e s striking the delta front is stronger t h a n the carrying power of the river. W h e n
the w a v e c l i m a t e is s t r o n g e n o u g h to carry all t h e river s e d i m e n t a w a y , the delta will s h r i n k a n d
e v e n t u a l l y d i s a p p e a r . T w o different s h a p e s c h a r a c t e r i s e t h e s e deltas. T h e g e n e r a l s h a p e is
s y m m e t r i c a l l y c u s p a t e . O n e of the best e x a m p l e s is t h e delta of the S a o F r a n c i s c o in B r a z
(Figure 6 - 1 2 ) T h e other s h a p e is c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a strong l o n g s h o r e current. A s a n d spit
d e v e l o p s a n d protects the extensive wetlands that cover the delta plain. A n e x a m p l e of this is t h e
S e n e g a l River Delta, a s c a n be s e e n in Figure 6-13, or t h e E b r o delta (Figure 6-14).

Atlantic
Ocean

Coral and a l o * ' '

C0tl U M

SAO

FKANCISCO
Altuvium

F i g u r e 6^12 S a o F r a n c i s c o d e l t a , B r a z i l (Wright a n d C o l e m a n , 1972)

F i g u r e 6-13 S e n e g a l river delta

105

F i g u r e 6-14

E b r o delta, S p a i n (Wright a n d C o l e m a n , 1972)

Resulting landscape
T i i e l a n d w a r d a n d v e r y flat part of a delta is t h e delta plain ( F i g u r e 6-15). T h e u p p e r d e l t a plain
is m e r e l y an e x t e n s i o n of the upland m e a n d e r i n g river s y s t e m , e x c e p t that the river here c o n s i s t s
of o n e or m o r e distributary c h a n n e l s . Each t i m e a distributary c h a n n e l o v e r f l o w s its b a n k s , t h e
c o a r s e r s a n d y s e d i m e n t particles are d u m p e d first, p r o d u c i n g a low ridge of a c c u m u l a t e d
s e d i m e n t along t h e b a n k m a r g i n . T h i s ridge is the natural levee. It m a y build up to a n e l e v a t i o n
of a meter or t w o a b o v e the surrounding delta plain. During s u b s e q u e n t flooding, the natural levee
m a y be b r e a c h e d either through a naturally low section or through cuts m a d e for h u m a n p a s s a g e .
W h e n the sediment-laden fioodwaters pass through the b r e a c h , generally called a c r e v a s s e , there
is a n i m m e d i a t e reduction in carrying c a p a c i t y as their velocity d e c r e a s e s abruptly. A t h i n , f a n s h a p e d s e d i m e n t accumulation f o r m s beyond the breach. This f o r m a t i o n , called a crevasse splay,
c a n e x t e n d s e v e r a l k i l o m e t r e s a c r o s s t h e u p p e r delta plain.

106

F i g u r e 6-15 B a s i c e n v i r o n m e n t s of a delta
T h e m a j o r l a n d f o r m s of t h e delta plain - natural levee, c r e v a s s e splay, inter-distributary bay a n d
m a r s h - a r e distinguished f r o m o n e another o n the basis of e l e v a t i o n , s e d i m e n t character, a n d
v e g e t a t i o n . A s t i m e p a s s e s , c o n t i n u e d flooding a n d s e d i m e n t u n l o a d i n g e n l a r g e t h e delta a n d
bring m o r e a n d m o r e of its f e a t u r e s a b o v e w a t e r level. M u c h of the m a t u r e delta plain b e t w e e n
t h e distributary c h a n n e l s eventually turns into fertile f a r m l a n d , interspersed with small lakes a n d
f r e s h w a t e r m a r s h e s a n d s w a m p s . All t h e s e are periodically r e p l e n i s h e d by flood w a t e r s . T h e
inside e d g e s of the b e n d s in t h e distributary channels o n a delta plain fill with thick a c c u m u l a t i o n s
of s a n d a n d g r a v e l . T h e s e d e p o s i t s a r e called point b a r s . A s t h e c h a n n e l s m i g r a t e a c r o s s t h e
delta plain, they leave s u b t l e but recognisable scars m a r k i n g their f o r m e r locations.
It is this m i x t u r e of fertile l a n d , f r e s h w a t e r a n d s e a w a t e r with all its gradients that c r e a t e s a n
a l m o s t ideal habitat for any f o r m of life. T h e a b u n d a n c e of natural r e s o u r c e s and the t r e m e n d o u s
bio-diversity have t u r n e d d e l t a s all over the world into t h e m o s t d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d z o n e s . A t t h e
s a m e t i m e , this d e n s e population f o r m s the m a j o r threat to their s u s t a i n a b i l i t y
Relation with geology
Deltas o c c u r o n e v e r y c o n t i n e n t and in a w i d e r a n g e of climatic settings, but t h e g e o l o g i c a l
settings are generally similar. A tectonically stable trailing e d g e coast provides the right conditions
for delta f o r m a t i o n . It has l o w to m o d e r a t e relief terrains, s u c h a s c o a s t a l plains or g e o l o g i c a l l y
old m o u n t a i n a r e a s . Rivers bring a n a b u n d a n t s e d i m e n t supply a c r o s s w i d e , gently sloping l a n d ,
w h e r e the river c h a n n e l s m e a n d e r back and forth o n their w a y to the coast. O n the s e a w a r d side
of this t e c t o n i c s e t t i n g , t h e b r o a d continental shelf provides a platform suitable for s e d i m e n t
a c c u m u l a t i o n ; it also r e d u c e s t h e size a n d e n e r g y of t h e i n c o m i n g w a v e s .
T h e S a o F r a n c i s c o Delta in S o u t h A m e r i c a a n d the S e n e g a l Delta in Africa h a v e d e v e l o p e d o n
trailing e d g e c o a s t s . M a r g i n a l s e a s with trailing-edge c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s provide shelter f r o m l a r g e
w a v e s a n d tides, a n d v e r y large deltas have d e v e l o p e d in tectonic settings of this type. Excellent
107

e x a m p l e s are: Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico; the Rhone, Nile, Po, a n d Ebro Deltas
in t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e a ; a n d the h u g e deltas of C h i n a that e m p t y into the S o u t h C h i n a S e a .
M o s t of the p r e s e n t active deltas a r e geologically very y o u n g f e a t u r e s ; s o m e are o n l y a f e w
h u n d r e d years o l d . B e c a u s e a delta d e v e l o p s at the coast, its e x i s t e n c e is, in part, controlled by
the s e a level. It therefore w a s and still is, vulnerable to (global, eustatic) sea-level rise, too. During
the periods of extensive glaciation, s e a levels w e r e m u c h lower a n d rivers t r a v e r s e d the p r e s e n t
continental s h e l v e s , d u m p i n g their s e d i m e n t loads at or near the outer shelf e d g e s . T h i s
s u s p e n d e d s e d i m e n t c a s c a d e d d o w n the continental slopes in turbulent, high-density flows called
turbidity c u r r e n t s . N e w deltas did not f o r m during this period, a n d deltas that h a d p r e v i o u s l y
e x i s t e d near t h e positions of p r e s e n t - d a y c o a s t s w e r e a b a n d o n e d a n d e n t r e n c h e d by rivers a s
t h e y f l o w e d a c r o s s the continental s h e l v e s .

Melting glaciers brought a rapid rise of sea level, and river mouths retreated s o rapidly that deltas
could not develop. Finally, about 7000 years ago, the Holocene sea level rise s l o w e d , a n d in s o m e
parts of the w o r l d it stabilised at a p p r o x i m a t e l y its present position. W h e r e c o n d i t i o n s w e r e
a p p r o p r i a t e , deltas b e g a n to d e v e l o p as large quantities of river s e d i m e n t a c c u m u l a t e d .
Not all present-day deltas are only up to a f e w t h o u s a n d years old. M a n y of t h e m have f o r m e d o n
a n c e s t r a l deltas built up d u r i n g p r e v i o u s interglacial periods. A f e w , s u c h a s the M i s s i s s i p p i
( F i g u r e 6-8) a n d Niger Deltas, are underlain by ancestral deltas that f o r m e d t e n s of millions of
years ago. T h e upper regions of t h e s e mature deltas are also ancient, but their active delta lobes
a r e only b e t w e e n 3 0 0 0 a n d 6 0 0 0 years o l d . T h e lower Mississippi Delta includes 16 d e t e c t a b l e
l o b e s . A n e w lobe f o r m s w h e n e v e r the location of the river m o u t h c h a n g e s . T h e c h a n n e l s of
a b a n d o n e d lobes fill up with sediment, contributed both by the river, by the w a v e s and by the tides
of the coast. T h e present delta lobe of the Mississippi dates back only 600 years; its m o s t active
portion has d e v e l o p e d s i n c e N e w O r l e a n s w a s f o u n d e d in 1717.

6.2.4 B e a c h e s
N e a r l y a n y type of n o n - c o h e s i v e g r a n u l a r material that c a n be t r a n s p o r t e d by w a v e s c a n f o r m a
b e a c h . A b e a c h extends f r o m the low tide line landward across the un-vegetated s e d i m e n t to the
b e g i n n i n g of p e r m a n e n t v e g e t a t i o n , or to the next g e o - m o r p h o l o g i c f e a t u r e in t h e l a n d w a r d
direction - a naturally-occurring d u n e , a r o c k y cliff, or a c o n s t r u c t e d s e a w a l l . T h e overall profile
of a b e a c h a n d the adjacent near-shore d e p e n d s on s e d i m e n t supply, w a v e climate, overall slope
of the inner continental shelf, tidal range, and a variety of local conditions. S a n d y b e a c h e s include
a f o r e s h o r e a n d a b a c k s h o r e (Figure 6-16). In m a n y places, a pair of persistent s a n d b a r s , o v e r
w h i c h w a v e s b r e a k d u r i n g s t o r m s , parallels the b e a c h .
T h e b a c k s h o r e , or b a c k - b e a c h , e x t e n d s f r o m the b e r m at the l a n d w a r d e n d of t h e f o r e s h o r e
a c r o s s the r e m a i n d e r of the b e a c h . G r a v e l b e a c h e s of shell a n d rock f r a g m e n t s c o m m o n l y
include a storm ridge that is just landward of the foreshore. S o m e t i m e s this storm ridge m a y g r o w
until it rises several m e t e r s a b o v e high tide and entirely replaces the b a c k - b e a c h . Its c o m p o s i t i o n
d e p e n d s on the nature of the gravel material in the i m m e d i a t e area; its size is proportional to t h e
rigor of the s t o r m s that p r o d u c e it.

108

coast

\ hrsaker line
F i g u r e 6-16 S a n d y b e a c h profile n o m e n c l a t u r e (distorted s c a l e s )
In C h a p t e r 5, m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s c a u s i n g b e a c h c h a n g e w e r e m e n t i o n e d . M a n y of t h e s e
a r e cyclic processes. Their scale of t i m e and s p a c e can differ very m u c h f r o m o n e p r o c e s s to t h e
other Cycles c a n be long-term or s h o r t - t e r m . For e x a m p l e , the s e a s o n c a u s e s b e a c h v a r i a t i o n
D e p e n d i n g on the climate, o n o n e h a n d t h e r e are the fair-weather, l o w - e n e r g y , a c c r e t i o n a l
b e a c h e s and on the other hand foul-weather, h i g h - e n e r g y erosive b e a c h e s . T h e correlated b e a c h
profiles a r e called s u m m e r a n d winter profiles.
Special b e a c h f o r m s are the t o m b o l o and the spit. T h e y are f o r m e d d u e to the longshore transport
of s a n d along the b e a c h . In c a s e of a t o m b o l o . the driving f o r c e b e h i n d t h e l o n g s h o r e c u r r e n t
(i e t h e w a v e s ) , is interrupted by an o f f s h o r e island. D u e to the r e d u c e d t r a n s p o r t c a p a c i t y s a n d
settles in the lee of t h e island a n d f o r m s a typical o u t c r o p o n t h e b e a c h , w h i c h m a y e v e n t u a l l y
e v e n c o n n e c t with the island (Figure 6-17).

F i g u r e 6-17 T o m b o l o s b e h i n d t w o b r e a k w a t e r s at A l m a n z o r a , S p a i n
A sDit f o r m s at the e n d of a b e a c h , w h e r e the longshore current looses its transport capacity. T h e
s a n d carried to the e n d settles in d e e p e r w a t e r a n d gradually it f o r m s a ridge, that is m o r e or less
a s a n e x t e n s i o n of t h e b e a c h (Figure 6 - 1 8 ) .

109

F i g u r e 6-18

Spit

B e a c l i e s o c c u r , in b o t l i conditions of t r a n s g r e s s i o n a n d of p r o g r a d a t i o n .
6.2.5 D u n e s
D u n e s c a n eittter be bed f o r m s (typical s h a p e s in the s e a b e d ) larger than ripples and smaller than
bars or ridges or, a b o v e water, m o u n d s of loose w i n d - b l o w n material s u c h as s a n d . Both play a
role in coastal engineering. In the present context w e confine ourselves to the wind-blown m o u n d s
that are quite familiar a s the l a n d w a r d b o u n d a r y of s a n d y b e a c h e s . T h e d u n e s often provide the
stockpile of material that allows the b e a c h to a d a p t to c h a n g i n g seasonal or incidental conditions,
specifically w h e n t h e s e conditions c r e a t e a m o r e gentle f o r e s h o r e profile or a higher b a s e level
of the f o r e s h o r e d u e to s e a level rise or s t o r m s u r g e .
In d e v e l o p i n g d u n e s , the prevailing w i n d s or diurnal s e a b r e e z e s

provide t h e

transport

m e c h a n i s m . V e g e t a t i o n is o n e of the best a n d most w i d e s p r e a d facilitators of d u n e d e v e l o p m e n t .


Different d u n e t y p e s a r e s h o w n in Figure 6-19. D u n e s c a n be t w o or t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l ( F i g u r e
6-20).

A d u n e ridge - a linear a r r a n g e m e n t of d u n e s , o n e d u n e w i d e - is the typical c o n f i g u r a t i o n of


d u n e s just l a n d w a r d of the b e a c h . It is called the f o r e d u n e ridge b e c a u s e of its location s e a w a r d
o r in front of t h e barrier or m a i n l a n d .
A s m e n t i o n e d earlier, d u n e s often s e r v e a s a s a n d reservoir. A l t h o u g h d u n e s a r e b e y o n d t h e
regular influence of w a v e s , t h e y are v u l n e r a b l e e v e n to m o d e s t s t o r m s u r g e s . T h e other m a j o r
disturbing factor is the w i n d , w h i c h c a n c a u s e migration of all or part of the d u n e . Blowover is t h e
m o s t c o m m o n w i n d - d r i v e n p r o c e s s r e s p o n s i b l e for d u n e m i g r a t i o n . It is effectively s t o p p e d by

110

v e g e t a t i o n tliat c a n survive ttie tiarsti growing conditions. Protection of sucti v e g e t a t i o n (or e v e n


artificial cultivation) is o n e of ttie tectinical m e a s u r e s u s e d to s t o p s a n d m i g r a t i o n .

D u f( /'Q e -G h

^ hare

F i g u r e 6-19 V a r i e t y of D u n e T y p e s ( C a r t e r , 1988, R e a d i n g , 1986 a n d Flint, 1971)

111

F i g u r e 6-20

T w o dimesional a n d three dimensional d u n e s (adapted from R e i n e c k and


Singh)

A n i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of t h e p r e s e n c e of d u n e s in the m a r i n e e n v i r o n m e n t is the capability to


a c c u m u l a t e a n d store f r e s h w a t e r . S i n c e the d u n e s h a v e a certain e l e v a t i o n , t h e y will c a t c h t h e
first rains f r o m t h e a s c e n d i n g s e a w i n d s w h e n they p a s s o v e r the e l e v a t e d s u r f a c e . D u e t o this
rainfall a local g r o u n d w a t e r level will be established in the d u n e that is zl/-/above M e a n Sea Level.
T h e pressure at a d e p t h H b e l o w M e a n S e a Level is t h a n : pg{H+AH),

with p being the d e n s i t y of

f r e s h water, i.e. 1000 kg/m^. T h e pressure in the underlying salt w a t e r at the s a m e level m u s t be
equal. So:

r fresh water

g(H + AH)

=
r seawater

gH

(6.1)

A f t e r a bit of m a t h e m a t i c a l calculation this b e c o m e s :


H = ^ A H

Psea

= 40AH

(6.2)

~Pfresh

In w o r d s this m e a n s that a slight elevation of the w a t e r table of the f r e s h g r o u n d w a t e r within the


d u n e c a u s e s the d e v e l o p m e n t of a huge fresh w a t e r lens under the d u n e , provided of c o u r s e that
sufficient f r e s h w a t e r is available to fill this lens. In this w a y , a v a l u a b l e f r e s h w a t e r s o u r c e is
available c l o s e to the m a r i n e e n v i r o n m e n t . In m a n y p l a c e s , this d u n e w a t e r has b e e n u s e d a s
s o u r c e of g o o d quality drinking w a t e r , m e r e l y by p u m p i n g it up. A c o n s e q u e n c e of this w a t e r
w i t h d r a w a l is t h a t the w a t e r t a b l e in t h e d u n e will b e c o m e lower, a n d that the interface w i t h t h e
saline d e e p g r o u n d w a t e r is rises. This has t w o effects: the s o u r c e will gradually turn saline, a n d
the lowering of t h e w a t e r t a b l e will e n d a n g e r the vegetation. D i s a p p e a r a n c e of the v e g e t a t i o n will
c a u s e erosion of t h e d u n e s by w i n d . ( S e e also Section 6.3).
6.2.6 L a g o o n s
L a g o o n s ( F i g u r e 6-21) a r e bays that a r e c l o s e d off f r o m the s e a in the s e n s e that t h e r e is n o
i m p o r t a n t tidal i n f l u e n c e inside t h e m . L a g o o n s c a n be s e e n as a specific type of e s t u a r y .
112

Generally, they are protected f r o m the o p e n sea by a barrier island, a reef, or an obstruction that
prevents w a v e attack and inhibits tidal circulation. S t a g e s in the evolution of a barrier to e n c l o s e
a lagoon are s h o w n in Figure 6-22. T h e prolongation of the spit, as is s h o w n in t h e u p p e r part of
the figure, is c a u s e d by the longshore transport. S h o r e w a r d migration of a barrier that originated
o f f s h o r e is c a u s e d b y the c r o s s - s h o r e transport. It is s h o w n in the lower part of the s a m e Figure.

F i g u r e 6-21

S e c t i o n t h r o u g h a B a r r i e r c l o s i n g a L a g o o n ( B i r d , 1984)

F i g u r e 6-22 S t a g e s in the e v o l u t i o n of a barrier to e n c l o s e a l a g o o n ( B i r d , 1984)


Usually, there is no large f r e s h w a t e r influx in a l a g o o n . S o m e t i m e s , a s m a l l river d i s c h a r g e s into
the l a g o o n , s o the w a t e r b e c o m e s b r a c k i s h or f r e s h . T h i s c a n n o t be a large d i s c h a r g e h o w e v e r ,
otherwise the connection between the lagoon and the sea w o u l d c h a n g e into a tidal inlet including
all correlated d y n a m i c p r o c e s s e s . T h e typical lagoon configuration w o u l d t h e n v a n i s h unless t h e
lagoon is situated a l o n g a coast with v e r y s m a l l tidal a m p l i t u d e (Baltic S e a or M e d i t e r r a n e a n ) .
In a l a g o o n , specific m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s are at w o r k . T h e y a r e related to t h e p r o t e c t e d
nature o f the area that f o r m s an ideal b o u n d a r y condition for a n d include t h e f o r m a t i o n of p e a t
a n d s e t t l e m e n t of v e r y fine s e d i m e n t .

113

6.2.7 B a r r i e r c o a s t s
A barrier can be defined as an elongate, sfiore-parallel sand body, w h i c h m a y consist of a n u m b e r
of s a n d y units including b e a c h , d u n e s , tidal d e l t a s , w a s h - o v e r s , a n d spits. Barriers s e p a r a t e
l a g o o n a n d e s t u a r y e m b a y m e n t s f r o m the m a r i n e e n v i r o n m e n t a n d are best classified a s
c o m p o n e n t s of e s t u a r y a n d lagoon s y s t e m s . G e n e r a l barrier types are given in Figure 6-23.
Barriers rise a b o v e s e a level, naturally protecting the l a n d w a r d part of the c o a s t a g a i n s t w a v e
attack.

Boy Barriers

Barrier Spits

Barrier Islands

F i g u r e 6-23 G e n e r a l barrier t y p e s : bay, s p i t , i s l a n d


Barrier islands d e v e l o p in a n y g e o l o g i c a l a n d t e c t o n i c setting that has a plentiful s u p p l y of
s e d i m e n t , a g e n t s to t r a n s p o r t it, a n d a site w h e r e it c a n a c c u m u l a t e . T h e r e f o r e , barrier i s l a n d s
a n d o t h e r barriers are often f o u n d a l o n g trailing e d g e m a r g i n s , a s well as o n s c a t t e r e d p a r t s of
l e a d i n g e d g e m a r g i n s . T h e y f o r m as s a n d a c c u m u l a t e s t h r o u g h the c o m b i n e d action of w a v e s
and wave-generated long-shore currents.
Barrier islands c a n r a n g e f r o m a f e w h u n d r e d m e t e r s to m o r e t h a n 100 k m in length. T h e y c a n
be defined as w a v e - d o m i n a t e d and m i x e d - e n e r g y deposition s y s t e m s . T h e y are f o u n d w o r l d w i d e ,
f r o m A l a s k a to A u s t r a l i a ; they constitute a p p r o x i m a t e l y 12 to 15 percent of t h e earth's o u t e r
c o a s t l i n e . S o m e are barely a b o v e high tide; others have d u n e s that rise 30 m a b o v e t h e s e a .
W h e t h e r a barrier island d e v e l o p s at all d e p e n d s o n the p r e d o m i n a n c e of w a v e o v e r t i d e s .
R e g a r d l e s s of its specific origin, w a v e s and w a v e - g e n e r a t e d currents m u s t be present to p r o d u c e
the linear a c c u m u l a t i o n of s e d i m e n t s . W h e n tides b e c o m e d o m i n a n t o v e r w a v e s , the barrier
island gives w a y to a tidal flat a n d m a r s h .
Barrier islands t e n d to "walk". If d e p o s i t i o n of s t o r m - t r a n s p o r t e d s e d i m e n t c o n t i n u e s o v e r a n
e x t e n d e d period of t i m e at the b a c k of a barrier island, a l a n d w a r d d i s p l a c e m e n t of the barrier
o c c u r s . A s the barrier t r a n s g r e s s e s , it loses s o m e of the sand-sized sediment. Unless m o r e s a n d
b e c o m e s available, largely t h r o u g h longshore transport, the barrier is destroyed before it r e a c h e s
t h e m a i n l a n d . S e a - l e v e l rise m a k e s barriers m o r e v u l n e r a b l e to this type of m o v e m e n t .
A d d i t i o n of s e d i m e n t c a n also c a u s e barrier islands to p r o g r e s s , that is, to g r o w in a s e a w a r d
d i r e c t i o n . T h i s c o n d i t i o n is different f r o m t r a n s g r e s s i o n in the s e n s e hat the barrier i s l a n d a s a

114

w h o l e d o e s not m o v e . I n s t e a d , t h e addition of s e d i m e n t c a u s e s the d e v e l o p m e n t of multiple


b e a c h - d u n e s y s t e m s , a n d the o p e n w a t e r shoreline actually m o v e s s e a w a r d , while the l a n d w a r d
backbarrier shoreline r e m a i n s in place. A n individual barrier island can e x p e r i e n c e t r a n s g r e s s i o n
a n d progradation at t h e s a m e t i m e .
Under the influence of l o n g s h o r e transport, a barrier island c a n also m o v e parallel to the c o a s t .
Material e r o d i n g f r o m o n e tip will eventually settle at t h e tip of the a d j a c e n t i s l a n d .

6.2.8 T i d a l inlets
Barriers generally are b r e a c h e d at various points by tidal inlets (Figure 6-24), w h i c h link the o p e n
m a r i n e e n v i r o n m e n t a n d he coastal e n v i r o n m e n t s l a n d w a r d of the barrier islands. Like b e a c h e s ,
tidal inlets a r e d y n a m i c parts of t h e barrier s y s t e m a n d r a n g e w i d e l y in size, stability, a n d w a t e r
flux T h e y o w e their origin to a variety of c i r c u m s t a n c e s , although s t o r m s a n d h u m a n activities a r e
the m o s t important f a c t o r s . F l o o d tidal deltas a n d e b b tidal d e l t a s either c a n be t i d e - d o m i n a t e d
or w a v e - d o m i n a t e d . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t factor is t h e b a t h y m e t r y of the b a c k - b a r r i e r bay. A l o n g
m a n y barrier c o a s t s , for e x a m p l e t h e D u t c h W a d d e n C o a s t , the l o n g s h o r e t r a n s p o r t c a u s e s a
structural a s y m m e t r y in t h e ebb-tidal deltas.

115

6.3 Biology dominated coastlines


6.3.1 S a l t m a r s h e s
O n the f r i n g e s of e s t u a r i e s , l a g o o n s , a n d other b a y s , in places w h e r e s e d i m e n t d e p o s i t s are
s h e l t e r e d f r o m w a v e a c t i o n a n d high e n o u g h a b o v e s e a level, salt resistant vegetation gets a
c h a n c e to establish a f o o t h o l d . W h e n conditions r e m a i n f a v o u r a b l e , the n u m b e r of s p e c i e s
i n c r e a s e s a n d the plant c o v e r gets d e n s e r . T h e roots stabilise the b e d material, a n d the s t e m s
a n d leaves r e d u c e the c u r r e n t velocity near the b o t t o m . In this w a y , conditions for further
s e d i m e n t a t i o n a r e e n h a n c e d . By the rising level of the flat, the conditions b e c o m e m o r e
f a v o u r a b l e for o t h e r s p e c i e s . A s t h e b o t t o m level rises, the salinity d e c r e a s e s b e c a u s e of the
better d r a i n a g e of the salt g r o u n d w a t e r a n d t h e g r o w i n g influence of precipitation.
T h e type of vegetation d e p e n d s strongly o n climatic conditions, the c o m p o s i t i o n of the s e d i m e n t
a n d the salt c o n t e n t of t h e w a t e r . Specifically the silt content is a n i m p o r t a n t factor. In the
m o d e r a t e c l i m a t e of t h e s o u t h e r n North S e a , m o s t v e g e t a t i o n o c c u r s in silt rich a r e a s . P i o n e e r
species in the salt e n v i r o n m e n t are cordgrass or "Engels slijkgras" (Spartina Anglica) (see Figure
6 - 2 5 ) , a n d in m o r e b r a c k i s h c o n d i t i o n s s e a club rush or " Z e e b i e s " (Scirpus m a r i t i m u s ) , v a r i o u s
s e a - g r a s s e s ( Z o s t e r a m a r i n a a n d Z o s t e r a noltii). Later o n , " N o p j e s w i e r " ( V a u c h e r i a ) a n d
glasswort or " Z e e k r a a l " (Salicornia stricta) b e c o m e established, immediately followed by a greater
variety s u c h as h e r b a c e o u s seablite " S c h o r r e k r u i d " ( S u a e d a m a r i t i m a ) , s e a aster or " Z e e a s t e r "
(Aster t r i p o l i u m ) . S e a a r r o w g r a s s " S c h o r r e z o u t g r a s " (Triglochin m a r i t i m a ) , and perennial s e a
s p u r r e y " g e r a n d e s c h i j n s p u r r i e " (Sperguiaria m e d i a ) . A t higher levels this c o m m u n i t y is followed
by s e a p u r s l a n e " z o u t m e l d e " ( H a l i m i o n e p o r t u l a c o i d e s ) . In the final stage of land f o r m a t i o n ,
s p e c i e s like c r e e p i n g f e s c u e / r e d f e s c u e "rood z w e n k g r a s " ( F e s t u c a rubra littoralis), s e a
w o r m w o o d " z e e a l s e m " ( A r t e m i s i a m a r i t i m a ) a n d s e a lavender " l a m s o o r " ( L i m o n i u m v u l g a r e )
t o g e t h e r with s e a plantain " z e e w e e g b r e e " ( P l a n t a g e m a r i t i m a ) are the m o s t important. M o r e
l a n d w a r d of this v e g e t a t i o n o n e finds the traditional non-halophytic land ( r e a d : f r e s h w a t e r )
species.

F i g u r e 6-25 C o r d g r a s s ( S p a r t i n a A n g l i c a ) ( P a c k h a m , 1997)
D u e to its dense cover and its ability to g r o w in a z o n e extending from 1 m below to 0.15 m a b o v e
a v e r a g e high w a t e r level t h e p i o n e e r v e g e t a t i o n of c o r d g r a s s "Engels slijkgras" plays a very
d o m i n a n t role in the a c c u m u l a t i o n of silt. Its ability to trap s e d i m e n t , either by physically capturing
it f r o m p a s s i n g c u r r e n t s or by retarding currents a n d permitting the s e d i m e n t to settle into the
plant c o m m u n i t y , m a k e s t h e s e plants very i m p o r t a n t contributors to c o a s t a l s e d i m e n t
116

a c c u m u l a t i o n . In addition to their positive role in c a t c h i n g s e d i m e n t to t h e s u b s t r a t e , m a r s h


g r a s s e s are very important s e d i m e n t stabilisers. T h e y prevent or inhibit currents a n d w a v e s f r o m
r e m o v i n g s e d i m e n t f r o m the v e g e t a t e d s u b s t r a t e , partly b y their root s y s t e m ( s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e
soil), partly by r e d u c i n g the c u r r e n t velocities ( r e d u c i n g the l o a d ) . T h i s g r a s s is t h e r e f o r e o f t e n
introduced artificially to e n h a n c e siltation a n d f o r m a t i o n of n e w f a r m l a n d .
Similar s e q u e n c e s of s p e c i e s c a n b e indicated for b r a c k i s h c o n d i t i o n s a n d for f r e s h w a t e r
conditions. W h e n surveying an estuary, o n e can g u e s s o n the basis of the vegetation on the flats
a n d a l o n g the s h o r e w h a t the local salinity is.
A n e x t e n s i v e m a r s h is a sign of a natural e s t u a r y that has largely filled with s e d i m e n t . M a n y
m a r s h e s m a r k the locations of old e s t u a r i e s that h a v e filled w i t h s e d i m e n t to the requisite
elevation for plant g e r m i n a t i o n .
T h e upper limits of the salt m a r s h coincide with the landward or upper limit of the spring high tide,
the highest level of regular inundation a n d s e d i m e n t s u p p l y A salt m a r s h m a y b e a f e w m e t e r s
w i d e or it m a y o c c u p y the entire e s t u a r y e x c e p t for t h e tidal c h a n n e l s . In Figure 6-26, a c r o s s section of a salt m a r s h is d r a w n . This Figure s h o w s the different z o n e s within the m a r s h l a n d that
c a n be distinguished by the different s p e c i e s that are present.

E. viminalls

MAXIMUM TIDE- MEAN HW SPRING-MEANHWHEAP-

Wl. ericifolla
MIXED SALT MARSH
(Salicornia spp., etc.)

MUDFLATS
y/ith Zostera

WESTERNPORT CHART DATUM

ia X a a

F i g u r e 6-26 C r o s s - S e c t i o n of a s a l t m a r s h
Individual m a r s h flats c a n d e v e l o p into e x t r e m e l y v a l u a b l e nature r e s o r t s . A p a r t f r o m m a n y
s p e c i f i c v e g e t a t i o n s p e c i e s , a n i m a l s u s e t h e place for b r e e d i n g , f e e d i n g a n d d u n n g s e a s o n a l
migrations. Beautiful e x a m p l e s of s u c h a m a r s h in the Netherlands are the W a d d e n S e a and the
tidal flats of E a s t e r n a n d W e s t e r n Scheldt.
T h e m a r s h e n v i r o n m e n t is quite similar to that of river a n d delta f l o o d p l a i n . C h a n n e l s , b o r d e r e d
b y natural levees a n d c r e v a s s e s p l a y s , cut t h r o u g h the m a r s h y plain. S o m e c h a n n e l s m e a n d e r
a n d p r o d u c e cut-offs a n d o x b o w lakes. This s y s t e m delivers s e d i m e n t t o t h e m a r s h in t w o w a y s :
r e g u l a r but s l o w flooding of the m a r s h by turbid w a t e r carried by s l u g g i s h c u r r e n t s that p e r m i t
settling- a n d s t o r m tides that p u s h large a m o u n t s of s e d i m e n t - l a d e n w a t e r onto t h e m a r s h a n d
d e p o s i t ' c o n s i d e r a b l e s e d i m e n t in a short t i m e . A l t h o u g h a p a r a d i g m for m a r s h d e v e l o p m e n t h a s
b e e n g i v e n here, t h e p r e s e n t global situation is o n e of e r o d i n g m a r s h e s d u e to s e a level n s e .
For h u n d r e d s of y e a r s , the D u t c h , G e r m a n s , a n d D a n e s h a v e b e e n c o n v e r t i n g m a r s h e s t o
f a r m l a n d by draining t h e m t h r o u g h a s y s t e m of d a m s , d i k e s , a n d c a n a l s . T h i s p r o c e s s has novv
b e e n s t o p p e d , mainly b e c a u s e the ecological value of the tidal wetlands has been recognised a n d
t h e W a d d e n S e a h a s b e e n d e c l a r e d a nature r e s e r v e .
W h a t e v e r the ecological v a l u e of the salt m a r s h e s , the coastal e n g i n e e r c a n n o t neglect the f a c t
t h a t t h e v e g e t a t i o n is an i m p o r t a n t m e a n s to stabilise the f r e s h s e d i m e n t s a n d to e n h a n c e t h e
natural protection of the hinterland.
6.3.2 M a n g r o v e s w a m p s
In tropical a n d subtropical c l i m a t e s , e x t e n s i v e s t a n d s of m a n g r o v e s - w o o d y t r e e s of v a r i o u s
t a x o n o m i e g r o u p s - invade the inter-tidal z o n e s of e s t u a r i e s and o t h e r b a y s , similar to the salt
117

m a r s h e s in the m o d e r a t e z o n e s . T h e y f a v o u r silty c o a s t s with a m o d e r a t e w a v e c l i m a t e a n d a


regular supply of clean oxygen-rich water. Thiols tangles of s h r u b and tree roots, c o m m o n l y called
s w a m p s but properly k n o w n as m a n g l e s , f o r m a n almost i m p e n e t r a b l e wall at a b o u t w a t e r level.
M o s t trees g r o w f r o m 2 to a b o u t 8 m h i g h , a l t h o u g h s o m e a r e m u c h higher, d e p e n d i n g on the
s p e c i e s a n d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l conditions - rare s t a n d s m a y be t w i c e that height.
T h e root s y s t e m s of m a n g r o v e s (Figure 6-27) are not only d e n s e , but also diverse in a p p e a r a n c e
a n d f u n c t i o n . T h e m o s t s p e c t a c u l a r root display is put o n by the red m a n g r o v e ( R h i z o p h o r a
m a n g l e ) , w h i c h has large, reddish prop roots that support the tree. It also has vertical d r o p roots,
w h i c h are long vertical a p p e n d a g e s that sprout f r o m low-lying b r a n c h e s a n d eventually reach the
g r o u n d a n d give support. P n e u m a t o p h o r e s , a n o t h e r c o m m o n type of root, o c c u r in a n o t h e r
c o m m o n species, the black m a n g r o v e , A v i c e n n i a g e r m i n a n s . T h e p n e u m a t o p h o r e is a short root
g r o w i n g u p w a r d f r o m lateral r u n n e r s e x t e n d i n g f r o m t h e central trunk. A l t h o u g h t h e r e is
c o n s i d e r a b l e a r g u m e n t a b o u t their f u n c t i o n , it is believed that they are respiratory o r g a n s for
e x c h a n g e of o x y g e n . T h e third s p e c i e s of m a n g r o v e in Florida a n d the C a r i b b e a n Islands is the
w h i t e L a g u n c u l a r i a r a c e m o s a . In places like tropical Australia or India, t h e r e a r e m o r e t h a n 20
s p e c i e s of m a n g r o v e s .

AVICENNIA

F i g u r e 6-27

RHIZOPHORA

IVIangrove r o o t s a n d y y p i c a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n of IVIangal

T h e thickets of m a n g r o v e roots at the w a t e r line provide a sheltered habitat for a s p e c i a l


c o m m u n i t y of o r g a n i s m s that a r e a d a p t e d to a n e n v i r o n m e n t i n t e r m e d i a t e b e t w e e n land a n d
w a t e r . B a r n a c l e s a n d oysters e n c r u s t t h e roots a n d b r a n c h e s , looking a l m o s t like fruit. Fish,
snails, a n d s n a k e s all find p r o t e c t i o n , nesting sites, a n d f o o d a m o n g t h e roots. M o r e o v e r ,
m a n g r o v e s provide a practically indestructible coastal d e f e n c e against s t o r m s a n d h u r r i c a n e s as
long a s the conditions are not t o o r o u g h ( F i g u r e 6-28).

118

F i g u r e 6-28

D e n s e sediment stabilizing m a z e s

of the m a s s i v e M a n g r o v e root s y s t e m s
T h e m a n g r o v e trees are not only useful in living condition, the local population cuts m a n y of t h e m
to provide f i r e w o o d . B e c a u s e the m a n g r o v e s w a m p s a r e rich in e x p e n s i v e s e a f o o d like s h r i m p ,
the s h o r e s are often turned into artificial fish a n d s h r i m p f a r m s . Destruction of m a n g r o v e f o r e s t s
a n d their r e p l a c e m e n t by s h r i m p f a r m s is a m a j o r factor r e s p o n s i b l e for the i n c r e a s e in

the

severity of f l o o d i n g in m a n y coastal a r e a s , e s p e c i a l l y in India a n d I n d o n e s i a . F i n a l l y w a t e r


pollution is also h a m p e r i n g the c o n t i n u e d g r o w t h of m a n g r o v e forest. This m e a n s that t h e
m a n g r o v e vegetation is disappearing rapidly. O n c e the forest has d i s a p p e a r e d , it b e c o m e s clear
h o w effective the forest w a s in preventing erosion of the generally silty coastline. Re-afforestation
is e x t r e m e l y difficult since the y o u n g t r e e s a r e quite v u l n e r a b l e .

6.3.3 D u n e v e g e t a t i o n
T h e v e g e t a t i o n d i s c u s s e d in the p r e v i o u s p a r a g r a p h s requires c a l m conditions a n d a silty
s u b s t r a t u m to g e r m i n a t e . T h e silty c h a r a c t e r k e e p s t h e soil moist, also d u r i n g L o w W a t e r . T h e
c a l m conditions and the silty soil are closely related since only in s u c h conditions can the the finer
particles settle.
T h e c o a r s e r s a n d fractions of the s e d i m e n t (sand) will generally be deposited in a m o r e d y n a m i c
e n v i r o n m e n t , s u c h as the d e e p c h a n n e l s w i t h their high current velocity or the b e a c h e s w i t h
s e v e r e w a v e action in the b r e a k e r z o n e . T h i s m e a n s that e v e n after s e d i m e n t a t i o n the m o b i l i t y
of the g r a i n s r e m a i n s relatively high, a n d t h a t a n y f o r m of life in t h o s e locations m u s t be r a t h e r
m o b i l e as w e l l . It a p p e a r s that b e n t h i c o r g a n i s m s c a n s u r v i v e here, but t h a t it is difficult for l a n d
plants to c o l o n i s e s u c h a r e a s .
O n l y in p l a c e s w h e r e conditions are slightly friendlier for p r o l o n g e d periods (such as the b e a c h
a b o v e the H W line), c a n n o n - m a r i n e plant life survive. Conditions o n the dry b e a c h a r e still q u i t e
difficult; t h e s a n d has very little c a p a c i t y to hold a n y m o i s t u r e , s o t h a t plants g r o w i n g here m u s t
be drought resistant. W h e n the first vegetation d e v e l o p s on the dry b e a c h , it is the nucleus for t h e
f o r m a t i o n of d u n e s . Like t h e m a r s h v e g e t a t i o n , t h e pioneer s p e c i e s " B i e s t a r w e g r a s "

(Elytrigia

j u n c e a ) provides s o m e shelter against the w i n d w h e r e sand can a c c u m u l a t e , while the roots k e e p


t h e s a n d together. In this w a y , the first plants c r e a t e small slightly elevated undulations in the flat

119

b e a c h . In t h e s e higher places, s o m e f r e s h w a t e r c a n be s t o r e d , w h i c h c r e a t e s m o r e f a v o u r a b l e
conditions for the following species, of w h i c h M a r r a m or " H e l m " ( A m m o p h i l a arenaria) is t h e best
k n o w n variety. H e l m has a more extensive root s y s t e m a n d it f o r m s a d e n s e c o v e r with its s t e m s
a n d leaves. In this w a y , real s m a l l d u n e s a r e being f o r m e d , a n d the higher t h e d u n e s b e c o m e ,
the better b e c o m e the conditions for m o r e v a r i e d v e g e t a t i o n . In the s a n d hills, f r e s h w a t e r is
c a u g h t and this drains slowly to the lower parts of the slopes w h e r e species requiring m o r e water
c a n establish t h e m s e l v e s . It is b e y o n d the s c o p e of this t e x t b o o k to describe all s p e c i e s , but it is
w o r t h w h i l e to visit s o m e of the older d u n e r e s e r v a t i o n s that have not yet b e e n d e s t r o y e d by the
w i n n i n g of d r i n k i n g water, a n d to a d m i r e the r i c h n e s s in v e g e t a t i o n .
S i n c e d u n e s f o r m a n i m p o r t a n t part of the s e a d e f e n c e , not only in the N e t h e r l a n d s , but also in
other parts of t h e w o r l d , the vegetation c o v e r of t h e d u n e s is essential b e c a u s e it p r e v e n t s t h e
" w a n d e r i n g " of d u n e s , blown by t h e w i n d . In t h e N e t h e r l a n d s M a r r a m or " H e l m g r a s " is u s e d
extensively to provide artificial protection to y o u n g d u n e s a n d to prevent w i n d e r o s i o n . A g a i n , t h e
s p e c i e s a r e site specific, in the s e n s e that t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of the soil a n d the c l i m a t e play a n
i m p o r t a n t role in the survival of t h e fittest s p e c i e s . T h i s m e a n s that the use of v e g e t a t i o n to
stabilise s a n d y s h o r e s m u s t a l w a y s be b a s e d o n o b s e r v a t i o n of locally available a n d s u c c e s s f u l
s p e c i e s . In this r e s p e c t m e n t i o n is m a d e of a publication dating f r o m the colonial a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
in Indonesia, w h i c h describes the tropical species prevalent in Indonesia that are suitable f o r d u n e
stabilisation t h e r e (Lieftinck, 1937).
6.3.4 C o r a l r e e f s
T h e t e r m coral reef refers to rigid, sublittoral, structures c o m p o s e d of c a l c i u m c a r b o n a t e . T h e
c a l c i u m c a r b o n a t e is e x c r e t e d by benthic o r g a n i s m s . T h e corals (Cnidaria) a r e o n e of t h e
d o m i n a n t types of o r g a n i s m s , ; a n o t h e r is L i t h o t h a m n i o n , a coral-like red a l g a e . M a n y o t h e r
o r g a n i s m s contribute calcium c a r b o n a t e to t h e reef, a n d their shells a n d debris are e n c r u s t e d by
Lithothamnion into a w e l l - c e m e n t e d structure. S o m e of the m o s t c o m m o n of those o r g a n i s m s a r e
H a l i m e d a , a g r e e n a l g a e , f o r a m i n i f e r a , m a n y bivalves, a n d m a n y g a s t r o p o d s .
W a r m water a n d the penetration of sunlight are essential to the d e v e l o p m e n t of coral r e e f s . Light
is important, b e c a u s e L i t h o t h a m n i o n a n d H a l i m e d a a r e both photosynthetic plants. A l s o , s i n c e
c o r a l s are b e n t h i c a n i m a l s that rely o n c u r r e n t s to provide o x y g e n , the s e a w a t e r m u s t c i r c u l a t e
well a n d be rich in c a l c i u m a n d c a r b o n a t e ions. B e c a u s e the w a r m w a t e r s of the t r o p i c s a r e
g e n e r a l l y deficient in c a r b o n a t e , t h e upwelling of relatively c a r b o n a t e - r i c h w a t e r f r o m d e p t h s of
100 to 300 m is n e c e s s a r y for coral reefs to d e v e l o p . T h i s m e a n s , that coral reefs are m o s t likely
to f o r m near s t e e p island or continental s l o p e s o n the w e s t e r n b o u n d a r i e s of the o c e a n s . T h e
easterly e q u a t o r i a l currents are d e f l e c t e d u p w a r d w h e n t h e y m e e t the s l o p e s , p r o d u c i n g a n
upwelling of nutrient-rich water.
T h e reef-building corals (Figure 6-29) t h e m s e l v e s d e p e n d o n light p e n e t r a t i o n . T h i s is b e c a u s e
the corals are inhabited by symbiotic, photosynthetic dinoflagellates, called zooxanthellae, w h i c h
provide o x y g e n for the corals a n d r e m o v e w a s t e s . T h e c o r a l s in turn provide c a r b o n d i o x i d e ,
nutrients, a n d protection for the z o o x a n t h e l l a e , s u c h as radiolaria, s p o n g e s , s e a a n e m o n e s ,
bivalves, a n d e c h i n o d e r m s . T h e giant c l a m , T r i d a c n a g i g a s , is able to digest z o o x a n t h e l l a e ,
e n a b l i n g it to r e a c h a m u c h larger size t h a n it could a c h i e v e by f e e d i n g o n the p l a n k t o n b r o u g h t
by c u r r e n t s .

120

Umtnde

month

chamber

F i g u r e 6-29 C r o s s - s e c t i o n a l m o d e l of a n i n d i v i d u a l c o r a l
T h e coral

JrSnt of

reef e c o s y s t e m

t e r i f is^^^^^^

is

based on a closed e n e r g y cycle. T h e a m o u n t of plankton living at the


the s a m e as the a m o u n t living at the back. T h e apparent p n m a ^

0 ucrof otnic nutrients f r o m

inorganic nutrients in the

is f i l a m e n ^ ^

w h i c h thrive on the nutrients a n d c a r b o n d i o x i d e p r o v i d e d by t h e


L i t h o t h a m n i o n f o r m s an algal rim within the surf z o n e , a n d

^/"^

front a n d reef flat w h e r e w a v e action is less s e v e r e . T y p h o o n s a n d predators s u c h as the c r o w n


o f - t h o r n s starfish r A c a n t h a s t e r ) c a n d e c i m a t e c o r a l s . W h e n this o c c u r s , L i t h o t h a m n i o n or other
e n c r u s t i n g a l g a e f o r m o n the coral s k e l e t o n s .
C o r a l r e e f s are like tropical rain f o r e s t s , a m o n g the m o s t c o m p l e x c o m m u n i t i e s o n e a r t h , a n d

^ol^o^Zl'ree^

c o m m u n i t i e s are a m o n g the m o s t ancient life f o r m s f o u n

,n

^^^ ^^f^^l^^

B e c a u s e of their complexity, the d y n a m i c s of coral reefs are not yet well u n d e r s t o o d . D u n n g t h e


m o s f r e c e n t c e n t u r s cora^

Tdespread

im^^^^^^^^^

h a v e b e e n a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by h u m a n s . S o m e of t h e m o s t

w a t e r pollution f r o m v a r i o u s h u m a n activities, d e f o - s t ^ t i o n ^ e^^^^^^^^^

Tea^g to increased turbidity), d r e d g e a n d fill operations, over-harvesting o f is

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ' ^ ^

s:s==s^:=;
e x p t hTve b e e n
Tmrnunitt d e p e n d o n

carried out, but they have failed. T h i s is serious, since m a n y lovv-income


the coral reefs to protect their property against

flooding by

high tides a n d

wind set-up.
S t o d d a r d ( 1 9 6 9 ) has identified f o u r m a j o r f o r m s of l a r g e - s c a l e c o r a l reef types (Figure 6 - 3 0 ) :
1

Fringing reefs

2
3

Barrier reefs
P l a t f o r m reefs

Atolls

121

FRINGINS

REEFS

F i g u r e 6-30

BARRIER

RECF

R e e f l a n d f o r m t y p e s ( B i r d , 1983 a n d V e r s t a p p e n , 1953)

W t i e r e reefs b o r d e r tfie coast t i i e y a r e t e r m e d fringing r e e f s ; w h e r e t h e y lie o f f s h o r e , e n c l o s i n g


a lagoon, they are k n o w n as barrier reefs; a n d w h e r e they encircle a lagoon, they are called atolls.
P l a t f o r m or table reefs f o r m o n s h a l l o w b a n k s that h a v e b e e n c a p p e d with r e e f - f o r m i n g
o r g a n i s m s . T h e y cover extensive a r e a s of the seafloor a n d a r e not a s s o c i a t e d with the f o r m a t i o n
of barriers a n d l a g o o n s .
Atolls are r i n g - s h a p e d reefs that g r o w a r o u n d t h e e d g e s of extinct volcanic islands, e n c l o s i n g
l a g o o n s . T h e s h a l l o w lagoons m a y c o n t a i n patch r e e f s . Atolls a r e primarily f o u n d in isolated
g r o u p s in the w e s t e r n Pacific O c e a n . S m a l l low islands c o m p o s e d of coral s a n d m a y f o r m o n
t h e s e reefs. T h e s e islands a r e quite v u l n e r a b l e to i n u n d a t i o n , a n d to tropical s t o r m s . T h e first
t h e o r y c o n c e r n i n g the d e v e l o p m e n t of atolls, the s u b s i d e n c e theory p r o p o s e d by Charles D a r w i n
in 1842, has b e e n s h o w n to be basically correct (Strahler 1971). T h e evolution of a coral island
exists in different p h a s e s , as d r a w n in Figure 6 - 3 1 :
a
b

A c t i v e v o l c a n o rising f r o m the s e a f l o o r
Extinct v o l c a n i c island with fringing reef

S u b s i d i n g island; reef builds u p w a r d a n d s e a w a r d , f o r m i n g barrier reef

C o n t i n u e d s u b s i d e n c e c a u s i n g r e m n a n t v o l c a n i c island to be c o m p l e t e l y s u b m e r g e d

G r o w t h c o n t i n u e s u p w a r d a n d s e a w a r d until the r e m n a n t v o l c a n o is c o v e r e d .
It is i m p o r t a n t to stress that reef islands a r e naturally d y n a m i c . S e d i m e n t p r o d u c t i o n o c c u r s
a r o u n d reef islands, a n d e r o s i o n , d e p o s i t i o n a n d c e m e n t a t i o n c a n o c c u r c o n c u r r e n t l y o n atolls
t o d a y ( W i e n s , 1 9 6 2 ) . S o m e islands m a y be in a stable equilibrium with neither addition n o r loss
of s e d i m e n t . H o w e v e r , o n m o s t islands, s e d i m e n t is a d d e d a n d lost over t i m e a n d t h e r e is m o r e
likely to be a d y n a m i c equilibrium b e t w e e n inputs a n d outputs. Islands adjust over a range o f time
scales.

122

Youriii volcatH)
Old vok'.mo

Mid ui:t.<iMi

furms Bland

Kiil.iiterooti

\
/

'

'

(?)

'^

Of.e

' S e a Hoo! sr>sWei,


a-^rceantcrojst aqss

ir.LAND BUIl DING

(?) lslanrJ-l)U!ldin(}:.iag.!

(1) Shallow submdiinfi oiuption

Sea level
^"^rrlnging coral reefs'
Votcanic cfct>4.
VoltMoic rocks

Volcanic focta

(4) I alo stcie eruption;; arid batrir tfieffs

erosion and reel qrowth

,(.tndf!r con LagoQti

Lhv.1 flow

Efodwi
island surface

Fringirigreof
Fringing cordi

Barrier rel

meW"
Vtcatiic mcks

Vote wie fuks

ATOLL G I A O t AfTEF! SI IBRlOFMnF


^.) Atnil

Laqncm
\

Luw islands
rl

Sea
level

F i g u r e 6-31 E v o l u t i o n of a c o r a l i s l a n d ( a d a p t e d f r o m P r e s s a n d S i e v e r , 1986)

6.4 R o c k y c o a s t s
6.4.1 O r i g i n of r o c k y c o a s t s

B e c a u s e t h e y a r e f o r m e d ^^'^^'fTesZTe
Lxerr. e d g e s of North a n d S o u t h
d e s c e n d i n g , virtually no continental shelf is P ^ f ^^^^ ' r , " ;
t P r t o n i c a l l v u n r e l a t e d , cliffed
A m e r i c a are excellent e x a m p l e s of this t y p e of c o a s t . O n other, tectonically
123

c o a s t s , v a r i o u s s e d i m e n t a r y strata a r e tiorizontal or dip at l o w a n g l e s . T h e a d j a c e n t c o n t i n e n t a l


shelf is w i d e , with a gentle slope.

Pleistocene glaciers have also had a hand in p r o d u c i n g cliffed c o a s t s . T h e m o v i n g ice m a s s e s


g o u g e d out steep valleys, which w e r e subsequently d r o w n e d as the sea level rose. A l t h o u g h their
profiles are similar, s o m e are r o c k y a n d o t h e r s a r e not. In Figure 6-32, the r o c k y c o a s t a l o n g a
f j o r d at K e n a i Fjords National Park, A l a s k a , is s h o w n , it w a s c a r v e d by a glacier.

F i g u r e 6-32

F j o r d at K e n a i F j o r d s National P a r k , A l a s k a

Still other cliffed c o a s t s are f o r m e d of glacial till, s e d i m e n t d e p o s i t e d by glaciers b e n e a t h a n d at


the m a r g i n s of t h e ice. T h e till is o v e r 100 m thick in s o m e places a n d includes nearly a n y type
of material f r o m stiff clays to s a n d , g r a v e l a n d b o u l d e r s . S o m e of it is well layered a n d s o m e is
m a s s i v e , with essentially no internal c o h e r e n c e . T h e a c c u m u l a t i o n s k n o w n as e n d m o r a i n e s tend
to be linear a n d thick. W h e n t h e s e e n d m o r a i n e s m e e t the s e a , the w a v e s s c u l p t s t e e p b l u f f s .
Irregular bluffs of glacial drift s h o w e r o s i o n o n the c o a s t at G a y H e a d , M a r t h a ' s V i n e y a r d
M a s s a c h u s e t t s , Figure 6-33.

124

F i g u r e 6-33

G a y H e a d , IWartha's V i n e y a r d , [ M a s s a c h u s e t t s

A n o t h e r variety of rocl<y a n d c o m m o n l y cliffed c o a s t is a s s o c i a t e d with a r e a s w h e r e t h e


continental shelf and adjacent coast are d o m i n a t e d by skeletal shell debris. A similar type of rocky
c o a s t h a s b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m the a b u n d a n t c a r b o n a t e s e d i m e n t in t h e s e c o n t r a s t i n g a r e a s .
In the P l e i s t o c e n e , o n s h o r e w i n d s b l e w c a r b o n a t e s e d i m e n t l a n d w a r d , w h e r e it a c c u m u l a t e d in
w i d e b e a c h e s and d u n e s . In a process called lithification, the calcium carbonate grains are w e l d e d
together by a c e m e n t created as o c e a n spray or percolating ground water reacts with the calcium
c a r b o n a t e . T h e e v a p o r a t i o n of t h e regularly w e t t e d s u r f a c e s in arid c l i m a t e s e n h a n c e s t h e
lithification of the s e d i m e n t s . T h e rapid c e m e n t a t i o n converts the d u n e s to a rock called eolianite.
T h e coast of N. A f r i c a is well k n o w n for its c e m e n t e d s a n d , w h i c h h a m p e r s d r e d g i n g o p e r a t i o n s
b e c a u s e in s u r v e y s it a p p e a r s to be s a n d , w h e r e a s it is quite h a r d in reality..

6.4.2 Rock erosion


A l t h o u g h rock is c o n s i d e r e d to be a strong material, r o c k y c o a s t s c a n still be s u b j e c t to erosion^
A l o n g rocky coasts, nearshore w a v e e n e r g y is often high b e c a u s e the size of the w a v e s is related
to the n e a r s h o r e b a t h y m e t r y a n d refraction patterns. T h e w a v e e n e r g y is f o c u s e d ori t h e
h e a d l a n d s a n d d i s p e r s e d in the b a y s , so t h e h e a d l a n d s e r o d e a s t h e intervening bays fill u p .
W a v e e r o s i o n of a n i n d e n t e d coastline p r o d u c e s a s t r a i g h t e n e d , c l i f f - b o u n d c o a s t , as s h o w n in
Figure 6 - 3 4 . W a v e - c u t p l a t f o r m s a n d isolated s t a c k s a n d a r c h e s m a y be left o f f s h o r e .
W a v e i m p a c t s of b r e a k i n g w a v e s m a y also c a u s e e r o s i o n t h r o u g h t h e p r e s s u r e w a v e t h a t is
hitting t h e rock a n d p r o p a g a t i n g t h r o u g h voids a n d f i s s u r e s . A s s o o n as material b r e a k s off, t h e
larger particles m o v e a c r o s s the r o c k s u r f a c e a n d p r o d u c e c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p a c t a n d a b r a s i o n
( F i g u r e 6-35).
W a v e s h o w e v e r a r e not the only p h e n o m e n a that c a u s e e r o s i o n of r o c k y c o a s t s . Other, subtler
physical p r o c e s s e s contribute to c h a n g e rocky coasts. Evaporation and t e m p e r a t u r e c h a n g e c a n
c a u s e m i n e r a l g r a i n s a n d rock f r a g m e n t s to e x p a n d a n d contract slightly. W h e n vvater f r e e z e s
u n d e r c o n f i n e m e n t , it c a n b r e a k r o c k s . P o r o u s a n d p e r m e a b l e r o c k s a r e particularly v u l n e r a b l e
to frost d a m a g e . In tropical a r e a s heating a n d cooling c a u s e h u g e s t r e s s e s in t h e material t h a t
will also c a u s e e r o s i o n .
H o w e v e r t h e rate of e r o s i o n of r o c k y c o a s t is s o slow, that r e m e d i a l m e a s u r e s a r e s e l d o m
required.

125

F i g u r e 6-34

W a v e - e r o s i o n E f f e c t s ( a d a p t e d f r o m D e Blij a n d Muller, 1993)

F i g u r e 6-35

R o c k perforated b y s p h e r i c a l h o l l o w s , C a l l e d T a f o n i ,
S a n Mateo C o u n t y , C a l i f o r n i a
126

7.1 Introduction
In the previous c h a p t e r s , it has b e e n indicated t h a t to give a n e x a c t definition of the c o a s t or h e
coastal z o n e is rather c o m p l i c a t e d . P r o c e s s e s that contribute to the physical conditions of t h e
coast have been explained and it has b e c o m e evident that the coastal zone extends considerably
s e a w a r d and l a n d w a r d of the coastline w h i c h f o r m s the actual b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n land a n d s e a .
T h e physical p r o c e s s e s w e r e largely c o n n e c t e d to the geological history of t h e a r e a a n d to t h e
s e d i m e n t transport that continuously r e s h a p e s the coast. T h u s , w h a t e v e r definition w e give of its
extent, t h e c o a s t a l z o n e is a v e r y d y n a m i c part of t h e earth's crust.
T h e d y n a m i c nature of the c o a s t a l z o n e is not c o n f i n e d to the physical properties. O w i n g to t h e
v a r y i n g physical conditions a n d t h e large g r a d i e n t s in the physical c o n d i t i o n s , the c o a s t a z o n e
also provides habitats for a n e x t r e m e l y w i d e range of flora and f a u n a . T h e r e f o r e , the coastal z o n e
p r o b a b l y m a k e s a larger contribution to the bio-diversity t h a n a n y other specific region o n e a r t h .
T h r o u g h o u t recorded h i s t o r y a n d probably long before that, the sea has b e e n a recurrent t h e m e
in h u m a n culture: in religious a c c o u n t s , in folklore, and in scientific investigations. A r c h a e o l o g i s t s
c o n f i r m that h u m a n societies h a v e long had close ties to the s e a and its s h o r e s , ties that persist
to this v e r y d a y T h i s is not a s u r p r i s e . T h e c o a s t a l z o n e provided for a l m o s t all h u m a n n e e d s
s u c h as drinking water, fertile land, a m p l e resources in t e r m s of g a m e , (later d o m e s t i c a t e d cattle)
a n d fish a n d e v e n a sink for t h e w a s t e p r o d u c t s of the h u m a n society. In later s t a g e s t h e s e a
p r o v i d e d opportunities for t r a n s p o r t facilities and strategic protection against e n e m i e s . T h u s , t h e
c o a s t l i n e b e c a m e a v e r y attractive z o n e t o live, to w o r k a n d to relax.
T h i s condition, however, is c h a n g i n g rapidly. B e c a u s e of the unique character of the coastal z o n e ,
it is n e c e s s a r y to c o n s i d e r t h e s e c h a n g e s in m o r e detail.
T h e c o a s t a l z o n e c a n be s e e n a s the playing field for m a n y social and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t s
a n d resulting conflicts of interest. C o a s t a l e n g i n e e r i n g itself plays only a limited role s i n c e t h e
b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s for a n y w o r k s s e e m to b e d o m i n a t e d by e c o n o m i c , political a n d lega
c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . O n o n e h a n d the coastal engineer m u s t therefore h a v e a g o o d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of
t h e g l o b a l c h a n g e s a n d o n the o t h e r h a n d be familiar with the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s u b s y s t e m .
M o r e o v e r h e m u s t a c c e p t a n d u n d e r s t a n d the role of the controlling bodies in society. Politicians
a n d d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s in their t u r n m u s t b e a w a r e of the f a c t that nature i m p o s e s b o u n d a r y
c o n d i t i o n s that c a n n o t b e c h a n g e d by party p r o g r a m s or e l e c t i o n s . M a n y of t h e s e b o u n d a r y
c o n d i t i o n s h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s e d in t h e previous C h a p t e r s , a n d it t h e r e f o r e d o e s not s e e m
n e c e s s a r y to pay m o r e attention t o t h e natural s u b s y s t e m in this C h a p t e r .

7.2 Global c h a n g e s
7.2.1 G r o w t h of t h e w o r l d p o p u l a t i o n
W i t h t h e growing world population, an ever-increasing n u m b e r of people inhabit the coastal z o n e .
T h i s a p p l i e s not only to a b s o l u t e n u m b e r s , but also to the p e r c e n t a g e of t h e w o r l d p o p u l a t i o n
(Figure 7-1). T h e y concentrate in e x t r e m e l y large cities, as is m a d e clear by T a b l e 7-1 and Figure
7 - 2 . M o s t of t h e s e large u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s a r e located in the c o a s t a l z o n e .

127

City

Country

P o p u l a t i o n in million
persons
1950

1995

2015
estimate

Tol<yo

Japan

6.92

26.96

29

IVIexico City

Mexico

2.88

16.56

19

S a o Paulo

Brazil

2.42

16.53

20

New York

USA

12.34

16.33

18

Bombay

India

2.9

15.14

26

Shangtiai

China

5.33

13.58

18

Los A n g e l e s

USA

4.05

12.41

14

Calcutta

India

4.45

11.92

17
14

B u e n o s Aires

Argentina

5.04

11.8

Seoul

Korea

1.02

11.61

13

Beijing

China

3.91

11.3

16

Osaka

Japan

4.15

10.61

11

Lagos

Nigeria

0.29

10.29

25

Rio d e J a n e i r o

Brazil

2.86

10.18

12

Dellii

India

1.39

9.95

17

Karactii

Pakistan

1.03

9.77

19

Cairo

Egypt

2.41

9.69

14

Paris

France

5.44

9.52

10

Tianjin

China

2.37

9.42

14

Moscow

Russia

5.36

9.3

Manila

Philippines

1.54

9.29

15

Jakarta

ndonesia

1.45

8.62

14

Dacca

Bangladesh

0.42

8.55

19

London

UK

8.73

7.64

T a b l e 7-1
Inland mega

Urban population
cities shaded

in grey

All t h e various functions of the coastal z o n e result in a shortage of s p a c e , a n d ever m o r e different


f u n c t i o n s of the coastal z o n e c o m p e t e for t h e s a m e s c a r c e a r e a . T h i s m e a n s that a larger
proportion of the coastal zone is being used b y h u m a n society. It also m e a n s that a r e a s a r e being
o c c u p i e d that p o s e serious threats to their u s e r s b e c a u s e of their location c l o s e to t h e a c t u a l
w a t e r line a n d the a s s o c i a t e d risk of f l o o d i n g . T h e d y n a m i c m o r p h o l o g i c a l b e h a v i o u r of t h e
c o a s t l i n e b e c o m e s a s e r i o u s c o n c e r n . T h e g r o w i n g p r e s s u r e o n the coastal z o n e also l e a d s to
conflicting use of s p a c e , since not all designated functions c a n be c o m b i n e d . This could p e r h a p s
be s o l v e d by t h e e n f o r c e m e n t of strict z o n i n g regulations, but s u c h regulations w o u l d first h a v e
to b e e s t a b l i s h e d . T h a t w o u l d not be e a s y s i n c e all c o n c e r n e d naturally try to i n f l u e n c e t h e
legislators to give p r e f e r e n c e to their specific interest.

128

8
(S
a.
o

2000

1375

1950

2025

time

F i g u r e 7-1 D e v e l o p m e n t of w o r l d p o p u l a t i o n
Black indicates

coastal

population

Cairo
20-30milii

/A
London

I
1

^-v

! i

l
1988

F i g u r e 7-2 D e v e l o p m e n t of u r b a n c o n g l o m e r a t i o n s in the w o r l d

129

It also a p p e a r s however, that the natural resources of the coastal z o n e are not sufficient t o c o p e
with the growing d e m a n d . T h e rich resources of the coastal z o n e are being rapidly depleted w h i c h
e n d a n g e r s the sustainability of the u n i q u e e c o s y s t e m , both o n land a n d in the w a t e r . In o r d e r to
s a f e g u a r d the sustainability of the coastal z o n e the only r e m e d y is to include the interests of t h e
e c o s y s t e m in the spatial planning considerations. This is coastal zone m a n a g e m e n t . Sustainability
is defined as the possibility for future generations to use the r e s o u r c e s to the s a m e extent a s w e
h a v e b e e n u s i n g t h e m to date.
7.2.2 C l i m a t e c h a n g e a n d s e a level r i s e
O n a geological t i m e scale, c h a n g e s of climate are not a rare p h e n o m e n o n . T h e y have o c c u r r e d
locally w h e n the plates m o v e d across the earth and passed t h r o u g h different climate z o n e s . T h e y
also h a v e o c c u r r e d globally for r e a s o n s that w e do not k n o w . L a r g e v o l c a n i c e r u p t i o n s or the
impact of meteorites m a y have played a role. W e have evidence of the o c c u r r e n c e of glacial a n d
interglacial periods in recent geological history. It is t h e r e f o r e unlikely that t h e p r e s e n t c l i m a t i c
conditions a n d the p r e s e n t s e a level r e m a i n the s a m e forever. O n the c o n t r a r y it m u s t be
e x p e c t e d that c h a n g e s will take place, and b a s e d on observation of the recent geological history,
t h e s e c h a n g e s m a y be quite large and quite rapid. A n y c h a n g e in global t e m p e r a t u r e wili h a v e a n
i m p a c t o n the global s e a level, a n d w e m u s t realise that the s e a level c h a n g e s d u r i n g t h e m o s t
recent centuries have b e e n quite m o d e r a t e . This has certainly contributed to the popularity of the
c o a s t a l z o n e for the p u r p o s e s of living, w o r k i n g a n d r e c r e a t i o n .

D u e to the e x t e n s i v e u s e of fossil e n e r g y s o u r c e s by h u m a n society during t h e last c e n t u r y w e


h a v e a d d e d a m a n - m a d e e l e m e n t to the s y s t e m . T h e e m i s s i o n of large quantities of c a r b o n
dioxide into the a t m o s p h e r e , causing c h a n g e s in the insulating properties of the a t m o s p h e r e , a n d
it is e x p e c t e d that this will result in a gradual rise of the global t e m p e r a t u r e . This is often referred
to as the g r e e n h o u s e effect. Calculations are being m a d e to e s t i m a t e rise in t e m p e r a t u r e a n d
w h a t the effects of this will be o n the w o r l d c l i m a t e . T h e m o d e l s u s e d for t h e s e calculations all
h a v e a rather tentative c h a r a c t e r since w e d o not k n o w all p a r a m e t e r s that play a role a n d
t h e r e f o r e it is i m p o s s i b l e to validate the m o d e l s . T h e period of o b s e r v a t i o n is too s h o r t for t h e m
to h a v e b e e n calibrated either. Nevertheless, it m u s t be e x p e c t e d that the g r e e n h o u s e effect will
at least have s o m e influence on global t e m p e r a t u r e s a n d the global climate. It is widely e x p e c t e d
that o n e of the c o n s e q u e n c e s will be acceleration in the rise of the sea level, d u e to melting of the
ices in polar regions. T h e r e will also be c h a n g e s in storm a n d rainfall patterns. T h e actual rate of
s e a level c h a n g e is difficult to predict, but in the Netherlands, it is c o n s i d e r e d that a value of 0.5m
d u r i n g the 21st c e n t u r y is l i k e l y If this s h o u l d be the t r e n d all o v e r the w o r l d , s o m e d e n s e l y
p o p u l a t e d a r e a s wili f a c e serious p r o b l e m s .

T h e global w a r m i n g d u e to the g r e e n h o u s e effect is not the only e l e m e n t that contributes to a rise


in sea levels. In m a n y coastal areas, g r o u n d w a t e r is extracted o n a large scale, partly to provide
drinking water a n d , partly to improve drainage for agricultural purposes. W h e n the lowering of the
g r o u n d w a t e r table t a k e s place in a region with c o m p r e s s i b l e subsoil, the area will settle a n d the
land will be m o r e v u l n e r a b l e to f l o o d i n g . E x a m p l e s of s u c h s e t t l e m e n t c a n be f o u n d in the
N e t h e r l a n d s ( F i g u r e 7-3), in T h a i l a n d a r o u n d B a n g k o k a n d in I n d o n e s i a a r o u n d J a k a r t a .

130

-3
900

1000

1100

1200

1300

"l400

1500

1600

1700

1800

1900

2000

i m

year

F i g u r e 7-3 G r o u n d level d r o p a n d s e a level r i s e in t h e N e t h e r l a n d s


W h e n e s t u a r i e s a n d deltas a r e c o n c e r n e d , t h e r e m a y be a c o m b i n a t i o n of all f a c t o r s ; s e a level
rise s e t t l e m e n t of t h e l a n d , i n c r e a s e d river d i s c h a r g e s and an i n c r e a s e in s t o r m s u r g e s d u e t o
c l i m a t e c h a n g e s . T h e s e c o m p o u n d e f f e c t s definitely contribute to t h e p r e s s u r e o n the c o a s t a l
zone.
O n e of t h e p r o b l e m s in c o u n t e r a c t i n g the g r e e n h o u s e effect is the international nature of t h e
e m i s s i o n of c a r b o n dioxide. It m a k e s little s e n s e for an individual country to r e d u c e the e m i s s i o n .
S u c h d e c i s i o n w o u l d r e d u c e the s t a n d a r d of living t h e r e in c o m p a r i s o n to that of n e i g h b o u r i n g
countries that continue e m i s s i o n s at the s a m e level, a n d it w o u l d scarcely contribute to a solution
of the g l o b a l p r o b l e m .
7.2.3 P o l l u t i o n
In f a c t t h e e m i s s i o n of g r e e n h o u s e g a s e s is a particular a s p e c t of a m o r e general p r o b l e m ; t h e
discharge

of b y - p r o d u c t s

and wastes from

our industrial p r o d u c t i o n

processes

into

the

e n v i r o n m e n t . A s early as t h e middle of the 1970's, it w a s r e c o g n i s e d that industrial w a s t e s s u c h


as heavy metals, polychlorinated hydrocarbons and nuclear w a s t e material w e r e being discharged
into o p e n w a t e r (rivers a n d s e a s ) on a large scale
Specifically the h e a v y m e t a l s a n d the chlorinated h y d r o c a r b o n s w e r e b o n d e d o n t o the c l a y
particles s u s p e n d e d in the water by electrochemical forces. In this w a y the pollutants spread with
t h e s u s p e n d e d material rather t h a n with t h e w a t e r . T h e pollutants a c c u m u l a t e d in a r e a s w h e r e
the fine s e d i m e n t s settled a n d f r o m t h e r e , t h e y f o u n d their w a y in t h e f o o d chain. P l a c e s that a r e
traditionally the settling basins for the fine s e d i m e n t s , i.e. the flood plains of rivers, the delta a r e a s
a n d t h e e s t u a r i e s w e r e s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d . T h e p r o b l e m s s u r f a c e d first in J a p a n , w h e r e isolated
c o m m u n i t i e s living o n a diet that w a s heavily c o n t a m i n a t e d , s h o w e d signs of n e w d i s e a s e s (Itaiitai a n d M i n i m a t a d i s e a s e ) . T h e s e d i s e a s e s w e r e later linked to a n e x c e s s i v e p r e s e n c e of h e a v y
m e t a l s a n d pesticides in t h e staple f o o d (fish a n d rice).
T h e p r e s s u r e of s e v e r a l N G O s , f o c u s s e d international attention o n this p r o b l e m a n d t h e first
international treaties w e r e s i g n e d by the c o u n t r i e s b o r d e r i n g the N o r t h S e a to limit t h e p r a c t i c e
of w a s t e d i s c h a r g e in o p e n water. Gradually, the w o r k i n g a r e a s of t h e treaties h a v e b e e n
e x t e n d e d , both in g e o g r a p h i c a l s e n s e a n d in the categorisation of w a s t e s a n d in the definition of
c o u n t e r m e a s u r e s and acceptable practices. T h e port authorities w e r e one of the g r o u p s that w e r e
heavily hit T h e s e d i m e n t s that w e r e traditionally d r e d g e d f r o m t h e ports for m a i n t e n a n c e of t h e
f a i r w a y s a n d port b a s i n s a n d d u m p e d into o p e n w a t e r or o n land (for soil i m p r o v e m e n t ) w e r e

131

c a t e g o r i s e d a s c t i e m i c a l w a s t e s . D i s p o s a l in o p e n w a t e r w a s no longer p e r m i t t e d a n d s o o n
restrictions w e r e imposed on disposal on land as well. T h e ports felt victimised b e c a u s e they w e r e
m a d e r e s p o n s i b l e for solving a p r o b l e m that w a s essentially c a u s e d by others (the c h e m i c a l
industry) o u t s i d e the jurisdiction of the ports, often e v e n in other states or c o u n t r i e s .
By n o w t h e stipulations of international treaties have b e e n i n c o r p o r a t e d into national legislation
in m a n y countries (in the N e t h e r l a n d s t h e W V O , W e t Verontreiniging Oppervlal<tewater 'Act o n
the contamination of surface waters'). This has gradually put an e n d to the practice of discharging
w a s t e s in o p e n w a t e r but it has not solved the p r o b l e m of the c o n t a m i n a t e d s e d i m e n t s . In m a n y
locations in t h e coastal z o n e , the s e d i m e n t s a r e still c o n t a m i n a t e d . M o s t Port A u t h o r i t i e s in W .
Europe and the U S A have d e v e l o p e d dredging and disposal m e t h o d s for the s e d i m e n t s that they
h a v e to d r e d g e . It m u s t be e x p e c t e d , however, that special cleaning operations a r e still r e q u i r e d
for a r e a s that a r e not d r e d g e d regularly for the p u r p o s e of navigation. In the N e t h e r l a n d s , t h e
disposal areas "Slufter" near the Port of Rotterdam and "IJsseloog" in the m o u t h of the river IJssel
(tributary of t h e Rhine) are e x a m p l e s of costly m e a s u r e s that had to be t a k e n to be a b l e to
continue d r e d g i n g of essential connections. T h e s e disposal a r e a s a r e m e a n t to prevent a further
u n c o n t r o l l e d d i s p e r s i o n of the c o n t a m i n a t e d d r e d g e d material. Real i m m o b i l i s a t i o n of t h e
c h e m i c a l s by t h e r m a l p r o c e s s e s is too e x p e n s i v e at this s t a g e .

Further international co-operation will be required to solve the problem of trans-boundary pollution.
S p e c i a l attention is required for the d e v e l o p i n g countries w h e r e the f u n d s a r e lacking t o t a k e
restrictive m e a s u r e s at the s o u r c e s of pollution, and w h e r e pollution of the coastal z o n e c a n easily
lead to d i s e a s e s similar to t h o s e f o u n d in J a p a n .

7.3 T h e socio-economic s u b s y s t e m
S o c i a l and e c o n o m i c activities a r e f o u n d e v e r y w h e r e in the c o a s t a l z o n e . T h e c o a s t a l z o n e c a n
be d e s c r i b e d in s o c i o - e c o n o m i c t e r m s . T h e central issue here is the interest in quality of life.
H u m a n w e l l b e i n g d e p e n d s directly or indirectly on the e n v i r o n m e n t a l conditions in the b r o a d e s t
sense.
A n y coastal z o n e usually has m a n y different functions, which are all relevant for h u m a n wellbeing.
W h i c h f u n c t i o n s a r e m o s t significant d e p e n d s o n the ecological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the s o c i o e c o n o m i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d the m a n a g e m e n t objectives or political priorities of the a r e a in
q u e s t i o n . T h e f u n c t i o n s are listed in T a b l e 7-2.
Distinctions a r e m a d e b e t w e e n four m a i n categories of u s e a n d within e a c h m a i n c a t e g o r y there
is a multitude of functions. T h e complexity of the problem is already d e m o n s t r a t e d by the fact that
the s a m e f u n c t i o n s a p p e a r in different m a i n c a t e g o r i e s . Fisheries for i n s t a n c e c a n c o n t r i b u t e to
the low-cost local f o o d supplies. O n a larger scale, it c a n be helpful in providing e m p l o y m e n t a n d
other e c o n o m i c benefits to the region. T h e generation of e c o n o m i c benefits c a n b e c o m e a s o u r c e
of conflict w h e n t h e local s u p p l y of f o o d is e n d a n g e r e d .
T h e s e f u n c t i o n s d o not e v e n include t h e n e e d to s a f e g u a r d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t in t e r m s of
sustainability or bio-diversity or refer to v a l u e s like cultural heritage or l a n d s c a p e .

132

Main c a t e g o r i e s | F u n c t i o n s

Potential c o n s e q u e n c e s

Examples

within the m a i n

category
Basic

Agriculture

Eutrofication by fertilisers

Fisheries

D e p l e t i o n of r e s o u r c e s

Drinking w a t e r

D e p l e t i o n of a q u i f e r s

Irrigation

Salt intrusion via rivers

Energy

P o w e r plants

Air pollution

Housing

Residential quarters

Food
W a t e r supply

Social

Cooling water problems


L o s s of v a l u a b l e land
L o s s of l a n d s c a p e v a l u e s
Risk of floodinc

Recreation

Economic

Transport

Local: restaurants, pus,

Space

t h e a t r e s , etc

Noise

S p o r t s facilities

Hooliganism

Ports a n d H a r b o u r s

Space

Airports

Pollution of air a n d w a t e r
Noise
Effects of d r e d g i n g
Erosion

IVlining

Extraction of m i n e r a l s

Noise

like oil, g a s , salt, etc.

Pollution
S u b s i d e n c e of land

Industry

Pollution

Factories

Noise
Agriculture

cattle b r e e d i n g

Eutrofication

Fruit plantations

Plant d i s e a s e s

E x c e s s of m a n u r e
Aquaculture

Shrimp farms

Erosion
Diseases

Fisheries

Fishing o n t h e high

Depletion of local r e s o u r c e s

seas
Canning
Freezina
Recreation

Space requirements

Hotels
C a m p i n g sites
Marina's

Noise
U n d e s i r a b l e activities

nature r e s e r v e s
Public

Mobility

Space requirements

Roads
Railroads
C a b l e s a n d pipelines

Noise
Pollution
Accidents

Defence
Sewage
solid w a s t e

Naval base

Space

Shootina ranges

Noise

Sewer system

W a t e r Pollution

T r e a t i n a plant

Space, smell

Incineration

Air pollution

d u m p i n g ( m a r i n e or

Poilution. L o s s of l a n d s c a p e

land^

values

T a b l e 7-2 U s e of t h e c o a s t a l z o n e a n d potential h a z a r d s

133

E a c h activity c a n conflict with conditions required for a n y of the other activities. T h a t m e a n s that
a n y integrated a p p r o a c h m u s t start with a n inventory of the actual f u n c t i o n s , their spatial
r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d their characteristics. T h e m o s t s e n s i b l e w a y to do this is to mal<e u s e of
G e o g r a p h i c a l Information S y s t e m s (GIS). T h e y provide a basis for further analysis.
T o obtain an idea of the complexity of the use of the coastal zone, the reader c a n refer to Figure
7-4, w h i c h gives an inventory of functions in the area w h e r e the Netherlands offshore airport w a s
envisaged.

Zoekgebled eiland in de Noordzee en verbindir


woongt-'bicd

pr(p!eidingef! in

^ebimk

tOc-kftisfigc pfjpicidingfn
pLiifonns
^ J

gebied iracverbinding/lsnooppunt

diiiriwatorwm gebied

: andwingetfiedii

knooppiiiU Sdiipiit'l

: ioswa! (baggpr stortpi.iato

HSI;

GfO<>n;^,^btf:d

milii-aife oefengebieden
Ofibepaaid

A'L'kgt^b^ed windinoienpark (N.SVV)

i^miiisone(-ndicatic-f)

autosnelwegen

: Wfkfwrscfifidingsteite!

fii)lcib(!t.'(v/fgen gepland

ff^iefoo.ikdbels in gebruik
oekoriistige k-lfiforjk.ilH-.

F i g u r e 7-4 F u n c t i o n s in the a r e a of the e n v i s i o n e d N e t h e r l a n d s o f f s h o r e airport

134

7.4 T h e necessity of management

Historicallv the m a j o r functions of t h e coast w e r e limited in n u m b e r , in c o m p l e x i t y a n d in size. If

P o p u l a t i o n Density
T a b l e 7-3 a n d T a b l e 7-4.

Historically population densities w e r e high a l o n g the c o a s t s


5 0 % of the population of t h e United States lives near t h e c o a s t
8 0 % of the population of Australia lives near t h e c o a s t
> 8 0 % of t h e population of C a n a d a lives n e a r its o c e a n s or t h e
Great Lakes
M o s t of t h e world's m a j o r cities a r e near the c o a s t
Y o u n g e r , m o r e affluent p e o p l e v a l u e the life style p r o j e c t e d b y

R e c e n t Migration

coastal a r e a s
R e d e v e l o p m e n t of coastal a r e a s a n d high real e s t a t e v a l u e s
result in high-density d e v e l o p m e n t of living s p a c e
M a n y people can now afford to live near the coast in spite of high
real estate v a l u e s
I n c r e a s e d i n c o m e levels e n a b l e p e o p l e to p u r c h a s e a n d u s e
recreational e q u i p m e n t that w a s previously u n t h i n k a b l e , like
y a c h t s , jet s k i s , parasails, etc
^P e o p l e c a n afford to g o o n v a c a t i o n s to far a w a y p l a c e s a n d

Tourism

often c h o o s e a c o a s t a l a r e a
T h e r e has b e e n a t r e m e n d o u s i n c r e a s e in air traffic, particularly
of p a c k a g e v a c a t i o n s at destination r e s o r t s _
' T h e c o a s t is a always narrow, linear strip of land w h i c h r e c e i v e s

Linear

visitors f r o m cities, states, etc. w h o s e p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y is


m e a s u r e d as a f u n c t i o n of a r e a
If a n e w "coastal a r e a " is d e v e l o p e d , the f o c u s is still a l w a y s o n
the c o a s t a l strip
^
^

M o s t of the world's c o a s t s are e r o d i n g , partly d u e to global s e a

Erosion

,
level rise
T a b l e 7-3 P r e s s u r e s o n the c o a s t ( K a m p h u i s , 1997)
initially, p e o p l e w h o lived near t h e c o a s t w e r e closely involved wrth it. T h e y w e r e f i s h e r m ^ n ^
s a o s d o c k labour t r a d e r s or w o r k e r s in the f a c t o r i e s that e x i s t e d along t h e c o a s t . T h e y a l s o
v

r p ^ u l t e d in stress a n d o v e r l o a d e d conditions. M a n y coastal z o n e s h a v e b e c o m e e c o n o m i c a n y


d e p e n d e n t o n tourism and recreation. W h e r e the knowledge-intensive, technological industry h a s
b e e n d e v lop d

h^^ h a s also c a u s e d a n influx of u r b a n p r o f e s s i o n a l s to the P ' - - -^^^^^^^^^

s t a n d a r d s of living are highest (along the c o a s t ) . W i t h this different p o p u l a t i o n , different v a l u e s


b e c a m ^ m p o r t l ? in the local society, the changing attitude is clearly d e m o n s t r a t e d in T a b l e 7-4.
A n imoortant constraint o n the coastal zone is that it is essentially linear; it is a narrow strip of land

^ ::::l:::::::::6e)

a,ong the coast. This puts high p r e s s u . or. land

^oese^

recre

acuities T h e coastal z o n e is essentially a very scarce c o m m o d i t y . Finally, the coastal ^ o n ^ is very


fraoi e a n d t h e r e is a w o r l d w i d e t e n d e n c y for coastal f o r m a t i o n s to e r o d e . T h i s puts high pnorKy
onToteclg a

m a i n t a i n i n g w h a t is t h e r e , particularly b e c a u s e real e s t a t e v a l u e s a l o n g t h e

c o a s t are s o high.

135

H i g h e r Priority

L o w e r Priority

C h a n g e d Priority

Residential

Industrial a n d C o m m e r c i a l

Fishing

Recreational

Agriculture

W a s t e Disposal

Nature Reserves

Transportation

Aquaculture

Military a n d Strategic

T a b l e 7-4 C h a n g e s in priorities a s c o n f o r m i n g u s e ( K a m p h u i s , 1997)


T o c o p e with these problems, m e t h o d s have to be developed to analyse t h e m , to m a k e decisions
a n d to enforce decisions t h r o u g h legislation, it is g o o d to realise that p r o b l e m s c a n be a d d r e s s e d
in t w o different w a y s . O n e is the scientific w a y : c o m b i n e facts a n d figures o n the b a s i s of
k n o w l e d g e a n d c o m e to c o n c l u s i o n s . T h e s e c o n d o n e is the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or political w a y
neglect the k n o w l e d g e path, m a k e a c h o i c e o n the basis of g o a l s a n d m e a n s a n d c o m e to a
d e c i s i o n . It is e v i d e n t that neither of t h e s e simplified m e t h o d s leads to satisfactory r e s u l t s . In a
b a l a n c e d decision m a k i n g process, all these aspects find a place. This is illustrated in Figure 7-7
t h r o u g h Figure 7-9.

CONCLUSION

< !
\ l

KNOWLEDGE
II
II
'

PROBLEM
\

>

DECISION

F i g u r e 7-5 P a t h s of k n o w l e d g e a n d c h o i c e in d e c i s i o n m a k i n g ( B o s , 1974)

F i g u r e 7-6 S h o r t - c u t s in d e c i s i o n m a k i n g

136

GAt^Z

m m m m s
F i g u r e 7-7 W e l l - b a l a n c e d d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s

f u n c t i o n s a n d infrastructure is sl<etciied in Figure 7-8.

NATURAL
SUBSYSTEM

SOCIO-ECONOMIC
SUBSYSTEM

C - Cortrol by odal Wra-ttrUdure

F i g u r e 7-8 A s y s t e m s v i e w of the c o a s t a l z o n e
M o v i n g in s u c h a labyrinthine s y s t e m requires a logical, s y s t e m a t i c s t e p w i s e a p p r o a c h . A logical
s e q u e n c e for s u c h s t e p w i s e a p p r o a c h is indicated in Figure 7-9.

137

STEP 1

STEP 2

d e l i n e a t i o n of
case study area

d e l i n e a t i o n of
system elements

STEP 4

STEP 3

a s s e s s m e n t of
s y s t e m relations

identification of
development factors

i
i

STEPS
f o r m u l a t i o n of
possible strategies

STEP 6
a s s e s s m e n t of
system responses

STEP 7
c h o i c e of a c t i o n s

F i g u r e 7-9 S t e p w i s e a p p r o a c h of C Z M p r o b l e m

T h e s t e p s c o m p r i s e of the f o l l o w i n g :
1
. D e l i n e a t i o n of c a s e s t u d y a r e a
T h e limits of the a r e a to be s t u d i e d m u s t be d e t e r m i n e d , both g e o g r a p h i c a l l y a n d s o c i o e c o n o m i c a l l y This is the outer circle in the system diagram (Figure 7-8). T h e relevant factors f r o m
the s u b s y s t e m s are d e s c r i b e d f r o m available field data a n d m a c r o - e c o n o m i c d a t a .
2.

D e l i n e a t i o n of s y s t e m e l e m e n t s

D a t a b a s e s for the e l e m e n t s within the a r e a to be studied are d e s c r i b e d f r o m available o r n e w l y


d e r i v e d m a t e r i a l . T h e s e a r e the inner circles in the s y s t e m d i a g r a m .
3. Identification of d e v e l o p m e n t factors ( s c e n a r i o s )
A n inventory is m a d e of relevant processes a n d plans, of both the natural and the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c
s u b s y s t e m s . T h e s e a r e the a r r o w s f r o m the outer circle in the s y s t e m d i a g r a m to the s y s t e m
e l e m e n t s (inner circles). T h e y c a n be s e e n a s the a g e n t s of c h a n g e in the s y s t e m e l e m e n t s .
T h e s e a g e n t s c a n b e either d e m a n d driven ( f r o m the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s u b s y s t e m ) or d r i v e n by
natural p r o c e s s e s .
4 . A s s e s s m e n t of s y s t e m relations
A m o d e l is m a d e of the relations b e t w e e n the various e l e m e n t s of the s y s t e m . In this m o d e l , the
e f f e c t of c h a n g e s in o n e s y s t e m e l e m e n t o n t h e other e l e m e n t s is d e s c r i b e d . T h i s c a n b e d o n e
in a m a t r i x of p o s s i b l e conflicts of interest, d e s c r i b i n g qualitatively the possible e f f e c t s . T h e s e
e f f e c t s are u s e d in t h e next step, w h i c h is to d e s i g n p r o m i s i n g strategies.
5. F o r m u l a t i o n of p o s s i b l e strategies
W i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d in the previous s t e p s , it is n o w possible to d e s i g n s t r a t e g i e s that
look p r o m i s i n g or that a r e a d v o c a t e d by s o m e interest g r o u p . T h i s is w h e r e the C Z M c o n t r o l
c e n t r e , the triangle in t h e c e n t r e of the s y s t e m d i a g r a m , c o m e s into the picture. T h i s c a n b e a n
administrative institution or c o m b i n a t i o n of involved interest groups. T h e decision d o e s not reflect
the interests of a particular g r o u p . T h e C Z M control centre operates at a level b e y o n d the s c o p e
of a n y single interest g r o u p .

6. A s s e s s m e n t of s y s t e m r e s p o n s e s
In the s y s t e m d i a g r a m , t h e s e are the s a m e a r r o w s as in step 4, but n o w the effects a r e quantified
for t h e particular s t r a t e g i e s that w e r e d e v e l o p e d in step 5.

138

C h o i c e of actions

In the final s t e p , the control c e n t r e t a k e s care t h a t a decision is t a k e n by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e


authorities o n the preferred actions.

NATURAL
SUBSYSTEM

SOCIOECONOMIC
SUBSYSTEM
F i g u r e 7-10 S t e p s related to s y s t e m d i a g r a m
T h i s s t e p w i s e a p p r o a c h e n s u r e s that t h e e l e m e n t s f a c t s ,

theory, g o a l s a n d m e a n s f r o m t h e

d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s d e s c r i b e d by B o s a r e u s e d p r o p e r l y (Figure 7-11)

F i g u r e 7-11 Alternating in t h e B o s d i a g r a m by m e a n s of a s t e p w i s e a p p r o a c h

7.5 Management tools


7.5.1 W e i g h i n g t h e i n t e r e s t s
F r o m t h e a b o v e it is clear that C Z M is a c o n t i n u o u s d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . T h e p r o b l e m
f o r m u l a t i o n , t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of m a n a g e m e n t o b j e c t i v e s a n d the d e s i g n of a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i c i e s
s h o u l d follow a s y s t e m a t i c p r o c e d u r e of g e n e r a t i n g , a n a l y s i n g a n d e v a l u a t i n g

alternative

strategies.
Policy analysis is c e n t r e d o n the c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n the future a n d the d e s i r e d situation. M a n y
a s p e c t s of the f u t u r e a n d d e s i r e d situation m u s t be t a k e n into a c c o u n t , e s p e c i a l l y the d i f f e r e n t
interests of all the parties that a r e i n v o l v e d . O n e of t h e p r o b l e m s is t h a t t h e interests of t h e s e
parties c a n n o t a l w a y s be e x p r e s s e d in the s a m e units. C o m p a r e , for e x a m p l e , purely e c o n o m i c
139

interests ttiat c a n b e c a i c u l a t e d in m o n e y witti ttie interests o f t l i e e n v i r o n m e n t or the n u m b e r of


v i c t i m s d r o w n e d d u r i n g f l o o d s , w h i c h h a v e a largely e m o t i o n a l v a l u e . A d v a n t a g e s of policy
analysis a r e e v i d e n t in the f o l l o w i n g situations:
e

W h e n s o c i a l i s s u e s a r e involved

W h e n t h e r e a r e m a n y c o n t r a d i c t o r y interests

W h e n n o n - c o m p a r a b l e v a l u e s are to b e j u d g e d

W h e n t h e r e a r e m a n y v a l u e s to be c o m p a r e d .

T h e u s e of policy a n a l y s i s b e c o m e s m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d in t h e e x e c u t i o n p h a s e . In m a n y c a s e s ,
iteration l o o p s h a v e t o be m a d e . G o a l s a n d s t a n d a r d s m u s t be w r i t t e n d o w n at a n early s t a g e .
T h e r e a r e t w o k i n d s o f q u e s t i o n s that s h o u l d b e s u b m i t t e d to a policy a n a l y s i s :

Is it n e c e s s a r y to c a r r y out a p r o j e c t ?

W h i c h a l t e r n a t i v e is t h e best o n e ?

O n e basic m a n a g e m e n t tool is the compatibility matrix. E x a m p l e s m a y be f o u n d in Carter ( 1 9 8 8 ) .


K a m p h u i s ( 1 9 9 7 ) g i v e s a specific e x a m p l e for

the coastal zone. Each of these conflicting

interests i n c o r p o r a t e s its o w n set of conflicts.

Residential

Recreational

-1

Nature Reserves

-1

Aquaculture

-1

-2

-1

Fishing

-2

Waste Disposal

-2

-2

-2

-2

-2

c,

Industrial a n d C o m m e r c i a l

-2

-2

-2

Agriculture

-2

-2

-2

-1

Transportation

-1

-1

-2

Military a n d S t r a t e g i c

-2

-2

-2

-1

-1

T a b l e 7-5 C o m p a t i b i l i t y matrix ( K a m p h u i s , 1997)

7.5.2 M a n a g e m e n t p r a c t i c e
In a d d i t i o n to t o o l s like the c o m p a t i b i l i t y matrix, w e h a v e the m a n a g e m e n t principles, s h o w n in

T a b l e 7-6 a n d t h e m a n a g e m e n t issues s h o w n in T a b l e 7-7.

T h e c o a s t is d y n a m i c a n d policies m u s t reflect this


M a n a g e m e n t b o u n d a r i e s s h o u l d reflect natural p r o c e s s e s
C o n f l i c t c a n n o t a l w a y s b e r e s o l v e d , so p l a n n i n g a n d legislation is r e q u i r e d
C o n f l i c t s c h a n g e w i t h t i m e , s o a flexible m a n a g e m e n t f r a m e w o r k is r e q u i r e d
T a b l e 7-6 M a n a g e m e n t p r i n c i p l e s ( T o w n s e n d , 1994)

140

Frameworks

Geograptiic Information System

(Conceptual and Computational)


Tools

Zoning
Regulations a n d E n f o r c e m e n t
Public A w a r e n e s s a n d C o n s u l t a t i o n

Responsiveness

Legal C o n s i d e r a t i o n s
Economics Considerations
Social C o n s i d e r a t i o n s
O t h e r Scientific a n d T e c h n i c a l Disciplines
M a n y Jurisdictions involved
T a b l e 7-7 M a n a g e m e n t i s s u e s ( T o w n s e n d , 1994)

G e o g r a p h i c Information S y s t e m s ( G I S ) are r e c o m m e n d e d a s the


framework.

conceptual/computational

O n the g e o g r a p h i c b a s e all pertinent data a r e s t o r e d including the locations of

buildings a n d infrastructure, coastal protection structures, s e w e r a g e outfalls, property o w n e r s h i p ,


legal jurisdictions a n d physical conditions s u c h as flood a n d e r o s i o n h a z a r d s , s e d i m e n t s o u r c e s
and sinks.
T h e tools

by w h i c h m a n a g e m e n t is e f f e c t e d are: Z o n i n g , R e g u l a t i o n E n f o r c e m e n t ,

Public

A w a r e n e s s a n d Consultation. T h e s e tools s h o u l d be carefully s e l e c t e d a n d s h a r p e n e d , s h o w i n g


sensitivity to the projects a n d the physical e n v i r o n m e n t s involved. T h e y n e e d to be i n c o r p o r a t e d
into a n a p p r o p r i a t e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s a n d a r e s p o n s i v e m a n a g e m e n t f r a m e w o r k .
L e g a l , e c o n o m i c a n d social c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a n d the i n v o l v e m e n t of m a n y disciplines r e q u i r e
r e s p o n s i v e n e s s to a n d c o o p e r a t i o n with other bodies, w h i c h m a y not think t h e w a y w e d o .
Every participant in m a t t e r s of c o a s t a l z o n e m a n a g e m e n t has a particular r e a s o n for b e i n g
involved, a n d often m o r e importantly a particular field of interest. G o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s m a y b e
involved in the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s for s e v e r a l r e a s o n s :

IVlany of the r e s o u r c e s a r e public property; this c a n lead to e x h a u s t i o n of t h e m

IVlost u s e s of the r e s o u r c e s will h a v e a d v e r s e effects o n o t h e r u s e s / u s e r s

T h e pricing and requirements like a clean environment a n d basic h u m a n needs are a political
issue

Impartiality in the allocation of s c a r c e g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s m u s t b e s a f e g u a r d e d .

In t h e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s , t h e following parties m a y be i n v o l v e d :
e

Government agencies

Ministries

Provincial authorities

Regional water boards

Towns

Individuals, a n d c o r p o r a t e a n d private interest g r o u p s

It is n e c e s s a r y to h a v e a legal a n d institutional f r a m e w o r k , t h r o u g h w h i c h the allocation of t a s k s


a n d responsibilities is m a d e . P o s s i b l e e l e m e n t s are: international a g r e e m e n t s (multilateral o r
bilateral), national regional a n d local legislation a n d the transfer of responsibilities to a s i n g l e
existing or newly c r e a t e d a g e n c y O n e of t h e a g e n c i e s c o n c e r n e d m a y b e g i v e n a leading r o l e .
Institutional changes are generally slow and do not provide a suitable w a y to improve coastal z o n e
m a n a g e m e n t . M o s t e s s e n t i a l is t h e political d e s i r e to i m p r o v e the m a n a g e m e n t of t h e s y s t e m .
141

O n e of the m o s t c o m m o n w a y s to j u d g e p r o p o s e d c h a n g e s in the infrastructure of c o a s t a l z o n e


is the e x e c u t i o n of a n e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t ( D u t c h : M E R ) carried out a c c o r d i n g to
the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s given in the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d legislation.

7.6 Building with Nature


in the c o n t e x t o f Coastal Z o n e M a n a g e m e n t , conflicts of interest a r e often h i g h l i g h t e d . In
c o n s e q u e n c e of this, the e x e c u t i o n of large engineering w o r k s in t h e coastal z o n e is a l m o s t
a u t o m a t i c a l l y c o n s i d e r e d as a threat to e c o l o g y and e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s m a y certainly be t r u e in
s o m e c a s e s , but is not necessarily t r u e in all c a s e s .
In t h e first p l a c e , it is not e c o n o m i c a l to m a k e a design that is not in h a r m o n y with the natural
c o n d i t i o n s . It m a k e s little s e n s e to d e s i g n a navigation channel in a n a r e a with h e a v y siltation or
to r e c l a i m land in a n a r e a that is s u b j e c t to s e v e r e e r o s i o n . T h e o b j e c t i v e of s o u n d c o a s t a l
engineering practice is to plan the w o r k s in s u c h a w a y that they fit best in the natural s y s t e m thus
a v o i d i n g e x t r e m e l y high c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d / o r m a i n t e n a n c e cost.
In t h e s e c o n d place, it is often p o s s i b l e to s t u d y the historical or g e o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s in a n
a r e a a n d to try t o plan the w o r k s in s u c h a w a y that they m o r e or less anticipate future natural
d e v e l o p m e n t s . In this respect, r e f e r e n c e is m a d e to the creation of t h e so-called " v a n D i x h o o r n
triangle", just North of Hook of Holland. After the extension of the breakwaters in H o o k of Holland
a n d the construction w o r k s for E u r o p o o r t / M a a s v l a k t e (around 1975), the e x c e s s quantity o f s a n d
t h a t w a s available w a s p u m p e d into a triangular area just north of the b r e a k w a t e r . T h e p u r p o s e
w a s t o c r e a t e a n e w coastline that w a s e x p e c t e d to f o r m anyway. Sufficient s a n d w a s p u m p e d
into the a r e a to permit leaving it to nature for s o m e time. By now, natural d u n e s have f o r m e d with
v a l u a b l e natural v e g e t a t i o n .
S o m e t i m e s s u c h possibilities are not anticipated, but they occur by natural p r o c e s s e s or b y shear
c o i n c i d e n c e . A n u n f o r e s e e n possibility d e v e l o p e d near I J m u i d e n . D u e to the e x p e c t e d a c c r e t i o n
south of the port, a large b e a c h plain d e v e l o p e d . Long after construction of the harbour e n t r a n c e ,
the idea c a m e up that this naturally r e c l a i m e d land could be used for recreational p u r p o s e s . N o w
t h e r e is a large m a r i n a with hotels a n d o t h e r recreational facilities. H o w e v e r , part of the b e a c h
plain w a s r e s e r v e d for further natural p r o c e s s e s and it is interesting to w a t c h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of
y o u n g d u n e s a n d pioneer d u n e v e g e t a t i o n in this area. A n o t h e r v a l u a b l e but

unforeseen

e c o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t t o o k place o n o n e of the polders in L a k e IJssel, F l e v o l a n d . D u e to


c h a n g e s in the design of the polder, a n area near Lelystad w a s not given a firm designation in the
z o n i n g plans. B e c a u s e it had no f i r m

d e s i g n a t i o n , it w a s left to nature d u r i n g t h e initial

d e v e l o p m e n t of the polder. During this p e r i o d , the area, n o w k n o w n as the O o s t v a a r d e r s p l a s ,


g r e w into a n i m p o r t a n t p r o t e c t e d bird a n d wildlife sanctuary.
In the third place, it is possible to replace traditional shore protection t e c h n i q u e s by n e w m e t h o d s
that a r e in closer h a r m o n y with nature. S u c h t e c h n i q u e s should e n h a n c e rather t h a n p r e v e n t t h e
c r e a t i o n of a s o u n d a n d s u s t a i n a b l e interface b e t w e e n land a n d w a t e r . E x a m p l e s of this kind of
activity a r e t h e c r e a t i o n of natural b a n k s (in D u t c h : natuurvriendelijke o e v e r s ) a n d soft m e t h o d s
for s h o r e protection s u c h a s b e a c h r e p l e n i s h m e n t .
All t h e s e m e t h o d s are s u m m a r i s e d by the t e r m "building with nature" that indicates a g r o w i n g u s e
of biological a n d e c o l o g i c a l k n o w l e d g e by civil e n g i n e e r s .

142

8. T I D A L I N L E T S AND E

8.1 Introduction

A m s t e r d a m etc.)

8.2 Tidal inlets

coast.

of t h e e s t u a r y ' a n d the tidal r a n g e at s e a h a v e t h e n all b e c o m e m o r e or less c o n s t a n t ,

f u n c t i o n of x m o r e or less a s shov/n in Figure 8 - 1 .

F i g u r e 8-1

Channel velocity geometry relationship

143

In the range f r o m A to C on this curve, the entrance channel is so small that it chol<es off the tidal
f l o w s o that t h e tidal d i f f e r e n c e within the e s t u a r y will be less t h a n at s e a . O n section C-E of t h e
c u r v e this is no longer true a n d the m a x i m u m current velocity d e c r e a s e s as the channel b e c o m e s
larger.

Escoffier's next step w a s to introduce the concept of a critical m a x i m u m velocity V^r, b e l o w w h i c h


the velocity in the c h a n n e l is too low to c a u s e e r o s i o n . This critical velocity is m o r e or less
independent of the channel geometry, according to Escoffier, a n d he plotted it as a horizontal line
o n Figure 8 - 1 .

T h e fate of a n e s t u a r y c a n n o w be predicted by e x a m i n i n g the c u r v e A C E in relation to V^r.


O b v i o u s l y , if

is a l w a y s less t h a n V,, (for all v a l u e s of x ) then a n y s e d i m e n t d e p o s i t e d in t h e

entrance will r e m a i n there a n d the estuary will be closed off e v e n t u a l l y However, if a c u r v e of V,,,
v e r s u s x intersects the Vor line as s h o w n at B and D in Figure 8 - 1 , then a variety of situations c a n
exist. If for e x a m p l e , the c h a n n e l d i m e n s i o n s place it o n s e c t i o n A - B of the c u r v e in F i g u r e 8 - 1 ,
then the c h a n n e l is too s m a l l a n d t h e friction too high to m a i n t a i n itself; s o it will be c l o s e d b y
natural p r o c e s s e s . If the c h a n n e l g e o m e t r y places it o n section D-E of the c u r v e , it will a l s o
b e c o m e s m a l l e r , but a s it d o e s s o , the v e l o c i t y

will i n c r e a s e ; s e d i m e n t a t i o n c o n t i n u e s until

point D is r e a c h e d . L a s t l y if the channel configuration places it o n section B-D of the c u r v e , t h e n


e r o s i o n t a k e s p l a c e until point D is a g a i n r e a c h e d ; point D r e p r e s e n t s a stable situation.
W i t h this insight, it is n o w possible to e v a l u a t e the influence of c h a n g e s in a n e s t u a r y m o u t h .
S i n c e point D r e p r e s e n t s a naturally stable situation, m o s t natural estuaries will t e n d to lie m o r e
or less in that r e g i o n . Of c o u r s e , a s e v e r e s t o r m c a n c a u s e s e v e r e s e d i m e n t a t i o n , largely filling
the entrance, w h i c h is t h e n suddenly in the state represented by section A - B of the curve. In s u c h
a situation, i m m e d i a t e d r e d g i n g is called for to prevent c o m p l e t e c l o s u r e . It is not n e c e s s a r y to
restore the original situation, however, since once the entrance g e o m e t r y places it o n section B-CD of the c u r v e in the figure, nature will d o t h e rest of t h e w o r k given e n o u g h t i m e .
S h i p p i n g interests m a y m a k e it d e s i r a b l e to e n l a r g e t h e e n t r a n c e of a given e s t u a r y to
a c c o m m o d a t e larger s h i p s . If s u c h a n e x p a n s i o n s c h e m e p l a c e s t h e c h a n n e l o n section D-E of
the c u r v e , t h e d r e d g i n g industry will r e m a i n profitable for the f o r e s e e a b l e future. It m a y b e
possible to c a r r y out t h e e x p a n s i o n a n d still prevent continual d r e d g i n g by c h a n g i n g the c h a n n e l
alignment a n d artificially constricting its width - techniques often u s e d in rivers - so that the larger
c h a n n e l c r o s s - s e c t i o n r e m a i n s stable. Translating s u c h c h a n g e s into a figure s u c h as Figure 8-1
m e a n s that a n e w c u r v e of

v e r s u s x has b e e n g e n e r a t e d w h i c h generally yields a slightly

higher value of \ / for a given x v a l u e . T h i s results in point D, the equilibrium situation, b e i n g


m o v e d to t h e right in the figure.

O n e of the m o s t i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s to be a n s w e r e d in o r d e r to u s e the a p p r o a c h by E s c o f f i e r
outlined a b o v e is "what is the stable equilibrium condition of an estuary?" or in other w o r d s , " w h e n
has point D in Figure 8-1 b e e n r e a c h e d ? " . Several investigators including O'Brien (1969)', Jarret
( 1 9 7 6 ) a n d S h i g e m u r a ( 1 9 8 0 ) h a v e d e v o t e d s p e c i a l attention to the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e
equilibrium cross sectional area of an estuary entrance. T h e results for s a n d y coasts d o not differ
very m u c h f r o m t h o s e of O'Brien ( 1 9 6 9 ) . He m a d e use of f r e q u e n t surveys of inlets o n the North
Pacific C o a s t of the United S t a t e s . He f o u n d that the m i n i m u m equilibrium cross s e c t i o n a l a r e a
of the e n t r a n c e . A , w a s linearly related to the v o l u m e of the tidal p r i s m . In e q u a t i o n f o r m :

A = 6.56x10P

(8.1)

in w h i c h :
A

= the m i n i m u m equilibrium c r o s s section of the e n t r a n c e c h a n n e l (throat) m e a s u r e d b e i o w


m e a n s e a level in m^

= the tidal prism v o l u m e in m^

144

in this eauation P the tidal p r i s m , is the storage v o l u m e of the estuary b e t w e e n low tide a n d high

e b b T h e coefficient is n o f d i m e n s i o n l e s s . I n d e e d , it has d i m e n s i o n s of ML.

for smaller tidal p r i s m s .

O'Brien also f o u n d that t h e b e d material size had little influence o n e q u a t i o n

Fu-^^^'

8.3 Tidal channels


Escoffier
t heal sn 30
In natural mcohraen n
they ed ae resp eearlier!
s t c h a n n e l s e c t i o n s d e v e l o p a l o n g the outside of t h e river berids

he s o ^ ! : e bTnd. This posi J represents a compromise b e t w e - ;e

- , p , e n . .o be

expected with only a n ebb current and that expected wrth only a flood current.

,n a r e a s where the width of the riyer is not restricted, ff^^^^t^vlCtrebbl^^^^^^^^


T h e s e tidal river r e a c h e s often have two rather independent channel s y s t e m s .

~ : r h o : f t h = t S ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

time (hrs
aver.curr

F i g u r e 8-2 C u r r e n t at R o t t e r d a m
A n o t f i e r p l i e n o m e n o n in a tidal river is a t i d e - d e p e n d e n t variation in w a t e r l e v e l . T t i e current a n d
ttie w a t e r level a r e related b y t h e e q u a t i o n s u s e d to d e s c r i b e long w a v e s . In s u c h a c a s e ,
c o n s e r v a t i o n of m o m e n t u m yields:

,,dU

dU

dz

UU

in w h i c h :
C

= C h e z y coefficient

= a c c e l e r a t i o n of gravity

= depth

= time

= flow velocity

= c o - o r d i n a t e m e a s u r e d a l o n g t h e river

= absolute water surface elevation

In this e q u a t i o n , it has b e e n a s s u m e d that the river slope is s m a l l a n d the r u n o f f is negligible. If


the friction - the last term is equation (8.2) - is also negligible (which can be the c a s e with a short
s u r f a c e w a v e or with a tide in the d e e p e s t o c e a n b a s i n ) , the vertical tide (water level) a n d the
horizontal tide (current) a r e in p h a s e with o n e a n o t h e r as s h o w n in Figure 8-3.
In a real situation, the friction t e r m in e q u a t i o n (8.2) will b e relatively large with r e s p e c t to t h e
inertia terms. S i n c e in s u c h c a s e s s o m e of t h e m o m e n t u m is then lost to friction, t h e velocity will
be r e d u c e d . Figure 8-4 s h o w s the relationship b e t w e e n the vertical a n d the horizontal t i d e s at
R o t t e r d a m . T h e c u r r e n t c u r v e is the s a m e as that in Figure 8-2. T h e t i m e s of high tide a n d low
tide a r e indicated as well a s t h e t i m e s of slacl< w a t e r (zero current).

146

F i g u r e 8-3 I d e a l i s e d v e l o c i t y - l e v e l r e l a t i o n s h i p
N o t e that the low tide slack c o m e s m u c h later relative to low w a t e r t h a n is the c a s e at high t i d e .
This is partially c a u s e d by f r e s h w a t e r river f l o w acting to fill the portion of the tidal p r i s m t h a t is
furthest inland during a rising tide. T h i s e n h a n c e s the d e v e l o p m e n t of a w a t e r s u r f a c e s l o p e to
retard the tide w a v e , w h i l e at low w a t e r , t h e river f l o w t e n d s to p r o l o n g t h e e b b current.

0.0

F i g u r e 8-4 V e r t i c a l a n d h o r i z o n t a l tide in R o t t e r d a m
A s e c o n d r e a s o n w h y e b b c h a n n e l s a r e d e e p e r a n d m o r e c o n t i n u o u s t h a n flood c h a n n e l s is
indicated in Figure 8-4. N o t e that the m a x i m u m e b b current o c c u r s w h e n the tide level is l o w e r
t h a n that c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the m a x i m u m f l o o d current. T h e c o m b i n e d effect of higher total e b b
f l o w a n d the lower s t a g e d u r i n g this f l o w t e n d s to i n c r e a s e the velocity a n d e n h a n c e s e r o s i o n in
147

e b b c h a n n e l s . In principle, o n e c a n u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e p h e n o m e n a by adding up a hypothetical


sinusoidal tidal current a n d a c o n s t a n t river d i s c h a r g e (Figure 8-5). C o n v e r s e l y it is p o s s i b l e to
d e r i v e the tidal prism and river d i s c h a r g e f r o m the m e a s u r e d d i s c h a r g e c u r v e .

inflow
F i g u r e 8-5 C o m b i n e d effect of tidal f l o w a n d river d i s c h a r g e

148

9.1 Introduction
In the coastal zone, m a n y engineering problems are related to
^^/^'^'J'^^''^''^^^^^^^
f r e s h water. A n o t h e r c o m m o n c a u s e of p r o b l e m s is pollution. T h i s chapter d e a l s with b o t h .

9.2 Pollution
9.2.1 T y p e s of pollution
Pollutants include:
1

Human wastes

Oil

Halogenated hydrocarbons

O t h e r o r g a n i c materials

Heavy metals

6
7

Heat
Radioactive materials

Fine s e d i m e n t

H u m a n f a e c a l w a s t e is often c o n s i d e r e d first, s i n c e it raises s u c h a great aesthetic p r o b l e m


N v e r t h l s , it is certainly a natural product a n d f a e c a l w a s t e is P - ^ u c e d ,n ^ea^q^^^^^^^^
m a r i n e life
To

uc

A c c o r d i n g to B a s c o m ( 1 9 7 4 - 1 ) , six million t o n s of a n c h o v i e s o f t h e California c o a s t

as m u c h f a e c a l material as 90 million people t h o u g h not - c e s s a n l y c o n t a i . n g b^^^^^

d a n g e r o u s to h u m a n life. S e a w a t e r w i t h a high f a e c a l c o n t e n t provides f o o d for lower f o r m s of


m a l eT e
Z e v

w h c h in t u r n provide f o o d for w h a t is generally c o n s i d e r e d desirable m a n n e fauna^

r^o^

o f ? h e d i s p o s a l of f a e c a l w a s t e s r e m a i n important: o x y g e n c o n s u m p t o n

f r o : t h e w a t e r , a n d bacteria. T h e o x y g e n d e m a n d c a n r e d u c e the ^ - o K ^ e

oxyge,^

t h e level that is n e e d e d by m a r i n e life. W h i l e m o s t bacteria are s o o n killed by c o n t a c t w i t h


s e a w a t e r S^^^^^ h o u r s ) , thfs is not n e c e s s a r i l y true of all t y p e s ; t h u s e p i d e m i o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s
m a y arise.
Oil a n d petroleum products are p e r h a p s the m o s t controversial pollutants. T i i e Public reaction t o
d
o

spills by ships is usually e m o t i o n a l a n d v e h e m e n t . S h i p p i n g is not the only s o u r c e of m a r i n e


o l l u t i o a however. U n k n o w n quantities of oil s e e p into the

for the Connecticut State Legislature c o n c l u d e s that m o r e t h a n t w o ^ h ' f of ^ e oH d scha^g^^

by

m a n into the s e a s c o m e s f r o m a u t o m o b i l e e n g i n e s a n d oil s u m p s of other m a c h i n e s . T h i s oH


c a u s e s no great p r o b l e m s , since the rate of input is low e n o u g h a n d it is sufficiently d i s p e r s e d t o
b e b r o k e n d o w n b y natural p r o c e s s e s , w h i c h is not t h e c a s e if a n oil t a n k e r is d a m a g e d . Oj\
pollu ion from^ m

spills often is a t e m p o r a ^ p r o b l e m . T h e short-term biological influences c a n

b e s e v e r e but t h i pre existing natural situation usually r e s t o r e s itself within a f e w y e a r s . T h i s ,s


not t r u e for t h e next c a t e g o r y of pollutants.
H a l o g e n a t e d c a r b o n s include t h e m o s t c o m m o n o r g a n i c pesticides. W h i l e a f e w of t h e s e
c h e m i c a l s s u c h a s T E P P lose their lethal properties rather quickly, others s u c h as D D T s e e m t o
be v ^ a l f y indestructible in nature. T h e p r o c e s s of the concentration of pesticides in certain t y p e s
of m a r i n e life ( b i o - a c c u m u l a t i o n ) is rather well k n o w n a n d quite a l a r m i n g .
T h e d i s c h a r g e of nutrients into b o d i e s of w a t e r m a y h a v e s t i m u l a t i n g e f f e c t s o n t h e m a r i n e life.
149

H o w e v e r if u n c o n t r o l l e d , this s o o n b e c o m e s a w a y of o v e r stimulating, w h i c h c a n be d i s a s t r o u s
to the ecological equilibrium. O x y g e n is c o n s u m e d in the biodegradation of the nutrient materials.
O b v i o u s l y the last w o r d a b o u t this item has not yet b e e n s p o k e n .
B e c a u s e of t h e electrostatic properties of clay, fine s e d i m e n t s m a y bind h e a v y metals a n d
e x t r e m e l y long molecules ( h a l o g e n a t e d h y d r o c a r b o n s ) that are present in the w a t e r c o l u m n d u e
to natural c a u s e s or h u m a n activity. T h e r e f o r e , the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of h e a v y m e t a l s ( a n d other
o r g a n i c c o m p o n e n t s ) in fine s e d i m e n t s are relatively high. A s long a s the pollutants are b o n d e d
to t h e s e d i m e n t , they c a u s e relatively little h a r m . T h e binding f o r c e m a y be lost, however, d u e to
s t r o n g m e c h a n i c a l action (turbulence) a n d c h a n g e s in the c h e m i c a l a n d physical conditions
(acidity, salinity, presence of o x y g e n , temperature). In such cases the pollutants b e c o m e available
in high c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , a n d t h e y c a n easily be introduced into the biological cycle. Uncontrolled
d i s c h a r g e of h e a v y metals has led to s e r i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i s a s t e r s , a m o n g others in J a p a n ,
w h e r e Itai-ltai a n d M i n i m a t a d i s e a s e h a v e a f f e c t e d the h u m a n p o p u l a t i o n .

It is e x t r e m e l y difficult to s e p a r a t e the h e a v y metals f r o m the large quantities of silt in the


e s t u a r i e s . T h e r e f o r e , e m p h a s i s is placed o n the reduction of the e m i s s i o n s o n o n e h a n d , a n d
controlled s t o r a g e of polluted s e d i m e n t s on the other h a n d . E x a m p l e s : T h e Slufter b a s i n in the
port of Rotterdam, Ketelmeer. Heavy metals also enter the sea f r o m the a t m o s p h e r e . Forest fires,
for e x a m p l e , a d d metallic o x i d e s to the a t m o s p h e r e , w h i c h d e p o s i t s t h e m o v e r the w h o l e w o r l d .
Just as with discharges of m a n y pesticides, the influence of heavy metal discharges is cumulative.
A n e x a m p l e of the c u m u l a t i v e action as influenced by m a n is s h o w n in Figure 9 - 1 , w h i c h s h o w s
the lead concentration in layers of s e d i m e n t in the o c e a n near Long B e a c h , California. T h e s h a r p
rise in c o n c e n t r a t i o n s in recent y e a r s is attributed to a i r b o r n e lead f r o m a u t o m o t i v e e m i s s i o n s .

AO

60

teod c o n c e n t r a t i o n

20

(ppm)

F i g u r e 9-1 L e a d c o n c e n t r a t i o n in s e d i m e n t , B a s c o m (1974-1)
T h e r m a l emissions m a y be either w a r m e r (power station cooling water) or cooler (liquefied natural
gas c o n v e r s i o n ) t h a n the s u r r o u n d i n g water. M o s t m a r i n e life c a n a d a p t to the modified t h e r m a l
c l i m a t e near s u c h a heat s o u r c e or sink, but a r e often killed either m e c h a n i c a l l y or as a result of
abrupt t e m p e r a t u r e and p r e s s u r e c h a n g e s as they a r e d r a w n t h r o u g h the plant. Heat d i s c h a r g e d
into the o c e a n s is only of local biological s i g n i f i c a n c e .
R a d i o a c t i v e w a s t e s f o r m the s e v e n t h c a t e g o r y of pollutants. M a r i n e life c a n tolerate a larger
radiation d o s e ( b e f o r e it b e c o m e s fatal) than m a n . M a n c a n c o n c e i v a b l y ingest a fatal d o s e of
radioactive poisons f r o m s e e m i n g l y healthy fish. T h e r e f o r e , radioactive w a s t e s should not be put
into the e n v i r o n m e n t of fish (the s e a ) . It is not a g o o d solution to d i s p o s e of w a s t e s into
s u b d u c t i o n s i n k s , b e c a u s e the natural recycling p r o c e s s e s in the d e e p w a t e r a r e v e r y s l o w .
Fine sediment itself, as residue f r o m dredging, can be a danger for m a r i n e life in certain locations.
High c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of s u s p e n d e d clay particles c a n inhibit the p e n e t r a t i o n of sunlight into t h e
w a t e r w h i c h m a y be d i s a s t r o u s to certain s p e c i e s a l t h o u g h in o t h e r places this m a y not be a
150

p r o b l e m . S o s e d i m e n t has t w o w a y s of f o r m i n g a threat to the e n v i r o n m e n t ; by reducing light


penetration a n d by carrying other pollutants s u c h as h e a v y m e t a l s .
9.2.2 C o n t r o l m e a s u r e s
Legal sanctions that are attainable a n d consistent provide good control m e a s u r e s . Environmental
a s s e s s m e n t of plans c a n be a control i n s t r u m e n t . C o m m o n p r o b l e m s during e n v i r o n m e n t a l
a s s e s s m e n t are:
1

e f f e c t s o n m a n , flora, a n d f a u n a a r e o f t e n indirectly related to direct c o n s e q u e n c e s of a n

activity
direct c o n s e q u e n c e s of an activity a r e often not e a s y to quantify

direct c o n s e q u e n c e s a r e m e a s u r e d in different units

direct c o n s e q u e n c e s a r e not e a s y to e x p r e s s in t e r m s of m o n e y

alternatives a r e e v a l u a t e d o n their final e f f e c t s , a n d t e m p o r a r y effects a r e o f t e n o m i t t e d / n o t


considered

T h e s e p r o b l e m s could possibly b e m e t by creating a social basis for the e v a l u a t i o n s . E f f e c t s


should be quantified and e x p r e s s e d o n the s a m e basis a n d in the s a m e units. T e m p o r a r y effects
should not b e forgotten. In a project, specific attention m u s t be given to the issue o f ; e s P n s i b Jy.
C o m p a n i e s that p r o d u c e pollutants, o f t e n fail to register w a s t e disposal properly. Frequently this
activity is c o n t r a c t e d out t o a c l e a n i n g c o m p a n y , w h i c h m a y c r e a t e legally unclear situations.
M a n y pollution p r o b l e m s c r o s s t h e b o r d e r s of a country. In the c a s e of river pollution, polluting
c o m p a n i e s w h i c h are situated u p s t r e a m c a u s e p r o b l e m s in d o w n s t r e a m river sections s o coastal
z o n e m a n a g e m e n t practice s h o u l d include the upper part of the river. In the c a s e of air pol ution
is e v e n m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d a n d m a n y e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o b l e m s m u s t b e t a c k l e d a n d international
m e a s u r e s m u s t be a p p l i e d . In particular the different s t a n d a r d s u s e d by n e i g h b o u r i n g c o u n t r i e s
g e n e r a t e u n c l e a r situations a n d political dissatisfaction.
During the last forty years, international legislation has been d e v e l o p e d with respect to the m a r i n e
e n v i r o n m e n t . This started with the T r e a t y for the Continental Shelf ( 1 9 5 8 ) , w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s t h e
rights of coastal countries, a n d also obliges t h e m to t a k e protective m e a s u r e s for m a n n e life. T t i e
L o n d o n ( D u m p i n g ) C o n v e n t i o n ( 1 9 7 5 ) , w h i c h h a s m a n y signatories, c o n t a i n s a p e n o d i c a l l y
u p d a t e d black list ( c h e m i c a l s w h i c h m a y not be d u m p e d or burnt at s e a ) a n d a grey list
( d u m p i n g / b u r n i n g only w i t h a p e r m i t ) . In order to p r e v e n t s h i p s f r o m P^J^^'^S ^^^^'^^^^^^^^
M A R P O L - a g r e e m e n t (1982) has b e e n widely a c c e p t e d . T h e Convention of the United Nations o n
the Right o f t h e S e a ( 1 9 8 2 ) i n c l u d e s the legal f r a m e w o r k for t h e w o r l d w i d e u s e of s e a s a n d
o c e a n s . R u l e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n and m a n a g e m e n t of m a r i n e life, a n d protection a n d
c o n s e r v a t i o n of t h e m a r i n e e n v i r o n m e n t a r e included in this a g r e e m e n t .

9.3 Density currents in rivers


U p to this point, tidal influences o n rivers have b e e n considered without regard to the fact that t h e
river w a t e r is relatively f r e s h w h i l e t h e o c e a n w a t e r is relatively salty. Salinity variations c a u s e
variations in w a t e r density, j u s t a s d o t e m p e r a t u r e variations (as d i s c u s s e d in C h a p t e r 4 ) .
D e n s i t y d i f f e r e n c e s c a u s e additional c u r r e n t s , w h i l e variation in salinity c a n affect the physical
c h e m i s t r y of f i n e s e d i m e n t s .

151

9.3.1 S a l i n i t y v a r i a t i o n s w i t h tide
Let us c o n s i d e r the salinity profiles f o u n d in rivers. Salinity profiles c a n be d r a w n by using
haloclines (lines of equal salinity). If the haloclines are vertical, o n e s p e a k s of a w e l l - m i x e d
condition. Horizontal haloclines indicate a stratified condition. In Figure 9-2, longitudinal s e c t i o n s
of a n e s t u a r y s h o w different salinity distributions ( % o ) .

T h e basic flow pattern in a n estuary is a surface flow of less d e n s e f r e s h water t o w a r d the o c e a n ,


and a n opposite flow of salty seawater into the estuary along the b o t t o m . T h e d i m e n s i o n s o f e a c h
flow, a n d the d e g r e e of mixing b e t w e e n the t w o , d e p e n d on specific conditions in e a c h e s t u a r y .
N o t e that, in the northern h e m i s p h e r e , s u r f a c e f r e s h w a t e r flowing t o w a r d s the m o u t h of t h e
e s t u a r y extends m u c h further s e a w a r d along the right-hand s h o r e as o n e f a c e s s e a w a r d . T h i s is
d u e t o the Coriolis effect. T h e o p p o s i t e s i d e of the e s t u a r y e x p e r i e n c e s a g r e a t e r

marine

influence. In m o s t estuaries, the m a r i n e w a t e r inflow o c c u r s in the s u b s u r f a c e .


U n l e s s there is m o r e than e n o u g h f r e s h w a t e r f l o w in the river to c o m p l e t e l y fill t h e entire tidal
prism d u r i n g the rising tide p h a s e , salt w a t e r e n t e r s a n e s t u a r y d u r i n g a rising tide. F e w rivers
have sufficient flow over the entire year to prevent the intrusion of salt water at least o c c a s i o n a l l y
I n d e e d , the opposite is m o r e often true; t h e r e is s e l d o m sufficient flow to prevent the intrusion of
salt w a t e r .

T h e salinity at a n y point in a river c a n be e x p e c t e d to v a r y a c c o r d i n g to the tide. S i n c e t h e salt


water c o m e s f r o m the sea, the m a x i m u m salinity should also be e x p e c t e d at a b o u t the t i m e of t h e
high w a t e r slack. This is illustrated for R o t t e r d a m in Figure 9-3. T h e current data is t h e s a m e a s
that in Figure 8-2. A g a i n , flood currents a r e c o n s i d e r e d positive.
Recalling f r o m Section 4.2 that s e a w a t e r has a salinity of a b o u t 35 %o w e s e e that pure s e a w a t e r
never really reaches R o t t e r d a m . Mixing has already dispersed the incoming s e a w a t e r t h r o u g h the
f r e s h river w a t e r f o r m i n g a b r a c k i s h m i x t u r e . If w e w e r e to m e a s u r e salinity at a point n e a r e r to
the s e a , t h e n w e could e x p e c t to find higher m a x i m u m salinity v a l u e s .

152

E
(5

12

F i g u r e 9-3 C u r r e n t a n d s a l i n i t y at R o t t e r d a m
T h e d e g r e e of mixing in a n estuary c a n be a p p r o x i m a t e l y related to t h e ratio b e t w e e n the v o l u m e
of the tidal p r i s m a n d the river flow, n a m e d the m i x i n g p a r a m e t e r {M).
QJ

in w h i c h :
M = t h e m i x i n g p a r a m e t e r [-]
P

(9.1)

= t h e v o l u m e of the tidal prism [m^]

Qr = t h e f r e s h w a t e r river f l o w [m^ls]
T

= t h e tide period [s]

For a w e l l - m i x e d e s t u a r y M g o e s to 0 w h i l e a well-stratified estuary M b e c o m e s 1.


C o m p a r i s o n of the River S c h e l d e a n d t h e R o t t e r d a m W a t e r w a y , indicates that the conditions at
R o t t e r d a m s h o w stratification (higher river d i s c h a r g e , lower tidal r a n g e ) a n d t h e S c h e l d e h a s a
m o r e m i x e d character.
A m o r e f u n d a m e n t a l a p p r o a c h to the p r o b l e m u s e d by Ippen a n d H a r l e m a n ( 1 9 6 1 ) investigate^^
t h e m i x i n g p r o c e s s t h r o u g h u s e of a d i m e n s i o n l e s s stratification n u m b e r (S). T h i s is d e f i n e d f o r
a unit m a s s of fluid a s :
rafe of energy
S =

rate of potential

dissipation
energy

(9.2)

gain

T h e e n e r g y dissipation in the n u m e r a t o r results f r o m the d a m p i n g of the tidal w a v e in the estuary;


t h e d e n o m i n a t o r reflects the potential e n e r g y gain a s w a t e r increases in density (salinity) m o v i n g
downstream.
H a r l e m a n a n d A b r a h a m ( 1 9 6 6 ) related t h e stratification n u m b e r uniquely to a d i m e n s i o n l e s s
estuary n u m b e r (E), defined b y
(9.3)
QJ
153

in w t i i c l i :

= tlie F r o u d e n u m b e r b a s e d u p o n the m a x i m u m f l o o d c u r r e n t velocity at the e s t u a r y m o u t h

= mixing p a r a m e t e r

T h e e s t u a r y n u m b e r (E) has the a d v a n t a g e over the stratification n u m b e r (S) that its p a r a m e t e r


c a n be rather easily evaluated. In contrast to the mixing p a r a m e t e r (M), estuary mixing increases
with increasing estuary n u m b e r values. W e l l - m i x e d estuaries have estuary n u m b e r s greater than
a b o u t 0.15.
9.3.2 S t a t i c s a l t w e d g e
In a fresh water river discharging into a saline sea, a salt w e d g e s f o r m s (see Figure 9-4). T h e sea
w a t e r intrudes along the river bottom under the fresh discharge water. T h e length of the intruding
w e d g e is d e t e r m i n e d by the equilibrium b e t w e e n the friction, % a l o n g the interface a n d t h e
horizontal p r e s s u r e gradient resulting f r o m inclination of the interface. W h e n this equilibrium is
strictly satisfied, the salt w e d g e will be in a stable position with t h e f r e s h w a t e r flowing s e a w a r d
o n the s u r f a c e a n d s p r e a d i n g out in a thin s u r f a c e layer at s e a . Schijf a n d S c h n f e l d ( 1 9 5 3 )
d e r i v e d a n e x p r e s s i o n for the length of s u c h a w e d g e in a p r i s m a t i c , horizontal, r e c t a n g u l a r
c h a n n e l d i s c h a r g i n g into a n infinite, non-tidal s e a .

V / / /

RIVER-

tH^

S EA

F i g u r e 9-4 S t a t i c s a l t w e d g e in river m o u t h
If no m i x i n g o c c u r s a c r o s s t h e interface, t h e n their e q u a t i o n is:

1
V - 2 + 3F3
5F='

6
5

(9.4)

where:
8r,
'

p(V,-V,)\/,-\4

(9.5)

and:
(9.6)
where:
= length of w e d g e [m]
\/r

= velocity in the river u p s t r e a m of the w e d g e [m/s]


154

Vi

= velocity in t i i e f r e s t i w a t e r a b o v e t h e w e d g e [ m / s ]

V2

= velocity in t h e salt w e d g e [m/s]

TI

= friction stress along t h e interface [Him ]

= relative density of t h e w a t e r m a s s e s ((p2-pi)/pi) H

T h i s e x p r e s s i o n illustrates t h e influence of w a t e r depth {h), t h e river d i s c h a r g e velocity (V.) a n d


the density d i f f e r e n c e o n t h e salt intrusion. A r e a s o n a b l e v a l u e for

,s m ^he order of M ^ o f

c o u r s e , in t h e idealised equilibrium state, V . = 0. T h i s is w h y n o friction stre

^he b " o m ^

s h o w n in Fig.6.4. T h e d a t a u s e d to plot this figure w e r e : f,= 0.08; /i = 10 m ; W - 0.2 m / s , a n d


= 0 . 0 2 4 6 , giving

= 2 6 8 9 m . T h e figure is d r a w n with a distortion of 1:100.

In a real situation there is a state of d y n a m i c equilibrium. Mixing will take place along the interf^^^
b e t w e e n t h e w a t e r m a s s e s . Salt and s e a w a t e r will b e transported with he river water back o t h e
s e a This is indicated in Figure 9-4 at the vertical d a s h e d line half w a y along t h e w e d g e . Since t h e
total net f l o w o u t of t h e river m u s t b e e q u a l to t h e f r e s h w a t e r runoff:
(9.7)
where:
= inflow in t h e w e d g e
Qr

= f r e s h w a t e r river f l o w
= n e t outflow t h r o u g h t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n

Continuity of salt c o n t e n t m u s t also b e m a i n t a i n e d . T h i s implies that:

w h e r e Si a n d S g a r e t h e r e s p e c t i v e salinities.
W h e n different v a l u e s of
decreases as

a r e substituted into e q u a t i o n ( 9 . 4 ) (via (9.6)) it is f o u n d that

i n c r e a s e s ; i n d e e d , F = 1 yields U = 0. R e m e m b e r i n g ^hat increasing V a

i m p l i e s a n increasing Q . w e s e e m to d i s c o v e r a contradiction to t h e rules of t h u m b p r e s e n e d in


Equation (9 1) a n d (9 3 ) . A c c o r d i n g to that, increasing Q . should lead t o a m o r e stratified e s t u a ^ ,
a r L n c e , - 1 longer i n s t e a d of a shorter salt t o n g u e ( w e d g e ) . T h i s d i l e m m a is e x p a - ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
realising t h a t all tidal i n f l u e n c e s h a v e b e e n n e g l e c t e d in f o r m u l a t i n g e q u a t i o n (9.4), t h u s , this
c o m p a r i s o n is invalid.
In a real estuary, t h e salt w e d g e intrusion p r o b l e m is m u c h m o r e c o m p l e x . T h e river flow, Q
v a r i e s , tidal influences a r e present, a n d t h e e s t u a r y is certainly n o t p r i s m a t i c .
Usually, t h e tidal i n f l u e n c e is m o s t i m p o r t a n t - it leads t o a n oscillatory m o t i o n of t h e entire t w o layer s y s t e m o v e r a n u n e v e n b o t t o m . T h i s m o t i o n , of c o u r s e , i n c r e a s e s m i x i n g a c r o s s

he

interface. I n d e e d , in estuaries with a strong tidal influence a n d little f r e s h w a t e r flow, straJ^catK^n


c a n b e essentially d e s t r o y e d , leading to a w e l l - m i x e d estuary. A t a n y given t i m e a n d place t h e r e
is little vertical salinity g r a d i e n t .
9.3.3 H o r i z o n t a l stratification
A horizontal stratification implies a horizontal interface b e t w e e n t w o layers. If t h e ^PPer ^ y e r is
less d e n s e t h a n t h e lower layer this stratification will b e in e q u i l i b r i u m , n f - ^ ^ ^ ^
c a n r e m a i n stable e v e n t h o u g h both layers of water a r e in motion. This

'

'^^^^^^^^^

^.^Te^Jlares

b y salinity o r t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e s is f o u n d in t h e o c e a n s a n d in all but t h e s h a l l o w e s t l a k e s .


W h e n a horizontal stratification s u r f a c e exists within a body of w a t e r , w a v e s c a n b e g e n e r a t e d at
155

this interface, j u s t as on the u p p e r s u r f a c e . I n d e e d , the upper s u r f a c e of a b o d y of w a t e r is also


an interface b e t w e e n t w o m e d i a (water a n d air). H o w e v e r , for internal w a v e s o n an interface
b e t w e e n water layers, the density of the upper fluid is nearly the s a m e as the density of t h e lower
fluid. T h e resulting low density difference will have a strong influence o n the p h e n o m e n a involved,
especially w h e n t h e s e are c o m p a r e d to w i n d w a v e s .
" D e a d w a t e r " is a p h e n o m e n o n that is related to horizontal stratification; the situation in w h i c h a
generally stable salt layer is lying under a f r e s h layer. Internal w a v e s (Figure 9-5) c a n be c a u s e d
by a d i s t u r b a n c e s u c h as a ship, e a r t h q u a k e or u n d e r w a t e r landslide. T h e y c a n also result f r o m
s h e a r f o r c e s a l o n g a n interface b e t w e e n t w o layers in relative m o t i o n .

_2_
e.

Pi

e.

P2

/ / / /

F i g u r e 9-5 Internal w a v e .
T h e celerity of a w a v e o n a n interface is given by:

where:
c

= wave speed

= density

= layer t h i c k n e s s

A s p2 is nearly e q u a l to p , in Equation (9.9), it c a n be a p p r o x i m a t e d b y

' 1

p,h

~ifr~

(^-^^^

where:

= relative d e n s i t y = {p2 - p-,) I pi

= total d e p t h = 61 + 62

T h e s e w a v e s c a n be very high, since t h e gravitational influence o n t h e m is s m a l l . T h e y a r e


accompanied

by m u c h s m a l l e r negative w a v e s o n t h e w a t e r s u r f a c e . I n d e e d , as a first

a p p r o x i m a t i o n , the ratio of s u r f a c e w a v e height to internal w a v e height is e q u a l to 6. T h e s e


internal w a v e s c a n a b s o r b a considerable e n e r g y f r o m a ship causing the so-called "dead water".
This is explained via a n e x a m p l e . A ship of 4 m draft sails into a stratified harbour with a 3 m thick
s u r f a c e layer of relatively fresh water (salinity S = 5 %o a n d t e m p e r a t u r e 7 = 2 C) a b o v e a d e e p e r
layer of 7 m thick with S = 36%o a n d 7 = 4 C . W h a t is the m a x i m u m s p e e d that this s h i p c a n
attain?

156

(T,i=4.00;

A-1004.00/eg/m^

(7,2=28.70.p2=1028.70/cg/m^

T28y^l4:)(9^^
(1004.0)(7) + (1028.7)(3)

ThP onlv w a v the ship c a n m o v e faster t h a n this w a v e is to cut t h r o u g h it or c l i m b over it; neither
is v e ; i S l h

s^^^^^^^^^^

p h e n o m e n o n also played a role in a nava,

^^^J^^^^

a g o in t h e a r e a w h e r e the rather f r e s h Baltic S e a w a t e r flows o v e r m o r e d e n s e w a t e r f r o m t h e


Sl<agerak.
9.3.4 Siltation in r i v e r s
A s has already b e e n indicated, tide cycles c a u s e the salt t o n g u e or the haloclines to r . o v e b a c k
a n d forth in the river as a function of the tide. T h e m o s t direct

^ ^ ^ ^ / ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

river is its effect o n the siltation pattern of the estuary. T h e current along the bottom

th is p h e n o l n o n c^^^^ also be f o u n d in a n estuary w h i c h has a density difference c a u s e d by other


f a c t o r s s u c h a^^^^^^

gradients. For e x a m p l e , this p h e n o m e n o n might also be o b s e r v e d ,n h e

c o l g w a t e r d i s c h a r g e ' c h a n n e l f r o m a p o w e r station, e v e n o n e located o n a f r e s h w a t e r l a k e .

W h e n t h e s u s p e n d e d s e d i m e n t in a river c o n s i s t s of clay a n d t h e d e n s i t y tongue is c a u s e d t^y

in s u s p e n s i o n .

A s t h e salinity of t h e w a t e r i n c r e a s e s , the positive ions ( N a ^ M g ^ , C a ^ etc.) p r e s e n t t e n d t o


n e u t r a l i s e t ? e electrostatic f o r c e s , t h u s a l l o w i n g t h e clay particles to flocculate, a n d s e t t i a A

of t h e m a g n i t u d e of this influence o n siltation c a n be g a m e d bY.^ennpanng the fall v e o c ^


narticles in f r e s h w a t e r to t h e fall velocity of f l o c k s of particles in salt w a t e r (S > 5 ho). A l l e r s m a
H o e k t a a n d B^ker ( 1 9 6 7 ) report t h a t t h e a p p a r e n t ratio b e t w e e n t h e s e fall velocities w a s m o r e
t h a n 1:50.

157

s u c h a high v o l u m e of w a t e r will k e e p the m u d density low (usually b e t w e e n 1100 a n d 1 2 5 0


k g / m ). T h e material behaves as a viscous fluid with a viscosity in the order of 100 to 5 0 0 0 t i m e s
that of w a t e r ; this is c o m p a r a b l e to Dutch yoghurt (except for c o l o u r ) . T h i s material, called sling
m u d , is difficult to detect w h e n m a k i n g soundings. It appears as a faint reflection on an e c h o g r a m .
T h e s e d i m e n t is s o soft that ships can often sail through it. T h e consolidation process of s u c h soft
silt is v e r y s l o w . Layers up to 2.5 m thick r e m a i n fluid for s e v e r a l w e e k s - e v e n in a l a b o r a t o r y
settling t u b e . T h i s sling m u d c a n be brought into s u s p e n s i o n a g a i n w h e n the current v e l o c i t y
a b o v e it r e a c h e s a critical value ranging b e t w e e n 0.2 a n d 1.0 m/s.

T h e upper portion of the m u d layer behaves as a viscous fluid a n d while this is easy to p u m p with
a d r e d g e , its e x t r e m e l y low d e n s i t y results in poor d r e d g e productivity m e a s u r e d in t e r m s of
quantity of solids m o v e d per hour. O n e m e a n s of i m p r o v i n g this situation is to d r e d g e a d e e p pit
s o that the silt layers c a n m o v e to that pit a n d consolidate slowly there. M u d of higher d e n s i t y c a n
t h e n be w i t h d r a w n f r o m the d e e p e s t part of the pit using a d r e d g e . N o w , t h e r e r e m a i n s o n l y a
p r o b l e m of getting the m u d layer to m o v e to the pit. T h e r e are t w o options/possibilities:
1

If sufficient s u r f a c e slope is available, gravitational f o r c e will c a u s e t h e sling m u d to f l o w


t o w a r d s a n d into t h e pit.

T h e s e c o n d a p p r o a c h relies on the shear stress exerted by w a t e r flowing a b o v e the b e d , (the


tide, f o r e x a m p l e ) to provide a driving f o r c e for the m u d m o v e m e n t . A d a n g e r is that if t h e
s u r f a c e s h e a r s t r e s s b e c o m e s too high, the b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n m u d a n d w a t e r b e c o m e s
t u r b u l e n t stirring the m u d into s u s p e n s i o n . Naturally m u d in s u s p e n s i o n will s i m p l y p a s s o v e r
t h e nicely p r e p a r e d pit.

9.3.5 M e t h o d s to c o m b a t d e n s i t y c u n - e n t s in r i v e r s
T h e r e are relatively f e w e c o n o m i c a l techniques that can be u s e d to c o m b a t the intrusion of a salt
t o n g u e into a river. M a n y more techniques are available for m o r e restricted areas s u c h as h a r b o u r
b a s i n s a n d c h a n n e l s . It has b e e n indicated that the length of the salt w e d g e c a n be r e d u c e d b y
d e c r e a s i n g the w a t e r depth a n d b y increasing the f r e s h w a t e r flow. In t h e N e t h e r l a n d s , t h e
d i s c h a r g e of f r e s h w a t e r t h r o u g h the N e w W a t e r w a y h a s b e e n i n c r e a s e d as a result o f t h e
c o m p l e t i o n of the Northern part of the Delta Project (Volkerak d a m and locks. Haringvliet s l u i c e ) .
In a d d i t i o n , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of the E u r o p o o r t h a r b o u r a r e a has e l i m i n a t e d the n e c e s s i t y for
bringing large, d e e p ships into the N e w W a t e r w a y past the Europoort entrance. T h u s in the 1970s
a n d 1 9 8 0 s , sills of g r a v e l c o u l d be built o n the b e d of the N e w W a t e n w a y in R o t t e r d a m . T h e s e
d e c r e a s e d the effective depth a n d to a large extent d r o v e the saltwater t o n g u e b a c k t o w a r d s t h e
s e a . In this w a y salt intrusion into the hinterland via the m o u t h of the " H o l l a n d s c h e I J s s e l " n e a r
K r i m p e n , could b e eliminated. A similar m e a s u r e w a s taken m o r e recently in the Mississippi River
to protect t h e w a t e r s u p p l y intakes of N e w O r l e a n s . ( S e e insert f r o m : "Civil E n g i n e e r i n g " ,
December 1999).

T h e r m a l density currents can be c o m b a t e d by either e n h a n c i n g the mixing of the t w o w a t e r layers


or s t i m u l a t i n g t h e heat transfer p r o c e s s b e t w e e n layers or to t h e a t m o s p h e r e . For e x a m p l e ,
a l t h o u g h this is not very c o m m o n l y d o n e , mixing c a n be e n h a n c e d , by increasing the t u r b u l e n c e
in t h e t h e r m a l d i s c h a r g e or artificially g e n e r a t i n g an u n s t a b l e stratification. I n c r e a s i n g t h e
d i s c h a r g e v e l o c i t y a n d c o n s t r u c t i n g of a pile-supported j e t t y in front of the d i s c h a r g e f l u m e o f a
p o w e r station h a v e b e e n s u g g e s t e d as m e a n s to increase m i x i n g by increasing t u r b u l e n c e . Airb u b b l e s c r e e n s , c r e a t e d by p u m p i n g air into the water, h a v e a similar effect. N a t u r a l l y - u n s t a b l e
stratification is o f t e n artificially g e n e r a t e d w h e n w a r m s e w a g e of l o w salinity is d i s c h a r g e d n e a r
the b o t t o m of the s e a . A s the lighter s e w a g e rises t h r o u g h the seawater, the resulting t u r b u l e n c e
helps to d i s p e r s e it. O b v i o u s l y a n o t h e r solution to t h e r m a l pollution p r o b l e m s is to r e - c o o l t h e
d i s c h a r g e w a t e r before it is released. This m a y be a c c o m p l i s h e d by retention in shallow p o o l s or
by circulation t h r o u g h a cooling t o w e r . S o m e t i m e s , this c o o l i n g c a n b e a c c o m p l i s h e d by s i m p l y
using a long w i d e discharge channel. T h e objective in all of t h e s e solutions is to transfer t h e heat
158

to t h e a t m o s p h e r e .
During t h e design of cooling circuits, proper attention m u s t be paid t o t h e prevention of shortcuts
b e t w e e n intakes a n d outlets.
December, 1999)

ij

turn around," Thibodeaux says,

metropolitan area.
The corps a.arfcd a Sl.^trtBlion dredging contra, in ep-^. to >^Ue Hoo.^^^

intake on tlie river is at Belle Chasse, about 20 mi (32 Imr) south of New Orleans.
"The siH's location was chosen because we can use heavier dran

-;tr:^n:m?rl^

of material would need to be dredged.


o c ,a ,.11..4, . p . . * . p;..ed

Schilling says.

159

^^^^

9.4 Density currents in harbours


T h e tide c a u s e s e b b a n d f l o o d currents in a harbour. W h e n the traditional e q u a t i o n s of m o t i o n
are, inertial t e r m s a r e less important here. This m e a n s that if no density effects a r e involved t h e
current in the h a r b o u r m o u t h will be slacl< just at the t i m e s of high a n d low w a t e r . H o w e v e r , t h e
tide also c a u s e s density c u r r e n t s . If s u c h effects are i n v o l v e d , the d e n s i t y stratification at t h e
m o u t h of a h a r b o u r basin j u s t after the river salinity has c h a n g e d c a n be outlined by a vertical
interface. This c o n f i g u r a t i o n m a y be called vertical stratification of the salinity profile.

door

u- door

'

V7

MMm

hi

\
\

pressure diagram

I
*- g ( P j h2 -

h., )

resultant
pressure

Figure 9-6 Hydrostatic pressures on each side of a lock gate separating salt from fresh
water.
This situation is very m u c h the s a m e as that of a lock, w h e r e there is fresh water o n o n e side a n d
salt w a t e r o n the other side. Hydrostatic p r e s s u r e differs o n e a c h sides a n d the result is s h o w n
in Figure 9-6. O p e n i n g of the lock gate can take place w h e n there are equal w a t e r levels o n both
s i d e s of the g a t e . In this c a s e , t h e r e is still a resultant horizontal f o r c e w o r k i n g o n the g a t e t h a t
p r e v e n t s s m o o t h o p e n i n g . T h e resultant force b e c o m e s z e r o , if:

\p^Q^^

(9.12)

where:
p

= m a s s d e n s i t y of w a t e r

= gravity a c c e l e r a t i o n

= depth

W h e n p 2 > P 1 , t h e n E q u a t i o n (9.12) yields:


(9.13)

W h i l e the resultant f o r c e o n the gate is zero, the resultant m o m e n t on the gate is not z e r o ! A f t e r
o p e n i n g the g a t e this c o n d i t i o n is unstable. It t h e r e f o r e leads to a current pattern as s h o w n in
Figure 9-7. T h e flow of the d e n s e r layer can be c o m p a r e d to the flow of w a t e r d o w n a river valley
j u s t after a d a m h a s burst. This is called a dry b e d c u r v e . T h e toe of the dry b e d c u r v e is held
slightly back by t h e friction a l o n g the b o t t o m .
S i n c e the v o l u m e of w a t e r in the lock c h a m b e r or h a r b o u r r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t - n e g l e c t i n g filling
or e m p t y i n g - the inflow m u s t equal the outflow c a u s e d by the density difference. S i n c e the usual
160

velocities m u s t b e e q u a l for a r e c t a n g u l a r c h a n n e l .

SL

R e s u l t a n t pressure
distribution

^^^rve

F i g u r e 9-7 Dry b e d c u r v e

T h e velocity of t h e d e n s e layer is:

,g ^
Vo = 0.45 V ^ g / I

where:
Vd = velocity in t h e dry b e d c u r v e
S

= relative d e n s i t y = {pD-p)l

= water depth

b e t w e e n 0.3 a n d 0.4 usually gives better results.

a, (and

, a real Harbour on a
river
o, course
is m e superposition o, the filling and ^^^^^^^^^^^^

,1 s' pot

f^j^^lZTol'^!:^^^!^^^^
l o t

be simply added, except

rrsxr=i;rsr::i*entire^dep..^
. s a n example, tbe actual conditions
^ ^ ^ ^ Z Z ^ J ^ ^ ^ t : : ^ ^
Harbour are given. Previously, we have f'^'^J^^^l'"^^^^
, 3 , ^ , ^^e much l e s s important
in a river e v e n after high water. For
^^s^^^;^^^^^^^^
high and low water. T h i s is
and the current in the harbour moutl^ wfll ^=
''^^ ^ . ' f ^ ^ , , 3 ^ ^ , p,o, Figure 9-8 showing
true when no density effects are invoivec^^TableW lists^^^^
V
^^^^^^^
the tidal conditions in the R''^<'=''^ " = ' 7 ; ' ^ " j l , I e d e n s i ^ current have b e e n
previously mentioned. (For the t,me be,ng
f ^ ^ ^ " ^ ^ t h e harbour entrance are s o

:rarcrirrc:rtrrp::sitn^:tLfiguresare^
listed in T a b l e 9 - 1 .

161

Time

H a r b o u r T i d e Level

River C u r r e n t

Harbour

Filling

Current
(hrs.)

(m N A P )

(m/s)

-0.69

-0.15

0.9

-0.50

+0.08

2.2

(cm/s)

-0.03

+0.60

3.2

+0.52

+0.75

2.2

+0.91

+0.44

1.1

+1.04

+0.07

+0.91

-0.44

-1.5

+0.61

-0.73

-2.1
-1.6

+0.25

-1.03

-0.15

-1.05

-1.1

10

-0.47

-0.85

-1.5

11

-0.58

-0.52

-0.8

12

-0.62

-0.30

0
1 T i d a l c o n d i t i o n s m e a s u r e d in t h e R o t t e r d a m w a t e r w a y {2e P e t r o l e u m h a v e n )

Petroleumhaven)
d e n s i t y c o n d i t i o n s a n d the resulting d e n s i t y currents m e a s u r e d in the m o u t h of t h e 2 n d
162

P e t r o l e u m h a r b o u r are given in T a b l e 9-2 and Figure 9-9. C o m p a r i n g t h e s e m e a s u r e d data w i t h


t h e f i g u r e s that c a n be calculated using e q u a t i o n (9.14) leads to the c o n c l u s i o n that t h e r e a r e
s o m e i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e o r y a n d practice.

F i g u r e 9-9 D e n s i t y c o n d i t i o n s m e a s u r e d at R o t t e r d a m ( m o u t h 2 e P e t r o l e u m h a v e n )

River

Harbour

S
at s u r f a c e

Time

(hrs.)

(0/00)

(0/00)

(-)

(cm/s)

2.38

3.96

1.224 X 10"^

+3.0

2.47

3.30

5.952 X 10""

+4.0

2.83

3.04

1.619 X lO"'*

+1.2

3.64

2.63

7.830 X 10"*

-5.0

5.08

3.01

1.600 X 10"^

-8.0

7.25

3.91

2 . 5 6 7 X 10"^

-10.7

8.06

5.23

2 . 1 8 0 X 10"^

-10.3

7.16

6.56

4.616 X 10'"

-1.4

6.08

6.69

4.679 X lO "

+2.1

4.90

6.37

1.128 X 10"^

+2.5

10

3.64

5.43

1.379 X 10"^

+2.5

11

2.65

4.36

1.325 X 10'^

+2.1

12

2.38

3.82

1 . 1 1 6 X 10'^

+2.1

T a b l e 9-2 D e n s i t y c o n d i t i o n s m e a s u r e d at R o t t e r d a m ( m o u t h 2 e P e t r o l e u m h a v e n )
163

Figure 9-8 n o w s h o w s the idealised current profiles in the m o u t h of the 2 n d P e t r o l e u m H a r b o u r


b a s e d o n the c o m b i n e d effect of the filling current a n d the density current.
TIME
(hrs)

FILLING
CURRENT
(cm/s)

DENSITY
CURRENT
(cm/s)

TOTAL
CURRENT
(cm/s)

Y
3.2

12

/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / n u n I f nrrtin
3.2

1.2

u / mi /

8.0

N/ii/rinnii/i
11

////////////////////77///
8.0

nm nn/hfn

2.0

n n /11 f n

6.9

>//nTni/fmiinT/in/i
9.1

1.0

10

nnnhnnun
4.0

F i g u r e 9-10

nnnn/n

I d e a l i s e d c u r r e n t p r o f i l e s a n d their s u p e r p o s i t i o n for v a r i o u s t i m e s .

In t h e a b o v e a p p r o a c h , it has been a s s u m e d that the harbour had a n infinite length. In reality this
is never true. T h e a v e r a g e salinity increase in the harbour basin a n d t h e density current d e p e n d s
o n t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f the b a s i n . T o d e t e r m i n e h o w far the salinity t o n g u e p e n e t r a t e s into t h e
harbour it is n e c e s s a r y to calculate the continuity of the progression of the density t o n g u e . T h e r e
are two conditions:
1

T h e salt m u s t h a v e s o m e w h e r e to g o

T h e r e m u s t b e a driving f o r c e (i.e. t h e d e n s i t y d i f f e r e n c e )

T h e first condition is d e p e n d e n t only u p o n the g e o m e t r y of the h a r b o u r while the s e c o n d criterion


d e p e n d s o n the w a t e r a l o n e .
E x a m p l e . In o r d e r to s e p a r a t e t h e s e conditions for d i s c u s s i o n , let us first a s s u m e that initially all
the w a t e r in a h a r b o u r basin a n d the adjacent river has a density of 1005 kg/m^. A t s o m e instant,
the density of t h e w a t e r in the river increases to 1015 kg/m^, a n d maintains that value indefinitely;
thus, the driving f o r c e is maintained. T h e r e is no tide. T h e harbour has a rectangular f o r m a n d has
a d e p t h /7 = 7 m a n d length L = 2 5 0 0 m . Figure 9 - 1 1 .

164

500 m

PLAN
t= 2 l / 2 h

harbor
t='.1/2h

V_-

h=7m

t = 2h
PROFILE

DISTORTION

77777

1:100

F i g u r e 9-11 P r o g r e s s of d e n s i t y c u r r e n t in h a r b o u r

from the inner end of the harbour, just a s d o e s any other ' " " g w

-^'^-^^'^Z^^s s

r t r r r ,

towards the entranoe at the

' !

,^^3

by t r d a s h e d line's in Figure 9 - 1 1 ,

process stops, . c e there is no longer

a density d i f f e r e n c e a c r o s s t h e h a r b o u r e n t r a n c e .

W h a t h a s happened to the l e s s d e n s e w a ^ that w a s o ^ i n a y

--;---rrngrh

Tar r r i S r eirget.rptc5'rLs.

e . c e p t When the driving foroe

f d e X d i f f e - e n c e a t L entranoe of the harbour) is removed ,n the meantime,

m a i n t a i n e d in the river f o r only 1 hr 12 m m , ^ " e r w n i ^ c n ^ n

,^

. g , m ' , indeed for the f . s t 1 h r ^ ^

L^r^esrlmlntir^ep

the siug

0, salt water

moving

b e c o m e important, since the trailing end of the f " 9 '"i-J^^^^^^^^^^

::rr;rhgr:rurttr\]=tS^^
165

out in

to ttie d e e p e r river. Quantitative evaluations of all ttiese p r o c e s s e s a r e beyond t h e s c o p e of this


c o u r s e . T h e c o m p l e x filling process of a harbour basin, h o w e v e r has major c o n s e q u e n c e s for the
s e d i m e n t transport b e c a u s e large quantities of silt enter the harbour along with the d e n s e r water.
A n i m p r e s s i o n of the f o r m of the interface b e t w e e n the t w o w a t e r m a s s e s s o m e t i m e later is
s h o w n in the figure.

.0.289 m/s
p = 1005
p=1005

r
1

h =7m

p = 1015
VB= 0 . 2 8 9 m/s

h///////////j////////////////}///////////////////////////////,
B. Situation after 1" 12"'

p = 1005

/,

J
p = 1015

'//////////////////////////)/u/////)/n/iif)//i////)////////)7.
C. S i t u a t i o n some time Later

F i g u r e 9-12 D e n s i t y c u r r e n t s in a h a r b o u r
In practice, physical m o d e l studies a n d semi-empirical equations are used to predict m a i n t e n a n c e
d r e d g i n g c o s t s a n d to d e s i g n m e a s u r e s to r e d u c e the siltation rate. A s m o r e t h a n 8 0 % of t h e
h a r b o u r siltation is c a u s e d by d e n s i t y c u r r e n t s , the w a t e r e x c h a n g e is a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r . T h e
w a t e r e x c h a n g e d e p e n d s o n the s h a p e of the entrance. O t h e r determining factors for t h e current
pattern a r e e d d i e s a n d river c u r r e n t s .

9.4.1 Siltation in h a r b o u r s
Variations in salinity c a u s e flocculation and the rapid settlement of fine material. T h i s s e t t l e m e n t
of material p r o c e e d s e v e n f a s t e r in h a r b o u r s than in rivers b e c a u s e of the relative tranquillity of
the w a t e r t h e r e . O b v i o u s l y , all of the p h e n o m e n a that c a u s e w a t e r e x c h a n g e b e t w e e n h a r b o u r
a n d river also i n c r e a s e the s u p p l y of s e d i m e n t to the harbour.
For d r e d g i n g p u r p o s e s quantitative i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t the h a r b o u r siltation is i m p o r t a n t . T h i s is
c o m p u t e d by multiplying the v o l u m e of w a t e r e x c h a n g e d in the basin during o n e tide cycle b y the
d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the s e d i m e n t concentration of in-flowing w a t e r a n d out-flowing w a t e r . T h i s is
a r o u g h e s t i m a t e that has practical v a l u e . T h e role of e a c h of the c o m p o n e n t s of the c u r r e n t will
b e e x a m i n e d in the e x a m p l e in t h e f o l l o w i n g section.

166

9.4.2 T h e p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m

mmmmmM
institutions involved in the m o d e l l i n g of saline density c u r r e n t s .

in t h e Port of R o t t e r d a m . W h e n m e a s u r e m e n t s m a d e ,n several of the larger h a r b o u r s


(Botlek f

P e t r o l e u m h a v e n ) a r e u s e d the following relationship results:

= total w a t e r v o l u m e p a s s i n g the h a r b o u r m o u t h in t w o directions, i n d u c e d by d e n s i t y current


d u r i n g the entire tide period

A, = t h e cross sectional a r e a of t h e e n t r a n c e in m
G

= coefficient d e p e n d i n g o n the h a r b o u r

= a v e r a g e d e p t h of t h e h a r b o u r in m e t e r s

S' = t h e relative density d e f i n e d a s :


g, ^ Pn.e.-Pmn

(9.16)

where:
p^.^ = m i n i m u m river density
Pmax = m a x i m u m river d e n s i t y
p
= a v e r a g e river density over o n e tide period

calculations in not g o o d e n o u g h .

feasibility s t u d i e s . E v e n a c r u d e c o m p u t a t i o n c a n be helpful in s u c h c a s e s .
T h e c o m p u t a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e outlined in this section is illustrated in t h e e x a m p l e b e l o w .
A h a r b o u r is located along a river in w h i c h the a v e r a g e ^^^^^^^^^^^
mq/l T h e harbour is 2 0 0 0 m long a n d has a prismatic cross section with side s l o p e s

'Vhl

i .4. i n

k g / m ^ , yielding:

^,^005.18-1000.85^^

.3
(9.17)

1003.02

Harbor

2000 m

H.W.
L.W.

Harbor

7777

~7777
AOOm
Cross

Longitudinal

-7777-

profile

section

Di s t o r t i o n 1 :10G

Distortion

1:100

Figure9-13 Harbour example sketch

T t i e a v e r a g e w a t e r d e p t h in the h a r b o u r is:

h = 13.5 + - X 1 . 7 = 1 4 . 3 5 m
2

(9.18)

400+(14.38x8)=515m

(9.19)

Yielding a top w i d t h of:

T h e a v e r a g e f l o w a r e a in t h e e n t r a n c e is, t h e n :

4 =

(400 + 515)(14.35)=6565/n^

168

(9.20)

h a r b o u r is t h e v o l u m e of w a t e r s u p p l i e d per tide by t h e filling current.


T h e tidal p r i s m , P, of t h e
(9.21)

P=(515)(2000)(1.7)=1.75x10''m^

of d r y silt. T h u s , 67 mg/1 (or 6 7 g / m 3 ) is retained in t h e h a r b o u r .

T h e influence o, .he density current is computed using equation ( J . ^ ^ )

'
e x c h a n g e d by the density current during a tide penod , s . using G - 8 0 0 0 ^lm/t,de penod
(9.23)
V, = ( 8 0 0 0 ) ( 6 6 6 5 ) J ( 4 . 3 2 x 1 0 - ' ) ( 1 4 . 3 5 ) = 1 , 3 1 x 1 0 ' m V f/de
Half of this water, 6 , 5 3 x 1 0 ' m = e , enters along the harbour bottom with the intruding salt tongue
a n d b r i n g s s e d i m e n t Sdi with it:
(9.24)

S,,=(6.53x10'')(67)(l0-=) = 4.38x10^/cg/f/cfe

T s s u m e that 10 m g / l leaves t h e h a r b o u r alter. T h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s y i e l d s .


S,, = ( 6 . 5 3 x 1 0 ^ ) ( 0 . 2 x 7 7 - 1 0 ) ( l 0 - ) = 3 . 5 3 x 1 0 " / c g / M e

(9.25)

T h e s e d i m e n t a t i o n f r o m t h e v a r i o u s s o u r c e s is c o m p a r e d in T a b l e 9-3. W e s e e t h a t m o r e t h a n
8 0 % o f t h e h a r b o u r siltation is c a u s e d by t h e d e n s i t y current.
Component
Filling current
Salt inflow
Salt outflow
D e n s i t y subtotal
G r a n d total

Quantity

P e r c e n t of

n<a/tide)

tola!

1.17 X 10^

19.8

4 . 3 8 X 10

74.2

3.53 X 1 0 "

6.0

4 . 7 3 X 10

80.2

5.90 X 10^

100.0

169

c a n be a n s w e r e d if the densities of the dry s e d i m e n t particles a n d of the in situ s e d i m e n t are


k n o w n . R e a s o n a b l e v a l u e s for t h e s e a r e 2 6 5 0 k g / m ' a n d 1200 kg/m^

respectively. T h e n , if

d e n o t e s the v o l u m e of water-filled voids in 1 m ' of s e d i m e n t :

1200=(2650)(1-i/J+(1000)(i/J

from which

(9.26)

= 0.88. T h e r e f o r e , 1 m ' of s e d i m e n t c o n t a i n s :

(1-0.88)(2650)=318/cg

(9.27)

of d r y s e d i m e n t particles. 5.9 x 10^ kg of s e d i m e n t particles o c c u p i e s a v o l u m e of:

(5.90x10'')
^ - ( ^ = 1 8 5 5 ^ 3

(328)

T h i s v o l u m e of s e d i m e n t a c c u m u l a t e s in o n e tide period. T h e r e a r e :

(365.25) (24)
(12.42)

(S'^S)

tides per year, s o that in o n e year, the a c c u m u l a t i o n of s e d i m e n t in the h a r b o u r is:

(1855)(706)

1.31x10''mV year/

(9.30)

T h i s v o l u m e is s p r e a d o v e r t h e h a r b o u r b o t t o m in a layer t h i c k n e s s o f :

(1.31x10')
(2000)(400) = ^ - ^ ' ^

(9-31)

It is usually not e c o n o m i c a l to d r e d g e out a s e d i m e n t layer less t h a n a b o u t 2.5 m thick. In this


c a s e the h a r b o u r c o u l d b e d r e d g e d a b o u t o n c e e v e r y 18 m o n t h s .
T h i s last d r a m a t i s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e d e n s i t y current. If the density current c o u l d b e
eliminated in the harbour, then the interval b e t w e e n dredging activity could be increased by a b o u t
a f a c t o r 5 ( s e e T a b l e 9-1) or to a b o u t 7 y e a r s . T h e e c o n o m i c s a v i n g s involved a r e o b v i o u s .
T h e c r u d e c o m p u t e r i s a t i o n will not a l w a y s yield reliable results s i n c e the c u r r e n t p a t t e r n in a
h a r b o u r m o u t h c a n be c o m p l i c a t e d . T h e c o m p l i c a t i o n c a n exist in t h e f o r m of an e d d y r o t a t i n g
a b o u t a vertical axis in t h e harbour e n t r a n c e . W a t e r e x c h a n g e b e t w e e n the harbour a n d e d d y o n
o n e side and b e t w e e n river ad e d d y on the other c a n increase the transport of salt and s u s p e n d e d
s e d i m e n t into t h e h a r b o u r . W h e n a h a r b o u r is s m a l l , the d e n s i t y c u r r e n t c a n usually c a r r y o u t a
c o m p l e t e w a t e r e x c h a n g e rather q u i c k l y but t h e n stops t r a n s p o r t i n g silt-laden w a t e r into t h e
h a r b o u r . T h e e d d y o n t h e other h a n d , c o n t i n u e s f u n c t i o n i n g , e x c h a n g i n g s e d i m e n t laden river
w a t e r for clearer h a r b o u r water. T h i s c a n be t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t of the t h r e e c a u s e s o f t h e
t r a n s p o r t of s e d i m e n t into a s m a l l h a r b o u r .

Eddies f o r m at the e n t r a n c e to larger h a r b o u r basins as well. H o w e v e r , t h e s e t e n d to be e x c i t e d


by the other c u r r e n t c o m p o n e n t s in t h e h a r b o u r e n t r a n c e rather t h a n the river current. A s s u c h ,
they contribute little to t h e s u p p l y of s e d i m e n t to the harbour. It t a k e s little i m a g i n a t i o n to r e a l i s e
that near the m o u t h of a harbour, w h e r e eddies, density currents, river currents and harbour-filling
c u r r e n t s a r e all c o m p e t i n g with o n e a n o t h e r , the current p a t t e m c a n be rather c o n f u s e d . S m a l l ,
170

conditions.

9.4.3 M e t h o d s to c o m b a t d e n s i t y c u r r e n t s in h a r b o u r s
C o m b a t i n g d e n s i t y currents h a p p e n s via:

r e d u c e s the intrusion.
A combination Of m e a s u r e s c a n be .aKen, o t h e r

d e v i c e s c a n be c o n c e i v e d by u s i n g a bit of ingenuity.

171

10.1 Introduction
L a r g e parts of s a n d y c o a s t s all o v e r t h e w o r l d suffer f r o m structural e r o s i o n and/or d u n e a n d
b e a c h e r o s i o n during s e v e r e s t o r m s u r g e s . In c o a s t a l e n g i n e e r i n g practice a n i m p o r t a n t a i m is
the p r o p e r protection of t h e s e t h r e a t e n e d c o a s t s . B e s i d e s this type of protection, s o m e t i m e s
n e w l y r e c l a i m e d a r e a s h a v e to be p r o t e c t e d f r o m t h e a t t a c k s by the s e a .
F r o m the m a n y available m e t h o d s , coastal engineers have to select a proper tool. Protection w i t h
the help of 'hard' structures is often u s e d . Series of g r o y n e s , series of o f f s h o r e b r e a k w a t e r s ,
s u b m e r g e d breakwaters a n d r e v e t m e n t s or seawalls are e x a m p l e s of 'hard' structures. W i t h t h e
help of t h e s e 'hard' m e t h o d s , it is possible to interfere in the actual s e d i m e n t transports in c r o s s s h o r e a n d longshore directions of the coasts. In addition, there are 'soft' methods like d u n e , b e a c h
a n d s h o r e f a c e n o u r i s h m e n t . W i t h the help of t h e s e 'soft' m e t h o d s , the principle is to a v o i d
interfering in the natural s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t p r o c e s s e s . W i t h this s y s t e m , only the l o s s e s of
s e d i m e n t o c c u r r i n g in a stretch of c o a s t are to b e c o m p e n s a t e d o n a regular b a s i s .
W h e t h e r to select a ' h a r d ' or a 'soft' m e t h o d d e p e n d s o n the characteristics of t h e p r o b l e m
c o n c e r n e d a n d o n e c o n o m i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . In C o a s t a l Z o n e M a n a g e m e n t practice, t h e u s e of
b e a c h n o u r i s h m e n t is increasingly popular. M a n y of the frequently occurring a d v e r s e side e f f e c t s
of ' h a r d ' structures c a n be a v o i d e d by using artificial n o u r i s h m e n t .
H o w e v e r , the possible u s e of hard s t r u c t u r e s for c o a s t a l protection still c a n n o t be d i s r e g a r d e d .
A c o a s t a l e n g i n e e r s h o u l d at least h a v e p r o p e r insight into t h e physical properties of ' h a r d '
s t r u c t u r e s . T h e d e s i r e d effects ( o f t e n : reduction or mitigation of the e r o s i o n potential in a g i v e n
stretch of c o a s t ) , a n d the u n w a n t e d , often d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s o n a d j a c e n t c o a s t s , h a v e to b e
c o n s i d e r e d with care. O n l y t h e n c a n a n a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e be m a d e b e t w e e n the m a n y c o a s t a l
protection methods.

10.2 Coastal protection problems


V a r i o u s p r o b l e m s in coastal engineering practice call for appropriate c o u n t e r m e a s u r e s . S o m e of
t h e s e will be first briefly d i s c u s s e d ; in the next section the use of structures to solve p r o b l e m s will
be o u t l i n e d . T h e restricted n u m b e r of p r o b l e m s d i s c u s s e d a r e :
-

structural e r o s i o n of c o a s t s

beach and dune erosion during severe storm surges

t h e protection of n e w l y r e c l a i m e d a r e a s

t h e stabilization of d y n a m i c tidal inlets

10.2.1 S t r u c t u r a l e r o s i o n of c o a s t s
In fact, coastal

erosion

is a rather tricky notion. It is b e y o n d d o u b t that the e r o s i o n of t h e s a n d y

coast, w h i c h is often o b s e r v e d at the leeward side of port entrances sheltered by t w o b r e a k w a t e r s ,


is a typical e x a m p l e of a structural e r o s i o n p r o b l e m (see Figure 10-1). Structural e r o s i o n a l s o
o c c u r s a s a result of l o n g - t e r m adaptation of t h e position of the c o a s t l i n e in a n a r e a w h e r e f o r
e x a m p l e , b e c a u s e of up-stream d a m m i n g of the river, the s e d i m e n t input f r o m the river has b e e n
reduced.

173

In the erosion area the v o l u m e of s a n d in an arbitrary cross-section ( m ' / m ) b e t w e e n w e l l - c h o s e n


b o u n d a r i e s in t h a t c r o s s - s e c t i o n , are a p p a r e n t l y gradually r e d u c e d as a f u n c t i o n of t i m e . Y e a r
after year, s u c h a v o l u m e is r e d u c e d . Typical orders of m a g n i t u d e of this type of e r o s i o n are 10
to 50 m ' / m per year. Structural e r o s i o n is a permanent

erosion

phenomenon. The construction

of a h a r b o u r o n a s a n d y c o a s t a n d t h e u p - s t r e a m d a m m i n g of a river are clearly m a n - m a d e


actions with a d v e r s e effects on coasts. Purely natural r e a s o n s c a n also be associated with s o m e
structural e r o s i o n p r o b l e m s .

H<50%

F i g u r e 10-1 T y p i c a l s t r u c t u r a l e r o s i o n p r o b l e m o n the l e e - s i d e of a b r e a k w a t e r
T h e erosion of the b e a c h a n d d u n e s or, in the a b s e n c e of d u n e s , direct erosion of the land during
a s e v e r e storm s u r g e (see next section) is also considered as a typical erosion p r o b l e m . I n d e e d ,
after the storm event the dunes and/or upper parts of the b e a c h e s m a y have lost sediment, w h i c h
h a s d i s a p p e a r e d f r o m its p r e - s t o r m position. O f t e n , h o w e v e r , the lost v o l u m e is f o u n d o n

the

f o r e s h o r e in t h e n e a r s h o r e a r e a . ( S e e Figure 10-2) Essentially, t h e total v o l u m e of s a n d in a


c r o s s - s h o r e profile h a s not c h a n g e d during t h e s t o r m s u r g e . In fact, only a redistribution of t h e
s e d i m e n t m a s s e s o v e r the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a r e a h a s t a k e n p l a c e . D e p e n d i n g of c o u r s e on t h e
severity of the s t o r m s u r g e , the v o l u m e of s a n d lost f r o m the u p p e r parts of t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n
associated with this type of erosion is in the order of m a g n i t u d e of 10 to 100 m ' / m per e v e n t (say:
per day). In the p e r i o d after the s t o r m s u r g e e v e n t , the o r d i n a r y natural conditions often f o r c e a
r e c o v e r y of t h e b e a c h e s a n d d u n e s . D u n e e r o s i o n d u r i n g a s e v e r e s t o r m s u r g e is a

temporary

erosion phenomenon.
In a typical structural e r o s i o n p r o b l e m , both n o r m a l conditions a n d storm conditions contribute to
the eventual loss of s e d i m e n t f r o m of a cross-section. Often a gradient

in the longshore s e d i m e n t

transport is the m a i n r e a s o n . [Gradient: dS/dx ^ 0; S: net yearly longshore s e d i m e n t transport; x:


c o o r d i n a t e d i r e c t e d along the coastline.]
Structural erosion under normal conditions entails that the upper part of the profile (dry b e a c h a n d
s l o p e of d u n e or m a i n l a n d f r o n t ) d o e s not participate in the t r a n s p o r t p r o c e s s e s ; t h e w a t e r a n d
the w a v e s do not r e a c h this part of the c r o s s - s e c t i o n . H o w e v e r , the erosion of the f o r e s h o r e will
c o n t i n u e u n d e r t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s . O n l y if the w a v e s reach the d u n e s ( u n d e r s t o r m c o n d i t i o n s ,
higher water level a n d higher w a v e s ) , d o e s the upper part of the cross-section f o r m an integrated
part o f the entire active profile. In that c a s e , the erosion of d u n e s or firm land will occur. W h i l e in
a basically s t a b l e situation this e r o s i o n of d u n e s or firm land is only t e m p o r a r y , in a s t r u c t u r a l
eroding case this erosion is partly permanent. During n o r m a l conditions, s e d i m e n t from t h e upper

174

part of ttie cross-section will not fully return, but will be r e m o v e d in the longshore direction. At the
end of t h e day, with the 'help' of c r o s s - s h o r e transport p r o c e s s e s gradual erosion will also c a u s e
e r o s i o n of the d u n e s or f i r m land. T h i s distinction is often not clear to o u t s i d e r s . Ultimate
p e r m a n e n t losses of d u n e s a n d firm land are incorrectly directly a s s o c i a t e d with s t o r m s u r g e
e v e n t s , while the basic p r o b l e m is still the structural e r o s i o n p r o b l e m .
Structurally eroding c o a s t s are often t h e s o u r c e of serious p r o b l e m s for t h e various users of t h e
coastal z o n e . Properties built close to the s e a are ultimately lost; r o a d s in the area disappear into
the s e a . O f t e n society calls for action to be tai<en by the C o a s t a l Z o n e Authorities in order to
prevent the d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s of structural e r o s i o n .
10.2.2 B e a c h a n d d u n e e r o s i o n d u r i n g s e v e r e s t o r m s u r g e s
C o a s t s w h i c h , over a n u m b e r of y e a r s , s e e m to be stable, m a y s u f f e r f r o m the effects of s t o r m
s u r g e e v e n t s . It c a n be a r g u e d that d u r i n g s t o r m s u r g e conditions t h e s h a p e of t h e p r e - s t o r m
profile is far out of t h e equilibrium s h a p e w h i c h b e l o n g s to the s e v e r e s t o r m s u r g e c o n d i t i o n s .
O f t e n a t e m p o r a r y i n c r e a s e of the still w a t e r level ( s u r g e ) a n d far higher w a v e s t h a n t h o s e
e x p e r i e n c e d in n o r m a l c o n d i t i o n s are a s s o c i a t e d with a s t o r m . E r o s i o n of the u p p e r part of t h e
c r o s s - s h o r e profile, w h i l e t h e f o r e s h o r e is a c c r e t i n g results in flatter s l o p e s of t h e profile d u r i n g
the s t o r m . (See Figure 10-2) W h i l e o v e r t i m e the profile is flattening, the e r o s i o n p r o c e s s s l o w s
down.

A s m e n t i o n e d in the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , t h e rate of e r o s i o n c a n be very high (of c o u r s e d e p e n d i n g


on the actual conditions). Associated with the loss of v o l u m e s of s e d i m e n t f r o m dune or firm land,
a retreat R of the c o a s t (see Figure 10-2) of m a n y m e t e r s m a y o c c u r d u r i n g a single e v e n t .
N o w a d a y s m e t h o d s a r e available to reliably q u a n t i f y the rate of d u n e e r o s i o n d u r i n g arbitrary
b o u n d a r y conditions (see C h a p t e r 5 ) .

F i g u r e 10-2 D u n e e r o s i o n d u r i n g a s e v e r e s t o r m s u r g e
T h e e f f e c t s of p e r m a n e n t structural e r o s i o n or of t e m p o r a r y e r o s i o n b e c a u s e of a s t o r m s u r g e ,
o n properties built too close to the shoreline are eventually the s a m e . In both cases, the properties
m a y be lost. (See Figure 10-3) H o w e v e r , it is b e y o n d d o u b t that c o u n t e r m e a s u r e s m e a n t to
r e s o l v e both t h e s e types of e r o s i o n m u s t be quite different.

175

F i g u r e 10-3 D a m a g e b e c a u s e of d u n e e r o s i o n

10.2.3 P r o t e c t i o n of n e w l y r e c l a i m e d a r e a s
H e r e the coastal z o n e is s i m p l y d e f i n e d a s consisting of t h e b e a c h , a n a d j a c e n t strip of s e a a n d
a n a d j a c e n t strip of land parallel to t h e b e a c h . T h e width of the latter strip m a y be s e v e r a l
l<ilometers. All o v e r t h e w o r l d s u c h c o a s t a l z o n e s s e r v e m a n y different i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n s .
S o m e t i m e s t h e r e is a s h o r t a g e this type of useful a r e a . W h e n trying to a c q u i r e m o r e s p a c e t h e
reclamation of land f r o m t h e sea m a y be c o n s i d e r e d as an option. A n e x p a n s i o n of the land m a y
be a c h i e v e d b y shifting t h e coastline in a s e a w a r d direction with the help of h u g e artificial
s e d i m e n t d e p o s i t i o n s . Artificial islands a r e s o m e t i m e s m a d e . In both c a s e s , structures c a n be
used to f o r m the boundaries of the reclaimed area. Options include structures similar to a full dil<e
or r e v e t m e n t protecting the c o r e of the r e c l a i m e d area, or s o m e f i x e d points b e t w e e n w h i c h
protected sandy beaches m a y develop.
10.2.4 S t a b i l i z a t i o n of d y n a m i c tidal inlets
T h e position of the m a i n c h a n n e l s of tidal inlets is often not f i x e d . Natural conditions m a y c a u s e
a gradual shift in a specific direction; h o w e v e r s o m e t i m e s the position of the m a i n channel m o v e s
bacl< a n d f o r t h . M o b i l e b e h a v i o u r of a tidal inlet is often d e t r i m e n t a l to s a f e navigation a n d t h e
integrity of properties built o n both adjacent land a r e a s m a y b e c o m e e n d a n g e r e d . S o m e t i m e s the
mobile behaviour of a tidal inlet s y s t e m is considered undesirable. Stabilization of the inlet s y s t e m
is t h e n r e q u i r e d . Structures assist in s e c u r i n g this a i m .
10.2.5 D i s c u s s i o n of c o a s t a l p r o t e c t i o n p r o b l e m s
A f e w g e n e r a l c o a s t a l e n g i n e e r i n g p r o b l e m s h a v e b e e n briefly d i s c u s s e d in the p r e c e d i n g
sections. Different p r o b l e m s call for quite different solutions. E a c h p r o b l e m is c a u s e d by specific
c o n d i t i o n s . In d e v e l o p i n g p r o p e r s o l u t i o n s to e a c h specific p r o b l e m , o n e has to m e e t p r o b l e m -

176

t r a n s l r t n^^

"

l^Vl"

'''''''

'"^^

P^^^^'^ f ^^e p r o b l e m . S e d i m e n t

nexttrtn
?h'^'
n'.
'^"'^
'""^
next s e c t i o n , this topic will be given further c o n s i d e r a t i o n .

^ ^ ^ ^ P " - ^ ' " ^ " ' v e d . In the

10=3 U s e of structures in c o a s t a l protection

T T "'"'"^

I t r u ^ ' c ^ u L T t n ' i n ! " ? ' ' f^^^tructures a s a tool f o r coastal protection relies o n t h e ability o f s u c h
sufffrinn f
tha T f t

"

Talo th?Z
dLrtn
1 stptch

"

'

' ^'"'"''"^^'^^

?.r'"

T P ^ ^ P ^ ^ ^ ^^'9^^^ ^0-4 the net yearly s e d i m e n t transports

renrpT

^ ^ d i m e n t transport a l o n g

P""""^'""^- ^'9^'-^ ^ 0 - 4 h o w s a plan v i e w o f s u c h

SPH m f n M

P ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ - ^ o r Stretches o f c o a s t

""^^^""^ ^ " ^ ^
T " " " " '

schematically Apparently the

' " ' ^ ' " ' ' " ^ ^'^^^"^^ ^

^^e coast. Line a of Figure 1 0 - 4

^ ' ^ " ' P " ^ distribution. T h e i n c r e a s i n g transport f r o m A t o B

( d i f f e r e n c e V) c a u s e s t h e e r o s i o n p r o b l e m in stretch A - B . (Along A - B dS/dx

^ 0.)

tl^r^eni^
h T f
'
* T " " '
^ " ^ ^
'^"^^^
'"^t^"^^
important
T s o ^ r l r
t h ' "
'
^* ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
t t h e structural
erosion p r o c e s s e s . T h e necessary a n d sufficient action for that goal is to e n s u r e that the existina

rlT'i

r r x - " o T n T h ? ' ' ' t : / r

^ ' ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ' ^
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
^- ( ^ ' - ^ ' S i o '
be a^htevPd" In h
""-^
^*P distribution c o u l d
be achieved. In the left-hand section f r o m A the erosion will just continue; the s e d i m e n t transports

t^gher rate s^nce t h e t h r o u g h p u t o f s e d i m e n t t h r o u g h t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n in point B h a s b e e n


h i n d h'
^
h a n d side o f B c o n s e q u e n t l y lee-side

Iimnlrr'^*'"

requirements of the s e d i m e n t transport distribution in section A - B is rather

t e oroceTr;
Trines

" ^ ^ ' " ^ ^ " t transport distribution. A t t h e righterosion occurs.

sPriP.

"
? ' r

'

""^'T'

? e m e r a e n n or h

^^"^

P^^P'^'

^ ' ^ ' ^ ('""^^^^"^^

'"^^

'"^^^-0 w i t h

^-d.

Series o f

b r e a k w a t e r s o r series of b r e a k w a t e r s with a crest either a b o v e

( e m e r g e n t ) or b e l o w s e a level ( s u b m e r g e d ) will u n d o u b t e d l y affect t h e existing l o n g s h o r e


s e d i m e n t r a n s p o r t b u t it is very difficult t o e n s u r e that t h e s e c o u n t e r m e a s u r e s a r e ' a pr p ia
for specific c a s e s . If the effectiveness o f the c o u n t e r m e a s u r e d o e s not c o m e up to expectations
the e r o s i o n wi
Of the

be r e d u c e d but n o t entirely s t o p p e d . If the d e s i g n is t o o effective (the r e d u c t i o n

e d i m e n t transport in stretch A - B is too great, s e e line c in Figure 10-4), accretion in stretch

^abi
' T b u t th "
:
' - t - d f the desired
h f^ft t h ^ '
I
the right-hand s i d e o f B will g r o w w o r s e ,
in fact, a c h i e v i n g line c in Figure 10-4 r e p r e s e n t s a n 'over-kill' o p e r a t i o n .

O ^ n er^nti^^ll^'r'''"'''
*""^'' '"^-^'d^
h e y o n d B will occur.
'"^^^^^^d
B also b e c o m e s u n a c c e p t a b l e , calling f o r a l s o
c o u n t e r m e a s u r e s in this s e c t i o n . T h e l e e - s i d e e r o s i o n is t h e n shifted further d o w n t h e coast.

countPrr

soTurn'oTth?" "

^"^^'.d^b'^

^ f f ^ ^ t i v e design is m a d e f o r section A - B . In fact t h e

seltent f 1 .
T?"
""'^ "''^'^
^^'P
^^^^^^ures that d e c r e a s e t h e
sediment transport along A - B c o m e s at the e x p e n s e of the stretch o f coast beyond B- the p r o b l e m
has s i m p l y b e e n shifted. Only if t h e r e is a n a c c r e t i n g stretch of c o a s t b e y o n d B, o if p o s ^ o n B

rafn:rs%;rs"" -

"

177

'-'^^

1^

i?6
no f u r t h e r

erosion

allowed

Figure 10-4 L o n g s h o r e s e d i m e n t transport distribution along eroding c o a s t


If artificial n o u r i s h m e n t has b e e n s e l e c t e d as c o u n t e r m e a s u r e in s e c t i o n A - B , v o l u m e V ( s e e
Figure 10-4) m u s t be nourished o n a regular basis. In practice, it is not useful to nourish V every
year, so usually a lifetime of 5 to 10 y e a r s is c h o s e n for a n o u r i s h m e n t .
T h e erosion p r o b l e m is not solved by artificial n o u r i s h m e n t ; t h e n o u r i s h m e n t d o e s not r e d u c e the
s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t involved. T h e e r o s i o n c o n t i n u e s s o c o n s e q u e n t l y the n o u r i s h m e n t h a s to b e
r e p e a t e d . T h a t s e e m s to be a d r a w b a c k . In m a n y c a s e s , h o w e v e r , artificial n o u r i s h m e n t is m o r e
cost-effective than solutions with structures. This is certainly the c a s e , w h e n the present d a y value
of t h e m e a s u r e s is calculated (future n o u r i s h m e n t contributes little to t h e p r e s e n t d a y c o s t ) . A n
additional a d v a n t a g e of artificial n o u r i s h m e n t is that lee-side e r o s i o n d o e s not t a k e p l a c e .
M a n y details related to the use of artificial n o u r i s h m e n t are f o u n d in Coastal Engineering's S p e c i a l
Issue o n Artificial B e a c h N o u r i s h m e n t ( 1 9 9 1 ) . T h a t Issue c o n t a i n s m a n y r e f e r e n c e s to p a p e r s
specially d e v o t e d to artificial n o u r i s h m e n t .
In this chapter the use of structures is the m a i n point of interest. In this introduction the structural
e r o s i o n p r o b l e m indicated by Figure 10-4 w a s c h o s e n to clarify the possible use of s t r u c t u r e s in
solving the e r o s i o n p r o b l e m . I n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h existing s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t h a d b e c o m e a
n e c e s s a r y r e q u i r e m e n t of structures as c o u n t e r m e a s u r e . F r o m this r e q u i r e m e n t , it can easily b e
u n d e r s t o o d that in principle series of g r o y n e s , series of d e t a c h e d o f f s h o r e b r e a k w a t e r s a n d
s u b m e r g e d breakwaters can be used as a tool. All these possibilities are able to affect the existing
l o n g s h o r e s e d i m e n t transport.
S e r i e s of g r o y n e s : Groynes (built m o r e or less perpendicular to the coast) m a y reduce t h e w a v e
d r i v e n l o n g s h o r e currents directly. P o s s i b l e tidal currents parallel to the s h o r e a r e d i v e r t e d to
deeper water. Both effects contribute to the desired d e c r e a s e in the longshore sediment transport.
S e r i e s of d e t a c h e d offshore b r e a k w a t e r s : W i t h o u t going into detail, it can be argued that series
of d e t a c h e d o f f s h o r e b r e a k w a t e r s built at s o m e d i s t a n c e s e a w a r d of the s h o r e l i n e , are a b l e t o
r e d u c e t h e w a v e heights in the z o n e l a n d w a r d of t h e s t r u c t u r e s . R e d u c e d w a v e heights yield a
reduced longshore sediment transport.
S u b m e r g e d b r e a k w a t e r s : E v e n s u b m e r g e d b r e a k w a t e r s (crest height b e l o w M e a n S e a L e v e l
a n d built parallel to the shore) are able to r e d u c e the w a v e heights in the z o n e landward o f t h e s e
178

s t r u c t u r e s . In tills c a s e also a reduction of the l o n g s h o r e s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t rate m a y b e


e x p e c t e d . O n e s h o u l d be a w a r e of the n e g a t i v e effect of rip currents t h r o u g h t h e o p e n i n g s
b e t w e e n the breal^waters.
T h e use of s e a w a l l s o r r e v e t m e n t s parallel to the s h o r e , built along the front slope of the d u n e s
or the f i r m land, has o n p u r p o s e not b e e n m e n t i o n e d as a possible c o u n t e r m e a s u r e to t h e
structural e r o s i o n p r o b l e m in stretch A - B of Figure 10-4. It is a v e r y bad solution to this type of
erosion problems.
J u s t after the c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e s e structures, t h e loss of d u n e s or land is i n d e e d effectively
prevented, but the cause of the underlying erosion problem is not c u r e d . T h e erosion of the b e a c h
a n d nearshore will continue b e c a u s e of the existing gradient in the longshore s e d i m e n t transport.
Later, the attack on the structures will increase o w i n g to the loss of b e a c h e s . D a m a g e will occur;
the structures have to b e strengthened. Finally, the beaches in front of the seawalls or revetments
h a v e d i s a p p e a r e d a n d only t h e h e a v y structures r e m a i n to protect t h e land (see Figure 1 0 - 5 ) .

F i g u r e 1 0 - 5 D a m a g e of a n i n c o r r e c t l y a p p l i e d r e v e t m e n t
T o finish this introduction a f e w r e m a r k s c a n be m a d e :

F r o m t h e e r o s i o n e x a m p l e of Figure 10-4 it h a s b e c o m e clear t h a t t h e solution of a c o a s t a l


erosion p r o b l e m always starts with a clear definition of the p r o b l e m . This holds for t h e structural
e r o s i o n p r o b l e m , a n d similarly for all other c o a s t a l e n g i n e e r i n g p r o b l e m s .

A clear definition of t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s for a p o s s i b l e solution h a s to be g i v e n . S h o u l d t h e


e r o s i o n be p r e v e n t e d a l o n g the entire c o a s t or only in a limited a r e a ? Is halting the e r o s i o n in
a limited a r e a e n o u g h or is t h e r e c o v e r y (accretion) in that a r e a d e s i r a b l e ?

In t h e next p h a s e , different alternatives h a v e to be a n a l y z e d . W h i c h alternatives m e e t t h e


r e q u i r e m e n t s ? W h a t are p o s s i b l e u n d e s i r a b l e d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s side e f f e c t s ? W h a t are t h e
c o s t s i n v o l v e d ? In t h e final s e l e c t i o n p h a s e the best' alternative has to be c h o s e n .

A f t e r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e selected alternative in the field, it is strongly r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t


t h e actual b e h a v i o u r of the c o a s t to be p r o t e c t e d s h o u l d b e m o n i t o r e d . B e c a u s e 'art' a n d
'science' are still closely related in coastal engineering practice, it is possible that in s o m e c a s e s
179

it hias to be concluded that in fact the c h o s e n solution w a s far f r o m ideal. T h e experience gained
in this w a y c a n be very helpful w h i l e d e s i g n i n g n e w projects.

C o a s t a l protection as part of coastal e n g i n e e r i n g practice is a difficult task. Skilled a n d


e x p e r i e n c e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e required to d o t h e j o b . In s o m e c o u n t r i e s special Institutes or
authorities h a v e b e e n a p p o i n t e d to carry out t h e t a s k s i n v o l v e d . (Coastal Z o n e A u t h o r i t i e s . ) It
is o b v i o u s that s u c h Authorities c a n only a d e q u a t e l y o p e r a t e if p r o v i d e d with g o v e r n m e n t a l
s u p p o r t and legal b a c k i n g .

10.4 Solutions with structures to problems a s mentioned


In t h e present section s o m e specific solutions using

structures to the basic p r o b l e m s briefly

d i s c u s s e d in the preceding p a r a g r a p h a r e g i v e n . T h e s e s t r u c t u r e s a r e often referred to a s h a r d


s o l u t i o n s , in contrast with the soft solutions that w e r e d i s c u s s e d in section 10.5. T h e h a r d
solutions have in c o m m o n that they are p e r m a n e n t structures and that it is difficult to m o d i f y t h e m
if t h e y do not function as e x p e c t e d . F r o m an e c o n o m i c point of view, it is important to realise that
a large up-front i n v e s t m e n t is r e q u i r e d .
T h e functionality of the different solutions with r e s p e c t to t h e v a r i o u s p r o b l e m s will be t h e point
of interest. In all c a s e s it is a s s u m e d that s t a b l e structures h a v e b e e n d e s i g n e d . A p p r o p r i a t e
structural d e s i g n topics a r e not a d d r e s s e d . A r e c e n t o v e r v i e w of t h e s e t o p i c s c a n be f o u n d in
'River, C o a s t a l a n d S h o r e l i n e Protection' ( 1 9 9 5 ) a n d in t h e ' S h o r e Protection M a n u a l ' , C E R C
(1984).
10.4.1 S t r u c t u r a l e r o s i o n of c o a s t s
S o m e a s p e c t s of the structural e r o s i o n of c o a s t s h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n d i s c u s s e d as a s p e c i f i c
e x a m p l e in the Introduction of this section. S t r u c t u r e s m a y be u s e d as a n alternative s o l u t i o n to
the structural erosion p r o b l e m .
In principle, series of g r o y n e s (or as a n alternative: r o w s of w o o d e n or steel piles) a r e a b l e to
r e d u c e existing s e d i m e n t transport. T h e fine-tuning p r o b l e m (length a n d l e n g t h / m u t u a l s p a c i n g
ratio) is, however, a difficult problem to resolve. No generally applicable design rules are available
although there are s o m e rules of t h u m b . In t h e e x a m p l e c a s e of Figure 10-4 in the c r o s s - s e c t i o n
t h r o u g h point B the existing s e d i m e n t transport h a d to b e r e d u c e d by an e s t i m a t e d f a c t o r of 0.5
in order to fulfil the r e q u i r e m e n t s . (I.e. a c h i e v i n g line b in Figure 10-4; SBnew ~ 0.5 SBOM-) Notice
that for arbitrary c r o s s - s e c t i o n s b e t w e e n A a n d B different (larger) ratio's are r e q u i r e d . Let point
C be half w a y b e t w e e n A a n d B; t h e n a c c o r d i n g to Figure 10-4: Scnew " 0.7 ScoidA n o t h e r point of practical c o n c e r n is the absolute m a g n i t u d e of the net yearly longshore s e d i m e n t
transport involved. In Figure 10-4 the basic e r o s i o n p r o b l e m for stretch A - B is the loss of v o l u m e
Vout

of that stretch. T h e v o l u m e in question can b e d e t e r m i n e d by monitoring the coast f o r s o m e

t i m e . A l t h o u g h the difference

Vof SB a n d SA c a n be m e a s u r e d quite accurately but t h e a b s o l u t e

values of the net yearly s e d i m e n t transport of either SB or SA are in fact not automatically k n o w n .
S i n c e it is very difficult to calculate t h e s e s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t rates, easily errors c a n be m a d e in
the p r o p e r quantification of SB and SA- If in Figure 10-4 both SA a n d S b a r e i n c r e a s e d by A S , t h e
d i f f e r e n c e V r e m a i n s the s a m e . H o w e v e r , in this c a s e also in o r d e r to a c h i e v e a c o n s t a n t
s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t in s e c t i o n A - B quite different r e d u c t i o n f a c t o r s f r o m t h o s e

mentioned

p r e v i o u s l y are n e c e s s a r y .

If the erosion p r o b l e m of stretch A - B h a s b e e n r e s o l v e d by installing g r o y n e s , extra e r o s i o n with


v o l u m e V \n the a r e a j u s t at the right-hand side of point B has to be t a k e n into a c c o u n t ( l e e - s i d e
erosion).
180

W i t h the help of series of e m e r g e n t s h o r e - p a r a l l e l o f f s h o r e b r e a k w a t e r s in section A - B , t h e


erosion problem of stretch A - B c a n be resolved. In principle s u c h breakwaters are able to interfere
in t h e longshore s e d i m e n t transport (are able to r e d u c e this transport). D u e to the partial s h a d o w
effects of the b r e a k w a t e r s , the g e n e r a l w a v e conditions l a n d w a r d of the series b r e a k w a t e r s a r e
r e d u c e d , yielding less s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t s . H o w e v e r , t h e fine-tuning of series of o f f s h o r e
b r e a k w a t e r s is a difficult task. In the e x a m p l e of Figure 10-4 the s e d i m e n t transport in the c r o s s section t h r o u g h point B m u s t be r e d u c e d f r o m Se to SA. T h e r e f o r e , near section B, t h e r e m a i n i n g
l o n g s h o r e t r a n s p o r t should not be 0. Either in t h e a r e a l a n d w a r d of an o f f s h o r e b r e a k w a t e r n e a r
B or in the area s e a w a r d of that b r e a k w a t e r o n - g o i n g s e d i m e n t transport is still r e q u i r e d . In t h e
first c a s e , this calls for the f o r m i n g of a f e a t u r e called a salient; in the latter c a s e a t o m b o l o m a y
form.
W i t h a proper series of o f f s h o r e b r e a k w a t e r s the lee-side e r o s i o n at t h e r i g h t - h a n d side of B is
also u n a v o i d a b l e .
A c o n t i n u o u s s u b m e r g e d b r e a k w a t e r parallel to a n d at s o m e d i s t a n c e f r o m it will u n d o u b t e d l y
reduce the w a v e heights landward of the s u b m e r g e d breakwater (depending o n the w a v e climate,
the location a n d the crest height relative to t h e still w a t e r level). By reducing the w a v e heights, a
reduction of the s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t c a n b e e x p e c t e d . This holds for both c a s e s w i t h only w a v e
driven longshore s e d i m e n t transport a n d for c a s e s w h e r e a c o m b i n a t i o n of w a v e driven currents
a n d tidal currents o c c u r s . A first a p p r o x i m a t i o n s u g g e s t s that in the latter c a s e s the tidal currents
l a n d w a r d of the s u b m e r g e d b r e a k w a t e r a r e u n a f f e c t e d . H o w e v e r ,

t h e resulting

sediment

transport will be greatly r e d u c e d by the reduction of the w a v e heights in the area l a n d w a r d of t h e


submerged breakwater.
If a n infinitely long s u b m e r g e d b r e a k w a t e r is c o n s i d e r e d , no special additional p r o b l e m s a r e
e x p e c t e d . In practice, h o w e v e r , infinitely long s u b m e r g e d b r e a k w a t e r s are not a realistic o p t i o n .
If, for e x a m p l e , as in Figure 10-4 in stretch A - B , only local provisions are required, at least two e n d
sections of a s u b m e r g e d b r e a k w a t e r occur. In association with the partial b r e a k i n g of the w a v e s
a b o v e t h e crest of the breakwater, a m a s s transport of w a t e r over the b r e a k w a t e r t a k e s place. In
a t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l c a s e (i.e. in a w a v e f l u m e in a hydraulic laboratory), this m a s s t r a n s p o r t is
c o m p e n s a t e d in the s a m e c r o s s - s e c t i o n . H o w e v e r , in a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l c a s e the l a n d w a r d directed m a s s transport is often collected behind the s u b m e r g e d breakwater in an ever-increasing
s h o r e parallel c u r r e n t . A l o n g the e n d s e c t i o n s of the b r e a k w a t e r this current e s c a p e s in t h e
s e a w a r d direction like a rip current. E x a m p l e s are k n o w n f r o m field a n d f r o m laboratory tests in
w h i c h s e v e r e e r o s i o n is g e n e r a t e d l a n d w a r d of the s u b m e r g e d b r e a k w a t e r s .
A s a l r e a d y e x p l a i n e d , c o n s t r u c t i n g s e a w a l l s parallel to the s h o r e or r e v e t m e n t s a l o n g the front
s l o p e of the d u n e s or m a i n l a n d d o e s not p r o v i d e a n a d e q u a t e solution to a structural e r o s i o n
problem .
10.4.2 B e a c h a n d d u n e e r o s i o n d u r i n g s e v e r e s t o r m s u r g e s
If the rate of erosion d u e to a s e v e r e s t o r m s u r g e is felt to be too large during d e s i g n conditions,
the u s e of s t r u c t u r e s m i g h t be helpful in r e d u c i n g t h e rate of e r o s i o n . S e r i e s of g r o y n e s do not
'work' t o r e d u c e the a s s o c i a t e d o f f s h o r e d i r e c t e d s e d i m e n t transport. In principle, series of
e m e r g i n g b r e a k w a t e r s or s u b m e r g e d b r e a k w a t e r s a r e able to reduce the w a v e heights l a n d w a r d
of t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y m a y h a v e the effect of r e d u c i n g the rate of d u n e e r o s i o n .
H o w e v e r , often a n i n c r e a s e of the still w a t e r level is a s s o c i a t e d with a s t o r m (the s u r g e ) ;
c o n s e q u e n t l y the effectiveness of t h e s e type of structures in reducing the w a v e heights is limited.
B e s i d e s t h e use of t h e s e structures has large u n d e s i r a b l e implications relating to t h e l o n g s h o r e
processes.

181

If a basically stable (stable: with respect to structural erosion) situation is c o n s i d e r e d , t h e use of


seawalls or revetments m a y be useful to restrict the rate of erosion during a s e v e r e s t o r m s u r g e .
T h e s e s t r u c t u r e s physically prevent the loss of m a t e r i a l f r o m t h e d u n e s or land. T h e d e s i r e d
reduction in the retreat of the d u n e s or m a i n l a n d c a n be a c h i e v e d . Since behind

the s e a w a l l s or

r e v e t m e n t s no material c a n be e r o d e d to provide the o f f s h o r e directed t r a n s p o r t c a p a c i t i e s , o n e


has to expect a lot of erosion j u s t in front of the structures. A d e e p scour hole c a n be anticipated;
this potential s c o u r i n g has to be t a k e n properly into a c c o u n t in the d e s i g n of the s t r u c t u r e s .
Steetzel ( 1 9 9 3 ) p r o p o s e s a m e t h o d to calculate the s c o u r d e p t h in front of s e a w a l l s a n d
revetments.
10.4.3 P r o t e c t i o n of n e w l y r e c l a i m e d a r e a s
A s s u m e a c o a s t that h a s to be e x t e n d e d for a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e (say o r d e r of m a g n i t u d e 2
k m in c r o s s - s h o r e direction a n d o v e r 20 k m in t h e l o n g s h o r e direction). It is a s s u m e d t h a t no
s e r i o u s e r o s i o n p r o b l e m s o c c u r the existing situation. T h e a r e a is intensively u s e d as b e a c h
recreation area. O n e of the requirements is that after e x t e n s i o n of the coast, recreation b e a c h e s
a r e again available. T o protect the newly r e c l a i m e d a r e a s i m p l y by a d i k e or r e v e t m e n t is
c o n s e q u e n t l y not a n a c c e p t a b l e o p t i o n .
A more-or-less zero option for land reclamation w o u l d be an entire shift of the c r o s s - s h o r e profile
of 2 k m in s e a w a r d direction. This holds not only for the waterline, but also in principle a l s o for all
o t h e r depth c o n t o u r s to a w a t e r d e p t h w h e r e natural a d a p t a t i o n s of the profile are h a r d l y to be
e x p e c t e d . In s o m e c a s e s , this d e p t h has to be e s t i m a t e d at s a y 15 m b e l o w M e a n S e a Level
( M S L ) . In order to achieve a 2 k m shift of the coastline, per running m e t e r a l o n g the s h o r e 2 0 0 0
m X 2 0 m = 4 0 , 0 0 0 m ' / m is r e q u i r e d . (The factor 2 0 m in the calculation is f o u n d by a s s u m i n g a
lower limit of M S L -15 m a n d an upper limit a b o v e M S L of 5 m.) W i t h a longshore e x t e n s i o n over
2 0 k m , the total v o l u m e of s e d i m e n t supply r e a c h e s a v o l u m e of 8 0 0 million m ' . T h i s is a really
h u g e project!
W i t h the zero option the n e w coast hasa f o u n d a t i o n that is identical to the old coast. A large part
o f the c a l c u l a t e d v o l u m e is n e e d e d to m a k e t h e n e w f o u n d a t i o n . In o r d e r to restrict t h e v o l u m e
of s e d i m e n t n e e d e d for r e c l a m a t i o n in the zero o p t i o n , o n e could c o n s i d e r a n a l t e r n a t i v e . For
e x a m p l e , the u p p e r part of the c r o s s - s h o r e profile after r e c l a m a t i o n is ' s u p p o r t e d ' with t h e help
of a s u b m e r g e d b r e a k w a t e r . T h e t o e of the profile c a n t h e n be a v o i d e d ; a large r e d u c t i o n of t h e
v o l u m e of s a n d is a c h i e v e d in this w a y . T h i s solution is called a " h a n g i n g b e a c h " .
T h e s e a w a r d limit of the r e c l a i m e d a r e a c a n also be m o u l d e d with series of

detached

breakwaters.Many, not yet totally resolved coastal engineering, p r o b l e m s h a v e to be f a c e d before


a d e q u a t e structural d e s i g n s c a n be m a d e . T h i s holds e s p e c i a l l y for the t h r e e limits of t h e
r e c l a i m e d a r e a t h a t a r e b o u n d e d by water.
10.4.4 S t a b i l i z a t i o n o f d y n a m i c tidal inlets
M u c h experience has b e e n gained in the past in resolving the p r o b l e m of stabilization of d y n a m i c
tidal inlets. In m o s t cases long groynes or jetties h a v e been constructed on both sides of t h e inlet.
S i n c e in m o s t c a s e s t h e natural s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t o v e r the e b b tidal delta is fully i n t e r r u p t e d , a
p r o p e r d e s i g n of the total solution calls for additional provisions in order to restore t h e s e d i m e n t
transport across the tidal inlet. A sand b y - p a s s s y s t e m should be a n essential part of the d e s i g n .
E s t i m a t i o n of t h e required c a p a c i t y of a s a n d b y - p a s s s y s t e m is a v e r y difficult t a s k . O f t e n that
part of the total design is more-or-less p o s t p o n e d until nature s h o w s by a c c u m u l a t i o n at o n e side
a n d by e r o s i o n at the other side, the real quantities i n v o l v e d . By p o s t p o n i n g (wait a n d s e e ) it
s o m e t i m e s e m e r g e s later that there is no m o n e y left to build a p r o p e r s a n d b y - p a s s s y s t e m .

182

10.5 Solutions without structures to problems a s mentioned


In this section h o w p r o b l e m s of coastal erosion c a n be solved without building structures of quarry
stone or concrete is considered. T h e s e types of solutions are called soft solutions. T h e basic idea
is to s u p p l e m e n t s a n d by artificial m e a n s in places w h e r e the loss of s a n d is c a u s i n g p r o b l e m s .
T h e m e t h o d w o r k s if a m p l e quantities of s a n d are available at a short distance f r o m the p r o b l e m
a r e a . S i n c e e r o s i o n is a n o n g o i n g p r o c e s s , t h e n o u r i s h m e n t will have to be r e p e a t e d f r o m t i m e
to t i m e . T h e interval b e t w e e n s u c c e s s i v e s u p p l y o p e r a t i o n s d e p e n d s o n t h e rate of e r o s i o n a n d
o n the c o s t of m o b i l i s i n g t h e d r e d g i n g e q u i p m e n t . G e n e r a l l y a n interval of five years b e t w e e n
s u c c e s s i v e o p e r a t i o n s is c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e . T h e distinction b e t w e e n the hard a n d t h e s o f t
m e t h o d s is that t h e latter m u s t be repeated f r o m t i m e to t i m e , that it is flexible (in the s e n s e t h a t
it is e a s y to m o d i f y t h e s c h e m e if the results a r e not as e x p e c t e d ) a n d that the cost of t h e
o p e r a t i o n is d e f e r r e d in the s e n s e that it is s p r e a d o v e r a longer t i m e . For conditions along t h e
D u t c h c o a s t this m a k e s the soft solutions m o r e e c o n o m i c a l t h a n the h a r d solutions.
10.5.1 Q u a l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s for t h e s a n d
W h e n s a n d is s u p p l i e d to an eroding stretch of coast, t h e newly applied s a n d will tend to f o r m a
crust or b l a n k e t o v e r the existing c o a s t a l f o r m a t i o n s . T h e newly applied s a n d will follow t h e
physical laws that d o m i n a t e the morphology in the s a m e w a y as the existing s a n d . For this r e a s o n
m a j o r c h a n g e s in t h e s l o p e s a n d other c o a s t a l f e a t u r e s a r e to be e x p e c t e d w h e n t h e grain s i z e
of the s u p p l i e d s a n d differs f r o m t h e original material. U s u a l l y this is not a c c e p t a b l e , a n d o n e o f
the basic rules for b e a c h nourishment is the use of material that is similar to the existing material.
A n o t h e r point of c o n c e r n is t h e silt c o n t e n t of t h e s u p p l e t i o n material. S i n c e t h e b o t t o m m a t e r i a l
of a s a n d y s h o r e is e x t r e m e l y m o b i l e , specifically in t h e b r e a k e r z o n e , a n y fines will h a v e b e e n
w a s h e d out long a g o , so that the w a t e r is relatively clear. T h i s is a n essential condition f o r
biological p r o c e s s e s a n d for the ecological equilibrium of t h e coastal z o n e . It m u s t t h e r e f o r e b e
a s c e r t a i n e d that t h e b e a c h n o u r i s h m e n t material c o n t a i n s little or no f i n e s . In the w o r s t c a s e ,
m e a s u r e s h a v e to be t a k e n to w a s h out the f i n e s b e f o r e placing the material o n t h e b e a c h .
10.5.2 O r i g i n of t h e s a n d
T h e s a n d u s e d for b e a c h n o u r i s h m e n t c a n b e obtained f r o m land based s o u r c e s or f r o m m a r i n e
sources. T h e land-based sources m a y be riverbeds or dry sand deposits. T h e marine sources c a n
be estuaries or the s e a b e d . It is often attractive to try to c o m b i n e necessary excavation w o r k s t h a t
a r e w i t h n o u r i s h m e n t activities, to r e d u c e t h e overall cost. (In D u t c h : w e r k m e t w e r k m a k e n ) .
W h e n m a r i n e material is u s e d it m u s t be d r e d g e d at a sufficient d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e s h o r e t o
p r e v e n t e x t r a e r o s i o n d u e to the p r e s e n c e of t h e b o r r o w pits. S p e c i f i c a l l y w h e n material is
d r e d g e d f r o m the s e a b e d , the question arises of w h e t h e r it is better to d r e d g e the material f r o m
s m a l l e x t r e m e l y d e e p b o r r o w pits, or to d r e d g e thin layers of t h e material f r o m a very e x t e n d e d
b o r r o w area. D r e d g i n g thin layers m e a n s disturbing the biologically active surface layer in a l a r g e
a r e a , w h e r e a s c r e a t i n g d e e p b o r r o w pits e n h a n c e s t h e risk of s t a g n a n t w a t e r of poor q u a l i t y
r e m a i n i n g in the d e e p e r parts. A l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h into the effects of s a n d w i n n i n g is being carried
out, t h e r e is n o clear c o n c l u s i o n yet. In the N e t h e r l a n d s , s o m e s a n d is obtained by m a i n t e n a n c e
d r e d g i n g in the a c c e s s channels to R o t t e r d a m a n d IJmuiden. T h e remaining a m o u n t of sand t h a t
is r e q u i r e d is e x t r a c t e d by d r e d g i n g thin layers at a d i s t a n c e of at least 2 0 k m f r o m t h e s h o r e .

183

10.5.3 P l a c e s w h e r e s u p p l e t i o n is u s e d
S a n d supplied to the coastal system can be placed at different locations in the cross section. T h e
decision d e p e n d s o n the p u r p o s e of the n o u r i s h m e n t a n d s o m e t i m e s o n the s o u r c e of t h e
m a t e r i a l . T h e basic c h o i c e s are (see Figure 10-6):
1.

O n t h e inner s l o p e of the d u n e s

2.

O n the outer slope of t h e d u n e s

3.

O n the dry b e a c h

4.

O n the f o r e s h o r e

F i g u r e 10-6 L o c a t i o n s of s a n d s u p p l e t i o n
Material is usually placed o n the d u n e s in c a s e s w h e r e calculations have s h o w n that the v o l u m e
of material in the d u n e ridge is insufficient to c o p e with d u n e e r o s i o n d u r i n g the d e s i g n s t o r m . In
such

c a s e s , t h e hinterland m a y be e x p o s e d to f l o o d i n g , not b e c a u s e of o n g o i n g e r o s i o n , but

s i m p l y b e c a u s e the existing d u n e s f o r m too s m a l l a stockpile to c o p e with e x t r e m e c o n d i t i o n s .


T h e u s e of s a n d f r o m land b a s e d s o u r c e s is a r e a s o n a b l e o p t i o n in t h e s e c a s e s . T h i s is e v e n
m o r e i m p o r t a n t if the use of m a r i n e s a n d w o u l d c a u s e a salt intrusion p r o b l e m in a v u l n e r a b l e
region.
If the n o u r i s h m e n t is required to c o u n t e r a c t o n g o i n g e r o s i o n , t h e m o s t c o m m o n p l a c e of
application is t h e dry b e a c h . S a n d is placed b e t w e e n the L W line a n d the d u n e foot. Eventually,
the quantity s u p p l i e d will be evenly distributed o v e r the full height ( a n d length) of t h e f o r e s h o r e
s l o p e , following t h e equilibrium rules dictated by w a v e climate a n d grain size. T h i s m e a n s that a
large quantity of freshly supplied material will d i s a p p e a r u n d e r w a t e r s o o n after the n o u r i s h m e n t
o p e r a t i o n . T h e public t e n d s to call this e r o s i o n , t h o u g h w e m u s t u n d e r s t a n d t h a t it is initially n o
m o r e t h a n a re-distribution of the material within t h e natural c r o s s s e c t i o n of the coast.
Placing of the s a n d o n the dry b e a c h is s o m e t i m e s c o m p l i c a t e d b e c a u s e it is n e c e s s a r y t o cross
the b r e a k e r z o n e with the d r e d g i n g e q u i p m e n t (see Figure 10-8). S i n c e t h e b r e a k e r z o n e is a n
unfriendly place in w h i c h to work, this is a cost item cannot be n e g l e c t e d . This is the m a i n r e a s o n
to c o n s i d e r a f o u r t h position of p l a c e m e n t : o n the f o r e s h o r e . A g a i n t h e idea is that the m a t e r i a l
is re-distributed f r o m this position over the entire c o a s t a l profile. T h i s w o r k s only if the m a t e r i a l
c a n be s u p p l i e d in a region that f o r m s part of the b r e a k e r z o n e . D u r i n g c a l m w a v e c o n d i t i o n s ,
material is d u m p e d for this p u r p o s e by s h a l l o w draft d r e d g e s at t h e s h o r t e s t p o s s i b l e d i s t a n c e
f r o m the b e a c h (see Figure 10-8).

184

F i g u r e 10-7 B e a c h s u p p l e t i o n u s i n g a pipeline that c r o s s e s the b r e a k e r z o n e

F i g u r e 10-8

Foreshore suppletion

185

11.1 Introduction and definitions


Dredging is such a powerful tool of coastal engineering that it deserves special attention in lecture
notes o n c o a s t a l e n g i n e e r i n g . T h e c a p a c i t y of m o d e r n d r e d g e s is s o large that n o w a d a y s it is
possible to c o p e with a l m o s t every situation. T r a n s p o r t rates of far over a million cubic m e t r e s p e r
weel< c a n be achieved without too m u c h of a p r o b l e m . Still, it m u s t be e m p h a s i s e d that it mal<es
no s e n s e to w o r k a g a i n s t n a t u r e , a l t h o u g h the d r e d g i n g c a p a c i t y m a y be sufficient to d o t h i s . It
is m u c h wiser to try to w o r k with nature, and to try to adapt goals and w o r k i n g m e t h o d s to a c c o r d
with natural p r o c e s s e s .
A c c o r d i n g to dictionaries, d r e d g i n g is " d e e p e n i n g or w i d e n i n g a river, a h a r b o u r or a c h a n n e l b y
r e m o v i n g s a n d , m u d or silt." T h i s definition f o c u s e s t o o m u c h o n o n e p u r p o s e : d e e p e n i n g o f a
location b e l o w the w a t e r level. It is equally important to include the supply of material to raise t h e
level of a certain a r e a .
A m o n g D u t c h civil e n g i n e e r s a frequently heard definition of dredging is "large scale t r a n s p o r t of
soil". T h i s m a y b e true in t h e N e t h e r l a n d s , but large-scale t r a n s p o r t of soil c a n t a k e place in at
least t w o w a y s . O n e , by m a k i n g use of rolling e q u i p m e n t (dry bulk transport) and another, m a k i n g
u s e of w a t e r as m e d i u m (wet bulk transport). It is the w e t bulk transport that is t e r m e d " d r e d g i n g " .
U s i n g w a t e r as m e d i u m for t h e t r a n s p o r t c a n a g a i n be d o n e in t w o different w a y s : by u s i n g
v e s s e l s to t r a n s p o r t m a t e r i a l , or by m i x i n g the material with w a t e r a n d p u m p i n g it t h r o u g h a
pipeline. T h e "wet" c h a r a c t e r of the o p e r a t i o n c a n also be attributed to t h e location f r o m w h e r e
the m a t e r i a l is o b t a i n e d ( b o r r o w e d ) : in d r e d g i n g this material is generally f r o m b e l o w t h e w a t e r
s u r f a c e . Conditions in the Netherlands m a k e dredging to the most attractive f o r m of bulk transport
for soil. In other parts of the w o r l d , h o w e v e r , similar large capacities a r e realised with t h e aid of
dry e a r t h m o v i n g e q u i p m e n t .
D r e d g i n g c a n be c o n s i d e r e d f r o m t h e point of v i e w of t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s of e q u i p m e n t that a r e
u s e d in t h e d r e d g i n g industry. H o w e v e r , it is also p o s s i b l e to d e s c r i b e t h e d r e d g i n g cycle, f r o m
t h e digging of the earth to t h e deposition of the d r e d g e d material at t h e final location. W h e n t h i s
a p p r o a c h is f o l l o w e d , it is practical to split the cycle into a n u m b e r of p r o c e s s e s that c a n b e
scientifically e x a m i n e d . W h e n d o i n g this, it m u s t not be forgotten that in reality it is a c o n t i n u o u s
c y c l e , a n d that e a c h p r o c e s s in this cycle is directly c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e p r e c e d i n g a n d t h e
following elements.
In this c h a p t e r , first, t h e d r e d g i n g p r o c e s s will be a n a l y s e d via a division in four s u b - p r o c e s s e s :

D i g g i n g ( b r e a k i n g up the c o h e s i o n of the soil)

Vertical transport

Horizontal t r a n s p o r t

Deposition

For e a c h p r o c e s s , v a r i o u s w o r k i n g principles will be identified, after w h i c h f r e q u e n t l y - u s e d


d r e d g i n g e q u i p m e n t will be classified according to the working principles of the various p r o c e s s e s
within t h e d r e d g i n g cycle.

187

11.2 T h e world of dredging


A c c o r d i n g to ttie definitions, given above, wtiether or not t l i e y are very satisfactory, dredging plays
a part in the c o n s t r u c t i o n or m a i n t e n a n c e of m u c h public infrastructure s u c h as rivers, ports a n d
h a r b o u r s . This m e a n s that dredging operations are often controlled or carried out by or o n behalf
of public entities like Public W o r k s D e p a r t m e n t s , and Port Authorities. T h e s e bodies either act as
e m p l o y e r and contract the dredging w o r k s out to private parties (i.e. dredging contractors), or t h e y
d e c i d e to c a r r y out the w o r k s t h e m s e l v e s a n d u s e their o w n staff a n d d r e d g i n g e q u i p m e n t .
M u c h has been said about advantages and disadvantages of in-house dredging. Here it is m e r e l y
c o n c l u d e d , t h a t m a n y countries that u s e d to f a v o u r i n - h o u s e d r e d g i n g (e.g. U S A , F r a n c e ,
G e r m a n y ) , have to a large extent privatised their operations, mainly for reasons of cost efficiency.
Insofar as t h e y h a v e d e c i d e d not to privatise to a 1 0 0 % , t h e y h a v e at least a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y
s e p a r a t e d the responsibility for maintaining the infrastructure (client/employer f u n c t i o n ) f r o m t h e
a c t u a l e x e c u t i o n of t h e w o r k s (contractor function).
T h e r e f o r e , it s e e m s a p p r o p r i a t e to distinguish t w o parties in the d r e d g i n g w o r l d , e m p l o y e r a n d
contractor; w h e t h e r t h e y belong to the s a m e o r g a n i s a t i o n is not i m p o r t a n t in this r e s p e c t .
T h e m a i n t a s k s of t h e e m p l o y e r are:
1.

to define t h e n e e d for a n d the s c o p e of w o r k s to be carried out

2.

to collect relevant data that a r e essential for the p l a n n i n g of the w o r k s

3.

t o d r a w up s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , float a t e n d e r a n d p r e p a r e c o n t r a c t d o c u m e n t s ; all in s u c h a w a y

4.

to c h e c k w h e t h e r the w o r k s are being carried out (and c o m p l e t e d ) properly a c c o r d i n g to t h e

that t h e b e s t v a l u e for m o n e y is o b t a i n e d
specifications a n d the contract, a n d w h e t h e r they contribute to the n e e d as defined u n d e r a)
5.

to c h e c k w h e t h e r the cost claimed by the contractor is reasonable and s e e that the contractor
is paid a c c o r d i n g l y

A s c o m p a r e d to the t a s k s of the e m p l o y e r , the t a s k s of the c o n t r a c t o r a r e rather limited:


6.

T o a c q u i r e a sufficient n u m b e r of j o b s at s u c h a price levels that the c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e of


t h e c o m p a n y is e n s u r e d . T h i s looks rather s i m p l e , but it is m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d , since t h e price
level in the m a r k e t is determined by competitive forces. If w o r k i n g m e t h o d s or t e c h n o l o g y a r e
changing a n d lead to cost savings a m o n g s t his competitors, a n y contractor will h a v e to follow.
Since dredging is capital-intensive and the lifetime of the plant is rather long, a contractor w h o
w a n t s to r e m a i n in b u s i n e s s will h a v e to:

7.

Plan a h e a d a n d invest in r e s e a r c h a n d training.

W h e n o n e is c o n s i d e r i n g t h e d r e d g i n g w o r l d as a m a r k e t place w i t h sellers a n d b u y e r s , it is a s
well to realise that it is a s m a l l m a r k e t only. T h e r e are a limited n u m b e r of sellers a n d a limited
n u m b e r of b u y e r s , a n d t h e s e a r e m o r e or less c o m p e l l e d to w o r k with o n e a n o t h e r .
A t h i r d , a n d s o m e t i m e s c o n f u s i n g , party is the m a n u f a c t u r e r of d r e d g i n g e q u i p m e n t . He will try
to p r o d u c e the best possible equipment to remain in business, k n o w i n g that if o n e contractor g o e s
for i m p r o v e m e n t , the others h a v e to follow. This forces him to be at the forefront of r e s e a r c h a n d
i n n o v a t i o n . H o w e v e r , he lacks i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t actual field e x p e r i e n c e , a n d will h a v e to rely o n
g o o d relations of trust with his m a i n c u s t o m e r s . He m u s t e n s u r e t h a t he d o e s not ( p u r p o s e f u l l y
or unwittingly) leak i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m o n e contractor to a n o t h e r o n e .
A m a z i n g l y , c o n s u l t a n t s play only a m i n o r role in the d r e d g i n g w o r l d . F e w of t h e m h a v e sufficient
u p - t o - d a t e e x p e r t i s e . T h i s is m a i n l y d u e to the fact that it is difficult a n d labour intensive t o g a i n
a c c e s s to all i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d .

188

11.3 Dredging p r o c e s s and dredging equipment


11.3.1 General
Dredging e q u i p m e n t is often classified according to its mobility (stationary
according to one aspect of tlie dredging process (i.e. suction dredge).

vs. non-stationary)

and

This classification ends with

n a m e s s u c h as "stationary plain suction dredge". It is possible to d i s c u s s dredging technology o n


the basis of a description of t h e types of d r e d g e s .
A c o m p l e t e l y different type of classification starts f r o m the p h a s e s of the d r e d g i n g p r o c e s s
indicated in Section 1
1
.
1
. In this c a s e , a distinction is m a d e b e t w e e n different p h a s e s of t h e
d r e d g i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s a p p r o a c h has the a d v a n t a g e that o n e r e c o g n i s e s the potential of n o n conventional solutions at a n earlier stage. It also b e c o m e s easier to identify t h e limiting p h a s e or
p h a s e s that determine the overall output of the envisaged w o r k i n g m e t h o d . In this a p p r o a c h types
of d r e d g e s are less i m p o r t a n t t h a n the entire d r e d g i n g cycle.
In this chapter, w e follow t h e s e c o n d classification. This m e a n s that w e m e r e l y d i s c u s s different
solutions for the v a r i o u s p h a s e s of the d r e d g i n g p r o c e s s . A m o r e theoretical a p p r o a c h to e a c h
f a m i l y of solutions will be p r e s e n t e d in s u b s e q u e n t c h a p t e r s . Finally, w e will also d e s c r i b e t h e
b e s t - k n o w n types of d r e d g e s , with their specific a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s .

11.3.2 Breaking up the soil structure


B r e a k i n g u p the structure of the soil involves parts (grains or l u m p s ) being s e p a r a t e d f r o m their
original t e x t u r e a n d possibly p r e c o n d i t i o n e d for the next p h a s e of the d r e d g i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s
b r e a k i n g u p is generally d o n e in o n e of t w o w a y s , i.e. by m e c h a n i c a l f o r c e or by the f o r c e of
f l o w i n g water. In this c o u r s e , no attention is paid to c h e m i c a l or physical m e a n s ( b l a s t i n g a n d
vibration).
F l o w i n g water
W h e n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f o r c e of flowing water, it is evident that this f o r c e m a y be d e r i v e d f r o m
s u c t i o n or f r o m p r e s s u r e related flow conditions. T h e soil generally disintegrates into l u m p s or
particles that are carried a w a y by the current. This m e a n s that a u t o m a t i c a l l y w a t e r is m i x e d w i t h
t h e soil. T h e erosive action of suction is limited to an area very c l o s e to the s u c t i o n m o u t h , a n d
t h e r e f o r e t h e s y s t e m is not u s e d frequently a n y m o r e . T h e a r e a i n f l u e n c e d by a jet f l o w i n g f r o m
a nozzle is m u c h larger. O n e is not always certain, however, of the direction the j e t - i n d u c e d f l o w
will t a k e w h e n it m e e t s o b s t a c l e s like a n u n d i s t u r b e d s e a b e d .

For this r e a s o n , plain s u c t i o n

d r e d g e s or d u s t p a n d r e d g e s are often e q u i p p e d with nozzles in the vicinity of the suction m o u t h .


Both types of dredge disintegrate the soil structure w h e n the suction m o u t h is p u s h e d forward into
t h e s e a b e d . T h e plain s u c t i o n d r e d g e leaves a m o o n crater like l a n d s c a p e ; t h e d u s t p a n d r e d g e
leaves a flat bottom. Another e x a m p l e of the application of erosion by suction is the California type
o f d r a g h e a d . In this c a s e , free suction is a v o i d e d by creating a thin cleft b e t w e e n d r a g h e a d a n d
s e a b e d . All t h e s e types of suctton d r e d g e h a v e difficulty in w o r k i n g in c o h e s i v e soils.
A r e c e n t e x a m p l e of the u s e of erosive f o r c e by jetting is the n e w t e c h n i q u e of w a t e r injection
d r e d g i n g . H e r e , the jets are u s e d to c r e a t e a d e n s e soil w a t e r m i x t u r e that f l o w s to d e e p e r
s e c t i o n s of the s e a b e d u n d e r t h e influence of gravity. T h e r e are other applications for plain
s u c t i o n d r e d g e s and d u s t p a n d r e d g e s . R e c e n t l y jet nozzles are also being m o r e frequently fitted
t h e d r a g h e a d s of trailing s u c t i o n d r e d g e r s .

189

Mechanical forces
W h e n m e c h a n i c a l m e a n s of disintegrating the soil structure are u s e d , steel b l a d e s (teeth) a r e
c o m m o n . T h e y a r e p u s h e d t h r o u g h the soil in a m a n n e r similar to the m o v e m e n t of a c h i s e l in
steel or w o o d . Subsequently, w e will s e e that the theory behind the chiselling action has m a d e a
great impact on the insight of this m e t h o d in dredging. Even s o m e o n e w h o l<nows little or n o t h i n g
a b o u t d r e d g i n g will r e c o g n i s e o n e similarity, w h i c h is that: blunt chisels d o not w o r k w e l l . W h e n
this t e c h n i q u e is u s e d , considerable forces are exerted on the chisel-type blade that has t o f o r c e
its w a y t h r o u g h the g r o u n d . T h e s e forces m u s t be mobilised externally, either having a n e x t r e m e
weight of the dredge part or via a sophisticated anchoring s y s t e m . E x a m p l e s of dredges using this
m e t h o d a r e t h e g r a b d r e d g e , the b u c k e t ladder d r e d g e , the b a c k h o e , the cutter s u c t i o n d r e d g e ,
a n d e v e n the trailing h o p p e r d r e d g e , at least w h e n the d r a g h e a d is fitted with cutting b l a d e s or
t e e t h . In all c a s e s it is useful to realise h o w the external f o r c e s are m o b i l i s e d , a n d h o w t h e y a r e
g u i d e d t o w a r d s the t o o t h . A striking d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n m e c h a n i c a l a n d all hydraulic m e a n s of
disintegration is the fact that little or no w a t e r is a d d e d to the soil s t r u c t u r e at this s t a g e .
11.3.3 V e r t i c a l t r a n s p o r t
In m o s t c a s e s , the soil is b r o u g h t to the s u r f a c e after disintegration. A g a i n , hydraulic or
m e c h a n i c a l m e a n s c a n be e m p l o y e d . If m e c h a n i c a l m e a n s a r e u s e d , no w a t e r h a s to be a d d e d
to let the mixture flow. E x a m p l e s are the grab dredge, the bucket ladder d r e d g e a n d the b a c k h o e .
T h e p r o c e s s is relatively slow, but it does not require m u c h energy, as no a d d e d w a t e r h a s to be
raised to the s u r f a c e . This is the m a i n a d v a n t a g e of the m e t h o d , w h i c h is still u s e d in spite of the
low production rates. For the purpose of this course, the process is not very interesting. H o w e v e r ,
hydraulic vertical transport is well worth scientific analysis. W i t h the aid of the v a c u u m c r e a t e d by
a p u m p (usually a rotary centrifugal p u m p ) , slurry is m o v e d up t h r o u g h a pipe. T h i s m e a n s t h a t
w a t e r has to be a d d e d to the soil to allow it to flow. A d d i n g too m u c h w a t e r leads to inefficiency,
a n d s t r a n g e l y e n o u g h , the s a m e applies if insufficient w a t e r is a d d e d . T h e m e t h o d is u s e d in all
s u c t i o n type d r e d g e s : plain s u c t i o n , cutter s u c t i o n , a n d trailing s u c t i o n d r e d g e s .
11.3.4 H o r i z o n t a l t r a n s p o r t
Horizontal transport of the d r e d g e d material can be a c c o m p l i s h e d by barge, by pipeline, b y truck,
or less c o m m o n l y by c o n v e y o r belt. T r a n s p o r t b a r g e s c a n be u s e d in c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t h e
d r e d g i n g e q u i p m e n t , or be u s e d as s e p a r a t e units. It is e v i d e n t that disintegration a n d v e r t i c a l
transport m e t h o d s that do not add water to the soil have a great advantage. W h e n w a t e r is a d d e d ,
transport costs c a n be reduced if water and soil c a n be separated during the loading of the barge.
T h i s m a y require a c o n s i d e r a b l e effort, w h i c h will be d i s c u s s e d in m o r e detail later. B a r g e
t r a n s p o r t is c h e a p (low cost per t o n / k i l o m e t r e ) , p r o v i d e d sailing conditions a r e r e a s o n a b l e . T h i s
refers to available w a t e r d e p t h , currents, a n d w a v e s . If d r e d g i n g e q u i p m e n t a n d b a r g e s a r e
s e p a r a t e , the l o a d i n g p r o c e s s itself is also sensitive to d e l a y s .
Pipeline transport is c o m m o n l y used with d r e d g e s that use hydraulic m e a n s for disintegration a n d
vertical t r a n s p o r t , t h o u g h t h e r e are e x a m p l e s of material being b r o u g h t up b y a g r a b a n d t h e n
p u m p e d to its destination. T h e advantage of pipelines is that they can cross both, w a t e r a n d land.
N o r e h a n d l i n g o f material is required w h e n m o v i n g f r o m w a t e r to land or t h e r e v e r s e . P i p e l i n e s
c r o s s i n g w a t e r m a y b e floating (either o n p o n t o o n s or self-floating) or s u b m e r g e d . Floating
pipelines m u s t b e flexible (rubber h o s e s or ball Joints), but they r e m a i n sensitive to t h e a c t i o n of
w a v e s and currents, a n d they h a m p e r navigation. S u b m e r g e d pipelines are w e l d e d t o g e t h e r f r o m
steel pipes a n d s u n k in place in lengths of up to several kilometres. This requires a c o n s i d e r a b l e
i n v e s t m e n t a n d generally, pipeline transport is m o r e e x p e n s i v e t h a n barge transport. R e h a n d l i n g
b e c o m e s cost e f f e c t i v e w h e n m o r e t h e n 4 to 6 k m c a n be c o v e r e d by b a r g e . T h e t h e o r e t i c a l
a s p e c t s o f pipeline t r a n s p o r t will be d i s c u s s e d separately.
T r u c k transport is relatively e x p e n s i v e a n d only u s e d for small quantities or o v e r s h o r t d i s t a n c e ,
u n l e s s t h e r e a r e no o t h e r options. T h e use of t r u c k s is a logistic rather t h a n a t e c h n i c a l i s s u e .
190

C o n v e y o r belts are not c o m m o n l y e m p l o y e d in d r e d g i n g projects either, t h o u g h

Japanese

c o n t r a c t o r s h a v e s u c c e s s f u l l y u s e d t h e m o n r e c l a m a t i o n j o b s in S i n g a p o r e a n d J a p a n .
11.3.5 D e p o s i t i o n
T h e deposition of d r e d g e d material is carried out for different p u r p o s e s a n d in d i f f e r e n t
e n v i r o n m e n t s . T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n is w h e t h e r the material will b e u s e d in p r o d u c t i v e l y
or m e r e l y be d i s c a r d e d . In the latter case, o n e is only c o n c e r n e d that the material d o e s not finishup in u n d e s i r a b l e p l a c e s , or that the disposal has u n d e s i r a b l e side e f f e c t s on t h e e n v i r o n m e n t .
W h e n the material is to be retained, it mal<es a d i f f e r e n c e w h e t h e r t h e location is o n land or in
water. T h e m e t h o d s d e p e n d largely o n the limitations i m p o s e d by t h e m e a n s of horizontal
transport. P r o v i d e d t h e d e p t h p e r m i t s b a r g e s are often u n l o a d e d by d u m p i n g t h r o u g h b o t t o m
d o o r s , . In other c a s e s , the material is p u m p e d , w h i c h again m e a n s t h a t during d e p o s i t i o n , w a t e r
a n d soil must be separated. This m a y be done in an unconfined or in a dil<ed disposal area. W h e n
u s i n g dil<ed d i s p o s a l a r e a s , it is possible to a c h i e v e c o n s i d e r a b l e height of r e c l a m a t i o n w i t h
relatively steep s l o p e s . H o w e v e r at all t i m e s the rules of soil m e c h a n i c a l stability m u s t b e
o b s e r v e d , talking into a c c o u n t the special properties of the high-density fluid that w e a r e worl<ing
w i t h . T h e p h e n o m e n a occurring during disposal are similar to t h o s e that c a n b e o b s e r v e d w h e n
loading b a r g e s .
11.3.6 B a c k to o n e p r o c e s s
In spite of the a d v a n t a g e of splitting the dredging process into p h a s e s to e n h a n c e u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,
o n e m u s t k e e p in m i n d t h a t in reality t h e v a r i o u s p h a s e s a r e part of a single o p e r a t i o n . T h i s
implies that all material that is disintegrated will have to be lifted vertically, transported horizontally
a n d eventually d e p o s i t e d . S i n c e it is a m o r e or less c l o s e d circuit, in all p h a s e s t h e c a p a c i t y
s h o u l d b e a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l . T h e r e is no s e n s e in increasing the c a p a c i t y of o n e p h a s e if t h e
others r e m a i n u n c h a n g e d . T h i s is e x p l a i n e d in the following e x a m p l e .

Example:
W h e n a trailing suction dredge has two dragheads e a c h 2.5 m w i d e , o n e can select the cutting
d e p t h of the d r a g h e a d a n d the sailing s p e e d d u r i n g d r e d g i n g .
If a cutting d e p t h of 0.1 m a n d a sailing s p e e d (during d r e d g i n g ) of 2 knots (= 1 m/s) a r e
c h o s e n the v o l u m e of material l o o s e n e d f r o m t h e s e a b e d is:
2 * 2.5 ( m ) * 0.1 ( m ) *1 ( m / s ) = 0.5 m ' / s .
If the t w o p u m p s h a v e a capacity to p u m p a mixture of 2 5 % concentration at a s p e e d of 4 m / s
t h r o u g h t w o pipes of 0.75 m , the p u m p i n g c a p a c i t y is:
2 * 1/47t

* 4 * 0.25 = 0.88 m ' / s

T h e p u m p i n g p h a s e h a s a higher c a p a c i t y t h a n the digging p h a s e . T h e p r o d u c t i o n c a n b e


i n c r e a s e d by applying either a higher sailing s p e e d or a greater cutting d e p t h .

191

In d r e d g i n g t e c l i n o l o g y , s o m e special a s p e c t s of soil m e c f i a n i c s a n d fluid m e c h a n i c s require


special attention. W i t h regard to soil m e c h a n i c s , it is no longer stability that is important, but rather
the loss of stability. W i t h regard to fluid m e c h a n i c s , flow in closed circuits and flow with e x t r e m e l y
high s e d i m e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n a r e s u b j e c t s j u s t outside the traditional field that are n e v e r t h e l e s s
very important.

12.1 Soil m e c h a n i c s
12.1.1 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o i l s
In t h e d r e d g i n g w o r l d , the t e r m 'classification of soils' often refers to a description of soils to be
u s e d in official d o c u m e n t s . T h e P I A N C R e p o r t no. 4 7 ( A n o n y m o u s , 1 9 8 4 ) is a f r e q u e n t l y u s e d
international s t a n d a r d for this p u r p o s e . This report r e c o m m e n d s m e t h o d s for identification a n d
s u b s e q u e n t (laboratory) investigations to a s s e s s the soil properties relevant for d r e d g i n g . L o o s e
g r a n u l a r material is usually classified a c c o r d i n g to grain size:
Name

Grain s i z e (mm)

Boulders

>200

Cobbles

60 - 2 0 0

Gravel

2-60

Sand

0.06 - 2

Silt

0.002 - 0.06

Clay

< 0.002

T a b l e 12-1 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n l o o s e g r a n u l a r material
A p a r t f r o m the grain size, other data are i m p o r t a n t including grain d e n s i t y [p) p o r e v o l u m e , a n d
p a r a m e t e r s d e s c r i b i n g the plastic b e h a v i o u r of silt a n d clay. B e d d e d r o c k s a r e t r e a t e d ' in a
different w a y a n d for their classification o n e s h o u l d refer to t h e original publication.
T h e g r a i n size is g e n e r a l l y d e t e r m i n e d by sieving, but for finer particles it is not u n c o m m o n to
d e t e r m i n e t h e grain size b y m e a s u r i n g the fall velocity of the particles in w a t e r . T h i s m e t h o d is
based on the well-known Stokes equation,

d^, valid for s m a l l Reynolds n u m b e r s , i.e. for f i n e

grains only.
This equation can also be represented in graphical f o r m as d e m o n s t r a t e d in Figure 1 2 - 1 , in w h i c h
Yg (the grain density) h a s b e e n t a k e n as 2 6 5 0 k g / m ' a n d

(the density of w a t e r as 1000 k g / m ' ) .

12.1.2 P o r o s i t y a n d b u l k d e n s i t y
Granular soil consists of a mixture of grains, air a n d water. A n important p a r a m e t e r is the porosity
{n), indicating the v o l u m e of the pores (Vp) divided by the total v o l u m e (V^). T h e estimated porosity
usually v a n e s b e t w e e n 35 a n d 4 5 % with 4 0 % . In s o m e c o u n t r i e s the ratio e=VplVg\s

used,

w h i c h relates easily to the void ratio: e = n I (1 - n ) .


T a k i n g t h e density of the grains as 2 6 5 0 k g / m ' , a n d a s s u m i n g n = 4 0 % , it is e a s y to s e e that t h e
bulk d e n s i t y of dry soil is a b o u t 1 6 0 0 k g / m ' . If the v o i d s a r e s a t u r a t e d with w a t e r this i n c r e a s e s
to 2 0 0 0 k g / m ' .

193

12.1.3 P e r m e a b i l i t y
T i i e voids in a granular soil a r e linl<ed witli e a c l i other. This m e a n s that under t h e influence of a n
external f o r c e , w a t e r c a n f l o w t h r o u g h t h e voids. In fine-grained material, this is a l a m i n a r flow,
b e c a u s e t h e friction of t h e flowing w a t e r is mainly d e t e r m i n e d b y viscosity. T h e r e f o r e , t h e D a r c y
e q u a t i o n c a n be u s e d :
u, = k-i

(12.1)

in w h i c h
Uf = filter velocity ( m / s )
/

= gradient of t h e static h e a d in t h e direction of flow (-)

= p e r m e a b i l i t y coefficient ( m / s )

Figure 12-1 Fall velocity of sand in water of 20 C


Note:

d in mm and w in cm/s!

T h e filter velocity is a fictitious velocity, defined as t h e f l o w rate Q ( m ' / s ) divided by t h e total a r e a


A (m^). B e c a u s e grains o c c u p y a part of t h e a r e a , t h e actual velocity Up in t h e p o r e s will b e
c o n s i d e r a b l y higher t h a n t h e filter velocity. {Uf = n.Up) P e r m e a b i l i t y plays a n i m p o r t a n t role in
d r e d g i n g , a n d t h e r e f o r e it w o u l d b e ideal if p e r m e a b i l i t y could w e r e m e a s u r e d m o r e f r e q u e n t l y
d u r i n g surveys. H o w e v e r it is possible to determine t h e permeability o n t h e basis of t h e g r a i n size
distribution with t h e aid of t h e K o z e n y - C a r m a n relation:

194

/, = 1 / 5 _ ^ l l _ ( ^ e x p 4 - l / 4 / A 7 ^ W |

(12.2)

in whiicii:
dx = cliaracteristic v a l u e s f r o m grain size distribution ( m )
V

= k i n e m a t i c viscosity of v\/ater (m^/s)

= porosity (-)

= a c c e l e r a t i o n of gravity (m/s^)

A s t h e f l o w i n g fluid e x p e r i e n c e s a friction w h e n p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e v o i d s , o n e m u s t e x p e c t
(action = reaction) that c o n v e r s e l y t h e s a m e f o r c e is e x e r t e d by t h e fluid o n t o t h e m e d i u m . T h i s
f l o w f o r c e is e q u a l to:
P, = Pw-9-i

= Pw-9~

(12.3)

T h e d i m e n s i o n of Pf is f o r c e per unit v o l u m e , w h i c h plays a n i m p o r t a n t role w h e n w e h a v e to


c o n s i d e r t h e e q u i l i b r i u m of s l o p e s with g r o u n d w a t e r f l o w i n g out.

12.1.4

Stresses

T e r z a g h i has treated stresses in soil extensively. He defines a vertical stress level in t h e soil t h a t
is e q u a l to t h e total w e i g h t of t h e overlying soil (i.e. grains + v o i d w a t e r ) [N] d i v i d e d by t h e a r e a
[m^] that carries t h e l o a d . T h i s s t r e s s is called t h e total s t r e s s atot, or s i m p l y a. H o w e v e r , part of
t h e vertical f o r c e m u s t be t r a n s m i t t e d by t h e hydrostatic (water) p r e s s u r e , part by f o r c e s
c o n c e n t r a t e d in t h e contact points b e t w e e n the grains. If the w a t e r pressure is p, this m e a n s t h a t
t h e fictitious effective s t r e s s or "grain p r e s s u r e "
a = a'+p

a-p,or.
(12.4)

T h i s f o r m u l a is o n l y valid for n o r m a l s t r e s s e s . Friction or s h e a r c a n n o t be t r a n s f e r r e d by w a t e r ,


s o it m u s t be t r a n s f e r r e d in t h e c o n t a c t point b e t w e e n t h e g r a i n s , w h e r e t h e n o r m a l s t r e s s level
is

T h e m a x i m u m s h e a r that c a n be transferred is proportional to t h e friction coefficient (tan (p)

multiplied by t h e effective s t r e s s :
Tn,.. = cr'tan^

(12.5)

T h i s e x p r e s s i o n has large c o n s e q u e n c e s : if the w a t e r p r e s s u r e i n c r e a s e s or d e c r e a s e s in


o t h e r w i s e identical c o n d i t i o n s , t h e e f f e c t i v e stress will h a v e t h e r e v e r s e action in e a c h c a s e , a s
will t h e s h e a r s t r e n g t h .
7 , , = (T'?an^ + c

(12.6)

T h e a b o v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a p p l y for g r a n u l a r m a t e r i a l w h e r e friction f o r c e s d o m i n a t e . In f i n e r
m a t e r i a l like silt, and in particular clay, other f o r c e s ( s u c h as electrostatic l o a d s ) d o m i n a t e t h e
inter-grain behaviour. T h i s l e a d s to a n e x t r e m e situation, w h e r e the s h e a r s t r e n g t h no l o n g e r
d e p e n d s o n t h e n o r m a l s t r e s s , but e x h i b i t s a c o n s t a n t v a l u e : t h e c o h e s i o n (c). E q u a t i o n ( 1 2 . 6 )
then becomes:

195

In m o s t e x a m p l e s in tliis course, w e simplify the behaviour of material with grain sizes larger t h a n
0.06 m m to a condition with c = 0 a n d (j) = 30 (non cohesive material), a n d t h o s e with g r a i n size
< 0.002 m m to c = c o n s t a n t a n d </>=0.

12.1.5 D e f o r m a t i o n s
Soils do not b e h a v e exactly t h e s a m e w a y as materials like steel a n d w o o d w h e n d e f o r m a t i o n
u n d e r the influence of loads o c c u r s . W h i l e steel a n d w o o d s h o w a largely elastic behaviour, soils
b e h a v e rather differently. T h i s is b e c a u s e c h a n g i n g the packing of grains c a u s e s d e f o r m a t i o n s .
T h e d e n s e r the p a c k i n g , the stiffer the soil. Increasing n o r m a l stress will c a u s e d e n s e r p a c k i n g
a n d thus of stiffening behaviour. A n o t h e r striking d i f f e r e n c e is that a release of stress d o e s not
lead to looser packing. W h e n the soil is recharged to its original stress level, it will therefore s h o w
a n e x t r e m e l y stiff behaviour a n d if it is loaded beyond the original stress level, it yields easily. W e
call this o v e r - c o n s o l i d a t i o n . In nature, this e f f e c t m a y be c a u s e d by different c o n f i g u r a t i o n in
previous geological periods. In practice, w e apply this property by surcharging the soil temporarily
to r e d u c e s e t t l e m e n t s in later s t a g e s .
W h e n soil is l o a d e d , a n d thus is c o m p a c t e d , the void ratio n will d e c r e a s e . In saturated soil, this
m e a n s that g r o u n d w a t e r has to m o v e out. This will t a k e t i m e , (certainly in fine-grained material),
b e c a u s e of the low permeability. C o n s e q u e n t l y , there will be a considerable period d u r i n g w h i c h
the water pressure will be higher than original pressure and possibly also considerably higher than
t h e usual hydrostatic v a l u e . T h i s m e a n s that the effective stress a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e s h e a r
s t r e n g t h a r e r e d u c e d ( e q u a t i o n s (12.4) a n d (12.5)). W h e n the w a t e r p r e s s u r e b e c o m e s h i g h e r
t h a n t h e total s t r e s s , t h e effective stress b e c o m e s zero, a n d the soil loses all ability to
w i t h s t a n d i n g shear. T h i s is called liquefaction, or the f o r m a t i o n of q u i c k s a n d .

F i g u r e 12-2 L o o s e l y p a c k e d material

F i g u r e 12-3 D e n s e l y p a c k e d material
(dilatant)
W h e n d e f o r m a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e u n d e r t h e influence of s h e a r rather t h a n under t h e i n f l u e n c e of
n o r m a l s t r e s s e s , the situation m a y b e different. If the grains a r e loosely p a c k e d ( F i g u r e 1 2 - 2 ) , it
196

will be e a s y to f o r m a plane w h e r e particles c a n slide along e a c h other. If the grains are d e n s e l y


p a c k e d (Figure 12-3), grains h a v e to m o v e a w a y f r o m e a c h other before sliding c a n t a k e p l a c e .
T h i s m e a n s that the void ratio n is i n c r e a s e d . In s a t u r a t e d soil this m e a n s that w a t e r h a s to f l o w
into the slide plane. If this is h a m p e r e d by low permeability, c o n s i d e r a b l y lower p r e s s u r e m a y
o c c u r locally t h a n the original v a l u e s or the hydrostatic v a l u e .
T h i s leads to an i n c r e a s e in the effective stress and t h u s to a higher s h e a r s t r e n g t h . This e f f e c t
is called d i l a t a n c y , a n d it plays a d o m i n a n t role in v a r i o u s parts of the d r e d g i n g p r o c e s s . T h e r e
is a limitation, h o w e v e r on the u n d e r - p r e s s u r e that c a n be g e n e r a t e d : if p r e s s u r e s fall b e l o w t h e
a b s o l u t e v a c u u m , w a t e r will c h a n g e into water vapour, a n d e x p a n s i o n c a n t a k e place easily. T h e
" p r e - s t r e s s i n g " w a t e r p r e s s u r e is t h u s limited to 10 m w c ( 1 0 0 k P a ) b e l o w t h e a t m o s p h e r i c
pressure.

12.1.6 Stability of s l o p e s
W h e n c o n s i d e r i n g the equilibrium of a slope the theories of Fellenius a n d B i s h o p a r e c o m m o n l y
u s e d . B o t h m e t h o d s divide t h e g r o u n d m a s s into vertical slices. T h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e
m e t h o d s of Fellenius a n d B i s h o p is the c o m p l e t e n e g a t i o n of f o r c e s b e t w e e n the slices b y
Fellenius. Loss of stability can occur only w h e n a circular body m o v e s along a straight or a circular
slide p l a n e . In the c a s e of a s l o p e , the circular slide plane is t h e m o s t c o m m o n . T h e stability is
calculated by taking the turning m o m e n t a r o u n d the centre M of a slip circle with radius R (Figure
12-4). Destabilising forces are the weights of the soil slices o n the right side of M, while stabilising
f o r c e s a r e the w e i g h t s o n the left of M plus t h e friction in the slide p l a n e . T h e ratio b e t w e e n
stabilising a n d destabilising f o r c e s c a n be c a l c u l a t e d for e a c h location of M a n d v a l u e of R.
V a l u e s a b o v e 1 indicate s t a b i l i t y For p e r m a n e n t s l o p e s , a v a l u e of 1.3 to 1.5 is r e c o m m e n d e d
a s a m i n i m u m safety, for t e m p o r a r y s l o p e s , v a l u e s a s low a s 1.1 m a y b e a c c e p t e d .
In a h o m o g e n o u s non-cohesive material, m a n y m e t h o d s of calculation indicate that a slope e q u a l
to the friction angle (or angle of repose) is o n the b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n stable and non-stable slope.
E x a m p l e s of loss of stability of slopes e x p o s e d to real life dredging hazards are given in Schiereck
(1993).

F i g u r e 12-4 S l i d e p l a n e c a l c u l a t i o n

197

12.2 Hydraulics
12.2.1 G e n e r a l
Fluid M e c t i a n i c s m a y be a m o r e appropriate title of this chapter, but term hydraulics

is u s e d here,

b e c a u s e fluid m e c h a n i c s is not treated h e r e o n a scientific basis. This is m e r e l y a n a t t e m p t to


refresh the m e m o r y of the reader in a very practical and applied way. Subsequently, attention wili
be paid to o p e n c h a n n e l flow, f l o w in c l o s e d conduits, s e d i m e n t transport a n d p u m p s .
12.2.2 S e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t in o p e n c h a n n e l s
T h e friction that water encounters w h e n it flows along a wall must be equal to the shear f o r c e that
is e x e r t e d by t h e flowing w a t e r o n that w a l l . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the value of the b o t t o m s h e a r stress
To, or the shear velocity L/., m u s t play a role in considerations of s e d i m e n t transport. Shields found
that t h e r e is a t h r e s h o l d s h e a r stress, b e l o w w h i c h virtually no s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t t a k e s place.
T h e critical v a l u e of the Shields p a r a m e t e r y/= U*^l Agd appears to be a function of the Reynolds
n u m b e r related to the grain size U- DI

v{See

Figure 12-5). N o t e : A is the relative d e n s i t y of the

b o t t o m m a t e r i a l : (pgrain - Pwater)/pwaterW h e n the critical v a l u e of t h e Shields p a r a m e t e r is e x c e e d e d , t h e current will m o v e g r a i n s . T h e


rate of transport has b e e n s u b j e c t of n u m e r o u s investigations, yielding widely varying results. A t
least part of t h e scatter is c a u s e d by the fact that the transport t a k e s place in different m a n n e r s ,
i.e. partly along the b o t t o m , partly in s u s p e n s i o n . It is likely that the m o d e of t r a n s p o r t d e p e n d s
o n the ratio b e t w e e n L/. a n d w, the fall velocity of the particles. W e l l - k n o w n expressions a r e those
of M e y e r - P e t e r a n d M l l e r (for b e d l o a d only) a n d E n g e l u n d a n d H a n s e n (for bed l o a d plus
s u s p e n d e d l o a d ) . T h e f o r m u l a e m a y be g e n e r a l i s e d into a f o r m :
S,=BmU"
in w h i c h :
6

= width of t h e c h a n n e l [m]

= coefficient

= coefficient (as high as 3 to 5)

= a v e r a g e velocity [m/s]

Sb = bulk s a n d t r a n s p o r t [ m ' / s ]

F i g u r e 12-5 S h i e l d s ' c u r v e
198

(12.8)

0.CO02
O.CXXll
O.COOG5
0.010
0.0O9

0.00001

0.008

- Re-

6 8^^B

6 B ^ ^ .

6B^^e

UD/\>

F i g u r e 12-6 IVloody D i a g r a m
Bull< t r a n s p o r t m u s t b e d i s c e r n e d f r o m grain v o l u m e : S/, = S / 1-n if n is t l i e porosity.
It m u s t be kept in m i n d that t h e s e theoretical v a l u e s apply for the friction of flowing w a t e r over a n
a l m o s t horizontal b o t t o m . W h e n w a t e r flows o v e r or along a steep s l o p e that is a l r e a d y close to
t h e limit of stability (relating to soil m e c h a n i c a l t r a n s p o r t a s p e c t s ) a n d t h r e s h o l d conditions will
differ c o n s i d e r a b l y .

12.2.3 F l o w in c l o s e d c o n d u i t s
T h e f l o w in c l o s e d circuits can be t r e a t e d in a w a y similar to t h e flow in o p e n c h a n n e l s . For w a l l
friction, a relation c a n be d e v e l o p e d t h a t is similar to t h e C h z y f o r m u l a :

AU =X
/IH. / t ^ 2 g

(12.9)
^
'

in w h i c h :
AHv = d r o p of the e n e r g y level over a d i s t a n c e L [m]
X

= friction coefficient [-]

= pipeline length u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n [m]

= pipeline d i a m e t e r [m]

= a v e r a g e velocity [m/s]

T h e friction coefficient A c a n be t a k e n f r o m a publication by M o o d y (Figure 12-6). C o m p a r i n g t h e


w o r k of M o o d y and C h z y it is e v i d e n t that X = 8g/C^. W h e n using t h e M o o d y d i a g r a m for s t e e l
pipelines, the value of ks c a n be t a k e n as 1 m m or similar. However, losses are not d u e to friction
a l o n e . A s in o p e n c h a n n e l s , extra l o s s e s m a y o c c u r d u e to local d i s t u r b a n c e s . In the c a s e of
p i p e l i n e s , this refers a m o n g s t others to inflow a n d outflow l o s s e s , b e n d l o s s e s , l o s s e s d u e to
valves a n d junctions. M a n y of these a n o m a l i e s have b e e n tabulated, and o n e m a y attach a typical
e x t r a r e s i s t a n c e to e a c h discontinuity, /. T h e extra r e s i s t a n c e is e x p r e s s e d a s :
199

(12.10)

/IH,
T h e total h e a d loss o v e r the pipeline is t h u s :

A Hto,si =

(^<Y^)^^^YE*'^

Hs,.,io

(12.11)

In this w a y , it is p o s s i b l e to c o n s t r u c t a Q-H c u r v e for a n y closed conduit ( F i g u r e 1 2 - 7 ) . By


c o m b i n i n g the Q-H c u r v e of the pipeline with the Q-H curve of the p u m p , it is possible to find the
actual w o r k i n g point of the p u m p . For details a b o u t the w o r k i n g of a centrifugal p u m p , the reader
is referred to A n n e x 6.

pipe characteristic

F i g u r e 12-7 Q-H c u r v e for p u m p - p i p e l i n e interaction


Note: Dashed

line is Q-H curve

for

pipeline

D r a w n c u r v e s a r e Q-H c u r v e s for p u m p a c t i o n at t w o different s p e e d s

12.2.4 S e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t in c l o s e d c o n d u i t s
W h e n s e d i m e n t is a d d e d to w a t e r f l o w i n g in a pipeline, it is i m p o r t a n t to d e f i n e p a r a m e t e r s in
addition to t h o s e given a b o v e . T h e d i a m e t e r of the s a n d grains is t a k e n as d ( m ) , their density as
Pg, their fall velocity as w. T h e velocity of t h e m i x t u r e is defined as U^,, a n d the pipeline d i a m e t e r
a s D. T h e t r a n s p o r t c o n c e n t r a t i o n Cj is d e f i n e d as Qsand I Qtotai, in w h i c h Qsand a c c o u n t s for t h e
grain v o l u m e only. S o m e t i m e s the volumetric concentration C ^ i s u s e d . Since there is often s o m e
slip b e t w e e n t h e lowing w a t e r a n d the s l o w e r m o v i n g s a n d particles Cv m u s t be larger t h a n
T h e ratio b e t w e e n t h e t w o is called the t r a n s p o r t factor aj = C r /

Cj.

< 1.

In practice, the d r e d g i n g industry prefers to u s e t h e bulk c o n c e n t r a t i o n CB = OjM

- n. T h e u s e

of the bulk concentration leads immediately to actual v o l u m e s in the dredging or reclamation area.
T a k i n g pg as equal to 2 6 5 0 k g / m ' , a n d n as 4 0 % , the density of the mixture is a direct indication
of t h e bulk c o n c e n t r a t i o n .

200

Example:
if ttie bull< concentration in a mixture is 2 0 % , ttiis m e a n s 8 0 % of every cubic meter of m i x t u r e
IS w a t e r , a n d 2 0 % is soil(bull<). T h e bull< soil a l s o consists partly of w a t e r ( 4 0 % ) a n d partly
of g r a i n s ( 6 0 % ) . T h e w e i g h t of o n e cubic m e t e r of m i x t u r e is t h u s :
w a t e r direct:

0.8 m ' @ 1000 l<g/m'

w a t e r in v o i d s :

0.08 m ' @ 1000 k g / m '

80 k g

grains:

0.12 m ' @ 2 6 5 0 k g / m '

318 kg

Total

8 0 0 kg

1.198 k g

or r o u n d e d off

2 0 0 kg

w h i c h is 2 0 % extra ( c o m p a r e d to the d e n s i t y of t h e w a t e r )

Now, it is p o s s i b l e to d i s c e r n various m a t e r i a l s flowing t h r o u g h t h e pipe. W h e n a

high

concentration of clay or silt is p u m p e d , this will influence the viscosity of the mixture so m u c h , t h a t
the n o r m a l theories for turbulent flow d o not apply.

W h e n f i n e s a n d is p u m p e d , the fall velocity will be v e r y low c o m p a r e d to the turbulent v e l o c i t y


fluctuations in the pipeline. T h e latter a r e of the order of 5 % of the m e a n f l o w velocity. F o r
e x a m p l e , if w e a s s u m e that in order to create a m o r e or less h o m o g e n o u s mixture these turbulent
fluctuations m u s t be a factor 10 greater t h a n t h e fail velocity a n d if w e a s s u m e a r e a s o n a b l e
velocity in the pipeline of 4 m/s, the fall velocity of the particles m u s t then b e lower than 0 02 m / s
or the d i a m e t e r < 0.15 m m . In other w o r d s , fine s a n d will f o r m a m o r e or less h o m o g e n o u s
mixture p r o v i d e d the d i a m e t e r is b e t w e e n 0.06 a n d 0.15 m m .
If w e p u m p c o a r s e r material, part of the material will r e m a i n o n the b o t t o m . No material at all will
c o m e into s u s p e n s i o n if the turbulent velocity f l u c t u a t i o n s are in t h e s a m e order a s the f a l l
velocity. All material will thus be t r a n s p o r t e d a l o n g the b o t t o m of the pipeline if the fall velocity is
in the order of 0.2 m/s, i.e. if the grain size is m o r e than 2 m m . T h u s , w e m a y c o n c l u d e that g r a i n
sizes b e t w e e n 0.15 a n d 2 m m f o r m a transition z o n e , a n d that m a t e r i a l c o a r s e r t h a n 2 m m w i l l
slide over the bottom of the pipe. C o n s e q u e n t l y o n e m a y e x p e c t that for s a n d grains under 0 . 1 5
m m , the t r a n s p o r t coefficient will be 1, w h e r e a s for material c o a r s e r t h a n 2 m m the t r a n s p o r t
coefficient m a y e v e n d r o p to v a l u e s b e l o w 0.5. E x a c t data a r e not readily available in t h e
p u b l i s h e d literature.

A p a r t f r o m the q u e s t i o n of exactly h o w the grains a r e m o v i n g , it is i m p o r t a n t to e n s u r e that t h e y


d o not r e m a i n behind in the pipeline a n d f o r m a g r o w i n g obstruction to the flow. T h e limit v e l o c i t y
for this p h e n o m e n o n is called the critical velocity. M a n y investigators h a v e m a d e o b s e r v a t i o n s in
m o d e l test rigs, but their results vary w i d e l y This is partly b e c a u s e the definition of critical v e l o c i t y
IS not very a c c u r a t e . W i d e l y a c c e p t e d data w e r e b e e n p u b l i s h e d b y F h r b t e r ( 1 9 6 1 ) a n d b y
D u r a n d ( 1 9 5 2 ) as far b a c k as 1952 a n d 1 9 6 1 . F r o m t h e s e p u b l i c a t i o n s , o n e m a y c o n c l u d e t h a t
the p a r a m e t e r V ^ g D plays a d o m i n a n t role. T h i s m a k e s it o b v i o u s t h a t t h e critical v e l o c i t y
increases with cf- . This c o n c l u s i o n is valid for c o a r s e material, but for finer material, a p o w e r o f
0.2 IS also m e n t i o n e d in the literature. A p a r t f r o m that, the g r a i n size d m a k e s little d i f f e r e n c e
w h e n d > 1 m m . (More recent
for material

investigations

with grain sizes between

raise some doubt about

tiiese processes,

certainly

1 and 3 mm). T h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n is i m p o r t a n t f o r ' v a l u e s o f

Ct< 0.15. In practice, w e try to k e e p concentrations higher than this value. A very important f a c t o r
IS the grain size distribution. T h e addition of finer m a t e r i a l will certainly i n c r e a s e the critical
velocity. Practical v a l u e s for a pipeline of D = 0.65 m a r e :

201

d(mm)

Uarit ( m / s )

0.1

3.2

0.15

3.6

0.2

4.3

0.3

5.0

0.4

5.5

T a b l e 12-1 C r i t i c a l v e l o c i t i e s for a pipeline D = 0.65 m


W i t h respect to the pipeline resistance, it mal<es a big difference w h i c h m o d e of transport o c c u r s .
For fine sand, i.e. d b e t w e e n 0.6 and 0.15 m m , the resistance is proportional to the density of the
fluid. T h e result o f e q u a t i o n (12.11) m u s t be c o r r e c t e d by a factor

I pw In the transition

zone,

the Fhrbter f o r m u l a is often preferred. This relates the gradient w h e n p u m p i n g mixture (/,) with
t h e o n e f o u n d for w a t e r ( v ) , in the f o l l o w i n g w a y :
AH.

= AH

+ ff^CrL
Um

(12.12)

in w h i c h Sw is a c o e f f i c i e n t that c a n be c a l c u l a t e d with t h e following e x p r e s s i o n :


S = 2 . 5 9 - l O ^ d , - 0 . 3 7

(12.13)

, _d<0+d20'*'

(12.14)

and
*"d9o

rl

For coarse

sand (d>2

mm), the D u r a n d f o r m u l a s e e m s to fit better with field o b s e r v a t i o n s . T h e

g e n e r a l f o r m of this f o r m u l a is:
i^ = i^ + 1 7 6 C r - f - ( ^ r - ( ^ r
Um
^JQO

(12.15)

After s o m e m o d i f i c a t i o n s , the D u r a n d f o r m u l a c a n be c o n v e r t e d into:


1 5~

\ l - ^ 2 9 4 ( ^ ]
V Um J

(12.16)

W i t h the a b o v e t h e o r i e s , pipeline r e s i s t a n c e c u r v e s c a n b e d r a w n for v a r i o u s velocities a n d


concentrations.
In the m e a n t i m e , m o r e u p to date literature is b e c o m i n g available, in particular the worl< of
W i l s o n . This leads to slightly lower resistance values for s a n d in the range of 1 to 2 m m d i a m e t e r .
Use of the W i l s o n theory requires c o m p u t e r calculations, w h i c h m a k e s the m e t h o d less u s e f u l for
t h e p u r p o s e s of i n s t r u c t i o n .

202

13.1 General
In this chapter the p h a s e s of the d r e d g i n g p r o c e s s as introduced in section 11.3 are e l a b o r a t e d
quantitatively.

13.2 Disintegration
13.2.1 S u c t i o n
W h e n plain suction is applied as m e a n s for disintegration, soil is r e m o v e d from its place w h e n t h e
suction pipe is e x t e n d e d into the g r o u n d . IVlaterial slides d o w n the slopes a r o u n d the suction pipe
until stable slopes are a c h i e v e d . W h e n production has to continue thereafter, one m u s t p u s h t h e
pipe a h e a d , a n d c a u s e a c o n t i n u i n g instability at the f o r w a r d e n d of the t r e n c h c r e a t e d by t h e
s u c t i o n pipe. In m a n y c a s e s , sliding c a u s e s dilatancy a n d t h u s u n d e r p r e s s u r e s in t h e s o i l ,
certainly w h e n the original p a c k i n g is d e n s e a n d the p e r m e a b i l i t y low. T h i s m e a n s that the s a n d
in front of the pipe is p r e - s t r e s s e d . It b e c o m e s as hard as c o n c r e t e . O n l y s l o w l y d o large l u m p s
fall d o w n after sufficient w a t e r has p a s s e d into t h e v o i d s . O n e c a n i m a g i n e that the m a x i m u m
f o r w a r d s p e e d of the s u c t i o n m o u t h is t h e r e f o r e restricted by t h e p e r m e a b i l i t y of the soil. T h e
production of the trench is equal to its cross sectional a r e a multiplied by the forward s p e e d of t h e
s u c t i o n m o u t h ( c o m p a r e e x a m p l e 1). T h e p r o d u c t i o n c a n t h u s b e limited by the limitation of t h e
f o r w a r d s p e e d , w h i c h is a f u n c t i o n of permeability. A n o t h e r m e t h o d of increasing

trench

p r o d u c t i o n is to increase t h e c r o s s sectional a r e a of the t r e n c h , in other w o r d s : p u s h the s u c t i o n


pipe d e e p e r into the g r o u n d . T h e r e f o r e , it is c o m m o n to s e e plain suction d r e d g e s d r e d g i n g to
d e p t h s of 60 or 70 m .
13.2.2 J e t s
T h e f l o w field created by jets is extensively d e s c r i b e d in the literature. For a s u m m a r y , the r e a d e r
c a n refer to S c h i e r e c k ( 1 9 9 3 ) . Unfortunately, t h e effect of this f l o w pattern o n t h e e r o s i o n of
granular soil is not d e s c r i b e d in the literature within the public d o m a i n . F r o m t h e p r e s e n c e of j e t s
o n the s u c t i o n pipes of all m a j o r plain suction d r e d g e s , o n e m a y c o n c l u d e that this is e f f e c t i v e .
A first i m p r e s s i o n of required jet p o w e r m i g h t b e o b t a i n e d by c o m p a r i n g the installed jet p o w e r
with the p o w e r of t h e s u c t i o n p u m p of s u c h d r e d g e s . T h i s leads to t h e c o n c l u s i o n that the j e t
power s h o u l d be a r o u n d half the power of the suction p u m p . W h e r e theoretical k n o w l e d g e is not
a v a i l a b l e , o n e m a y rely o n t h e e x p e r i e n c e of o t h e r s .

13.2.3 B l a d e s
W h e n cutting soil by m e c h a n i c a l m e a n s , a slide plane f o r m s in front of the cutting b l a d e . In
principle, it is not v e r y difficult to calculate t h e f o r c e s a l o n g this slide plane by using the t h e o r i e s
of traditional soil m e c h a n i c s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e c o m p l i c a t i o n s w h e n t h e soil is s a t u r a t e d w i t h
water. A g a i n , dilatancy m a y o c c u r in the slide plane, a n d as the s p e e d of the blade is rather h i g h
(trailing suction h o p p e r d r e d g e s : 1 to 2 m/s; cutter suction d r e d g e s : up to 3 m/s), w a t e r has v e r y
little t i m e to f l o w to t h e dilatant z o n e , e v e n t h o u g h t h e cutting d e p t h m a y be s m a l l . T h e o r e t i c a l
c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have d e m o n s t r a t e d that in i m p e r m e a b l e s a n d t h e u n d e r p r e s s u r e m a y reach t h e
cavitation point (-10 m w c ) . T h e s e calculations h a v e b e e n c o n f i r m e d by m e a s u r e m e n t s in t h e
laboratory.
203

Extensive research has been done, but only little has b e e n published (Meijer, 1976 and M i e d e m a ,
1 9 8 7 ) . It has i n d e e d b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d that it is possible to m o d e l dilatancy a n d the resulting
water under pressures and to calculate the horizontal and vertical forces on the blade (Figure 13
1). Results of this l<ind of r e s e a r c h c a n be applied to all kinds of chiselling tools like d r a g h e a d s ,
cutterheads, b u c k e t s , and bucket w h e e l s . It is important to note that in the c a s e of cavitation the
w a t e r depth in the d r e d g i n g a r e a largely d e t e r m i n e s the required f o r c e s a n d energy.

F i g u r e 13-1 C u t t i n g b l a d e w i t h c o n t o u r s of (neg.) w a t e r p r e s s u r e

F i g u r e 13-2 F o r c e s o n cutting b l a d e

13.3 Vertical transport


13.3.1 M e c h a n i c a l t r a n s p o r t
C r a n e s p r o v i d e the m e c h a n i c a l m e a n s for vertical t r a n s p o r t . Lifting is m a i n l y d o n e b y using
w i n c h i n g w i r e s or by using hydraulic cylinders to drive a n a r m . A n o t h e r typical e x a m p l e of
m e c h a n i c a l vertical transport is t h e c h a i n of a b u c k e t ladder d r e d g e .
13.3.2 H y d r a u l i c t r a n s p o r t
M o r e important is the use of hydraulic m e a n s for the vertical transport of d r e d g e d m a t e r i a l . H e r e
w e c o n s i d e r a p u m p with its c e n t r e at a level Zp b e l o w t h e w a t e r s u r f a c e . It is c o n n e c t e d with a
s u c t i o n pipe t h a t e n d s at a d e p t h Zs b e l o w the w a t e r level. A t its suction side, t h e p u m p c a n
g e n e r a t e a suction p r e s s u r e p* (in m w c ) . (Figure 13-3)
204

F i g u r e 13-3 Definition sicetch of t e r m s u s e d in tlie s u c t i o n e q u a t i o n

W l i e n w e consider ttie equilibrium of the c o l u m n of fluid in the suction pipe, w e c a n recognise t w o


upward forces:
e

t h e p r e s s u r e at t h e suction m o u t h : Z^.p^t a n d

t h e suction by the p u m p : p .p^,

W e a l s o c a n distinguish d o w n w a r d f o r c e s :

t h e w e i g h t of t h e fluid in the suction pipe: (Zs - Zp)pm

friction a n d other hydraulic l o s s e s : {fif

12g)pin

S i n c e t h e r e m u s t be e q u i l i b r i u m , the best k n o w n e q u a t i o n in d r e d g i n g r e a d s :

Pm

(P*+4)-Pw

(13.1)

In p r a c t i c e , p* is limited to a v a l u e well b e l o w t h e a b s o l u t e v a c u u m , s a y 0.55 m H g , or 7.5 m w c .


E q u a t i o n (13.1) c a n n o t always be s o l v e d directly s o this has to b e d o n e by iteration. N o w a d a y s ,
w i t h t h e aid of s p r e a d s h e e t s , this is no p r o b l e m .
A n e x a m p l e of the kind of p r o b l e m s that c a n be s o l v e d is g i v e n in the following e x a m p l e .

205

Example:

A d r e d g e with a suction pipe of 0.7 m diameter and its p u m p at the water level is dredging
at a d e p t h of 20 m . T h e m a x i m u m v a c u u m of the p u m p is 7.5 m w c , the d e n s i t y of t h e
w a t e r is 1 0 0 0 k g / m ' . W h a t is t h e o p t i m u m p r o d u c t i o n ?
U s i n g e q u a t i o n (13.1) and substituting the d a t a , w e f i n d :
(20 + 7.5). 1000 = 2 0 .

+ 3. U^/2g . p ^ (if w e a s s u m e f=3)

or
2 7 , 5 0 0 = (20 + 0.15 L'^).p
This equation has two u n k n o w n variables. Therefore, w e m u s t a s s u m e a value for U. T a k e
s u b s e q u e n t l y 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4 , a n d 4.5 m/s.
This yields mixture densities of respectively 1320, 1290, 1260, 1230, and 1190 k g / m ' , a n d
thus bulk c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of 3 2 , 2 9 , 2 6 , 2 3 , a n d 1 9 % .
T o find the bulk production in s a n d , w e m u s t multiply the d i s c h a r g e Q by the bulk
c o n c e n t r a t i o n , i.e.
1/4 7 1 *

ty * Ce * 3 6 0 0 ( s e c o n d s per h o u r ) .

T h i s leads to the following t a b u l a t e d result:


U (m/s)

CB (%)

Production (m'/hr)

2.5

32

3.0

29

1090
1180

3.5

26

1250

4.0

23

1260

4.5

19

1170

T h e o p t i m u m suction production is a c h i e v e d for a s u c t i o n velocity of a b o u t 4 m/s.

C o n s i d e r i n g t h e f o r m u l a (13.1) m o r e carefully, o n e will notice t h a t i n c r e a s i n g the s u c t i o n d e p t h


will s o o n lead to unacceptably productions. This c a n only be solved w h e n the d e p t h of t h e p u m p
b e l o w w a t e r level (Zp) is i n c r e a s e d . T h i s c a n clearly be noticed w h e n o n e is o n b o a r d a trailing
suction h o p p e r d r e d g e : the suction p r o c e s s runs better after the v e s s e l ' s draft h a s i n c r e a s e d
o w i n g to l o a d i n g .

13.4 Horizontal transport


13.4.1 P i p e l i n e
In section 12.2.4, close attention w a s paid to the t h e o r y of pipeline transport. A n a s p e c t t h a t h a s
not b e e n m e n t i o n e d yet, is the influence of the p u m p b e h a v i o u r . T h i s influence w a s t h o r o u g h l y
investigated by Stepanoff a n d his results a r e published in his classic b o o k on p u m p s . D e p e n d i n g
o n the actual design of the p u m p , it is possible to calculate its Q-H curves for various s p e e d s a n d
mixture concentrations.
N o w , all ingredients a r e available to d r a w pipeline c u r v e s for v a r i o u s f l o w rates a n d v a r i o u s
m i x t u r e d e n s i t i e s , a n d do the s a m e for the p u m p c u r v e s , c o r r e c t e d for drive p o w e r a n d m i x t u r e

206

influence. T h e intersection of p u m p curve and pipeline curve gives the worl^ing point of the s y s t e m
(see F i g u r e 1 2 - 7 ) .
A g a i n , optimisation involves m a n y iterative calculations. D r e d g i n g c o m p a n i e s h a v e m a d e t h e s e
calculations for all their d r e d g e s , a n d for a c o n v e n i e n t set of p u m p i n g d i s t a n c e s a n d grain s i z e s .
F r e q u e n t l y t h e y h a v e a d a p t e d the theoretical v a l u e s g i v e n in this c o u r s e by actual c a l i b r a t e d
m e a s u r e m e n t s carried out while w o r k i n g o n during their o w n projects. Clearly this information is
a c l o s e l y - g u a r d e d secret.
13.4.2 B a r g e
A v e r y controversial p h e n o m e n o n is the p r o c e s s that

o c c u r s during the filling of b a r g e s by

hydraulic d r e d g e s . Filling the b a r g e with the m i x t u r e as it is p u m p e d leads to s m a l l l o a d s , 20 to


3 0 % of t h e m a x i m u m p o s s i b l e l o a d . T h i s m e a n s that p u m p i n g is c o n t i n u e d after the b a r g e is
a l r e a d y full, a n d that t h e b a r g e is u s e d as a s a n d trap or settling c h a m b e r . T h e intention is that
t h e w a t e r s h o u l d f l o w o v e r b o a r d , a n d that t h e s a n d s h o u l d r e m a i n in the hold. T h u s , w e c a n
c o m p a r e t h e w o r k i n g of t h e b a r g e with the traditional s a n d t r a p ( F i g u r e 13-4).
W h e n a s a n d w a t e r m i x t u r e is flowing at a rate Q into a rectangular settling basin with a width B,
a d e p t h /?, a n d a l e n g t h L, the f l o w velocity U in t h e basin is QIB.h. W h e n the fall velocity of t h e
s a n d is w, a s a n d particle that w a s originally at t h e s u r f a c e will settle within the basin if L > U/w.
h. If w e substitute U = Q / B h , w e find L > Q/Bw, or w < Q / B L . A p p a r e n t l y the value of Q / B L , w h i c h
is a fictitious vertical velocity in the basin d e t e r m i n e s the quality of t h e s a n d t r a p . O n e w o u l d
t h e r e f o r e e x p e c t that for a given b a r g e , r e d u c t i o n of t h e d i s c h a r g e w o u l d i m p r o v e the s a n d
retaining properties. It is also clear that a n i n c r e a s e in g r a i n size h a s a large influence o n t h e
e f f i c i e n c y of the filling p r o c e s s , certainly in the lower r a n g e s of grain size, w h e r e t h e fall velocity
i n c r e a s e s with t h e s q u a r e of the grain size ( c o m p a r e Figure 12-1).
W h e n filling a b a r g e t h e d i l e m m a is clear, if o n e p u m p s t h e m i x t u r e at high c a p a c i t y the b a r g e
will be filled rather quickly, but the sedimentation during overflow will be less efficient. W h a t is the
o p t i m u m d i s c h a r g e ? T h e p r o b l e m is m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d t h a n it initially a p p e a r s to b e , as it is also
k n o w n that higher c o n c e n t r a t i o n s lead to lower fall velocity. T h e next point is t h e q u e s t i o n h o w
long o n e should c o n t i n u e loading. Gradually m o r e a n d m o r e s a n d will flow o v e r b o a r d , along with
the p u m p e d water.

F i g u r e 13-4 S e t t l i n g p a r t i c l e s in s a n d trap
207

Is it wortliwhile to continue p u m p i n g to achieve a small increase in payload? This latter q u e s t i o n


c a n n o t be considered on its o w n . W h e n the barge has to sail a short distance it is easier to accept
a poor load t h a n w h e n it has to m a k e a long trip. Generally, the cycle t i m e analysis will b e u s e d
for this p r o b l e m . Note that this m e t h o d is often applied in the w r o n g w a y , taking the e m p t y vessel
as a basis for o p t i m i s a t i o n . I n s t e a d , o n e should b a s e the o p t i m i s a t i o n o n t h e v e s s e l w h e n fully
l o a d e d with w a t e r only.
T h e b a r g e loading p r o c e s s is

a g a i n at the centre of a t t e n t i o n , not only during o p e r a t i o n a l

activities, but also for d e s i g n i n g of n e w e q u i p m e n t .


B a r g e loading m a y bring further a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s . A n a d v a n t a g e is the i m p r o v e d
quality of the b a r g e - l o a d e d s a n d , w h e n u s e d as fill m a t e r i a l . If the virgin material c o n t a i n e d t o o
m u c h unsuitable material, this will be lost during the b a r g e filling operation b e c a u s e the fines will
easily flow o v e r b o a r d . This indicates the d i s a d v a n t a g e as w e l l . In sensitive a r e a s , w h e r e
i n c r e a s e d turbidity is not a c c e p t a b l e (coral reefs, tourist b e a c h e s ) , o n e m u s t be c a r e f u l w h e n
c o n s i d e r i n g using the m e t h o d . M o r e o v e r , t h e r e is also a risk of u n w a n t e d s e d i m e n t a t i o n .
In industrialised a r e a s , o n e m u s t be extra c a r e f u l . W h e n h e a v y m e t a l s or h y d r o c a r b o n s a r e
d i s c h a r g e d into the water, t h e s e harmful s u b s t a n c e s b e c o m e a t t a c h e d to the finer particles. T h e
dredging and transport of s u c h c o n t a m i n a t e d material m a y h a v e negative e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact.
In m a n y ports in the U S A a n d W e s t e r n E u r o p e , m a i n t e n a n c e - d r e d g i n g o p e r a t i o n s (if p e r m i t t e d
at all) are h a m p e r e d by t h e c o s t of r e m e d i a l m e a s u r e s .

13.5 Disposal
T h e disposal of d r e d g e d material c a n be p e r f o r m e d in m a n y w a y s . Basically, it is p o s s i b l e to
distinguish m e t h o d s by w h i c h the material is d i s c h a r g e d directly f r o m b a r g e s , a n d m e t h o d s by
w h i c h the material is d i s c h a r g e d m o r e gradually, by pipeline, or by g r a b ( c r a n e ) .
W h e n d i s c h a r g i n g directly f r o m b a r g e s , it is e v i d e n t that the d e p t h o f t h e w a t e r at the d i s p o s a l
location m u s t be sufficient for s a f e u n l o a d i n g . In m a n y c a s e s the r e q u i r e d d e p t h is g r e a t e r t h a n
the actual draft of the barge, since b o t t o m d o o r s or valves protrude f r o m the keel before t h e load
is actually d i s c h a r g e d . During the unloading p r o c e s s , the draft will rapidly d e c r e a s e , s o t h a t there
is little risk of the barge t o u c h i n g the bottom after the load h a s left the v e s s e l . W h e n the intention
is to create an u n d e r w a t e r b e r m of a particular s h a p e , o n e m u s t be alert to the fact that that the
d u m p e d c a r g o hits the s e a b e d w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p a c t . Soft m a t e r i a l will be w h i r l e d u p , a n d
the d u m p e d material m a y also s p r e a d o v e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e . N e v e r t h e l e s s w i t h t h e
d u m p i n g m e t h o d , it is i m p o s s i b l e to create s t e e p u n d e r w a t e r s l o p e s .
W h e n p u m p i n g material, the disposal a r e a m a y be o n land or in water. If it is in water, t h e s a n d w a t e r mixture c a n be d i s c h a r g e d at the s u r f a c e , or alternatively b r o u g h t d o w n to the b o t t o m via
a vertical pipe or a diffuser. In the latter c a s e , it will hit the b o t t o m a n d f o r m a sort of stilling basin,
f r o m w h i c h the material settles w h e n it f l o w s o v e r the e d g e of t h e "crater". In this w a y , relatively
s t e e p slopes c a n be c r e a t e d with s l o p e s b e t w e e n 1:5 a n d 1:7. If m a t e r i a l is d i s c h a r g e d at t h e
surface, less steep slopes are created. If it is n e c e s s a r y to create slopes, of a specified s t e e p n e s s
it will be n e c e s s a r y to c o n s t r u c t retention b u n d s b e f o r e h a n d , or to t r i m t h e s l o p e s a f t e r w a r d s .
D i s p o s a l o n land c a n t a k e place in both u n c o n f i n e d disposal a r e a s a n d in d i k e d disposal a r e a s ,
w h e r e the s a n d w a t e r m i x t u r e is retained until t h e particles h a v e s e t t l e d . U n c o n f i n e d d i s p o s a l
a r e a s tend to f o r m rather flat s l o p e s , the actual slope d e p e n d i n g o n the grain size. W h e n b u n d s
a r e u s e d to c o n t a i n the d r e d g e d m a t e r i a l , o n e m u s t realise that d u r i n g d r e d g i n g , w a t e r will
certainly s e e p t h r o u g h the b u n d s , s o that the outer s l o p e s will be s u b j e c t to o u t f l o w i n g g r o u n d
208

water. Ttiis m e a n s (see s e c t i o n 12.1.6) ttiat ttie equilibrium slope will be r e d u c e d f r o m cpXo V^^,
or if (fs= 30, a slope of a b o u t 1:4. In m a n y c a s e s , a n a t t e m p t is m a d e to create steeper retention
b u n d s . T h e y are stable only if s e e p a g e of w a t e r c a n be p r e v e n t e d , i.e. by applying plastic
m e m b r a n e o n the inner side.
W h a t e v e r the m e t h o d of d i s p o s a l , the d r e d g e d material creates a s u r c h a r g e o n

the original

bottom. Settlements m u s t therefore be e x p e c t e d , a n d m o r e importantly, there is a serious risk that


the subsoil has insufficient bearing capacity and that loss of stability will occur in the f o r m of slips.
This risk is greatest i m m e d i a t e l y after e a c h increase in the s u r c h a r g e , w h e n the w a t e r p r e s s u r e s
are i n c r e a s e d , a n d t h e material has not yet c o n s o l i d a t e d . In m a n y c a s e s , in order to avoid slips
o n e m u s t introduce w a i t i n g t i m e s b e t w e e n the d e p o s i t i o n of s u c c e s s i v e layers of fill. Soil
m e c h a n i c a l analysis of disposal sites is therefore almost as important as analysis of the dredging
area.

If t h e d i s p o s e d material is likely to b e m o v e d by w a v e s or c u r r e n t s , protection of the s l o p e m u s t


be considered. S o m e t i m e s there is e n o u g h opportunity to place granular filters or a geotextile over
t h e d i s p o s e d material before serious e r o s i o n t a k e s place. In other c a s e s , again retention b u n d s
m a y be r e q u i r e d . T h e s e m u s t h a v e sufficient r e s i s t a n c e a g a i n s t e r o s i o n , to p r e v e n t the loss of
d r e d g e d material.
I m p r o v i n g the permeability, by u s i n g s a n d piles or synthetic fibre drains m a y e n h a n c e t h e
c o n s o l i d a t i o n of the s u b s o i l . A t e m p o r a r y s u r c h a r g e will also accelerate the s e t t l e m e n t .
A special p r o b l e m is e n c o u n t e r e d w h e n clay or silty material is p u m p e d into a confined area. T h e
particles will settle slowly with very loose p a c k i n g , a n d t h e d e w a t e r i n g of this s l u d g e t a k e s a long
time, m a k i n g access to the area virtually impossible. T h e drying out of a crust on top of the sludge
will e n a b l e a c c e s s by lightweight v e h i c l e s (or p e r s o n s ) . Crust f o r m a t i o n is e n h a n c e d by p r o p e r
d r a i n a g e of rainwater. Special r e m o t e controlled e q u i p m e n t m a y be required to create a drainage
s y s t e m . A n o t h e r t e c h n i c a l solution c a n be a c h i e v e d by intermittently placing t h e fine material
b e t w e e n thin layers of c o a r s e s a n d t h a t provide horizontal d r a i n a g e layers in t h e m a s s of
i m p e r v i o u s material ( D ' A n g r e m o n d , 1978).

209

14.1 General
Dredging e q u i p m e n t has b e e n d e v e l o p e d by dredging contractors and shipbuilders b a s e d on t h e
v a r i o u s principles for disintegration, vertical transport, horizontal transport a n d deposition. In t h e
d e s i g n of the e q u i p m e n t , careful attention h a s b e e n paid to coordinating t h e capacities of t h e
v a r i o u s p r o c e s s e s that tal<e place o n b o a r d . T o obtain insight into c o m m o n relations t h o s e w h o
d o not p o s s e s s detailed k n o w l e d g e , will find it w o r t h w h i l e to collect p u b l i s h e d data o n the fleets
of the major dredging c o m p a n i e s . Analysing the data of the dredges will indicate trends in the size
a n d c a p a c i t y of parts of specific types of d r e d g e s .
W o r k h o r s e s of t h e m o d e r n d r e d g e fleets are:

trailing suction h o p p e r d r e d g e s

cutter suction d r e d g e s .

For finishing j o b s in less a c c e s s i b l e places t h e s e d r e d g e s a r e s o m e t i m e s a s s i s t e d by:

grab dredges and

backhoe dredges.

R a t h e r old f a s h i o n e d , but still u s e d are:

b u c k e t ladder d r e d g e s

plain suction d r e d g e s

barge unloading dredges

D e s c r i p t i o n s a n d m a n y pictures of t h e s e types of d r e d g e s c a n be f o u n d in " D r e d g i n g f o r


D e v e l o p m e n t " , e d i t e d by l A D C . T h e d e s c r i p t i o n in t h e following p a r a g r a p h s s u p p l e m e n t s t h e
i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d in this b o o k .

14.2 T y p e s of dredges
14.2.1 T r a i l i n g s u c t i o n h o p p e r d r e d g e
T h e trailing suction hopper dredge is a seagoing v e s s e l . W h e n dredging it tows o n e or two suction
pipes over the s e a b e d . Dredged material enters the suction pipe via the d r a g h e a d . This d r a g h e a d
s h a v e s thin layers of material f r o m the b o t t o m . T h e other e n d of the suction pipe is c o n n e c t e d t o
the hull of the v e s s e l . By a p u m p i n g action a m i x t u r e of soil a n d w a t e r is p u m p e d into the hold of
the s h i p , the h o p p e r ( D u t c h : b e u n ) . W h e n this h o p p e r is filled with t h e m i x t u r e , it s t a r t s
o v e r f l o w i n g . T h e e x c e s s w a t e r flows o v e r b o a r d a n d the s e d i m e n t r e m a i n s largely in the h o p p e r .
L o a d i n g stops w h e n the carrying capacity is r e a c h e d (this c a n be by v o l u m e or by t o n n a g e ) . T h e
load c a n be d i s c h a r g e d either by d u m p i n g t h r o u g h b o t t o m d o o r s or by p u m p i n g a s h o r e .
S i n c e this type of d r e d g e is an independently sailing v e s s e l , it p o s e s no obstruction to navigation.
M o r e o v e r , it c a n w o r k during fairly p o o r w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s . T h e a c c u r a c y of the d r e d g i n g is
m o d e r a t e since t h e position of the d r a g h e a d s c a n n o t actively be c o n t r o l l e d .
H o p p e r v o l u m e s ranging f r o m a r o u n d 1000 m ' to over 2 0 0 0 0 m ' . This has a direct influence o n
the w e e k l y p r o d u c t i o n , w h i c h m a y be a s high as a million m ' per w e e k .

211

14.2.2 C u t t e r s u c t i o n d r e d g e
The cutter suction d r e d g e is a stationary dredge. It is a pontoon fitted at o n e end witti a ladder that
s u p p o r t s the suction pipe a n d o n the other e n d with two s p u d s . T h e s p u d s are a n c h o r poles that
play a n i m p o r t a n t role in a n c h o r i n g the hull a n d m o v i n g it f o r w a r d d u r i n g the d r e d g i n g p r o c e s s .
W h e n d r e d g i n g , the p o n t o o n s w i n g s a r o u n d the central s p u d (the worl<ing s p u d ) . During the
s i d e w a r d m o v e m e n t of t h e suction o p e n i n g , a c r o w n s h a p e d c u t t e r - h e a d t u r n s in front of the
o p e n i n g a n d cuts slices of soil into l u m p s that c a n enter the suction m o u t h . T h e s i d e w a r d
m o v e m e n t is controlled by t w o w i n c h e s that are c o n n e c t e d to a n c h o r s that a r e positioned on
either side of t h e d r e d g i n g a r e a . W h e n a cut is c o m p l e t e d , the d r e d g e is m o v e d a little fonward
so that a new cut can be m a d e . This forward step c a n be achieved by m o u n t i n g the w o r k i n g s p u d
o n a hydraulically a c t u a t e d s p u d carriage, or by alternately u s i n g the w o r k i n g s p u d a n d the
auxiliary s p u d .

B e c a u s e of the i n c r e a s e d p o w e r of the cutter-head a n d of the a n c h o r w i n c h e s , it is p o s s i b l e to


d r e d g e v e r y h a r d m a t e r i a l . W h e n d r e d g i n g rock, the e q u i p m e n t is s u b j e c t e d to h e a v y w e a r .
T h e disposal of d r e d g e d material is mostly d o n e by floating a n d s u b m e r g e d pipelines. B e c a u s e
of the anchors a n d pipeline, involved the cutter suction d r e d g e f o r m s a n obstruction to navigation.
T h e cutter suction d r e d g e is c a p a b l e of d r e d g i n g quite a c c u r a t e l y , b o t h o n t h e s e a b e d a n d o n
s l o p e s . It is v u l n e r a b l e in w a v e s .
T h e output of a cutter suction dredge can be approximated by looking at the p u m p power a n d the
d i a m e t e r of s u c t i o n a n d delivery pipelines. T h e larger d r e d g e s h a v e pipelines up to 0.9 m
d i a m e t e r a n d c a n p r o d u c e a w e e k l y output of up to 4 0 0 0 0 0 m ' per w e e k .
T h e capability to d r e d g e h a r d material c a n be j u d g e d f r o m the p o w e r of t h e cutter e n g i n e .
14.2.3 G r a b d r e d g e
Little can be said about grab d r e d g e s , mainly b e c a u s e they are so simple. In general the capacity
is low, a n d in a d d i t i o n , s o is t h e ability to w o r k in bad w e a t h e r .
T h e m a i n a d v a n t a g e is that t h e g r a b d r e d g e c a n r e a c h into c o r n e r s t h a t a r e not a c c e s s i b l e to
m o r e powerful d r e d g e s . Horizontal t r a n s p o r t is m a i n l y by b a r g e . For this p u r p o s e s o m e g r a b
d r e d g e s a r e s e l f - p r o p e l l e d , others n e e d s e p a r a t e b a r g e s .
T h e a c c u r a c y o f w o r k i n g is m o d e r a t e . A l t h o u g h the g r a b c a n b e p o s i t i o n e d a c c u r a t e l y , it is not
p o s s i b l e to finish a horizontal bed A n a d v a n t a g e is the a l m o s t unrestricted d r e d g i n g d e p t h .
14.2.4 B a c k h o e dredge
T h e b a c k h o e d r e d g e is t h e m o d e r n sister of the g r a b d r e d g e a n d the b u c k e t ladder d r e d g e .
Hydraulically driven a r m s control the bucket. B e c a u s e of the horizontal f o r c e s w h e n d i g g i n g , t h e
p o n t o o n is g e n e r a l l y a n c h o r e d with the aid of s p u d p o l e s . T h i s m a k e s the d r e d g e

rather

v u l n e r a b l e d u r i n g a d v e r s e w a v e c o n d i t i o n s . T r a n s p o r t of material is m o s t l y by s e p a r a t e b a r g e .
D r e d g i n g a c c u r a c y is m o d e r a t e to g o o d .
T h e output is relatively low.

212

14.2.5 B u c k e t l a d d e r d r e d g e
T h e b u c k e t ladder d r e d g e u s e d to be the traditional e q u i p m e n t of the D u t c h d r e d g i n g fleet.
However, m o s t bucket d r e d g e s have been replaced by trailing suction h o p p e r d r e d g e s and cutter
suction d r e d g e s .
T h e bucket ladder dredge is a pontoon m o o r e d on six anchors (one bow anchor, one stern a n c h o r
and four side a n c h o r s ) . It s w i n g s a r o u n d the b o w a n c h o r that is placed up to 1 k m in front of t h e
d r e d g e . W h i l e the d r e d g e is s w i n g i n g , the bucket chain turns r o u n d a n d the b u c k e t s at the l o w e r
end of t h e ladder cut t h e m s e l v e s full of soil. T h e full buckets m o v e up a l o n g t h e ladder until t h e y
d i s c h a r g e their load a s t h e y t o p p l e o v e r at t h e upper e n d . T h e soil then f l o w s by gravity a l o n g a
chute into a b a r g e m o o r e d a l o n g s i d e t h e d r e d g e .
T h e capacity is low, t h e dredge is vulnerable in adverse w a v e conditions, a n d with its six a n c h o r s ,
the d r e d g e is a n u i s a n c e to n a v i g a t i o n . H o w e v e r the a c c u r a c y is g o o d . T h e m a i n a d v a n t a g e of
the b u c k e t ladder d r e d g e is that it c a n d r e d g e material without mixing it with water. T h e r e f o r e t h e
d r e d g e is well suited to d r e d g i n g the clay that is required for hydraulic s t r u c t u r e s . T h e b u c k e t
ladder d r e d g e is also still u s e d to d r e d g e material that has b e e n d i s i n t e g r a t e d by blasting.
14.2.6 P l a i n s u c t i o n d r e d g e
T h e plain suction d r e d g e is again a pontoon equipped with a ladder that supports the suction pipe.
Unlike t h e cutter s u c t i o n d r e d g e , it h a s no m e c h a n i c a l tool to disintegrate t h e soil in front of t h e
suction m o u t h a l t h o u g h m o s t m o d e r n plain suction d r e d g e s a r e e q u i p p e d with p o w e r f u l j e t
nozzles.

T h e d r e d g e is f i x e d b y 4 to 6 a n c h o r s a n d s o f o r m s an o b s t r u c t i o n to n a v i g a t i o n . B e c a u s e t h e
suction pipe m o v e s a r o u n d in a n a r e a with liquefied s a n d , the risk that the suction m o u t h hits t h e
b o t t o m is not t o o great, a n d its vulnerability to w a v e action is m o d e r a t e .
D i s c h a r g e of d r e d g e d material is m o s t l y by pipeline, s o m e t i m e s by b a r g e .
This type of d r e d g e leaves a very uneven bottom a n d usually it is in not u s e d to produce c h a n n e l s
or h a r b o u r b a s i n s . Its m a i n p u r p o s e is t h e w i n n i n g of s a n d for r e c l a m a t i o n p u r p o s e s . H i g h
p r o d u c t i o n rates c a n b e a c h i e v e d in c l e a n s a n d w h e n d r e d g i n g at g r e a t d e p t h s is a l l o w e d .
T h e w e e k l y o u t p u t is c o m p a r a b l e to t h e o u t p u t of the cutter s u c t i o n d r e d g e .
14.2.7 B a r g e u n l o a d i n g d r e d g e
T h e b a r g e - u n l o a d i n g d r e d g e is u s e d only w h e n traditional b a r g e s are u s e d for the h o r i z o n t a l
t r a n s p o r t of s a n d , a n d w h e n t h e d i s p o s a l site is not a c c e s s i b l e for v e s s e l s . T h e use of a b a r g e u n l o a d i n g d r e d g e m e a n s that m a t e r i a l is r e h a n d l e d . In this c a s e at least t h r e e i n d e p e n d e n t
p r o c e s s e s a r e c o m b i n e d in o n e cycle ( d r e d g i n g , sailing t r a n s p o r t a n d pipeline t r a n s p o r t ) . E a c h
of t h e s e p r o c e s s e s h a s its workability a n d its o w n delays. T h e r e f o r e , to r e d u c e t h e d o w n t i m e of
the s y s t e m careful analysis is r e q u i r e d .
T h e barge unloading d r e d g e p u m p s w a t e r into the transport barge and in this w a y f o r m s a m i x t u r e
that c a n b e p u m p e d a s h o r e .

213

15.1 C o s t
15.1.1 G e n e r a l
T h e c o s t of a d r e d g i n g project is o f t e n d e t e r m i n e d by e s t i m a t i n g p r o d u c t i o n rates per weel< f o r
various types of equipment or for various pieces of equipment in a category (Cutter d r e d g e v e r s u s
Trailing s u c t i o n h o p p e r d r e d g e , Cutter d r e d g e A v e r s u s Cutter d r e d g e B ) . T h e n , T h e cost p e r
weel< for the e q u i p m e n t is d e t e r m i n e d , w h i c h leads to either a unit price per m ' of material or a
total price for the project.
M e t h o d s u s e d to d e t e r m i n e p r o d u c t i o n h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s e d ; h o w e v e r , m e t h o d s for t h e
d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e cost of e q u i p m e n t h a v e not yet b e e n t r e a t e d .
T h e weel<ly c o s t for a piece of e q u i p m e n t is c o m p o s e d of the following e l e m e n t s :

D e p r e c i a t i o n a n d interest

M a i n t e n a n c e a n d repair

Labour

Fuel a n d lubricants

Insurance

S u r c h a r g e for c o m p a n y o v e r h e a d s

S u r c h a r g e for profit a n d risi<

15.1.2 D e p r e c i a t i o n a n d i n t e r e s t
A n y organisation that invests in dredging e q u i p m e n t will be faced with the payment of interest o v e r
the i n v e s t m e n t cost. W h e n the p u r c h a s e of e q u i p m e n t is for a o n e - t i m e a c t i v i t y the o r g a n i s a t i o n
m u s t also recover the cost of that i n v e s t m e n t in that worl<, w h e n it is a c o n t i n u o u s o p e r a t i o n , t h e
o r g a n i s a t i o n n e e d s to replace the e q u i p m e n t after its e c o n o m i c or t e c h n i c a l life h a s e n d e d .
In practice this m e a n s that at the b e g i n n i n g (or e n d ) of e a c h financial year a provision has to b e
m a d e for d e p r e c i a t i o n a n d for interest p a y m e n t s . T h i s provision is b a s e d o n the v a l u e of t h e
e q u i p m e n t , w h e t h e r or not n e w v a l u e or r e p l a c e m e n t value is m e a n t by this.
Converting this annual c h a r g e to a w e e k l y rate that is to be levied w h e n the e q u i p m e n t is w o r k i n g ,
m e a n s t h a t o n e h a s to a s s e s s the n u m b e r of effective (i.e. paid) w o r k i n g w e e k s per a n n u m ,
a v e r a g e d o v e r the life t i m e of t h e e q u i p m e n t .
T h i s c a l c u l a t i o n leads to e n d l e s s d i s p u t e s . T o avoid this, t h e D u t c h contractor's a s s o c i a t i o n V G
B o u w ( f o r m e r l y called N I V A G ) has d e v e l o p e d certain s t a n d a r d calculations for rates of p a y m e n t
for use by its m e m b e r s . T h e s e s t a n d a r d s contain a n objective m e t h o d to a s s e s s the r e p l a c e m e n t
v a l u e of e q u i p m e n t . B a s e d o n this v a l u e , the w e e k l y rate is d e t e r m i n e d o n the basis of a unified
lifetime of the particular piece of e q u i p m e n t . T h e m e t h o d is published in a booklet that is u p d a t e d
o n c e in t h r e e years ("Operating c o s t s t a n d a r d s for c o n s t r u c t i o n e q u i p m e n t " ) . Basically, t h e
m e t h o d w a s d e v e l o p e d for contractors, w o r k i n g in joint ventures, or renting e q u i p m e n t f r o m e a c h
other o n a regular basis. T h e r e f o r e , the m e t h o d d o e s not reflect m o m e n t a r i l y fluctuations in price
level d u e to m a r k e t c o n d i t i o n s . W h e n the m e t h o d is u s e d to m a k e b u d g e t e s t i m a t e s , c o r r e c t i o n
f a c t o r s f o r this influence m u s t b e i n c l u d e d .

215

15.1.3 M a i n t e n a n c e a n d r e p a i r
T t i e c o s t s of m a i n t e n a n c e and repair a r e equally disputable as the costs of d e p r e c i a t i o n a n d
interest. A g a i n , the booklet referred to in section 15.1.2 gives cost standards, based o n conditions
in t h e Netherlands. This m e a n s that the current costs of spares a n d of labour in the N e t h e r l a n d s
are t a k e n into account. In other countries these costs m a y differ very greatly. A s m a i n t e n a n c e a n d
repair are closely c o n n e c t e d to w e a r a n d tear d u e to a b r a s i o n by s a n d a n d rock, t h e rates a r e
a g a i n b a s e d on the conditions in the N e t h e r l a n d s , w h i c h a r e v e r y m o d e r a t e in this r e s p e c t . For
m o r e e x t r e m e conditions, corrections will have to be m a d e . In s o m e c a s e s , w e a r and tear are so
d o m i n a n t with respect to the maintenance cost (e.g. of the pipeline) that the in addition to the rate
for m a i n t e n a n c e , w e a r is m e a s u r e d by surveying the e q u i p m e n t b e f o r e a n d after u s e .
15.1.4 L a b o u r
T h e cost of labour d e p e n d s o n the n u m b e r of c r e w o n b o a r d of t h e d r e d g e a n d on t h e unit rate
per w e e k . M u c h d e p e n d s o n local conditions. W h e n expatriate c r e w is u s e d , owners of e q u i p m e n t
will try to m i n i m i s e their n u m b e r b e c a u s e of the effect o n the overall cost.
15.1.5 F u e l a n d l u b r i c a n t s
Fuel c o n s u m p t i o n d e p e n d s on the n u m b e r of operational hours a n d o n the installed h o r s e p o w e r .
O p e r a t i o n a l h o u r s a r e high with E u r o p e a n c o n t r a c t o r s : a r o u n d 9 0 % for trailing s u c t i o n h o p p e r
d r e d g e s , a n d a r o u n d 6 5 % for stationary d r e d g e s . Fuel c o n s u m p t i o n is often e x p r e s s e d in g r a m s
or litres of fuel per k W (or hp) per hour. Actual price differs f r o m c o u n t r y to country, o f t e n b a s e d
o n w h e t h e r d r e d g i n g e q u i p m e n t is s e e n by the r e v e n u e d e p a r t m e n t as o c e a n g o i n g or i n l a n d .
Usually, m a r i n e diesel is the standard type of fuel, but increasingly heavier types of fuel a r e u s e d
b e c a u s e of their lower cost. T h e added cost of lubricants a m o u n t s to 5 to 1 0 % of the cost of fuel.
15.1.6 I n s u r a n c e
Plant will g e n e r a l l y be insured a g a i n s t a variety of of risks. T h e p r e m i u m is in the o r d e r o f 0 . 1 %
of the value per w e e k . In s o m e c a s e s , extra p r e m i u m has to be paid for special risks s u c h a s war,
fluctuation in e x c h a n g e rates, political risks).
15.1.7 O v e r h e a d s
M o s t d r e d g i n g c o m p a n i e s levy a s u r c h a r g e of a r o u n d 8 % o n their t u r n o v e r to c o v e r h e a d office
e x p e n s e s . In addition to other e x p e n s e s t h e s e include a m o n g s t o t h e r s t h e cost of t h e g e n e r a l
m a n a g e m e n t a n d t h e cost of u n s u c c e s s f u l t e n d e r s .
15.1.8 Profit a n d r i s k
Each dredging contract involves a certain a m o u n t of risk d u e to uncertainty about various m a t t e r s
including soil c o n d i t i o n s , w o r k i n g conditions a n d f i n a n c i n g , . In n o r m a l c o n d i t i o n s , c o n t r a c t o r s
usually a d d a s u r c h a r g e in the order of 5 % . Profit in the order of 5 % is usually a l s o c h a r g e d .
W h e n the contractor feels that a project involves m o r e than the s t a n d a r d risks, he will a s s e s s the
extra risks and include a provision in his tender offer. O n e m a y not e x p e c t that the c o n t r a c t o r will
deliberately u n d e r e s t i m a t e the risk, certainly not if he feels that the e m p l o y e r is t r a n s f e r r i n g risks
that are completely beyond the influence of the contractor. E x a m p l e s of risks beyond the influence
of t h e c o n t r a c t o r are:

siltation d u r i n g e x e c u t i o n of the w o r k s

rate of e x c h a n g e
216

c h a n g e s in sales tax or cost of fuel

issuing of certain licenses, etc.

In s u c h c a s e s the e m p l o y e r m u s t carefully c o n s i d e r w h i c h risks h e w a n t s to t r a n s f e r to t h e


contractor, a n d w h i c h risks h e is willing to bear himself. If the b u d g e t e s t i m a t e by the e m p l o y e r
a n d the l o w e s t offer b y a t e n d e r e r differ considerably, d i s c u s s i o n m a y r e v e a l that the d i f f e r e n c e
is c a u s e d by o v e r - e s t i m a t i o n of certain risk a s p e c t s in the v i e w of the e m p l o y e r . A solution m a y
be f o u n d by re-writing the conditions of contract that give rise to the d i f f e r e n c e . O n the a v e r a g e ,
a n e m p l o y e r will be better off if he d o e s not transfer too m a n y risks to the contractor, unless t h e
contractor h a s a n influence o n the matter.
15.1.9 O t h e r c o s t e l e m e n t s
Apart f r o m the w e e k l y operating cost of the direct equipment, there are c h a r g e s for the site office,
including s u r v e y e q u i p m e n t , s u r v e y crew, project m a n a g e m e n t ,

provisional i t e m s for

the

employer.
15.1.10 R e v i e w
C o s t analysis b a s e d o n the a b o v e t e c h n i q u e s will always lead to large deviations f r o m the actual
prices q u o t e d . T h i s is c a u s e d by the fact that the cost items m e n t i o n e d in s e c t i o n s 15.1.2 a n d
15.1.3 constitute a large part of t h e cost, but d o not generally involve direct out of p o c k e t
p a y m e n t s by the contractor. T h e s e cost e l e m e n t s are credited to an internal account. This m e a n s
that t h e c o n t r a c t o r m a y d e c i d e to defer the relevant p a y m e n t s to this a c c o u n t if he w i s h e s to
i n c r e a s e his c h a n c e s in t h e bidding p r o c e d u r e for a certain Job. S u c h situation c a n n o t c o n t i n u e
forever, a n d in better t i m e s , extra s u m s will h a v e to be credited to the internal a c c o u n t , w h i c h
i n c r e a s e s t h e price level in periods with better m a r k e t c o n d i t i o n s .

15.2 Contracts
C o n t r a c t conditions differ f r o m c o u n t r y to country. Generally, e m p l o y e r s a n d c o n t r a c t o r s in a n y
country are a c c u s t o m e d to their national conditions of contract and to the w a y they are interpreted
in c a s e of dispute..
A s dredging work is a very international activity and d e m a n d s a highly specialised type of contracting, t h e u s e of s t a n d a r d national conditions of contract d o e s not a l w a y s lead to s a t i s f a c t o r y
results. T h e r e f o r e , FIDIC conditions of contract are often u s e d for international dredging projects.
W h e n u s i n g t h o s e g e n e r a l conditions of contract, o n e m u s t realise that t h e s e conditions i m p o s e
v e r y strict a n d specific t a s k s a n d roles on the s h o u l d e r s of e m p l o y e r , e n g i n e e r a n d contractor.
T h o u g h specially written for large international c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t s , the F I D I C c o n d i t i o n s a r e
not always e a s y to apply to d r e d g i n g j o b s . T h e International Association of D r e d g i n g C o m p a n i e s
h a s t h e r e f o r e p r o d u c e d a n u m b e r of useful hints for u s e r s of the FIDIC c o n d i t i o n s of c o n t r a c t
(Anonymous, 1990).
W h a t e v e r the legal a s p e c t s of the contract d o c u m e n t s , the e m p l o y e r m u s t think a b o u t t h e
t e c h n i c a l structure of the contract. W h a t s e r v i c e s d o e s h e actually w a n t f r o m the c o n t r a c t o r , in
w h a t w a y will he m e a s u r e w h e t h e r ( a n d in h o w far) the c o n t r a c t o r has fulfilled his o b l i g a t i o n s .
T h e n , and in w h a t w a y will he pay the contractor for his direct effort, and possibly give a n incentive
for e x t r a o r d i n a r y p e r f o r m a n c e or a penalty for s u b s t a n d a r d p e r f o r m a n c e . It is e s s e n t i a l t h a t
c o n t r a c t s h o u l d reflect t h e intentions of the e m p l o y e r .

217

LECTURE BOOKS
C T 3 3 1 0 , "Stroming in w a t e r l o p e n " ( O p e n C t i a n n e l Hydraulics), lecture bool< Delft University of
Tectinology.
O T 3 6 2 0 , " O c e a n o g r a f i e e n g o l v e n " ( O c e a n o g r a p t i y a n d W a v e s ) , lecture b o o k Delft University
of T e c h n o l o g y .
C T 4 3 2 0 , "Korte g o l v e n " (Short W a v e s ) , lecture b o o k Delft University of T e c h n o l o g y .
C T 5 3 1 6 , " W i n d g o l v e n " ( W i n d W a v e s ) , lecture b o o k Delft University of T e c h n o l o g y
C T 5 3 1 7 , " F y s i s c h e o c e a n o g r a f i e " (Fysical O c e a n o g r a p h y ) , lecture b o o k Delft University of
Technology.
S c i e r e c k , G . J . ( 2 0 0 1 ) , Introduction to b e d , b a n k a n d s h o r e protection". L e c t u r e b o o k . Delft
University P r e s s , xii + 3 9 7 p. / I S B N 9 0 - 4 0 7 - 1 6 8 3 - 8 , Delft, T h e N e t h e r l a n d s .

OTHER PUBLICATIONS
Angremond

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221

Appendix 1 H I S T O R Y O F O U R S O L A R S Y S T E M

I n g m a n s o n and W a l l a c e ( 1 9 8 5 ) h a v e d e s c r i b e d the origin of the u n i v e r s e , E a r t h , o c e a n , a n d


a t m o s p h e r e . T h e y thinl< that the universe c a m e into e x i s t e n c e b e t w e e n 10 a n d 2 0 billion y e a r s
ago (NB one billion = l o ' i ) . This estimate is still subject to changing and has b e e n m a d e via t h r e e
a p p r o a c h e s . T h e s e a p p r o a c h e s are:

nuclear c h r o n o l o g y ( b a s e d o n rates of f o r m a t i o n and relative a m o u n t s of the e l e m e n t s


uranium, thorium, o s m i u m , plutonium, and rhenium);

studies of the a g e of the oldest stars;


m e a s u r e m e n t s of the rate at w h i c h t h e u n i v e r s e h a s e x p a n d e d .

A c c o r d i n g to the m o d e l m o s t widely a c c e p t e d by a s t r o n o m e r s , the universe originated in a g r e a t


e x p l o s i o n , the so-called big b a n g . T h i s m o d e l is consistent with o b s e r v a t i o n s first m a d e in 1 9 2 9
that distant galaxies a r e receding f r o m t h e Earth at velocities proportional to their d i s t a n c e f r o m
Earth In 1948 G e o r g e G a m o w predicted t h a t a s t r o n o m e r s w o u l d o n e d a y d e t e c t b a c k g r o u n d
m i c r o w a v e radiation left over f r o m the big b a n g . In 1965, Penzias and W i l s o n proved G a m o w right
w h e n they detected that radiation, and s u b s e q u e n t m e a s u r e m e n t s provided further c o n f i r m a t i o n .
Other theoretical models have b e e n proposed to explain the origin of the universe, but t h e s e h a v e
p r o v e d deficient w h e n t e s t e d against o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d physical m e a s u r e m e n t s .
A l t h o u g h w e shall n e v e r k n o w all the details of h o w the s u n f o r m e d , m a n y a s t r o n o m e r s a c c e p t
t h e gravitational collapse t h e o r y (Figure A 1 - 1 ) . A c c o r d i n g to this t h e o r y all s t a r s , including t h e
s u n , a r e f o r m e d in m u c h the s a m e w a y a n d planets s o m e t i m e s e m e r g e as a natural b y - p r o d u c t
of their f o r m a t i o n .
Interstellar s p a c e contains v a s t a m o u n t s of g a s , of w h i c h 9 9 % c o n s i s t s of h y d r o g e n a n d h e l i u m
a t o m s T h e s e g a s e s f r e q u e n t l y a c c u m u l a t e into m o r e or less c o h e r e n t c l o u d s or n e b u l a e (Latin
f o r clouds or mist). O n e s u c h nebula is believed to h a v e c o l l a p s e d in r e s p o n s e to gravity to f o r m
o u r solar s y s t e m . Its initial m a s s w a s p r o b a b l y slightly greater t h a n t h e p r e s e n t m a s s of o u r s u n
( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2*1 o ' k g ) .
A s t h e n e b u l a c o n t r a c t e d , its rate of rotation i n c r e a s e d and c o n s e q u e n t l y the n e b u l a b e g a n t o
flatten It continued to contract until m o s t of the matter had c o a l e s c e d into a central m a s s , w h i c h
ultimately b e c a m e t h e s u n . A s m a l l portion of the n e b u l a survived as a flat disc s p i n n i n g a r o u n d
t h e central m a s s , a n d it w a s f r o m the m a t t e r c o n t a i n e d in t h a t disc t h a t the planets e v e n t u a l l y
formed.
A s t h e p r o t o - s u n (proto- f r o m t h e G r e e k for "first, f o r e m o s t , earliest f o r m of") c o n t i n u e d to
c o n t r a c t its internal t e m p e r a t u r e rose f r o m t e n s of t h o u s a n d s to s e v e r a l million d e g r e e s K e l v i n .
T h e i m m e n s e internal pressure that d e v e l o p e d due to particle collisions eventually halted further
gravitational c o n t r a c t i o n , a n d t h e s u n stabilized. N u c l e a r f u s i o n , w h i c h o c c u r s at s u c h e x t r e m e
t e m p e r a t u r e s , r e l e a s e d sufficient e n e r g y to m a i n t a i n t h e t e m p e r a t u r e a n d p r e s s u r e at c o n s t a n t
levels t h u s stabilizing the s u n at essentially the s a m e size as it is n o w . T h i s w h o l e p r o c e s s of
f o r m a t i o n , f r o m n e b u l a to s t a b l e star, p r o b a b l y required s e v e r a l t e n s of millions of y e a r s a n d
o c c u r r e d s o m e 4.6 billion y e a r s a g o .
W h i l e the proto-sun w a s undergoing the final stages of contraction, the flat disc of g a s , solids, a n d
liquids s p i n n i n g a r o u n d it, w a s f o r m i n g into planets. T h e p l a n e t s a r e believed to h a v e g r o w n
t h r o u g h a steady process of accretion in w h i c h dust particles, m o l e c u l e s , and a t o m s at first j o i n e d
t o g e t h e r to f o r m larger b o d i e s , w h i c h in t u m c o a l e s c e d into larger a n d larger b o d i e s . In t i m e ,
223

t h r o u g h collision a n d gravitational attraction, t h e s e bodies d e v e l o p e d into w h a t w e call p l a n e t s .


R e a s o n s to regard this scenario as plausible are many. T h e orbits of the planets lie in roughly the
s a m e plane (except Uranus, Figure A 1 - 2 ) , and they revolve a r o u n d the sun in the s a m e direction
a n d in virtually circular orbits ( e x c e p t Pluto). It s e e m s lil<ely that t h e s e highly regular orbital
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the c o l l a p s e of the n e b u l a , before the planets f o r m e d .

grnvitalioml
forces

gas, dust, and nebular scraps


^H}/drogen, heltum,

metals)

simUer bodies
condense, heal up,
become spherical

.M
.0

massive central
body becomes star

local eddies
and in$tabilities

Venus
Mercury

Efirlh
O
Sw,
Mars

rocky

planels;

light elements evaporated


unless chemically

combined

Phiio '
planetoidslacking
enough
mass to get together
Neptune

^^y,^, Q

Uranus

5^^^!!!

large, coldgiants, possibly loith dense,


solid cores, but possibly composed
entirely of frozen lightweight
molecules,
hydrogen and helium

F i g u r e A1 -1 IVIodel of the g r a v i t a t i o n a l c o l l a p s e t h e o r y of t h e origin of t h e s o l a r s y s t e m


(after I n g m a n s o n a n d W a l l a c e , 1985)
T h e third planet out f r o m the e v o l v i n g s u n w a s t h e E a r t h . A s it g r e w in m a s s , its t e m p e r a t u r e
increased as a result of the energy released by impacts with meteors and the d e c a y of r a d i o a c t i v e
e l e m e n t s within t h e planet. A l t h o u g h its t e m p e r a t u r e n e v e r rose to the level n e e d e d to initiate
n u c l e a r r e a c t i o n s , it did rise high e n o u g h to melt the interior. W h e n this h a p p e n e d , h e a v i e r
e l e m e n t s , s u c h as iron and nickel, w e r e differentiated f r o m lighter e l e m e n t s , s u c h as c a r b o n , a n d
light m i n e r a l s , s u c h a s quartz. T h e heavier e l e m e n t s f o r m e d t h e Earth's core, a n d t h e lighter
materials f o r m e d t h e m a n t l e a n d crust.
T h e lightest g a s e s , h y d r o g e n a n d h e l i u m , w e r e t o o light to be held b y the Earth's g r a v i t a t i o n a l
field. In fact, in t h e s e v e r y early s t a g e s of the Earth's history, the gravitational field w a s p r o b a b l y
not strong e n o u g h to hold any g a s e s at all. Since the heavier, chemically inert g a s e s (neon, a r g o n ,
a n d x e n o n ) a r e less a b u n d a n t o n the Earth t h a n o n other planets, scientists infer that t h e E a r t h
lost its early a t m o s p h e r e to s p a c e .
224

W h e r e did the w a t e r n o w c o n t a i n e d in the Earth's o c e a n s a n d a t m o s p h e r e c o m e f r o m ? T h e


a n s w e r lies in the a s s u m p t i o n that v o l c a n o e s w e r e a b u n d a n t early in t h e Earth's history a n d t h a t
i m p a c t s by m e t e o r s c a u s e d g a s e s to e s c a p e f r o m t h e Earth's s u r f a c e . V o l c a n i c g a s e s c o n s i s t
m a i n l y o f w a t e r v a p o r , nitrogen g a s , a n d c a r b o n dioxide. If the s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e of the early
Earth h a d b e e n a b o u t the s a m e a s it is now, the w a t e r v a p o u r w o u l d h a v e c o n d e n s e d to liquid
w a t e r a n d the nitrogen g a s a n d c a r b o n dioxide w o u l d h a v e f o r m e d t h e a t m o s p h e r e .

A. The orbits of the planets from the sun to Mars


Planet
Me.
V.
E.
Ma.
J.
8.
U.
N.
P.

Distance to S u n Circulation Time

Mercury
58 million km
Venus
108 million km
Earth
150 million km
Mars
250 million km
Jupiter
778 million km
Saturn
1580 million km
Uranus
2872 million km
Neptune 4500 million km
Pluto
6000 million km

88 days
225 days
1 year
1.88 year
11.9 year
29.5 year
84 year
165 year
248 year

/^^^

B. The orbits of the planets from Mars to Pluto


(the size is reduced 20x compared to A.)

F i g u r e A 1 - 2 P l a n e t a r y o r b i t s a r o u n d the s u n ( G r o t e B o s a t l a s )
W o u l d t h e c o n d e n s a t i o n o f t h e w a t e r v a p o r into liquid w a t e r h a v e b e e n sufficient to f o r m t h e
o c e a n s ? A t the p r e s e n t rate of v o l c a n i s m , t h e Earth w o u l d h a v e to b e t h r e e t i m e s a s old as w e
believe it to b e (4.5 billion y e a r s ) for c o n d e n s a t i o n to h a v e p r o d u c e d t h e o c e a n s as t h e y exist
today. T h e rate of v o l c a n i s m m a y h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r in the past t h a n it is today; in
w h i c h c a s e c o n d e n s a t i o n of the w a t e r v a p o r p r o d u c e d by v o l c a n o e s m i g h t have b e e n sufficient
to c r e a t e the p r e s e n t - d a y o c e a n s .
W a t e r v a p o r m a y a l s o h a v e b e e n r e l e a s e d w h e n t h e i m p a c t of m e t e o r s r a i s e d t h e s u r f a c e
t e m p e r a t u r e of the early Earth high e n o u g h to melt the outer layers. If t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h o s e
layers w e r e similar to that of m e t e o r i t e s , w h i c h c o n t a i n a b o u t 0 . 5 % w a t e r , m e l t i n g w o u l d h a v e
r e l e a s e d large a m o u n t s of w a t e r vapor. A s t i m e p a s s e d , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f i m p a c t s w o u l d h a v e
d e c l i n e d , s i n c e the m e t e o r s n e a r t h e Earth w o u l d h a v e c o l l i d e d w i t h it early in its history. T h e
Earth w o u l d have s u b s e q u e n t l y c o o l e d , a n d the water v a p o r w o u l d h a v e c o n d e n s e d , contributing
to the f o r m a t i o n of the o c e a n . V o l c a n i c activity has p r o b a b l y c o n t i n u e d to increase the v o l u m e of
w a t e r in the o c e a n . Still, it is not c o m p l e t e l y clear h o w t h e o c e a n s got their p r e s e n t v o l u m e .

225

C o p i e d f r o m J . P . d e n Hartog "IVlechanics"
C H A R T E R XVI
54.

Introduction.

In all p r e v i o u s s t a t e m e n t s in this b o o k a b o u t d i s p l a c e m e n t s , velocities, or a c c e l e r a t i o n s , t h e s e


quantities were e x p r e s s e d in t e r m s of a coordinate system "at rest." By that, w e tacitly m e a n t that
the coordinate s y s t e m is at rest with respect to w h a t N e w t o n called "absolute s p a c e , " w h i c h is the
s p a c e of the " f i x e d " s t a r s . N e w t o n ' s l a w of the proportionality of f o r c e a n d a c c e l e r a t i o n is f o u n d
to a g r e e v e r y well w i t h e x p e r i m e n t w h e n t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n is referred to a c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m "at
rest in absolute s p a c e . " T h e earth rotates with respect to that absolute s p a c e , s o that a coordinate
s y s t e m fixed to our e a r t h l y s u r r o u n d i n g s is not strictly at rest, a n d N e w t o n ' s laws d o not apply
quite as well, but for a l m o s t all our engineering applications w e c a n s a y that a n earthly coordinate
s y s t e m is sufficiently c l o s e to being "at rest." O n l y for a f e w d e v i c e s , of w h i c h t h e g y r o s c o p i c
ship's c o m p a s s is t h e m o s t notable o n e , d o e s the rotation of t h e earth b e c o m e of e n g i n e e r i n g
interest.

In m a n y practical c a s e s a motion c a n be d e s c r i b e d m o r e simply in t e r m s o f a m o v i n g coordinate


s y s t e m than in terms of a n absolute one or an earthly one. T a k e for e x a m p l e the motion of a point
on the periphery of a rolling w h e e l (Fig. 1 5 1 , p a g e 1 7 3 ) \ T h e path o f that point is a cycloid, a n d
the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the velocity a n d a c c e l e r a t i o n is c o m p l i c a t e d . If, h o w e v e r , w e set up a
coordinate system with the origin in the w h e e l center, m o v i n g with it, and with the x axis horizontal
a n d t h e y axis vertical, t h e n the path of a peripheral point b e c o m e s a circle, a n d its velocity a n d
a c c e l e r a t i o n a p p e a r v e r y m u c h simpler. Or c o n s i d e r a W a t t flybail e n g i n e g o v e r n o r (Fig. 166,
p a g e 193) , o f w h i c h t h e balls oscillate up a n d d o w n while rotating. T h e a c t u a l path in s p a c e of
a ball is very c o m p l i c a t e d , a n d the a c c e l e r a t i o n s a r e difficult to d e t e r m i n e . W e a r e v e r y m u c h
t e m p t e d to place o u r s e l v e s as o b s e r v e r s o n t h e rotating g o v e r n o r s p i n d l e a n d d e s c r i b e t h e ball
m o t i o n w i t h respect to the rotating coordinate s y s t e m . T h e m o t i o n is then a s i m p l e up a n d d o w n
oscillation, and the acceleration is easily f o u n d . H o w e v e r this acceleration relative to t h e rotating
s y s t e m is different f r o m that relative to t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s at rest, a n d only the latter a c c e l e r a t i o n
e q u a l s F/m. N e w t o n ' s law is true for c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m s at rest; in g e n e r a l it d o e s not hold f o r
moving coordinate systems.

T h e s c i e n c e o f m e c h a n i c s did not start w i t h e n g i n e e r i n g , but with a s t r o n o m y , a n d naturally t h e


ancient a s t r o n o m e r s d e s c r i b e d their o b s e r v a t i o n s in t e r m s of a c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m of w h i c h t h e
earth w a s the origin. T h e paths they f o u n d for the planets w e r e awful, h y p o - a n d epiycloids, a n d
it w a s a great a c c o m p l i s h m e n t w h e n C o p e r n i c u s

(1473-1543) and Kepler

(1571-1630)

r e c o g n i z e d that t h e s e paths could be d e s c r i b e d m o r e s i m p l y as ellipses in t e r m s of a c o o r d i n a t e


s y s t e m w i t h the s u n a s origin. This d i s c o v e r y w a s o n e of the starting points f o r N e w t o n ' s g r e a t
work.

In engineering there a r e m a n y c a s e s w h e r e m o t i o n s with respect to a rotating c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m


a r e s i m p l e r than t h o s e with respect to a b s o l u t e or terrestrial s p a c e . In the c o u n t e r w e i g h t s o f
aircraft e n g i n e s there are loose p e n d u l o u s m a s s e s , w h o s e m o t i o n in a b s o l u t e s p a c e is v e r y
c o m p l i c a t e d indeed, but w h i c h only oscillate with respect to a m o v i n g coordinate s y s t e m attached
to the c r a n k s h a f t . T h e m o t i o n of fluid or g a s particles in t h e blades a n d p a s s a g e s of turbines o r
rotating p u m p s are o t h e r e x a m p l e s of this k i n d .

1 Refers to a non-copied part of the book by Den Hartog


227

F i g . 2 61. The a b s o l u t e v e l o c i t y i s t h e v e c t o r sum


of t h e r e l a t i v e v e l o c i t y and t h e v e h i c l e v e l o c i t y

T h u s w e r e c o g n i z e t h e desirability of finding out w h a t w e h a v e to do in order to mal<e N e w t o n ' s


laws applicable t o m o v i n g c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m s , a n d that is the o b j e c t of this chapter. W e shall
mal<e no c h a n g e in N e w t o n ' s law itself, but w e shall find rules by w h i c h the actual or a b s o l u t e
a c c e l e r a t i o n c a n be d e d u c e d f r o m the s i m p l e r relative a c c e l e r a t i o n with r e s p e c t to t h e m o v i n g
coordinate system.
S o m e of the rules of relative m o t i o n a r e e x t r e m e l y s i m p l e , a l m o s t o b v i o u s , a n d t h e y h a v e b e e n
applied h e r e a n d t h e r e in the p r e v i o u s p a g e s already. Consider, for e x a m p l e . Fig. 2 6 1 , w h e r e a
ship m o v e s with respect to the shore, -which, being at rest, is an absolute coordinate s y s t e m . T h e
captain w a l k s across the d e c k f r o m starboard to port, f r o m point 1 to point 2. W h i l e h e d o e s that,
point 1 of the ship goes to position 1' and point 2 of the ship goes to 2', a n d , of course, the captain
e n d s up in position 2'. W e call 1-2 the relative d i s p l a c e m e n t a n d 1-1' the v e h i c l e d i s p l a c e m e n t .
T h e w o r d "vehicle" will be u s e d t h r o u g h o u t for t h e m o v i n g c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m ; in this c a s e the
vehicle is a ship; in further e x a m p l e s the vehicle will be a turbine rotor, an elevator c a b , a rotating
table, the earth, or a c r a n k s h a f t . In the e x a m p l e of Fig. 2 6 1 the captain is t h e " m o v i n g point,"
w h i c h m o v e s relative to t h e "vehicle" t h r o u g h path 1-2 a n d relative to "absolute s p a c e " t h r o u g h
path 1-2'. B y " v e h i c l e " d i s p l a c e m e n t , v e l o c i t y , or a c c e l e r a t i o n w e s h a l l a l w a y s m e a n t h e
d i s p l a c e m e n t o r v e l o c i t y or a c c e l e r a t i o n of that point of the v e h i c l e w h i c h h a p p e n s to
c o i n c i d e with t h e m o v i n g point at the b e g i n n i n g of the d i s p l a c e m e n t . T h i s in o u r c a s e is
point 1 . T h e s t a t e m e n t h e r e has not m u c h s i g n i f i c a n c e b e c a u s e all points of t h e ship h a v e t h e
s a m e d i s p l a c e m e n t , but in future c a s e s of rotating v e h i c l e s it is i m p o r t a n t to k e e p this definition
in m i n d .
F r o m Fig. 261 w e d r a w the conclusion that the a b s o l u t e d i s p l a c e m e n t is the v e c t o r s u m of the
relative d i s p l a c e m e n t a n d the v e h i c l e d i s p l a c e m e n t .
W e shall s e e in the next article that this v e c t o r addition of a relative a n d a v e h i c l e q u a n t i t y
resulting in a n a b s o l u t e quantity holds not only for d i s p l a c e m e n t s , but also for velocities. It e v e n
holds for a c c e l e r a t i o n s , p r o v i d e d t h e vehicle d o e s not rotate. But w h e n the vehicle r o t a t e s , w e
shall see that the absolute acceleration of a point is not equal to the vector s u m of the relative a n d
vehicle a c c e l e r a t i o n s .

55.

Non-rotating Vehicles.

W e first investigate t h e c a s e w h e r e the v e h i c l e m o v e s parallel to itself, but not n e c e s s a r i l y in a


straight path. T h e path m a y be c u r v e d , but all points of the vehicle m o v e in congruent a n d parallel
paths like t h e baffler p e n d u l u m of Fig. 2 2 4 . W e c h o o s e o n e point of the vehicle for t h e origin 0 '
228

of the m o v i n g c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m and lay the x ' a n d y ' a x e s f i x e d in the vehicle (Fig. 2 6 2 ) . T h e n


t h e O'x'y' c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m m o v e s parallel to itself in a c u r v e d path w i t h the vehicle. Let t h e
d i s t a n c e 1 - 1 ' be the d i s t a n c e traveled by the vehicle point 1 in t i m e At in its c u r v e d path. If At b e
m a d e small the piece of path 1-1' b e c o m e s a l m o s t straight, and the d i s t a n c e 1-1' c a n be written
as v^At w h e r e

is t h e a v e r a g e velocity of point 1 of t h e v e h i c l e d u r i n g t h e t i m e At.

Similarly t h e d i s t a n c e 1-2 c a n be written VrAt a n d 1-2' b e c o m e s VeAt. W e h a v e s e e n that t h e s e


d i s p l a c e m e n t s satisfy the vector e q u a t i o n
v,.At + v^,At =

vAt

N o w w e divide by At, a n d let At b e c o m e zero in the limit, s o that t h e a v e r a g e velocities b e c o m e


t r u e i n s t a n t a n e o u s velocities. T h i s leads to t h e result
V, + v = v
or in w o r d s :
For a non-rotating vehicle the a b s o l u t e v e l o c i t y is the v e c t o r s u m of t h e relative a n d v e h i c l e
velocities.
This s e n t e n c e is only partly printed in b o l d - f a c e type, b e c a u s e w e shall s e e later that t h e
s t a t e m e n t holds true for rotating vehicles as w e l l , a l t h o u g h w e h a v e not p r o v e d it at this t i m e .
W e n o w p r o c e e d to c o n s i d e r a c c e l e r a t i o n s , w h i c h a r e rates of c h a n g e of velocities. In Fig. 2 6 2
the vehicle is s h o w n in t w o positions, t i m e At apart.

Fig.262. The v e h i c l e and i t s v a r i o u s v e l o c i t i e s shown


i n two c o n s e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s , a t t = 0 and a t t= A t
T h e vehicle is m o v i n g t h r o u g h a c u r v e d p a t h , a n d t h e velocity of its point 1 at the t w o positions
1 a n d 1' is d i f f e r e n t in direction as well a s in m a g n i t u d e . T h e s a m e is t r u e of the relative s p e e d ;
at t i m e f = 0 t h e c a p t a i n w a l k s to portside, but at t i m e t = Athe

runs t o w a r d s t h e port aft c o r n e r

of his ship. T h e t w o consecutive positions of the " m o v i n g point", the c a p t a i n , are 1 and 2' and t h e
c o r r e s p o n d i n g velocities are plotted in t h e figure. T h e vehicle velocity at t i m e At is the velocity of
point 2 ' of the v e h i c l e , w h i c h is the s a m e as t h e velocity of point 1' b e c a u s e t h e vehicle does not
rotate. T h u s v^g' = Vyt Iri Fig. 2 6 3 t h e v e c t o r s of Fig. 2 6 2 h a v e b e e n d r a w n o n c e m o r e , t h e
velocities at t i m e f = 0 in light lines, the velocities at t i m e t = At in h e a v y lines, a n d the differences,
w h i c h a r e vAt,

in d a s h e d lines. W e s e e that the directions of t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n s v in general a r e

229

totally different f r o m t h e directions o f t h e velocities. F r o m the g e o m e t r y o f Figs. 2 6 2 a n d 2 6 3 w e


d e d u c e that

At is t h e v e c t o r s u m of

At a n d

At, by the following p r o c e s s :

+
(^n +

+ i^K

= {Vr2' + K2')

Therefore
Av^ = Av^ + Av^
Av^ _ Av^ ^ Av^
At

At

At

and
'^a = Vr+Vv

(31)

or in w o r d s : F o r the c a s e of a non-rotating v e h i c l e t h e a b s o l u t e a c c e l e r a t i o n i s the v e c t o r


s u m of t h e relative a n d v e h i c l e a c c e l e r a t i o n s .

FiQ. 263.

The velocities of Fig. 262 reassembled into one figure.

Before p r o c e e d i n g , t h e reader should satisfy himself that the validity of this proof d e p e n d s o n t h e
f a c t that in F i g . 2 6 2 t h e vehicle velocities of points 1 ' a n d 2' are t h e s a m e . If t h e s e velocities a r e
different, w h i c h is t h e c a s e f o r a rotating v e h i c l e , t h e f o r m u l a ( 3 1 ) is f a l s e .
N o w w e a r e r e a d y to look at N e w t o n ' s law. It holds only for a b s o l u t e a c c e l e r a t i o n s :
F = m v , , , = m(v', + \/,,,)

(31a)

T h e r e f o r e w e m a y apply N e w t o n ' s law, a n d all its c o n s e q u e n c e s of t h e previous c h a p t e r s , to t h e


accelerations relative t o a non-rotating m o v i n g coordinate s y s t e m , provided w e a d d vectorially t o
t h e s e a c c e l e r a t i o n s t h e parallel field of a c c e l e r a t i o n s o f t h e m o v i n g c o o r d i n a t e s .
B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g e x a m p l e s o f this t h e o r e m , w e will e x p r e s s it in a s o m e w h a t different m a n n e r
yet. T h e e q u a t i o n for a m o v i n g particle c a n b e written
F-mv^^,=

or in w o r d s :
230

mv,^,

(31b)

N e w t o n ' s l a w m a y b e a p p l i e d to the relative a c c e l e r a t i o n s of a m o v i n g ,

non-rotating

c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m , if only w e a d d to e a c h m a s s e l e m e n t d m a fictitious or s u p p l e m e n t a r y
f o r c e of m a g n i t u d e -v,^i d m .
A s an e x a m p l e consider the s p a c e inside an elevator c a b rising with a n u p w a r d acceleration g/2.
In the c a b w e , as o b s e r v e r s , a r e lool<ing at a 110-lb lady w h o s t a n d s o n a s c a l e , holding a
p e n d u l u m in o n e h a n d and d r o p p i n g her p u r s e out of the other h a n d . W h a t is (a) the s c a l e
r e a d i n g , (b) the period of the p e n d u l u m , (c) the acceleration of the p u r s e , a n d (d) the t e l e p h o n e
n u m b e r of the lady?
A p p l y i n g s t a t e m e n t (31a) w e o b s e r v e t h a t t h e lady has zero a c c e l e r a t i o n , but w e m u s t a d d Vzg
u p w a r d to that before applying N e w t o n ' s law. T h e scale thus r e a d s 110 Ib for the w e i g h t and a n
additional 55 Ib to p u s h the lady u p . By s t a t e m e n t (31b) w e a d d a f o r c e Vzmg d o w n w a r d to t h e
110-lb w e i g h t of the l a d y w h o t h u s tips t h e scale at 165 Ib. By s t a t e m e n t (31a) t h e p e n d u l u m
swings lil<e a p e n d u l u m that is a c c e l e r a t e d u p w a r d at g/2, although to m e , the observer, no s u c h
acceleration is visible. By s t a t e m e n t (31b) the p e n d u l u m s w i n g s under the influence of the gravity
f o r c e m g plus a fictitious f o r c e Vamg d o w n w a r d . T h u s it acts the s a m e w a y as an o r d i n a r y
p e n d u l u m in a field of l V 2 g = 4 8 . 3 f t / s e c ' . T h e p u r s e g o e s d o w n in a b s o l u t e s p a c e w i t h
a c c e l e r a t i o n g. By s t a t e m e n t ( 3 1 a ) w e h a v e to a d d to our o b s e r v e d a c c e l e r a t i o n an a c c e l e r a t i o n
g/2 u p w a r d ; h e n c e w e o b s e r v e %g d o w n w a r d . By s t a t e m e n t (31b) the p u r s e is acted upon by its
o w n w e i g h t m g a n d by an additional d o w n w a r d f o r c e V z m g ; its m a s s is m , h e n c e it g o e s d o w n
with acceleration 'hg. T h u s questions (a) to (c) h a v e b e e n elucidated. T h e a n s w e r to question (d)
is left to t h e initiative a n d ingenuity of t h e reader.
A n i m p o r t a n t c o n c l u s i o n t h a t c a n b e d r a w n f r o m the t h e o r e m s (31a) a n d ( 3 1 b ) is that
N e w t o n ' s l a w s a p p l y w i t h o u t a n y c o r r e c t i o n to c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m s m o v i n g at u n i f o r m
v e l o c i t y , b e c a u s e t h e vehicle a c c e l e r a t i o n f or s u c h a c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m is z e r o .
T h i s p l a c e s us in a position to clear up the q u e s t i o n , d i s c u s s e d o n p a g e 2 3 3 , c o n c e r n i n g t h e
applicability of the f o r m u l a M = 1^ to t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l m o t i o n . It w a s p r o v e d that this f o r m u l a
holds for the center of gravity a n d also for a f i x e d axis of rotation. W e s u s p e c t e d that it might b e
a p p l i c a b l e to t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s center of rotation, i.e., the velocity pole, a n d possibly also to t h e
a c c e l e r a t i o n pole. Neither of t h e s e t w o latter points is a f i x e d center; t h e velocity pole h a s
a c c e l e r a t i o n a n d the a c c e l e r a t i o n pole h a s velocity. Let us n o w v i e w the s y s t e m f r o m s o m e
suitably c h o s e n m o v i n g c o o r d i n a t e s . First w e tal<e a coordinate s y s t e m m o v i n g at uniform s p e e d
with t h e s p e e d of the a c c e l e r a t i o n pole Pa. N e w t o n ' s laws a p p l y directly to this v e h i c l e , a n d w i t h
r e s p e c t t o this vehicle the a c c e l e r a t i o n pole not only h a s zero a c c e l e r a t i o n , but zero velocity a s
w e l l . It t h e r e f o r e is a fixed center, a n d t h e f o r m u l a M = 1^ i s a p p l i c a b l e to the a c c e l e r a t i o n
pole of a s y s t e m m o v i n g in a p l a n e .
N e x t w e c o n s i d e r a vehicle w i t h z e r o velocity but w i t h a n a c c e l e r a t i o n Xp equal to that of t h e
velocity pole. W i t h r e s p e c t to this c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m t h e velocity pole is a fixed a x i s , b e c a u s e it
h a s neither velocity nor a c c e l e r a t i o n . N e w t o n ' s law is a p p l i c a b l e in this c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m o n l y
after w e h a v e a d d e d to t h e s y s t e m a set of i m a g i n a r y f o r c e s -Xpdm.\f

these forces have a

m o m e n t about the velocity pole t h e y will affect the angular acceleration, and w e will find a different
a n s w e r for ^ . If h o w e v e r t h e s e s u p p l e m e n t a r y f o r c e s h a v e no m o m e n t a b o u t the velocity p o l e ,
w e find the correct a n s w e r for ^ . T h e s u p p l e m e n t a r y f o r c e s a r e a parallel field Xpdm , a n d their
resultant p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e c e n t e r of gravity. This f o r c e has n o m o m e n t a b o u t the velocity pole
if the direction of X p p a s s e s t h r o u g h G. T h u s w e find that t h e f o r m u l a M = 1^ is a p p l i c a b l e

231

to the velocity pole of a t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l motion only w h e n the a c c e l e r a t i o n v e c t o r of that


v e l o c i t y pole p a s s e s t h r o u g h the c e n t e r of gravity.
A n o t h e r application of the t h e o r e m s ( 3 1 a ) a n d ( 3 1 b ) is to the situation inside Jules V e r n e ' s
projectile traveling to the m o o n . Lool<ing at this projectile from a terrestrial or absolute c o o r d i n a t e
s y s t e m , w e s a y that the outside shell as well as the p a s s e n g e r s a n d objects inside are all subject
to t h e s a m e acceleration due to the attraction of the earth. H e n c e everything is floating inside the
shell and nothing appears to have weight. Lool<ing at it f r o m a coordinate s y s t e m m o v i n g with the
shell, w e first establish that the shell h a s a n a c c e l e r a t i o n t o w a r d s the earth equal to t h e local g
(which is less than 32.2 ft/sec^ at s o m e distance). T h e n w e apply to all objects inside the shell the
f o r c e s m g t o w a r d the earth, being the w e i g h t , a n d the s u p p l e m e n t a r y f o r c e m g a w a y f r o m the
earth. H e n c e the objects, to an o b s e r v e r inside the shell, behave a s if no forces at all w e r e acting
on t h e m .

E v e n w h e n a physical b o d y is rotating, t h e t h e o r y of this article c a n b e a p p l i e d . T h e limitation is


that the vehicle or coordinate s y s t e m should not rotate. Consider for e x a m p l e a n airplane m o v i n g
at high s p e e d t h r o u g h a c u r v e , s o that t h e c e n t e r of gravity h a s a centripetal a c c e l e r a t i o n of 5 g ,
while the airplane is turning in s p a c e .
W e c a n d e s c r i b e the motion with reference to a vehicle or coordinate s y s t e m with its origin in the
c e n t e r of gravity of the plane a n d with its x y z - a x e s pointing n o r t h , w e s t , a n d up. W i t h r e s p e c t to
this s y s t e m N e w t o n ' s laws hold, p r o v i d e d that s u p p l e m e n t a r y f o r c e s 5g d m a r e

applied

centrifugally. T h e center of the plane a p p e a r s at rest, a n d the plane t u r n s with r e s p e c t to o u r


c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m . It is only w h e n w e insist o n c h o o s i n g a c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m with t h e a x i s
directions fixed to the plane instead of to s p a c e that t h e m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d t h e o r y of t h e next
article m u s t be a p p l i e d .

56. R o t a t i n g V e h i c l e s ; C o r i o l i s ' L a w .
W h e n the vehicle translates a n d rotates, as in Fig. 2 6 4 , the total or a b s o l u t e d i s p l a c e m e n t 1-2'
c a n still be c o n s i d e r e d to be the v e c t o r s u m of a vehicle d i s p l a c e m e n t 1-1' a n d a relative
d i s p l a c e m e n t \'-2'. A g a i n considering t h o s e d i s p l a c e m e n t s to t a k e place during the short t i m e At
a n d letting At g o to zero, the a b s o l u t e v e l o c i t y is s e e n to be t h e v e c t o r s u m of the r e l a t i v e
v e l o c i t y a n d t h e v e h i c l e v e l o c i t y , e v e n for the rotating v e h i c l e . In Fig. 2 6 4 w e c o u l d h a v e
r e v e r s e d the p r o c e d u r e , a n d i n s t e a d of g o i n g f r o m 1 to 2' via 1', w e c o u l d h a v e g o n e via 2. Still
the a b o v e s t a t e m e n t holds v e r b a t i m , t h e direction 1-2 is different f r o m 1'-2' a n d the d i r e c t i o n of
1-1' is different f r o m 2-2', but w h e n w e g o to t h e limit At = 0, all t h e s e d i s t a n c e s b e c o m e s m a l l ,
the directions of 1-2 a n d 1'-2' c o m e c l o s e r a n d closer t o g e t h e r a n d in the limit c o i n c i d e .

232

Fig.264. A rotating

vehicle

T h u s , for velocities, rotating coordinate s y s t e m s are no m o r e complicated than non-rotating o n e s ,


but w h e n w e proceed to accelerations w e broach a subject that is m o r e difficult than anything w e
h a v e s e e n s o far in this book. A n analvtical t r e a t m e n t is apt to hide the physical relations b e h i n d
m a t h e m a t i c a l o p e r a t i o n s . W e t h e r e f o r e adopt a g e o m e t r i c a l m a n n e r of proof, w h i c h , a l t h o u g h
m u c h longer t h a n the analvtical one, brings out t h e phvsical significance m o r e clearly. T h e p r o o f
will be g i v e n for a n u m b e r of s i m p l e special c a s e s , f r o m w h i c h t h e general c a s e will be built u p
gradually.
W e first c o n s i d e r a table rotating at uniform s p e e d a b o u t its center O (Fig. 2 6 5 ) , a n d a point
m o v i n g at c o n s t a n t s p e e d v along a radial t r a c k a t t a c h e d to t h e t a b l e . T h e path of that point in
s p a c e will b e a spiral c u r v e a n d t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the a c c e l e r a t i o n not s i m p l e . W e n o w l o o k
u p o n the table as the vehicle, s o that the origin of the m o v i n g coordinate system O is at rest a n d
the a x e s rotate. T h e vehicle a c c e l e r a t i o n is (wV t o w a r d t h e center; the relative a c c e l e r a t i o n is
z e r o , b e c a u s e i/ is c o n s t a n t . T h e r e f o r e , if E q . (31) w o u l d apply h e r e , the a b s o l u t e a c c e l e r a t i o n
w o u l d also be V directed centripetally. W e can s e e at o n c e that this is not correct by considering
t h e t a n g e n t i a l velocity of our point in absolute s p a c e . T h a t velocity is cor, a n d it is not c o n s t a n t ,
b e c a u s e the point m o v e s to larger radii, into a region of greater tangential s p e e d . A point of w h i c h
t h e t a n g e n t i a l s p e e d i n c r e a s e s with t i m e h a s a t a n g e n t i a l a c c e l e r a t i o n , w h i c h E q . (31) fails to
disclose.
N o w let us calculate the a c c e l e r a t i o n of the particle, w h i c h is s h o w n a g a i n in Fig. 2 6 6 , in t w o
c o n s e c u t i v e positions 1 a n d 2'. T h e absolute velocity at point 1 is the vector s u m of t h e relative
velocity v^ at point 1 a n d t h e vehicle velocity or of point 1. T h e s a m e is t r u e for point 2', but t h e
vehicle velocity there is oj{r+Ar)

= oir+

VrAt). T h e absolute acceleration is the difference b e t w e e n

t h e t w o a b s o l u t e velocities divided by At. W e calculate this d i f f e r e n c e in c o m p o n e n t s : in t h e


d i r e c t i o n s parallel to 0 1 - 2 a n d perpendicular to it.

233

F I G . 266. Toward the proof


of Coriolis' theorem. A point
moving along a radial track
on a rotating table is shown in
two consecutive positions 1
and 2 ' with all its velocity
components.

F I G . 265. The first special


case of the proof of Coriolis'
theorem: a rotating table with
a radial track.

T h e angle mdt is s m a l l , so that sin(mdf) = mdf, a n d cos{(Mt)

= 1, in w h i c h t e r m s of t h e s e c o n d a n d

h i g h e r p o w e r s of At h a v e b e e n n e g l e c t e d . T h e n , in t h e direction parallel to 0 1 2 , w e h a v e

Av

\y^-o)(r

+ Vi.At)a)Atl-v^

-co^rAt

and
Av

At

= -co

S O that
1/

,. Av
.. . =
= Mm
lim
At

^radial

2
=

CO

In t h e direction p e r p e n d i c u l a r to 0 1 2 w e h a v e

Av = \_co(r + v^At) + v^a>At~\-

cor

cov^At + v^coAt

2cov^At

and
I'.ang

= l i m = 2C0V^

T h e a b s o l u t e a c c e l e r a t i o n is t h u s s e e n to c o n s i s t of t w o c o m p o n e n t s : an o u t w a r d radial o n e of
m a g n i t u d e - ^ r (which is a centripetal o n e of +^r), a n d a t a n g e n t i a l o n e to t h e right of 2ca/r- T h e
first of t h e s e is the v e h i c l e a c c e l e r a t i o n ; t h e s e c o n d o n e is s o m e t h i n g new; it is k n o w n a s t h e
"Coriolis acceleration," after its inventor Coriolis ( 1 7 9 2 - 1 8 4 3 ) . T h u s , w e see that this special c a s e
satisfies t h e f o l l o w i n g rule:
234

T h e a b s o l u t e a c c e l e r a t i o n is the v e c t o r s u m of three c o m p o n e n t s : the relative a c c e l e r a t i o n ,


the v e h i c l e a c c e l e r a t i o n , a n d the C o r i o l i s a c c e l e r a t i o n . T h e C o r i o l i s a c c e l e r a t i o n h a s t h e
m a g n i t u d e 2(0Vri, w h e r e v,x i s the c o m p o n e n t of the relative v e l o c i t y p e r p e n d i c u l a r to t h e
a x i s of v e h i c l e rotation. T h e C o r i o l i s a c c e l e r a t i o n is directed p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the v^ v e c t o r
a n d a l s o p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the v e c t o r of the v e h i c l e .
T h e rule could h a v e b e e n stated m u c h m o r e s i m p l y for this special c a s e ; h o w e v e r the r e a d e r
s h o u l d verify that, as s t a t e d , it is correct for Fig. 2 6 6 , a n d w e shall presently p r o v e that, in t h e
a b o v e f o r m , it applies; to t h e m o s t g e n e r a l c a s e a s w e l l .
T h e next s i m p l e s y s t e m to be c o n s i d e r e d is s h o w n in Fig. 2 6 7 . A g a i n the vehicle or m o v i n g
c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m is a table rotating at u n i f o r m s p e e d co. Instead of t h e radial t r a c k of Fig. 2 6 5
w e n o w have a circular track. Let us imagine a toy locomotive running over this track with constant
s p e e d Vr while t h e table r o t a t e s .

F I G . 267. The second special


caae in the proof of Coriolis'
theorem; a rotating table with
a concentric circular track.
T h e n t h e a b s o l u t e velocity of t h e l o c o m o t i v e is still tangential a n d e q u a l \o car + v,. Its path in
a b s o l u t e s p a c e is still t h e s a m e circle, s o that its a b s o l u t e a c c e l e r a t i o n is centripetal a n d of
magnitude

= l{cor
r

+ v f

o)h +

20V,+^
^

a n a l g e b r a i c s u m of t h r e e t e r m s , all directed centripetally.


T h e first of t h e s e t h r e e t e r m s is s e e n to b e the v e h i c l e a c c e l e r a t i o n , or the a c c e l e r a t i o n of t h a t
point of the track j u s t u n d e r the l o c o m o t i v e . T h e last t e r m is the relative a c c e l e r a t i o n of t h e
l o c o m o t i v e with r e s p e c t t o a n o b s e r v e r rotating w i t h the vehicle. T h e m i d d l e (Coriolis) t e r m is
extra- it h a s the m a g n i t u d e 2 v a n d is directed perpendicular to the relative s p e e d as well as to
the

vector, w h i c h , as b e f o r e , is p e r p e n d i c u l a r to t h e table. T h u s t h e result in this c a s e a g a i n

o b e y s t h e g e n e r a l rule.
T h e third special c a s e to be c o n s i d e r e d is illustrated in Fig. 2 6 8 ; t h e rotating t a b l e is the s a m e
a s b e f o r e , but the t r a c k this t i m e is not radial or circular, but p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the t a b l e , a n d
c o n s i s t s of a t u b e t h r o u g h w h i c h the particle is m a d e to m o v e at c o n s t a n t s p e e d v,. T h e
235

a b s o l u t e velocity of the particle in s p a c e c o n s i s t s of a vertical c o m p o n e n t i/^, a n d a t a n g e n t i a l


o n e cor. Only t h e latter velocity c h a n g e s with t i m e a n d is t h e s a m e as the velocity of point A of
the vehicle. T h u s the absolute a c c e l e r a t i o n is equal to the vehicle a c c e l e r a t i o n only. T h e r e
d o e s not s e e m to be a Coriolis t e r m a n d , by the g e n e r a l rule, t h e r e s h o u l d not be any,
b e c a u s e the relative s p e e d is parallel to the axis of rotation a n d has no c o m p o n e n t
p e r p e n d i c u l a r to it. T h e r e f o r e , this special c a s e also o b e y s the g e n e r a l rule.

F i g . 2 6 8 . The t h i r d s p e c i a l
c a s e o f C o r i o l i s ' theorem: a
p e r p e n d i c u l a r t r a c k on a
rotating table

T h e reader should n o w repeat the reasoning for the three special cases (Figs. 2 6 5 , 2 6 7 , a n d 268),
d r o p p i n g the a s s u m p t i o n that a n d i/^, a r e c o n s t a n t s , a n d introducing the a c c e l e r a t i o n s m a n d
, in addition to the velocities co a n d

. He s h o u l d v e r i f y that the results in all c a s e s c o n f o r m

to the general rule of t h e previous p a g e .


After the g e n e r a l rule t h u s has b e e n p r o v e d for the three special c a s e s of radial, t a n g e n t i a l , a n d
vertical relative velocity, w e proceed to a particle of w h i c h the velocity relative to the rotating table
has all three c o m p o n e n t s simultaneously. T h e absolute acceleration of that point t h e n in g e n e r a l
will h a v e nine c o m p o n e n t s : the relative, vehicle, a n d Coriolis c o m p o n e n t s for e a c h of t h e radial,
t a n g e n t i a l , a n d vertical c a s e s . T h e t h r e e relative a c c e l e r a t i o n c o m p o n e n t s a d d u p vectorially to
the c o m b i n e d relative a c c e l e r a t i o n , and the s a m e is the c a s e with the vehicle a c c e l e r a t i o n . O n l y
for the Coriolis acceleration m u s t w e satisfy o u r s e l v e s that the resultant of the t h r e e c o m p o n e n t s
still c o n f o r m s to the rule for m a g n i t u d e {2aK/rj) a n d direction. S i n c e the c a s e of Fig. 2 6 8 h a s no
Coriolis a c c e l e r a t i o n , a n d the other t w o c o m p o n e n t s (for Figs. 2 6 5 a n d 2 6 7 ) lie in the p l a n e of
rotation, t h e resultant Coriolis a c c e l e r a t i o n is at least p e r p e n d i c u l a r to t h e v e c t o r .

Figure 2 6 9 s h o w s in full lines the t w o c o m p o n e n t s of relative velocity in t h e p l a n e of rotation, in


dotted lines the c o r r e s p o n d i n g Coriolis accelerations. In e a c h c a s e the a c c e l e r a t i o n s contain the
c o m m o n factor 2 o a n d are further proportional to the Vr c o m p o n e n t and p e r p e n d i c u l a r to it. T h e n
the resultant Coriolis a c c e l e r a t i o n is also p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the resultant relative v e l o c i t y a n d
proportional to it, b e c a u s e t h e dotted rectangle is similar to the fully d r a w n o n e .
T h u s the general rule of page 9 is p r o v e d for t h e m o s t general c a s e of a rotating vehicle o f w h i c h
the c e n t e r point is at rest.

236

For a n o n - r o t a t i n g v e i i i c l e of w t i i c h ttie origin m o v e s , t h e g e n e r a l rule of p a g e 9 r e d u c e s to t h e


special o n e of p a g e 4 , b e c a u s e t h e Coriolis a c c e l e r a t i o n is z e r o . For a v e h i c l e w h i c h not o n l y
rotates, but of w h i c h t h e origin m o v e s at t h e s a m e t i m e , w e h a v e a s u p e r p o s i t i o n of t h e t w o
p r e v i o u s c a s e s a n d t h e g e n e r a l rule of p a g e 9 still h o l d s , a l t h o u g h w e will not p r o v e it h e r e .
T h e analytical proof for t h e t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l c a s e is shorter t h a n the g e o m e t r i c a l proof j u s t g i v e n .
In Fig. 2 7 0 let Oxy be a c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m at rest a n d O'x'y' be a m o v i n g c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m .

270.

F i g .

A point P has t h e a b s o l u t e c o o r d i n a t e s x,y a n d t h e relative coordinatelOOs x',y', a n d t h e relation


between these can be found from geometry :
x = Xg. +

x'cos(f>-y'sin<l)

y = yij, + x'sin<p +

y'cos<p

Differentiation gives

X = Xq, + x ' c o s ^ - x ' s i n ^ ^ - y ' s \ n ^ - y ' c o s ( p ^


y = y,, + x's\n(f) + x'costp

(/) +y'cos(/>-

y's'm^

In t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s x,,, a n d y^^, are t h e a b s o l u t e velocities of t h e m o v i n g origin 0 ' ; for^z), w h i c h


is t h e a n g u l a r s p e e d of t h e vehicle, w e m a y write co. R e a r r a n g i n g t h e t e r m s s o m e w h a t , w e w r i t e

X = [xg, - (o[x'sm(p

+ y ' c o s ^ * ) ] + (x'cos^ -

y'smcj))

y = [ y o - + co[x'COS <p - y'sin(zs)] + ( x ' s i n ^ + y ' c o s (f)

E x a m i n i n g t h e b r a c k e t s o n t h e right of t h e x a n d y

e x p r e s s i o n s , w e s e e that t h e y m e a n t h e

a b s o l u t e velocities of a point P, w h e n P is f i x e d with r e s p e c t to O'x'y'.

These then are what w e

h a v e called t h e "vehicle velocities," by t h e definition of p a g e 2 9 6 . T h e p a r e n t h e s e s in t h e a b o v e


e x p r e s s i o n s a r e t h e velocities of point P w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e c o o r d i n a t e s O'x'y'.

Thus the a b o v e

e q u a t i o n s state in w o r d s that t h e a b s o l u t e v e l o c i t y c o m p o n e n t s are t h e s u m s of t h e v e h i c l e a n d


relative v e l o c i t y c o m p o n e n t s .
N o w w e differentiate o n c e m o r e . W e will d o it h e r e o n l y for x , leaving t h e similar y a n a l y s i s t o
the reader.
x = Xq- - ( a x ' s i n ( Z i - ( y x ' s i n ^ - - ^ w x ' c o s ( Z ^ ^ w - c w y ' c o s ( ^ ) - - c ( J y ' c o s ^
+ ;y'sin

cw + x ' c o s

- x ' s i n (Z> cw - y ' s i n ^ - y ' c o s (z) fti

237

Rearranging,
X = f x g , + (ti^ ( y ' s i n ^ * - x'cosfzi) - ( x ' s i n ^ ^ + y'cos^^i)

+ (x'cos^^-y'sin^*) +
- 2 ( y ( x ' s i n ( * + y'cos(d)

A n e x a m i n a t i o n of this e x p r e s s i o n s h o w s that t h e bracl<et is t h e x - c o m p o n e n t of t h e a b s o l u t e


acceleration of point P, w h e n P is fixed to O'x'y', a n d t h u s the bracl<et is the vehicle a c c e l e r a t i o n .
T h e s e c o n d line is t h e x - c o m p o n e n t of t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n of P relative to O'x'y', t h e relative
a c c e l e r a t i o n . T h e third line u p o n inspection is s e e n to be t h e x - c o m p o n e n t of t h e Coriolis
a c c e l e r a t i o n , as d e f i n e d in t h e g e n e r a l rule of p a g e 9.
N o w w e are r e a d y to consider the application of Newton's law to rotating coordinate s y s t e m s . T h e
law applies only to a b s o l u t e a c c e l e r a t i o n s , or
f

= my,=

m (i/,,, +

+ v^cr)

(32a)

in w h i c h t h e additions m u s t be u n d e r s t o o d to be in a vectorial s e n s e . T h i s e q u a t i o n c a n a l s o be
w r i t t e n as

F -

- mvc^, = mv'.e/

(32b)

or in w o r d s :
N e w t o n ' s law applies in a m o v i n g c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m if o n l y w e a d d t o e a c h m a s s e l e m e n t t w o
fictitious s u p p l e m e n t a r y f o r c e s : t h e vehicle f o r c e -v^eh^m,

a n d t h e Coriolis f o r c e -Vc^^dm

T h u s , the t e r m "Coriolis f o r c e " m e a n s a f o r c e e q u a l to t h e m a s s t i m e s t h e Coriolis a c c e l e r a t i o n ,


directed o p p o s i t e to that a c c e l e r a t i o n . It is a fictitious f o r c e , of t h e s a m e n a t u r e as t h e inertia or
centrifugal f o r c e .

57.

Applications

T h e t h e o r y of Coriolis will n o w be illustrated by a p p l i c a t i o n s to


a. Easterly a n d w e s t e r l y deviations of projectiles
b. B e n d i n g in t h e a r m s of a flybail e n g i n e governor'*
c. T h e m a n o n t h e t u r n t a b l e
d. T h e fluid d r i v e of a u t o m o b i l e s
a. E a s t e r l y a n d W e s t e r l y D e v i a t i o n s of P r o j e c t i l e s .
Imagine a vertical m i n e shaft a mile d e e p , located near t h e equator. If a p l u m b line is h a n g i n g in
t h e shaft a n d a s t o n e is d r o p p e d f r o m rest n e x t to it, t h e s t o n e will n o t fall parallel to t h e p l u m b
line, but will deviate in an easterly direction. T h e r e a s o n for this a p p e a r s in Fig. 2 7 1 , w h i c h s h o w s
t h e earth w h e n l o o k e d d o w n u p o n f r o m t h e N o r t h P o l e . T h e s u n a p p e a r s to us to run f r o m e a s t
to w e s t ; h e n c e t h e earth rotates f r o m w e s t to east.

4 Only example a has been copied here, since it is the only example relevant to the theory of Coriolis
applied to the earth rotation
238

Equator

F i g . 271. A stone dropping down a deep mine


shaft at the equator.
L o o k i n g o n t i i e p t i e n o m e n o n f r o m a n o u t s i d e or a b s o l u t e c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m , w e s e e that t h e
s t o n e , before failing, m o v e s easterly with the peripheral s p e e d of the equator. T h e b o t t o m of t h e
m i n e pit m o v e s a little slower, being closer to the center of the earth. W h e n the stone is d r o p p e d ,
the only force acting o n it is m g d o w n w a r d , so that the (absolute) acceleration in any direction but
t h e d o w n w a r d o n e is z e r o . H e n c e t h e stone k e e p s ; o n going easterly at its original s p e e d a n d
o v e r t a k e s the b o t t o m of t h e pit.
A n o b s e r v e r on t h e e a r t h , a rotating v e h i c l e , w o u l d r e a s o n as f o l l o w s : If the s t o n e s h o u l d slide
d o w n a purely vertical or radial track parallel to t h e p l u m b line, it w o u l d g o to a region of s m a l l e r
easterly tangential s p e e d ; h e n c e it w o u l d e x p e r i e n c e a Coriolis f o r c e to the w e s t f r o m the g u i d e .
S i n c e t h e r e really is no guide, this force is absent a n d the stone will deviate towards the east. T h e
Coriolis acceleration is Im

, w h e r e v is the velocity of the stone = gt, and twis the angular s p e e d

of the e a r t h : 2% r a d i a n s / 2 4 h o u r s . Let the y axis point east, t h e n


y =

IcoQt

a n d integrated t w i c e
y = g + C , f + C2 =

(og

T h e integration c o n s t a n t s C , a n d C2 are zero b e c a u s e at t i m e f = 0 w e call y = 0 and the easterly


s p e e d y is also z e r o . T h e t i m e t is f o u n d f r o m

w h e r e x points d o w n w a r d . Eliminating the t i m e b e t w e e n t h e t w o e q u a t i o n s , w e find

if the d e p t h x = 1 mile = 5,280 ft, a n d


00 = 271 / ( 2 4 x 3 6 0 0 ) r a d i a n s / s e c ,
w e find for the e a s t e r l y d e v i a t i o n
y = 4.6 ft

(for x = 1 m i l e )

If a projectile is shot straight up in t h e air at the e q u a t o r , the Coriolis a c c e l e r a t i o n is o p p o s i t e


that of the falling s t o n e ; the deviation will be w e s t e r l y and at t h e top of the trajectory there will

239

a westerly velocity. O n reactiing ttie eartti again ttiere will be a westerly deviation. T t i e calculation
is exactly lil<e that of the falling s t o n e , only -v = v,-gt,
instead of v = gt.

If a projectile is shot horizontally f r o m a gun at the equator t o w a r d the north or s o u t h , t h e r e is no


Coriolis effect. ( W h y not?) If a projectile is shot at the e q u a t o r 4 5 d e g u p w a r d to the n o r t h , t h e
deviation will b e westerly, the s a m e as if it w e r e shot purely u p w a r d with 0.707 t i m e s its initial
velocity. ( W h y ? ) A bullet fired horizontally t o w a r d the north at 4 5 ' northern latitude will r e a c h t h e
g r o u n d with a n easterly deviation.

240

A3.1 T h e first s t e p s
T h e high f l o o d s of the late m i d d l e a g e s c h a n g e d the m a p of the N e t h e r l a n d s c o n s i d e r a b l y . In
m a n y p l a c e s , the p e a t f o r m a t i o n s w e r e e r o d e d a n d large inland lakes a n d tidal b a s i n s w e r e
f o r m e d . Peat w a s also extensively u s e d for the w i n n i n g of salt a n d for heating p u r p o s e s , leaving
s c a r s on the l a n d s c a p e . In addition to that, the local rural population had b e e n

working

continuously to reclaim f a r m l a n d f r o m t h e s e a by building an infrastructure of dikes a n d d r a i n a g e


facilities.
F r o m t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y o n w a r d s , it w a s not only the rural population that t o o k a n interest
in r e c l a m a t i o n a n d d r a i n a g e ; the rich m e r c h a n t s f r o m A m s t e r d a m also started to invest their
capital (gained in t h e t r a d e to S E A s i a ) in the d e v e l o p m e n t of property for agricultural p u r p o s e s .
In this w a y , polders w e r e built as c o m m e r c i a l v e n t u r e s in the Province of N o o r d H o l l a n d . T h e
P u r m e r , B e e m s t e r , S c h e r m e r a n d W o r m e r polders w e r e created this w a y . T h e largely artificial
d r a i n a g e of the n e w f a r m l a n d relied u p o n w i n d m i l l s . Hendric Stevin w a s o n e of t h e e n g i n e e r s
involved in these w o r k s . A s early as 1667, he d r e w up a plan for the reclamation of the Z u i d e r z e e ,
the tidal basin in the centre of the country. A t that t i m e , the plan w a s 'a bridge too far'. First in t h e
middle of the 19th century, following the invention of the s t e a m engine, w h i c h provided a reliable
s o u r c e of p o w e r for larger p u m p i n g stations, t h e H a a r l e m m e r m e e r w a s r e c l a i m e d . F r o m t h e n
o n w a r d s , a s u c c e s s i o n of p r o p o s a l s w a s p u b l i s h e d ( S e e figures 1 to 4 ) :
1.

Kloppenburg and Paddegon (1848)

2.

Van Diggelen (1849)

3.

Beijerinck ( 1 8 6 6 )

4.

Kooy(1870)

5.

Opperdoes Alewijn (1866-1873)

6.

Stieltjes ( 1 8 7 0 - 1 8 7 3 )

7.

Leemans (1875-1877)

8.

Wenmaekers (1863-1883)

9.

Buma (1882-1883)

S o m e of t h e s e p r o p o s a l s left t h e m o u t h of t h e River IJssel o p e n , w h i l e o t h e r s

included

reclamation of the entire W a d d e n z e e . T h e status of the proposals w a s also different. S o m e w e r e


d e v e l o p e d o n the basis of private initiative, o t h e r s at the r e q u e s t of the G o v e r n m e n t t h a t
c o n s i d e r e d the project t o o w i d e - r a n g i n g to be e x e c u t e d by private parties. In spite of this, t h e
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n could not c o m e to a p r o p o s a l that w a s a c c e p t a b l e to P a d i a m e n t .

241

F i g u r e A3-1

K l o p p e n b u r g a n d P a d d e g o n , 1848 (left) a n d V a n D i g g e l e n , 1849 (right)

F i g u r e A3-2

B e i j e r i n c k , 1866 (left), K o o y , 1870 a n d O p p e r d o e s A l e w i j n , 1 8 6 6 - 1 8 7 3


(right)

242

F i g u r e A 3 - 4 W e n m a e l ^ e r s , 1 8 6 3 - 1 8 8 3 (left) a n d B u m a , 1 8 8 2 - 1 8 8 3 (right)

A 3 . 2 L e i y a n d the Z u i d e r z e e v e r e n i g i n g
T h e i n t e r e s t e d individuals, k e p t alive t h e idea f o r a c l o s u r e a n d c o m m e r c i a l r e c l a m a t i o n of t h e
Z u i d e r z e e a n d t h e y e s t a b l i s h e d the Z u i d e r z e e v e r e n i g i n g ( Z u i d e r z e e A s s o c i a t i o n ) . T h i s w a s a
private a s s o c i a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d in 1886 for the p u r p o s e of studying the t e c h n i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c
feasibility of a c l o s u r e and partial or c o m p l e t e reclamation of the Z u i d e r z e e , the W a d d e n z e e a n d
243

the L a u w e r s z e e . M e m b e r s of the association w e r e individuals, politicians and representatives of


p r o v i n c e s a n d municipalities. It w a s quite difficult to raise the f u n d s r e q u i r e d for the studies, but
by t h e e n d of 1886, the A s s o c i a t i o n could a p p o i n t t w o e n g i n e e r s : ir. J . V a n der T o o r n , a s e n i o r
e n g i n e e r f r o m Rijkswaterstaat and the m u c h y o u n g e r ir. C. LeIy. S o o n , V a n d e r T o o r n r e s i g n e d
f r o m the f u n c t i o n , to leave the supervision of the studies to LeIy ( s e e Figure A 3 - 5 ) .

F i g u r e A 3 - 5 Ir. C . L e I y at o l d e r a g e
T h e studies w e r e s u c c e s s f u l l y carried out, a n d after a n u m b e r of interim reports, the final report
a p p e a r e d in 1 8 9 1 . It c o n c l u d e d that in the N o r t h , the soil c o n d i t i o n s of t h e W a d d e n S e a w e r e
u n s u i t a b l e for agriculture (too s a n d y ) . It also indicated that s o u t h of t h e p r e s e n t location of the
Afsluitdijk, s o m e a r e a s with suitable clay deposits w e r e present. LeIy p r o j e c t e d p o l d e r s in t h o s e
a r e a s . It w a s a p l e a s a n t c o i n c i d e n c e that t h e s e a r e a s also f o r m e d the s h a l l o w e s t part of the
Z u i d e r z e e , so that reclamation w a s relatively easy. LeIy r e c o m m e n d e d closing off the Z u i d e r z e e
first a n d r e c l a m a t i o n of the agricultural land within the protection p r o v i d e d by an e n c l o s i n g d i k e .
He f o u n d that this w a s a cheaper solution since the polders could then have lower dikes to protect
t h e m against s t o r m floods. He also c o n s i d e r e d the workability w o u l d be a lot better if t h e basin
w a s shut off first.

A s to the exact location of the closing dike, the report indicated that the tidal inlet near Den Helder
w a s too d e e p to close. T h i s being so, it w o u l d be logical to c o n n e c t t h e closing d i k e to t h e s h o r e
of N o o r d Holland in the vicinity of the island W i e r i n g e n . T h e report a l s o c o n s i d e r s w h e t h e r t h e
River IJssel s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d to d i s c h a r g e into the n e w l y f o r m e d b a s i n , or to c o n s t r u c t t h e
c l o s i n g d a m in s u c h a position that the river could still flow into t h e o p e n s e a . O n the b a s i s of
o b s e r v a t i o n s it w a s c o n c l u d e d that the s e d i m e n t carried by the IJssel w o u l d not p o s e a p r o b l e m
for t h e basin, on the contrary, the fresh water w o u l d be an asset. F u r t h e r m o r e the n e w inland lake
w o u l d protect t h e c o a s t l i n e of the land a r o u n d the lake a n d p r o v i d e better d r a i n a g e facilities.
L a k e s between the n e w polders a n d the historic land should prevent an u n w a n t e d lowering of the
g r o u n d w a t e r table in the old land. T h e option to construct a railway line f r o m A m s t e r d a m to
L e e u w a r d e n via t h e e n c l o s i n g dike w a s m e n t i o n e d . T h e only d i s a d v a n t a g e that w a s f o r e s e e n
w a s the d a m a g e to the till then flourishing fisheries in the Z u i d e r z e e . T h e report c o n c l u d e d t h a t

244

the cost of the r e c l a i m e d land w o u l d be in the order of Dfl 1000 per h e c t a r e , w h i c h w a s


c o n s i d e r e d very r e a s o n a b l e .
S u m m a r i s i n g , the anticipated a d v a n t a g e s w e r e :

C r e a t i o n of g o o d quality f a r m l a n d

I m p r o v e m e n t of the protection against flooding

E n h a n c e m e n t of traffic c o n n e c t i o n s

C r e a t i o n of a f r e s h w a t e r b a s i n

a n d the d i s a d v a n t a g e s :
9

loss of fisheries

J u s t b e f o r e the c o m p l e t i o n of the final report in 1 8 9 1 , LeIy w a s invited to b e c o m e Minister of


Public W o r k s a n d E c o n o m i c A f f a i r s . It is b e y o n d the s c o p e of this b o o k to give details of t h e
political position of LeIy a n d t h e Liberal party, in w h i c h LeIy b e l o n g e d to t h e radical w i n g t h a t
s u p p o r t e d political a n d social c h a n g e . A s a Minister, LeIy c o u l d not find e n o u g h s u p p o r t for t h e
plans h e h a d d r a w n u p himself. I n s t e a d , he d e c i d e d to install a State C o m m i t t e e to r e v i e w t h e
plan of the Zuiderzeevereniging. In 1894, the State C o m m i t t e e published its final report that w a s
largely very positive a n d m e n t i o n e d additional advantages e v e n greater than t h o s e m e n t i o n e d by
the Z u i d e r z e e v e r e n i g i n g . Political c o m p l i c a t i o n s within the c a b i n e t c a u s e d a political crisis, t h e
c a b i n e t r e s i g n e d and LeIy b e c a m e o r d i n a r y M e m b e r of P a r l i a m e n t f r o m 1894 until 1 8 9 7 . F r o m
1 8 9 7 until 1 9 0 1 , w a s LeIy again Minister of Public W o r k s a n d E c o n o m i c Affairs, but other i t e m s
r e q u i r e d m o r e attention t h a n the c l o s u r e of the Z u i d e r z e e . In this p e r i o d , the S t a a t s m i j n e n w e r e
established, and important decisions w e r e taken on the i m p r o v e m e n t of the N o o r d z e e k a n a a l a n d
t h e construction of a fishing port at S c h e v e n i n g e n . A l t h o u g h LeIy did p r e p a r e t h e Z u i d e r z e e - l a w ,
t h e w o r k f i n i s h e d too late to p a s s p a r l i a m e n t before the elections of 1 9 0 1 . T h e liberals lost t h e
elections of 1 9 0 1 , and the new Minister of Public W o r k s w a s a declared o p p o n e n t of closure. LeIy
c o n t i n u e s his career as G o v e r n o r of S u r i n a m ( 1 9 0 2 - 1 9 0 5 ) a n d w a s r e - e l e c t e d to p a r l i a m e n t in
1905. H e retained this post until 1913 and c o m b i n e d it with the position of A l d e r m a n of T h e H a g u e
f r o m 1 9 0 8 to 1913.
Political turmoil a n d t h e high cost of the c o m p l e t e plan prevented a f a v o u r a b l e decision for m a n y
y e a r s . A n attempt w a s m a d e to split the project by building first o n e n e w polder ( W i e r i n g e r m e e r )
a n d building the closing dike at a later s t a g e . This w o u l d r e d u c e t h e initial cost., but lose t h e
a d v a n t a g e of polder construction in a c a l m (non-tidal) e n v i r o n m e n t . It is w o r t h m e n t i o n i n g t h a t in
1 9 0 7 LeIy received an h o n o r a r y doctorate f r o m Delft University (then still t h e T e c h n i s c h e
H o g e s c h o o l ) . F i n a l l y in 1 9 1 3 , Lely b e c a m e Minister of Public W o r k s f o r t h e third t i m e . It w a s a
difficult period. T h e First W o r l d W a r had b r o k e n out and the Netherlands successfully a t t e m p t e d
t o m a i n t a i n a neutral position. T h i s m e a n t that the c o u n t r y h a d to b e self-sufficient in f o o d
p r o d u c t i o n , w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e d the n e e d for i n c r e a s e d agricultural p r o d u c t i o n . In t h e s a m e
p e r i o d , a s t o r m s u r g e struck t h e n o r t h e r n part of the c o u n t r y a n d large parts of the p r o v i n c e of
N o o r d Holland w e r e i n u n d a t e d . It is no surprise that the Z u i d e r z e e v e r e n i g i n g p o i n t e d at the f a c t
t h a t a n o p e n Z u i d e r z e e i m p o s e d a t r e m e n d o u s n s k on the s a f e t y of t h e heart of the c o u n t r y .
Eventually, the c a b i n e t a g r e e d w i t h the Z u i d e r z e e Law, w h i c h w a s s u b m i t t e d for p a r l i a m e n t a r y
a p p r o v a l in S e p t e m b e r 1 9 1 6 . T h i s a p p r o v a l w a s finally o b t a i n e d in s p r i n g 1 9 1 8 , m o r e t h a n 3 0
y e a r s after the f o u n d i n g of t h e Z u i d e r z e e v e r e n i g i n g . T h e a p p r o v e d plan w a s quite similar to t h e
first d r a f t d e s i g n by Lely f r o m 1 8 9 2 .

A3.3 Final preparations


A s e p a r a t e a g e n c y w a s set up for the d e s i g n a n d e x e c u t i o n of the w o r k s : t h e

"Dienst

Z u i d e r z e e w e r k e n " , w h i c h h a d c l o s e ties w i t h , but w a s f o r m a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t of R i j k s w a t e r s t a a t .


T h e w o r k s w e r e to be supervised by the Zuiderzee Council of w h i c h Lely r e m a i n e d c h a i r m a n until
his d e a t h in 1929. Before the actual start of the w o r k s , a n e w State C o m m i t t e e , this t i m e c h a i r e d
245

by the Nobel prize winner in physics, Prof. Lorentz w a s charged with the conduction of a study into
t h e e f f e c t s of the closure o n the future tide levels a n d s t o r m s u r g e levels north of the Afsluitdijl<.
L o r e n t z d e v e l o p e d a m a t h e m a t i c a l t e c h n i q u e for tidal calculations b a s e d on linearisation of the
q u a d r a t i c t e r m s in the equation of m o t i o n , a m e t h o d that r e m a i n e d in use for m a n y y e a r s . T h e
results w e r e u n e x p e c t e d in the s e n s e that the calculations s h o w e d an i n c r e a s e in the c u r r e n t
velocities in t h e tidal inlets to the W a d d e n S e a , w h e r e a s a d e c r e a s e w a s e x p e c t e d . A f t e r
c o m p l e t i o n of the w o r k s , the predictions by Lorentz p r o v e d surprisingly a c c u r a t e .
T h e progress of the w o r k s w a s slow. S o o n after the start on the w e s t side of the closure d a m , the
e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s d e t e r i o r a t e d , a n d the w o r k s w e r e s u s p e n d e d . Only t h o s e activities that
s e r v e d to protect partially c o m p l e t e d s e c t i o n s of the w o r k could be c o n t i n u e d , w h i c h m e a n t that
in f a c t only t h e d i k e c o n n e c t i n g the island of W i e r i n g e n to the m a i n l a n d w a s built. T h i s situation
lasted until 1 9 2 5 , w h e n again a decision w a s taken to g o a h e a d . In 1926, a contract w a s s i g n e d
with a joint venture of four of the largest contractors in the country, the Maatschappij tot Uitvoering
d e r Z u i d e r z e e w e r k e n ( M U Z ) . T h e M U Z also w o n the contract for the polder dike a r o u n d t h e first
p o l d e r in L a k e IJssel: the W i e r i n g e r m e e r p o l d e r . Partners in the M U Z w e r e :

V a n H a t t u m e n B l a n k e v o o r t (later Stevin G r o u p a n d t h e still w o r k i n g C o m p a n y of V o l k e r


Wessels Stevin)

H o l l a n d s c h e A a n n e m i n g M a a t s c h a p p i j (working c o m p a n y of H B G )

Bos

L. V o l k e r . (later A d r i a a n V o l k e r a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y V o l k e r W e s s e l s Stevin)

D u r i n g the final d e s i g n of the c l o s u r e d a m , m a n y p r o b l e m s a r o s e that w e r e difficult to s o l v e .


T h e s e included d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e required width of the d i s c h a r g e sluices in the c l o s u r e d a m ,
t h e n e e d for s c o u r protection n e a r the sluices a n d the n e e d for s c o u r protection in the c l o s u r e
g a p s . For m a n y of t h e s e p r o b l e m s , r e f e r e n c e had to b e m a d e to laboratories in G e r m a n y
(specifically at Karlsruhe) that had just developed the technique of m a k i n g hydraulic scale m o d e l s .
O n e of the s e c r e t a r i e s of the Lorentz C o m m i t t e e , T h i j s s e , w a s c h a r g e d with the m o n i t o r i n g of
t h e s e tests. A f t e r his return, he r e c o m m e n d e d that a similar laboratory s h o u l d be built in t h e
N e t h e r l a n d s , a n d he f o u n d e d this L a b o r a t o r y in 1927 in the b a s e m e n t of the f o r m e r D e p a r t m e n t
of Civil E n g i n e e r i n g of Delft U n i v e r s i t y Later this laboratory w a s privatised to b e c o m e " W U Delft
Hydraulics".

A3.4 The actual works


T h e w o r k s w e r e essentially carried out by using traditional t e c h n i q u e s a n d m a t e r i a l s . C l a y w a s
d r e d g e d in the vicinity with bucket ladder d r e d g e s and t r a n s p o r t e d to the d a m by t o w e d b a r g e s .
A t t h e w o r k front, s t e a m driven grab c r a n e s discharged the barges, building a solid clay d a m f r o m
the s e a b e d to a level well a b o v e H W . T o s u p p o r t the clay d a m , s a n d w a s p u m p e d into t h e final
c r o s s section a s w e l l .
T h e clay d r e d g e d in the region m a i n l y c o n s i s t e d of o v e r - c o n s o l i d a t e d m o r a i n e m a t e r i a l c a l l e d
boulder clay ( " k e i l e e m " ) . This material w a s extremely resistant to currents and with, our p r e s e n t
k n o w l e d g e , w e c a n s a y that the w o r k s w o u l d have failed if s u c h g o o d quality of clay had not b e e n
a v a i l a b l e . S c o u r protection w o r k s w e r e m a d e by using f a s c i n e m a t t r e s s e s ( z i n k s t u k k e n ) m a d e
of o s i e r s (willow t w i g s ) .
In J a n u a r y 1930, the d i k e a r o u n d the N W polder ( W i e r i n g e r m e e r ) w a s c l o s e d a n d p u m p i n g o u t
the w a t e r w a s basically finished in the s u m m e r of 1930. T h a t m a r k e d t h e start of a p h a s e of
cultivation: t u r n i n g t h e s e a b e d into f a r m l a n d land. T h e plan of the n e w polder w a s b a s e d o n
scientific social a n d e c o n o m i c analysis.

246

In 1932, the Afsluitdijk w a s closed. T h e reclamation of the NE polder (Noordoostpolder) continued


slowly during W o r l d W a r II, giving shelter to m a n y refugees and m e m b e r s of the resistance. It w a s
e n v i s a g e d that the s e q u e n c e of land reclamation should continue with the reclamation of the S E
polder ( n o w n a m e d Flevoland). B e c a u s e of the t r e m e n d o u s size of this polder, it w a s d e c i d e d to
split it in t w o parts, building a separation d a m f r o m Hardenwijk to the present location of Lelystad.
T h e Eastern part w a s c o m p l e t e d in 1957. A t that t i m e there w a s a discussion about the s e q u e n c e
of the

remaining works.

It w a s

considered

advantageous

to c o n s t r u c t the

SW

polder

( M a r k e n w a a r d ) first, s o t h a t the r e m a i n i n g part of the S E polder c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d in its l e e .


Actually, a start w a s m a d e with t h e dikes a r o u n d the M a r k e n w a a r d , but in 1959, for r e a s o n s of
spatial p l a n n i n g it w a s d e c i d e d that Flevoland s h o u l d be c o m p l e t e d first. T h e S o u t h e r n part o f
Flevoland could thus help and r e d u c e the need for s p a c e in the region b e t w e e n A m s t e r d a m a n d
A m e r s f o o r t . T h e c h a n g e of plans c a n clearly b e s e e n in the l a n d s c a p e : t h e dike on the N W s i d e
of Flevoland (from Lelystad to A m s t e r d a m ) consists partly of the dike that w a s m e a n t to s u r r o u n d
t h e M a r k e r w a a r d . T h e locks at Lelystad (Houtribsluizen) w e r e also c o m p l e t e d , anticipating t h e
creation of an inland w a t e r w a y f r o m A m s t e r d a m to the o p e n part of L a k e IJssel. After c o m p l e t i o n
of S. F l e v o l a n d in 1 9 6 8 , t h e priorities had c h a n g e d s o m u c h that the M a r k e r w a a r d w a s not
r e c l a i m e d at all. T h e dike f r o m Enkhuizen to Lelystad w a s still built, the p u r p o s e being to i m p r o v e
the water m a n a g e m e n t in Lake IJssel rather than reclamation of the polder. From time to t i m e t h e
d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t the M a r k e r w a a r d a n d its r e c l a m a t i o n is r e s u m e d , usually in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h
finding a n e w location for A m s t e r d a m Airport.

F i g u r e A 3 - 6 C r o s s - s e c t i o n of the Afsluitdijk

F i g u r e A3-7 T r a j e c t o r y of the Afsluitdijk

247

F i g u r e A 3 - 8 C l o s u r e Afsluitdijk w i t h B o u l d e r C l a y
S o m e facts and figures liave been s u m m a r i s e d in T a b l e A 3 - 1 . T h e y w e r e related to other closure
w o r k s m u c h later (see T a b l e A 4 - 1 ) .
Polder
Planning stage N a m e

Present name

Area

Period o f

(ha)

construction

N W polder

Wieringermeer

20,000

1927-1930

N E polder

Noordoostpolder

48,000

1937-1942

S E polder (eastern part)

Oostelijk Flevoland

54,000

1950-1957

S E polder ( w e s t e r n part)

Zuidelijk Flevoland

43,000

1959-1968

N W polder

Markerwaard

56,000

n.a.

Closing d a m

Basin A r e a

Tidal r a n g e

Period o f
construction

Afsluitdijk

350,000

1 - 1.5m

1927-1932

T a b l e A 3 - 1 F a c t s a n d F i g u r e s c o n c e r n i n g the Afsluitdijk ( s e e a l s o T a b l e A 4 - 1 )

248

F i g u r e A 3 - 9 Afsluitdijk, final s t a g e

A 3 . 5 T h e w o r k s in hindsight
If the p l a n s of 1891 a r e c o m p a r e d to t h e final layout as built, it is r e m a r k a b l e h o w well t h e s e
d e s i g n studies w e r e carried out. W i t h r e s p e c t to t h e anticipated a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s
in h i n d s i g h t , it c a n b e c o n c l u d e d that the project h a d a t r e m e n d o u s positive i n f l u e n c e on s a f e t y
a n d o n t h e traffic c o n n e c t i o n s . D u e to global e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t s , the c r e a t i o n of

armland

is no longer c o n s i d e r e d s o important, although the s p a c e c r e a t e d has b e e n u s e d to solve m a n y


planning d i l e m m a s in t h e country. T h e availability of a large f r e s h water basin has b e c o m e m o r e
i m p o r t a n t than w a s e v e r f o r e s e e n . Eventually, t h e fishing industry did not suffer as m u c h as v.as
feared

b e c a u s e f i s h e r i e s c o n t i n u e d in t h e f r e s h - w a t e r lake. C o m p l e t e l y u n f o r e s e e n w a s t h e

p r e s e n t role of L a k e IJssel for r e c r e a t i o n . It is interesting to s e e h o w t e c h n i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s in


mobility of p e o p l e (bike - m o t o r bike - car) influence the spatial planning c o n c e p t s in the v a r i o u s
polders.
F r o m a scientific point of view, the spin-off has also b e e n v e r y e x t e n s i v e . T h e Project t r i g g e r e d
the start of scientific analysis of coastal and hydraulic engineering in the Netherlands. T h e m e t h o d
o f d e v e l o p e d by Lorentz for solving the equations of motion has already b e e n m e n t i o n e d , as a s o
has e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the W a t e r l o o p k u n d i g laboratorium ( W U Delft Hydraulics). F u r t h e r m o r e the
p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e r e c l a i m e d s e a b e d for agriculture h a s led to c o m p r e h e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a
r e s e a r c h a n d m u c h insight has b e e n g a i n e d into d e s a l i n i s a t i o n . W i t h o u t the e x p e r i e n c e o
c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e Afsluitdijk, it w o u l d h a v e b e e n v e r y difficult to repair the d i k e s in the S W part of
t h e c o u n t r y after t h e b o m b i n g of 1944 a n d t h e s t o r m s u r g e f l o o d of 1 9 5 3 .
249

Appendix 4 D E L T A P R O J E C

A4.1 History
During the night of 31 January to 1 February 1953, a severe storm passed over the N o * S e a a n d
c a u s e d h a v o c along the coasts of the s o u t h e r n North S e a . In the N e t h e r l a n d s , o v e r 1800 p e o p l e
died a n d large a r e a s ( 1 3 4 0 km^) of the S W part of the c o u n t r y w e r e f l o o d e d . A t sonrie locations
including t h e vulnerable dike of the H o l l a n d s c h e IJssel that protects t h e h e a r t of the country,
b r e a c h i n g of the dikes could j u s t b e p r e v e n t e d .
After t h e r e s c u i n g of the survivors, the first priority w a s to repair the d i k e s to p r e v e n t f u r t h e r
d a m a g e during a n e x t e n d e d inundation by salt water. Specifically, repair of t h e d i k e s a r o u n d t h e
island of S c h o u w e n - D u i v e l a n d w a s a t o u g h j o b . A l t h o u g h u s e could be m a d e of e q u i p m e n t a n d
e x p e r i e n c e developed for the closure of the Zuiderzee there w e r e still s o m e big differences in t h e
p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e d . T h e tidal a m p l i t u d e in the S W part of t h e N e t h e r l a n d s is c o n s i d e r a b l y
greater than that in the North, and m o r e o v e r , the clay in the South is less resistant to erosion t h a n
the Boulder clay (keileem) available in the North. T h i s w a s k n o w n b e c a u s e t h e ^ a m e factors h a d
played a role w h e n d a m a g e to d i k e s of W a l c h e r e n , d e s t r o y e d during b o m b i n g in W o r l d W a r 1
w a s being repaired. Eventually with the aid of s o m e improvisation, caissons left f r o m the Mulbe ry
H a r b o u r that had b e e n used in N o r m a n d y w e r e u s e d in W a l c h e r e n . D u r i n g the r e m e d i a l w o r k s
of 1953 s u c h c a i s s o n s w e r e also u s e d , but by t h e n in a m o r e controlled w a y . T h e l e s s o n s f r o m
1945 h a d been l e a m e d . Moreover, shortly before 1953, two small inlets had b e e n closed by u s i n g
n e w t e c h n i q u e s : the B r a a k m a n a n d the Brielse M a a s .
T h e d i s a s t e r did not c o m e as a s u r p r i s e to t h e e x p e r t s . W e m e l s f e l d e r , a n e n g i n e e r vvith
R i j k s w a t e r s t a a t had studied the statistical b e h a v i o u r of H W levels o b s e r v e d d u n n g over 1 0 0
years He had c o n c l u d e d that the probability of the o c c u r r e n c e of a s t o r m s u r g e higher than m o s t
d i k e s w a s quite high. A l t h o u g h his w o r k w a s p u b l i s h e d in " D e lngenieur"( n r 9, 1 9 3 9 ) , no a c t i o n
w a s t a k e n . O n l y s o m e ideas w e r e d e v e l o p e d by V a n V e e n to c o n n e c t islands in the S o u t h . T h i s
is u n d e r s t a n d a b l e in the historical context. W o r l d W a r II w a s j u s t over, a n d a lot of e n e r g y w e n t
into t h e repair of the w a r d a m a g e . M o r e o v e r , the C o l d W a r h a d j u s t s t a r t e d , a n d all r e s o u r c e s
w e r e u s e d to i m p r o v e the d e f e n c e a g a i n s t t h e military threat f r o m the c o m m u n i s t c o u n t r i e s .

A 4 . 2 D e s i g n of the D e l t a P r o j e c t
T h e s t o r m disaster m a y not in itself h a v e b e e n entirely u n e x p e c t e d , a n d t h e r e a f t e r , swift a c t i o n
w a s t a k e n A f e w w e e k s after the e x t e n s i v e f l o o d i n g , the Delta C o m m i t t e e w a s e s t a b l i s h e d , its
t a s k s being to advise the Minister a b o u t m e a s u r e s to be taken in connection with the disaster a n d
to i n d i c a t e the w a t e r levels a n d other b o u n d a r y conditions t h a t s h o u l d b e u s e d w h e n u p g r a d i n g
the coastal d e f e n c e s in the entire country. Closure of tidal inlets w a s not e x c l u d e d , although it w a s
a c c e p t e d t h a t the e n t r a n c e s to t h e ports of R o t t e r d a m a n d A n t w e r p s h o u l d r e m a i n o p e n .
T h e r e w e r e t w o main points of discussion. T h e first c o n c e m e d the level to w h i c h the s e a d e f e n c e s
s h o u l d be r a i s e d . T h e s e c o n d m a j o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n w a s w h e t h e r e x i s t i n g d i k e s s h o u l d
s t r e n g t h e n e d rather than building n e w d a m s a c r o s s in the m o u t h s of the tidal inlets a n d

be
bus

c o n s i d e r a b l y r e d u c i n g the length of t h e c o a s t l i n e . F u r t h e r m o r e , it w a s indicated that the p l a n s


s h o u l d a l s o indicate m e a s u r e s a g a i n s t salt intrusion in t h e S W part of t h e c o u n t r y .
D u r i n g its w o r k , the C o m m i t t e e s o o n r e a c h e d t h e c o n c l u s i o n that s o m e u r g e n t s t e p s c o u l d b e
t a k e n i n d e p e n d e n t l y of the c o m p l e t i o n of t h e study. For t h a t r e a s o n , s o m e interim reports w e r e
m a d e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t of w h i c h w e r e :
251

M a y 1953

C o n s t r u c t i o n of a s t o r m s u r g e barrier in the H o l l a n d s c h e IJssel

February 1954

C l o s u r e of the tidal inlets (Delta Project)

J a n u a r y 1955

T h r e e Island Plan ( C l o s u r e of V e e r s e Gat a n d Z a n d k r e e k ) .

A l t h o u g h the final report did not a p p e a r before 1960, the interim reports f o r m e d the basis for the
legislation c o m p r i s i n g the c l o s u r e of the inlets in the S W part of the country. T h e Delta L a w
p a s s e d t h r o u g h P a r l i a m e n t ( T w e e d e K a m e r ) on N o v e m b e r 5, 1957, a n d w a s published o n M a y
8, 1 9 5 8 .
T h e final r e p o r t a p p e a r e d in D e c e m b e r 1960, after a period of intensive a n d c o m p r e h e n s i v e
r e s e a r c h . It c o n c l u d e d that the protection against flooding w a s too low along the entire c o a s t l i n e
of t h e country, with special e m p h a s i s on the conditions in central Holland, along the H o l l a n d s c h e
IJssel. O n t h e basis of statistical c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the C o m m i t t e e indicated that it c o n s i d e r e d a
s t o r m s u r g e level of N A P +5 m in t h e H o o k of Holland a r e a s o n a b l e basis for a d e t a i l e d
d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t the safety of the country. T h e probability of e x c e e d a n c e of this level w a s
e s t i m a t e d to be in t h e o r d e r of lO"* per a n n u m (see Figure 4 - 1 0 ) . O n the basis of hydraulic a n d
statistical d a t a , e q u i v a l e n t levels w e r e fixed for other locations along the coast.

T h e report a l s o indicated that calculations h a d b e e n m a d e to c o m p a r e t h e cost of p r o t e c t i v e


m e a s u r e s a n d the d a m a g e c a u s e d by f l o o d i n g . A l t h o u g h no reliable results w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m
t h e s e calculations, it w a s clear that levels m u c h lower than the equivalent of N A P + 5 m in H o o k
of Holland w o u l d be far below an e c o n o m i c o p t i m u m . It w a s eventually r e c o m m e n d e d that for the
densely populated a r e a between the Hook of Holland and Den Helder a f r e q u e n c y of e x c e e d a n c e
of 1/10000 s h o u l d be u s e d . It w a s c o n s i d e r e d that for the less populated a n d industrialised areas
in t h e North a n d the S o u t h a probability of 1/4000 w o u l d suffice. T h e C o m m i t t e e s t i p u l a t e d that
a m o d e r a t e e x c e e d e n c e of t h e d e s i g n level s h o u l d not i m m e d i a t e l y lead to a m a j o r d i s a s t e r .
( F r o m informal s o u r c e s o n e o f t e n h e a r s that t h e e c o n o m i c calculations indicated a higher
o p t i m u m dike level, but that the politicians of t h o s e days did not expect to find a majority f o r m o r e
drastic p r o p o s a l s . )

T h e report of t h e C o m m i t t e e t h e n c o n t i n u e d with a d i s c u s s i o n b e t w e e n the merits of c l o s u r e of


the tidal inlets v e r s u s s t r e n g t h e n i n g existing d i k e s a n d s e a w a l l s . It is r e c o m m e n d e d c l o s i n g t h e
inlets in the S W except the Rotterdam Watenway and the W e s t e r n Scheldt. T h e main r e a s o n s for
this r e c o m m e n d a t i o n w e r e that it w o u l d entail t h e construction of a m o d e r n short a n d s t r o n g
coastline a n d t h e creation of f r e s h w a t e r r e s e r v o i r s . A n additional a d v a n t a g e w o u l d b e t h e
i m p r o v e d traffic infrastructure. T h e C o m m i t t e e also pointed at s o m e side effects on fisheries, the
e n v i r o n m e n t a n d the social infrastructure in t h e area. (Certain parts of the p r o v i n c e s of Z e e l a n d
a n d Z u i d H o l l a n d w e r e really isolated at that t i m e . )

In c o n c r e t e t e r m s , t h e C o m m i t t e e r e c o m m e n d e d the closure of t h e p r i m a r y inlets (from N to S )


Haringvliet, B r o u w e r s h a v e n s e Gat, Eastern Scheldt a n d V e e r s e Gat. T h e latter c l o s u r e h a d
a l r e a d y b e e n m e n t i o n e d in an interim report. S i n c e there w o u l d b e a c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e g a p
b e t w e e n c l o s u r e s of t h e inlets, s e c o n d a r y d a m s w o u l d have to be built to avoid shortcuts t h r o u g h
the c h a n n e l s at the u p s t r e a m e n d . This required s e c o n d a r y d a m s in the V o l k e r a k , G r e v e l i n g e n
a n d Z a n d k r e e k . T h e c l o s u r e d a m in the Haringvliet h a d to be e q u i p p e d with a d i s c h a r g e s l u i c e
of sufficient c a p a c i t y to c o p e with t h e d i s c h a r g e of the River R h i n e . R e m a i n i n g dikes that w o u l d
not b e p r o t e c t e d by the c l o s u r e w o r k s w e r e to be s t r e n g t h e n e d to t h e r e q u i r e d level.
T h e report a l s o p a y s attention to t h e possibilities of i m p r o v e d m a n a g e m e n t of the f r e s h w a t e r
r e s o u r c e s in t h e S W part of the country. C o n t r o l of the Haringvliet sluices w o u l d g i v e t h e
possibility to i n c r e a s e the d i s c h a r g e via the R o t t e r d a m Watenway, r e d u c i n g the salt i n t r u s i o n
c a u s e d by the c o n t i n u o u s d e e p e n i n g of this c h a n n e l for navigational p u r p o s e s . A network o f inlet
sluices w a s d e s i g n e d to flush the r e s e r v o i r s of G r e v e l i n g e n a n d E a s t e r n S c h e l d t with f r e s h
252

(Rhine) w a t e r . Last but not least, n e w lock c o m p l e x e s in the V o l k e r a k

^^^ZilTnoZZTe

w o u l d facilitate the inland fairway from Rotterdam to A n t w e r p , honouring an already long o v e r d u e


c o m m i t m e n t to B e l g i u m .
T h e report t h e n d i s c u s s e s the technical feasibility of t h e w o r k s . A c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o m p a r i s o n is
m a d e with similar earlier w o r k s (see T a b l e A 4 - 1 ) .

time

work

average
tide
difference

Afsluitdijk (closure dam) Zuiderzee

cross
section of
gap below
NAP [m'l

1925

0.9

120 000

May 1931

1.1

20 000

Oct. 1931

1.2

15 000

Dec. 1931

1.3

10 000

May 1932

1.5

500

June 1945

3.7

750

Oct. 1945

3.3

225

Oct. 1945

3.0

300

Jan.1946

3.8

600

1948

1.8

2 700

July 1950

1.8

300

July 1952

4.0

850

July 1952

4.0

350

June 1953

4.4

550

IVlay 1953

2.8

8 000

Schelphoek, Klompegeul and Gemene Geul

July 1953

2.8

2 000

Ouwerkerk, before positioning last two

Nov. 1953

3.0

1 500

pontoons
.

Ouwerkerk, before positioning last pontoon

Nov. 1953

3.0

750

1955

2.9

original profile

Vlieter + Blinde Geul + Middelgronden

Vlieter, with dam


Vlip.ter. shortly before closure

Walcheren
Nolle (Vlissingen), largest extension
Vrouwenpolder (Vere), before closure

original profile

before positioning of the closure pontoon

average
tide
volume

(Botlek Iclosed)

Braakman
before positioning last but one pontoon

Kruiningen
.
.
Schelphoek, during largest extension of the

Delta works (original profile)


Haringvliet

1955

Brouwerhavense Gat

7 500
18 000

1955

2.4

30 000

1955

2.8

90 000

T a b l e A4-1 T i d e data of c l o s u r e s in t h e N e t h e r l a n d s
It w a s c o n c l u d e d that the w o r k s w o u l d be feasible, but ^hat t l i e y s o greatly e x c e e d e d t h e ^
e x p e r i e n c e that only a p h a s e d a p p r o a c h could be s u c c e s s f u l , starting with the s m a ler m ets, a n d
g r a d u a l l y t a c k l i n g t h e larger inlets, b a s e d o n e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d d u r i n g t h e project itself.
T O r e d u c e the current velocities during the final closure, it w a s advised that the f c h a r g e sluices
s h o u l d b e built prior to t h e actual closures a n d that t h e capacity of the sluices should b e u s e d to
divert s o m e of the w a t e r in t h e final critical s t a g e s .

253

Finally, t h e C o m m i t t e e s t r e s s e d the n e e d to a p p l y n e w t e c h n o l o g y a n d to carry out r e s e a r c h by


u s i n g all m o d e r n m e a n s .
T h e w o r k s p r o p o s e d by the C o m m i t t e e h a v e been indicated in Figure A 4 - 1 . T h e s u g g e s t e d time
s c h e d u l e anticipated a construction period of 2 5 years is given in Figure A 4 - 2 . T h r e e m a j o r w o r k s
d e t e r m i n e d t h e total t i m e s c h e d u l e : t h e closing of V e e r s e Gat,

Brouwershavense Gat and

E a s t e r n Scheldt. O t h e r e l e m e n t s , s u c h as the closure of t h e G r e v e l i n g e n , the V o l k e r a k a n d the


Haringvliet, h a d to b e fitted in b e t w e e n .

M
A-

.jr. ^
W

L i e ! -

F i g u r e A4-1

Delta a r e a with m a j o r w o r k s

254

H o l l a n d s c h e llssel

V e e r e g a t en
kreek

Grevelingen

Volkerak

Haringvliet

Brouwershavensche G a t

Oosterschelde

F i g u r e A 4 - 2 T i m e s c h e d u l e c o n s t r u c t i o n Delta W o r k s

A 4 . 3 T h e e x e c u t i o n of t h e w o r k s
For the m a n a g e m e n t of the Delta project, a s e p a r a t e entity the Deltadienst within Rijkswaterstaat
w a s f o r m e d : . Within this d e p a r t m e n t , units w e r e established for the design and supervision of t h e
w o r k s , a n d for t h e r e s e a r c h that h a d to be carried out to m a k e the w o r k s f e a s i b l e . For m a n y
y e a r s , t h e " W a t e r l o o p k u n d i g e A f d e l i n g " g u i d e d the long t e r m r e s e a r c h , v a r y i n g f r o m field
o b s e r v a t i o n s to all kinds of m o d e l tests a n d calculations.
T h e s e q u e n c e of the w o r k s w a s partly d e s i g n e d to create a learning c u r v e . S i n c e it w o u l d be
n e c e s s a r y to develop and test n e w techniques, a variety of w o r k i n g m e t h o d s w a s used to provide
e x p e r i e n c e a n d to m a k e the a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e s for the m o s t difficult c l o s u r e -the E a s t e r n
Scheldt.
A g o o d insight in the e x e c u t i o n of the w o r k s c a n be o b t a i n e d f r o m the series " D r i e m a a n d e l i j k s e
B e r i c h t e n D e l t a w e r k e n " edited by the "Deltadienst".
Following the s e q u e n c e of the w o r k s , highlights that are characteristic for e a c h closure, along with
t h e s p i n - o f f that w a s g e n e r a t e d , will be m e n t i o n e d .

S t o r m s u r g e barrier H o l l a n d s c h e IJssel
Flow profile 8 0 x 6.5 m ; s p a n of 8 0 m v e r y large in 1956
Lock 120m X 2 4 m

Zandkreek
Lock: 140m x 2 0 m
C l o s u r e : Unit c a i s s o n s ( c l o s e d type)

255

Veerse Gat
S e a d i k e : e x t e n s i v e u s e of a s p l i a l t - c o n c r e t e r e v e t m e n t in p e r m a n e n t structure
C l o s u r e : first e x p e r i e n c e witli (7) d i s c h a r g e c a i s s o n s ( d o o r l a a t c a i s s o n )
First large scale application of geotextile for s c o u r protection

Grevelingen
Lock 125m x 16m
Closure:
N. g a p : e x p e r i m e n t a l g r a d u a l vertical c l o s u r e with cable cars
S. g a p : Unit c a i s s o n s ( c l o s e d type)

Volkerak
D a m f r o m O v e r - F l a k k e e to Hellegatsplein: first e x p e r i m e n t a l s a n d c l o s u r e s
2 locks e a c h 3 2 6 m x 2 4 m !
C l o s u r e : (12) d i s c h a r g e c a i s s o n s ( d o o r l a a t c a i s s o n )

Haringvliet
D i s c h a r g e sluice
C o n s t r u c t e d in situ in a n artificial d o c k island 5 6 0 X 1 4 0 0 m
Pile f o u n d a t i o n
17 o p e n i n g s of 56.5 m w i d t h e a c h
Visor g a t e s s u p p o r t e d by triangular ( N a b i a ) girder
G a t e s d e s i g n e d after e x t e n s i v e study of w a v e i m p a c t f o r c e s
Sill a n d s c o u r protection d e s i g n e d after e x t e n s i v e m o d e l testing
L a r g e s c a l e u s e of a s p h a l t a n d s a n d a s p h a l t for s l o p e protection
Lock 124m x 16m
C l o s u r e (with sluices o p e n ) :
N. g a p : g r a d u a l vertical c l o s u r e with cable cars
S. g a p : s a n d c l o s u r e

Brouwershavense Gat
Closure:
S. g a p : g r a d u a l vertical c l o s u r e with cable cars
N. g a p : (20) d i s c h a r g e c a i s s o n s ( d o o r l a a t c a i s s o n )

Until the c l o s u r e of t h e B r o u w e r s h a v e n s e Gat, the t i m e s c h e d u l e of 1956 could be m a i n t a i n e d


with a slight d e l a y of o n e y e a r only. T h e h a n d s - o n learning p r o c e s s had resulted in s p e c t a c u l a r
i m p r o v e m e n t s a n d i n n o v a t i o n s in t h e fields of:

high c a p a c i t y d r e d g i n g ;

n e w techniques for scour protection, replacing costly and labour-intensive fabrication of willow
m a t t r e s s e s ( z i n k s t u k k e n ) by geotextiles a n d p r e f a b r i c a t e d asphalt m a t s ;

n e w t e c h n i q u e s for r e v e t m e n t s , replacing labour intensively placed b l o c k s t o n e ( z e t w e r k ) by


asphalt-concrete;

c l o s u r e t e c h n i q u e s , using o p e n sluice c a i s s o n s or, alternatively, g r a d u a l vertical c l o s u r e .

In this way, in 1969, the f o r m a l decision to close the Eastern Scheldt could be t a k e n . After careful
c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e d e c i s i o n w a s t a k e n to u s e the t e c h n i q u e of g r a d u a l vertical c l o s u r e b y c a b l e
car. This m e t h o d w a s p r e f e r r e d to the u s e of c a i s s o n s to avoid t h e inherent risks of p l a c i n g the
c a i s s o n s . T h e w o r k s on t h e E a s t e r n S c h e l d t started with the construction of w o r k h a r b o u r s a n d
d a m sections over the s h o a l s . A h u g e factory w a s constructed for pre-fabricated geotextile m a t s
to be used as scour protection. T h e w o r k s w e r e well underway, but in the public opinion there w a s
256

a g r o w i n g c o n c e r n a b o u t t l i e e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t s of ttie large s t a g n a n t w a t e r b a s i n s . T h e
potential loss of the oyster b e d s near Y e r s e k e also c o n t i n u e d to c a u s e c o n c e r n . C l o s u r e of t h e
Eastern Scheldt even b e c a m e an issue in the parliamentary elections of 1973. After the f o r m a t i o n
of a n e w coalition cabinet, it w a s d e c i d e d to r e - c o n s i d e r the c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h e Delta Project.
A g a i n , a c o m m i t t e e ( n a m e d after its c h a i r m a n K l a a s e s z ) w a s c h a r g e d to find a solution. Early in
1 9 7 4 , ' t h e K l a a s e s z C o m m i t t e e c a m e up with a c o m p r o m i s e . Instead of closing the E a s t e r n
Scheldt completely, it s u g g e s t e d that a s t o r m s u r g e barrier be built in the a l i g n m e n t of the w o r k s
that had already started. During n o r m a l tidal c o n d i t i o n s this barrier w o u l d r e d u c e the tidal
a m p l i t u d e to a level that w a s c o n s i d e r e d a d e q u a t e for t h e oyster cultures. During s t o r m s t h e
barrier c o u l d be closed to provide t h e d e s i r e d safety. In t h e u p p e r r e a c h e s of the estuary, s o m e
c o m p a r t m e n t d a m s w o u l d be built to separate the Rhine-Scheldt canal f r o m the n o w tidal Eastern
Scheldt, a n d to r e d u c e high current velocities in t h e K r a m m e r . A l t h o u g h the n e w plan w a s far
m o r e costly than the old o n e , the idea w a s r e c e i v e d f a v o u r a b l y for political r e a s o n s .
In its a d v i c e , the K l a a s e s z C o m m i t t e e r e c o m m e n d e d urgent further s t u d i e s into the t e c h n i c a l
feasibility of the c o m p r o m i s e . A group of experts f r o m Rijkswaterstaat, the research institutes a n d
the contractor of the w o r k s in the Eastern Scheldt, D O S , then carried out preliminary studies. O n
t h e basis of a six w e e k study, the c o n c l u s i o n w a s that a s t o r m s u r g e barrier c o n s i s t i n g of
p e r m a n e n t sluice gate c a i s s o n s w o u l d b e f e a s i b l e . It w a s t h e n f o r m a l l y d e c i d e d to s u s p e n d t h e
current w o r k s a n d to start p r e p a r a t i o n of the w o r k s a c c o r d i n g to the n e w p l a n . Further s t u d i e s
w e r e still going on to determine the exact location of the c o m p a r t m e n t d a m s in the upper r e a c h e s .
T h e final layout is s h o w n in Figure A 4 - 3 . Strict conditions w e r e i m p o s e d by the g o v e r n m e n t w i t h
r e s p e c t to cost, t i m e of c o m p l e t i o n a n d t e c h n i c a l feasibility.
P r e p a r a t i o n of the n e w d e s i g n w a s not a t a s k of R i j k s w a t e r s t a a t a l o n e , a d e s i g n t e a m w a s
established with strong participation of the contractor. During the design phase, serious p r o b l e m s
w e r e e n c o u n t e r e d that f o r c e d t h e d e s i g n e r s to a m a k e radical c h a n g e s e v e r a l t i m e s . First, t h e
idea of using the caissons w a s a b a n d o n e d to m a k e place for a d e s i g n with piers cast in situ a n d
a f o u n d a t i o n d e e p in the P l e i s t o c e n e d e p o s i t s , w i t h t h e aid of cellular rings. C o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e
piers a n d their f o u n d a t i o n w o u l d t a k e place in s e p a r a t e steel c o f f e r d a m s . T h i s idea w a s a l s o
a b a n d o n e d , a n d eventually the c h o i c e fell on p r e f a b r i c a t e d c o n c r e t e piers that w o u l d b e p l a c e d
on m a t t r e s s e s c o n s i s t i n g of a g r a n u l a r filter.

257

IIIIIIP*"' fl

fiiiill'
mm

'1 A

F i g u r e A 4 - 3 C o m p a r t m e n t d a m s in Z e e l a n d
in between ttie piers, a sill w a s to be constructed consisting of a sill b e a m and heavy quarry stone.
T h e sill b e a m w o u l d b e the lower s u p p o r t for the steel g a t e s that w o u l d m o v e in b e t w e e n t h e
piers. In total, 6 6 piers had to be placed with a heart-to-heart d i s t a n c e of 4 5 m , distributed o v e r 3
m a i n c h a n n e l s , t h u s f o r m i n g 6 3 o p e n i n g s . T h e soil, consisting of loosely pactced, fine s a n d h a d
to b e densified b e f o r e the f o u n d a t i o n m a t t r e s s e s could be p l a c e d . A c c u r a c y w a s essential while
w o r k i n g u n d e r e x t r e m e l y difficult conditions in w a t e r d e p t h s up to 35 m a n d current velocities of
o v e r 4 m/s.
Part of the already c o m p l e t e d w o r k s had to b e d e m o l i s h e d including part of the s c o u r protection
a n d the piles for the c a b l e w a y . T h e conditions set by the G o v e r n m e n t with r e s p e c t to c o s t a n d
t i m e of c o m p l e t i o n w e r e not met. T h e barrier w a s c o m p l e t e d in 1986 instead of 1985, a n d

the

cost w a s also e x c e e d e d e v e n after correction for the inflation. T h i s could not be a real s u r p r i s e
s i n c e the original idea w a s a b a n d o n e d to carefully build up e x p e r i e n c e d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n
w o r k i n g f r o m s m a l l e r to larger c l o s u r e s . T h e w o r k m e t h o d s required for t h e Eastern S c h e l d t
barrier w e r e a c o m p l e t e l y n e w c h a l l e n g e to t h e e n g i n e e r i n g c o m m u n i t y .
T h e w o r k s following f r o m t h e revised plan are d e s c r i b e d briefly in the s a m e w a y as for t h e other
e l e m e n t s of the Delta Project:

Eastern S c h e l d t
F o u n d a t i o n : c o m p a c t i o n of s a n d by vibration to a d e p t h of N A P - 6 0 m
P l a c e m e n t of f o u n d a t i o n m a t t r e s s e s c o n s i s t i n g of 3 layers of granular material
Lifting a n d a c c u r a t e positioning of piers in w a t e r depth of 3 5 m a n d velocities up t o 4 m / s
Installation of sill a n d sill b e a m s in high c u r r e n t velocities
Installation of ( m o v a b l e ) gates b e t w e e n t h e p r e f a b r i c a t e d piers
E x t e n s i v e s c o u r protection w o r k s

Philipsdam (Krammer)
258

S a n d closure (due to manipulation with the gates of the E a s t e m Scheldt barrier to reduce
current velocities
8

Markiezaatsl<ade
D a m construction o n very poor subsoil
C l o s u r e : g r a d u a l horizontal c l o s u r e using b a r g e s a n d t r u c k s

Oesterdam
,
,
S a n d c l o s u r e ( d u e to m a n i p u l a t i o n with Eastern S c h e l d t barrier to r e d u c e c u r r e n t
velocities

T h e w o r k s in the Eastern S c h e l d t a d d e d to the list of innovations in the following s u b j e c t s :


8

survey techniques

accurate handling of very large and h e a v y concrete structures in extremely difficult conditions
at s e a

probabilistic m e t h o d s

t e c h n o l o g y of g r a n u l a r filters

s c o u r a n d s c o u r protection

A 4 . 4 T h e Delta P r o j e c t In hindsight
T h e Delta Project w a s originally d e s i g n e d in a period w h e n a w a r e n e s s of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a n d
of the e c o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of civil e n g i n e e r i n g w o r k s s c a r c e l y e x i s t e d . M o r e o v e r , the d e c i s i o n s to
c a r r y out the project w e r e t a k e n in an e m o t i o n a l c o n t e x t i m m e d i a t e l y after a m a j o r disaster t h a t
t o o k over 18 00 lives. It is therefore not surprising that during the execution of the project pnorities
c h a n g e d . T h i s w a s s t r e n g t h e n e d by the g r o w i n g level of prosperity a n d t h e g r o w i n g attention for
the quality of life.
T h e c h a n g e in priorities that c u l m i n a t e d in the r e - d e s i g n of the w o r k s in the E a s t e m S c h e l d t
c a u s e d a lot of frustration a m o n g s t the staff involved. Certainly, the older people w h o had suffered
during the e c o n o m i c crisis of the 1930's, during W o r l d W a r 11, and finally during t h e inundation of
1 9 5 3 c o u l d hardly u n d e r s t a n d that s o m u c h m o n e y w a s "thrown a w a y " o n a f a n c y item s u c h a s
t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . Even today, it is not clear w h e t h e r the decisions of 1974, w h i c h w e r e also t a k e n
in a n e m o t i o n a l a t m o s p h e r e , w e r e w i s e o n e s . T h e r e has b e e n no analysis to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r
t h e m o n e y s p e n t to " s a v e " the Eastern S c h e l d t could not h a v e b e e n s p e n t better (with a higher
c o s t / b e n e f i t ratio) o n other projects.
W i t h o u r p r e s e n t a p p r e c i a t i o n of e c o l o g y a n d e n v i r o n m e n t , w e m i g h t d o u b t w h e t h e r w e s h o u l d
carry out t h e Delta project again if w e had to face that q u e s t i o n . W e w o u l d certainly consider t h e
loss of tidal w e t l a n d s a n d w e w o u l d certainly c o n s i d e r the d a m m i n g of the Haringvliet in relation
to the large quantities of polluted s e d i m e n t that are being d e p o s i t e d t h e r e . H o w e v e r , e v e n t o d a y
it is not e a s y to i m a g i n e w h a t w o u l d h a v e h a p p e n e d to t h o s e s e d i m e n t s w i t h o u t the Haringvliet
c l o s e d T h e s e d i m e n t s w o u l d h a v e b e e n d i s c h a r g e d in a n u n c o n t r o l l e d m a n n e r into the N o r t h
Sea

a n d t h e y w o u l d certainly h a v e c o n t a m i n a t e d the W a d d e n S e a . In the a b s e n c e of t h e

V o l k e r a k D a m , the s a m e contaminated s e d i m e n t s w o u l d also have r e a c h e d the Grevelingen a n d


E a s t e r n S c h e l d t b a s i n s t h a t a r e relatively c l e a n at present.
In c o n c l u s i o n o n e c a n s a y that the Delta project h a s certainly b e e n very effective in reducing the
risk of inundation. This aspect is gaining e m p h a s i s with the growing c o n c e r n about the nse in s e a
level S i d e effects of the project h a v e b e e n positive for the e c o n o m i c a n d social d e v e l o p m e n t of
t h e region, including the opportunities for t o u r i s m a n d recreation. This is due not only to the better
w e t a n d dry traffic infrastructure, but also to the creation of the w a t e r b a s i n s . T h e effect o n t h e
259

national water m a n a g e m e n t m u s t be rated as positive. W i t h the aid of the Haringvliet Sluice it has
b e c o m e p o s s i b l e to control the R h i n e d i s c h a r g e , to r e d u c e salt intrusion, a n d to s a f e g u a r d
drinking w a t e r r e s o u r c e s .
N e g a t i v e e f f e c t s are the loss of tidal w e t l a n d s , t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n of polluted s e d i m e n t in the
Haringvliet a n d s o m e p r o b l e m s relating to the w a t e r quality in the stagnant basins. However, with
the aid of the h a r d w a r e provided along with the Delta project, it is possible to counteract s o m e of
t h e s e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s . Finally, w e m u s t r e m e m b e r that a n y solution that c o u l d r e d u c e the
probability of inundation w o u l d h a v e h a d negative e f f e c t s . It is only for the solution that w e h a v e
c h o s e n that w e really k n o w w h a t t h e n e g a t i v e affects h a v e b e e n .

260

A5.1

Introduction

M a p s are a very important source of information for coastal engineers. Ttiis is true for botti, m a p s
of the land adjacent to the coast a n d charts of the s e a s a n d o c e a n s . W e expect that t h e s e m a p s
will give a c c u r a t e information a b o u t the t o p o g r a p h y of the a r e a , but often additional i n f o r m a t i o n
relating to land u s e , infrastructure, elevation, etc is p r o v i d e d . For the coastal e n g i n e e r , charts of
the s e a s a n d o c e a n s are of particular interest. S u c h c h a r t s h a v e b e e n p r o d u c e d for m a n y
centuries to provide information to seafarers. T h e production of these charts w a s originally in the
hands of private enterprises that had an interest in the trade b e t w e e n Europe a n d the East Indies
a n d W e s t Indies. In the early d a y s of this t r a d e , t h e m a p s a n d charts r e p r e s e n t e d a g r e a t
c o m m e r c i a l value a n d t h e y w e r e kept s e c r e t by institutes like V O C and t h e British East India
C o m p a n y . Later, f r o m a r o u n d the start of t h e 19th century, with the f o r m a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e
c o l o n i e s the role of t h e g o v e r n m e n t s in v a r i o u s countries b e c a m e m o r e i m p o r t a n t . T h e t a s k of
m a k i n g proper m a p s of the sailing routes a n d the ports w a s then transferred to the various navies.
U p to t o d a y

in m o s t countries the national n a v y h a s a h y d r o g r a p h i c d e p a r t m e n t that is

responsible for providing up to date information for the o c e a n navigation. A n important part of that
i n f o r m a t i o n is c o n t a i n e d in h y d r o g r a p h i c c h a r t s that give an i m p r e s s i o n of t h e local situation,
including t o p o g r a p h y , b o t t o m m a t e r i a l , d e p t h s , s e a levels, c u r r e n t s etc.
S u c h h y d r o g r a p h i c c h a r t s a r e i n d i s p e n s a b l e to sailors, a n d t h e p r e s e n c e of u p d a t e d c h a r t s is
m a n d a t o r y o n board of e a c h s e a g o i n g v e s s e l . W h e n p e o p l e c a n n o t easily s e e w h a t is b e l o w t h e
s u r f a c e of the w a t e r , m a p s a n d charts p r o v i d e the only w a y for navigators to find out w h e r e it is
s a f e for the ship to g o a n d w h e r e it w o u l d be u n w i s e to v e n t u r e . Hydrographic charts are also a n
i m p o r t a n t tool for the coastal e n g i n e e r , b e c a u s e t h e s e c h a r t s give reliable i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e
conditions of the coastal z o n e . For e n g i n e e r s , h o w e v e r , it is not only the latest charts that a r e of
interest

but certainly also t h e older m a p s that c a n still be o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e a r c h i v e s of t h e

v a r i o u s h y d r o g r a p h i c institutes. A s e q u e n c e of m a p s gives a g o o d i m p r e s s i o n of t h e l o n g - t e r m
m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s . Historic m a p s c a n be o b t a i n e d f r o m the r e l e v a n t h y d r o g r a p h i c
services.
T h i s section s h o w s t h e general principles g o v e r n i n g the handling of m a p s a n d , m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y
h y d r o g r a p h i c charts a n d indicates roughly w h a t i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e m .

A 5 . 2 U n i t s a n d their b a c k g r o u n d
Hydrographic charts w e r e m e a n t to provide assistance to the navigators on board sailing v e s s e l s
w h o h a d little m o r e in the w a y of i n s t r u m e n t s t h a n a c l o c k a n d a sextant. Positions w e r e
d e t e r m i n e d with r e s p e c t to the position of the s u n a n d t h e stars. T h e grid of t h e h y d r o g r a p h i c
chart is t h e r e f o r e t h e grid of t h e d e g r e e s latitude a n d longitude as d r a w n o n the g l o b e .
T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of this spherical g n d to a plane m a p c a u s e s distortions, either in t h e centre o r in
the c o m e r s of the m a p . This m e a n s that the coordinates of the grid as indicated along the b o r d e r s
of t h e m a p a r e not linear.
S i n c e the m u t u a l distance b e t w e e n the longitudinal coordinates (meridians) varies (they are l o n g
at t h e e q u a t o r a n d z e r o at t h e p o l e s ) only t h e d e g r e e s of latitude (parallels) g i v e a p r o p e r
indication of the scale of the m a p . T h e c i r c u m f e r e n c e of the earth is 4 0 , 0 0 0 k m , w h i c h is d i v i d e d
into 3 6 0 ( d e g r e e s ) , e a c h c o n s i s t i n g of 6 0 ' ( m i n u t e s ) . T h i s m e a n s that the 4 0 , 0 0 0 k m are e q u a l
to 3 6 0 * 6 0 = 21 600' T h e sailors u s e d the m i n u t e as their unit of distance, the nautical mile, w h i c h
t h u s e q u a l s slightly m o r e than 1 8 5 0 m . T h e early h y d r o g r a p h i c c h a r t s w e r e not b a s e d o n t h e

261

m e t r i c s y s t e m . Ttieir scales ttierefore a p p e a r u n u s u a l to p e o p l e w h o are f a m i l i a r only w i t h the


m e t r i c s y s t e m of m e a s u r e m e n t .
T h e s p e e d s of vessels a n d the velocities of current are often e x p r e s s e d in nautical miles per hour
(also called k n o t s ) , w h i c h is slightly m o r e than 0.5 m/s.
W a t e r depth ( s o u n d i n g s ) a r e e x p r e s s e d either in the traditional nautical s y s t e m , or in t h e metric
s y s t e m . T h i s is always indicated on the m a p . T h e nautical s y s t e m uses feet, f a t h o m s ( D u t c h :
v a d e m ) , or f a t h o m s plus feet. A foot is equal to 0.3048 m ; a f a t h o m is equal to 6 feet or 1.83 m.

A5.3 Explanatory notes


T h e first thing to do w h e n looking at a m a p is to s t u d y the key. T h e following information m a y be
found:

Horizontal s c a l e . T h e scale indicating the d i m e n s i o n s of details at the m a p . Most sailors look


at the latitude border s c a l e s at the side of t h e m a p . 1 M i n u t e equals 1 nautical m i l e . M o s t
coastal engineers look at the linear scale. A s a result of the projection of the globe on a plane,
the s c a l e c h a n g e s o v e r t h e m a p . T h e larger the a r e a c o v e r e d by the chart, the larger t h e
deviations.

Vertical S c a l e . Depth on an admiralty chart m a y be s h o w n in metres, feet or in f a t h o m s . T h e


r e f e r e n c e level (Chart d a t u m ) of t h e d e p t h s is also important. Chart D a t u m is often related
to s o m e specified tidal data. This m a y be L A T ( L o w e s t astronomical tide) or M S L ( M e a n S e a
Level) or a n y other r e f e r e n c e level. Different c o u n t r i e s use different definitions of C h a r t
D a t u m ! A Belgian m a p of the W e s t e r n S c h e l d t m a y thus give different d e p t h v a l u e s than a
D u t c h m a p of the s a m e a r e a . E v e n o n o n e m a p , the C D m a y differ for different l o c a t i o n s
b e c a u s e the tidal data differ f r o m place to p l a c e . T h i s p o s e s a risk for the c o a s t a l e n g i n e e r
s i n c e w e usually a s s u m e that t h e d a t u m level of a m a p is horizontal. Specifically w h e n w e
m a k e hydraulic calculations, w e m u s t m a k e s u r e that w e u s e levels that find a r e f e r e n c e to
a horizontal plane to e l i m i n a t e errors in the gravitational f o r c e s . A striking e x a m p l e is g i v e n
in Figure A 5 - 1 . T h e result of misinterpretation is g i v e n in Figure A 5 - 2 .

Figure A5-1 River Severn (England)


262

F i g u r e A 5 - 2 C h a r t D a t u m i s not H o r i z o n t a l !

W h a t h a p p e n s to levels a b o v e the r e f e r e n c e level lil<e m u d flats or sandbanl<s? Thes


levels a r e u n d e r l i n e d a n d refer to C h a r t D a t u m . Levels at t h e s h o r e m a y also be sho^
For t h e s e levels usually different r e f e r e n c e levels are u s e d rather t h a n Chart D a t u m ,

T i d a l levels a r e usually s h o w n at s o m e specific locations as s h o w n in T a b l e A 5 - 1 .

263

Place

Lat.

Long.

N/S

EM

Datum of Remarks

Heights in meters/feet above datum

(position for which

MHWS

MHWN

MLWN

MLWS

MHHW

IVlLHW

MHLW

MLLW

tidal l e v e l s a r e
tabulated)

T a b l e A5-1 T a b u l a r s t a t e m e n t of s e m i - d i u r n a l or d i u r n a l t i d e s
T e r m s related to tidal levels are s u m m a r i s e d in T a b l e A 5 - 2 .
CD

Chart

Datum

LAT

Lowest

Astronomical

Tide

HAT

Highest

Astronomical

Tide

MLW

Mean Low

MHW

Mean High

MSL

Mean Sea

MLWS

Mean Low Water

MHWS

Mean High Water

MLWN

Mean Low Water

Water
Water
Level
Springs
Springs
Neaps

MHWN

Mean High Water

Neaps

MLLW

Mean Lower

Water

MHHW

Mean Higher

High

Water

MHLW

Mean Higher

Low

Water

MLHW

Mean Lower

High

Water

Sp

Spring

Np

Neap

Low

tide
tide

T a b l e A 5 - 2 T e r m s related to tidal l e v e l s

Tidal s t r e a m s / c u r r e n t s a r e s o m e t i m e s s h o w n .

Dates of publication a n d d a t e s of s m a l l e r or larger c o r r e c t i o n s .

A 5 . 4 T h e m a p itself
O n c e familiar with this information the m a p itself m a y be s t u d i e d . A s u m m a r y of f r e q u e n t l y u s e d
s y m b o l s is s h o w n in T a b l e A 5 - 3 . A c o m p l e t e list of s y m b o l s m a y b e f o u n d in " S y m b o l s a n d
Abbreviations used on Admiralty Charts".

Natural features
S t e e p c o a s t , cliffs

Flat c o a s t
'

Sandy shore

Stony shore, shingle shore

264

Dunes

Sand

Mangrove

S w a m p , salt m a r s h

Cultural

Features
Buildings
k

Bridges

-I
^

r
Cables

Pipelines

Landmarks
. # Factory

Artificial

Hotel

E x a m p l e s of l a n d m a r k s

Features
Dykes

Seawall

Causeway

Breakwater

Groyne

Mole

Wharf

Pier, jetty

Pontoon

265

Dolphins
'-^

"

Ramp
t-'A.

.V.'.-:: x^-

Nature of the Sea bed


s

Sand

Mud

Cy

Clay

Si

Silt

St

Stones

Gravel

Pebbles

Cb

Cobbles

Rock

Co

Coral

Sh

Shells

Table A5-3 S y m b o l s and abbreviations u s e d on admiralty charts

A 5 . 5 Interpretation
M a p s also m a y provide direct information a b o u t coastal p r o c e s s e s like w i n d a n d w a v e directions
a n d h e a v y breaking of w a v e s . M a n y other p h e n o m e n a c a n be d e r i v e d by interpreting the c o a s t a l
f o r m s on the m a p : a spit indicates the direction of the longshore transport, a n d thus the d o m i n a n t
w a v e direction, a n d river s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t is s h o w n by the p r e s e n c e of shoals a n d b a r s . If the
m a p s h o w s only a long straight s a n d y s h o r e , y o u c a n s a y little a b o u t w a v e / w i n d d i r e c t i o n a n d
intensity. Only w h e n there is s o m e kind of interruption to this s h o r e is it possible to d e t e r m i n e the
prevailing wave/wind direction and possible s e d i m e n t transport. For e x a m p l e at a river m o u t h o n e
m a y find out w h e t h e r the river is d o m i n a n t or the s e a . T h e m a g n i t u d e a n d direction of l o n g s h o r e
s e d i m e n t transport a n d river s e d i m e n t transport m a y be d e d u c e d . A n o t h e r e x a m p l e is f o r m e d by
protruding rocks or artificial features like groynes or breakwaters o n a s a n d y coast. Here a l s o o n e
m a y find indications of the p r e s e n c e of l o n g s h o r e s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t ( m a g n i t u d e a n d d i r e c t i o n )
a n d s o the w i n d / w a v e direction. D e t a c h e d o b s t a c l e s (rocks, or d e t a c h e d b r e a k w a t e r s ) m a y give
e v e n m o r e exact information about w a v e direction. In the sheltered side s e d i m e n t tends to settle.
S o t h e position of the s h o a l s indicate t h e sheltered side a n d s o t h e w a v e direction.

If d r e d g e d channels are present, it is clear that s e d i m e n t s h a v e to be r e m o v e d on a m o r e o r less


regular b a s i s . T h e location of the d u m p i n g g r o u n d s of d r e d g e d m a t e r i a l give s o m e t i m e s a n
indication of the d r e d g i n g m e t h o d that is c o m m o n l y u s e d .
In large s a n d y a r e a s , the b o t t o m c o n t o u r s also indicate p o s s i b l e c u r r e n t patterns. P l a c e s with
great d e p t h s p r o b a b l y indicate a r e a s w h e r e the current will b e c o n c e n t r a t e d . S h a l l o w a r e a s
indicate low current velocities.

266

A5.6

Limitations

A l t h o u g h hydrographic charts provide a very valuable contribution to o u r k n o w l e d g e t h e p u r p o s e


o t h e s e charts ?s to assist navigators, rather than engineers. Soil data - - ^ - - ^ ^

^/^f^^^^^

generally only a n indication of t h e s u r f a c e of t h e s e a b e d , t h e y c a n n o t b e ^ ^ ^ ^ m ^ e s i g . g a


oundation. T h e charts, a n d certainly the portions close to t h e shore, are m e a n t o w a r n h e s a i b r s
a g a i n s t running a g r o u n d . Relatively m o r e attention is t h e r e f o r e paid to s h o a l s a n d l o w v^^ater
n i t t s , r a t h e r ' t h a n to gullies a n d e x t r e m e l y high w a t e r levels, ^ - - e ,

h e sea e^^ t^^^^

charts is generally unsuitable f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k . For t h e specification in t e n d e r s a n d project


d r a w i n g s , m o r e detailed m a p s a r e required.
W h e n c o m p a r i n g old a n d r e c e n t c h a r t s , o n e m u s t b e a w a r e that t h e i o ^ ^ t i o n s of buo^^^ a n d
lighthouses m a y have c h a n g e d , since survey or the d r a w i n g of the original ^ h ^ ^ ^ J^e^^^^^^^^^
s h o u l d r e m a i n vigilant w h e n u s i n g older m a p s for c o m p a n s o n . T h e
probably b e b a s e d o n positioning with D G P S , a n electronic positioning s y s t e m using satellites a s
b e a c o n s . T h i s eliminates m o s t e r r o r s .

267

A p p e n d i x 6 T H E C E N T R I F U G A L PUM

centrifugal pump is the most common piece of equipment that is u s e d to bu.ld up pressure
in c i o s e T S i n e in'order to overcome the pipeline resistance. In its s i m p l e s t - r n P - p
consists of a pump casing v^ithin which there is a rotating impeller (see Figure A 6 - 1 ) . T h e impeller
is driven by means of an electric drive or a combustion engine.

The

s l a k k e h u i s

p o m p h u i s

waaier

F i g u r e A6-1 C r o s s - s e c t i o n of a c e n t r i f u g a l p u m p

anS mus l i e s

in the channel In the periphery of the pump casing and m o v e s from. .h,s v,a the

p r e s s u r e side.
T h e f l o w in t h e p u m p c a n be c o n s i d e r e d to c o m p r i s e t h e s u m of t w o i n f l u e n c e s :

t h e f l o w t h r o u g h t h e s t a t i o n a r y impeller
t h e rotation of t h e liquid in t h e impeller ( s e e Figure A 6 - 2 )

F i g u r e A 6 - 2 R o t a t i o n of t h e liquid

inner circumference of the impeller is 2;rr,. and the external circumference 2 ; r r . B e c a u s e r.


I conTiLab" bigger than r, the tangential velocity of the liquid increases as it moves away from
The

269

the c e n t r e . T h r o u g h this m e c h a n i s m , e n e r g y is t r a n s f e r r e d to the liquid. V e l o c i t y is t r a n s f o r m e d


into p r e s s u r e . It will be clear that the circumferential velocity of the impeller d e t e r m i n e s the h e a d
of the p u m p .

T h e liquid flows t h r o u g h the impeller at a velocity of Vre, the direction of w h i c h is the s a m e as the
direction of the impeller blades. T h e entry a n d exit angles are p, a n d pu respectively. O w i n g to the
rotation of t h e impeller, the liquid also has a velocity mr, in the tangential d i r e c t i o n .
Vrel

Vt
Figure A6-3 Velocities
T h e resulting m o v e m e n t of the liquid is f o u n d by c o m b i n i n g the v e c t o r s

Vrei

a n d or.

The

characteristic picture is given in Figure A 6 - 3 . T h e resulting velocity is v. This resulting velocity c a n


be d e c o m p o s e d into a c o m p o n e n t v, in t h e radial direction a n d Vt in tangential d i r e c t i o n .

/
/

\
\

\
Figure A 6 - 4 Rotating m a s s
T h e i m p u l s e b a l a n c e b e t w e e n the inner d i a m e t e r n a n d the o u t e r d i a m e t e r
determined.

can now be

T h e i m p u l s e b a l a n c e for a liquid particle that rotates r o u n d a c e n t r e is: (see Figure A 6 - 4 )


Tdt

= d(J-o)J

(17.1)

In w h i c h
T

= Impulse m o m e n t of the particle in relation to the centre

J
m

= polar inertial m o m e n t of the particle in relation to the c e n t r e =


= m a s s of v a n t h e w a t e r particle

= d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n the w a t e r particle a n d the centre

= unit of t i m e

m^r^

fc = rotational velocity v a n the particle in relation to the c e n t r e


N o w the i m p u l s e m o m e n t can be written a s :

dt

dt

270

(17.2)

T h e m a s s m is c o n s t a n t in t i m e a n d a m o u n t s io m = b B

<p ^ r ^ dr {b = blade w i d t h )

The

rotational velocity is d e t e r m i n e d by the rotational s p e e d of the impeller a n d t h e s h a p e of t h e


blades.
Thus:
^^.r

= co-r-V,,r

cos(/3)

-^co^-r

= V,

(17.3)

in w h i c h :
CO = rotational velocity of the impeller
V, = t a n g e n t i a l c o m p o n e n t of the resultant velocity of the w a t e r particle

Thus:

VrV-b-p-<p-r'

in w h i c h :
Vn = radial c o m p o n e n t of t h e resultant velocity of the w a t e r particle
Tal<ing t h e i m p u l s e m o m e n t of t h e w a t e r m a s s o n the inner r i m , w e t a k e ^ = 2 ; r a n d r = r,

Now:
T, = V,rV-b-p-27r-r^

= p-Q-^.-o

(^^-S)

For t h e o u t e r r i m :
T^=V,Xrb-p-2;r-r^

= p-Q-V,-r,

(17.6)

T h e i m p u l s e b a l a n c e is:
M

=T

-T.

(17-7)

in w h i c h :
Mth

= t h e o r e t i c a l required e x t e r n a l m o m e n t on the p u m p axis

Thus:
= p-Q-V,-r,-p-Q-\/-n

= p-Q-iV,-cos(aJ-r,-Vr0os(a,)-r,)

(17.8)

T h e p o w e r that is e x e r c i s e d by the m o m e n t ( M , , = co) is equal to the hydraulic p o w e r ( Q = p = g


=

AH).

F r o m this f o l l o w s :
M,,-co
^

"

cop-Q-(VuCos(a)-r-Vr

p g AH

p-g-AH

271

cos(, j r J

in w l i i c t i :
AH= head [m]
F r o m tfiis f o l l o w s :
AH

= j((o-r,-V,-cos(aJ-

co-r,-V,

cos(ai))

(17.10)

In a d d i t i o n :
Vcos(a)

= V, =

co-r-V^^i-cosip)

(17.11)

and
(17.12)

sin(p)
and
K

(17.13)

27t-rb
Tlius:

co-r,

co-r

-co-r,

2n-r,-b-sin{l3J

QcosiP,)

(17.14)

co-r,
27t-r,-b-sin(l3,)

T f i e v a l u e s n, ru, pi, Pu and b are c o n s t a n t for a g i v e n p u m p . If the f l o w is stationary, a i i s a l s o


c o n s t a n t . T o simplify this the following c o n s t a n t s c a n be inserted:

(co-rJ-(r,-rf

co-r,-cot(pj

2n-r^-b

^co-rrCoHP,)
2n-r,-b

'

'

t h e n the relation b e t w e e n the h e a d a n d the f l o w rate is:


AH

= C.-C^Q

T h i s relation is s h o w n in Figure A 6 - 5 .

A H

F i g u r e A 6 - 5 T h e o r e t i c a l Q-H-relation

272

(17.16)

A
Correctie voor het niet
schoepen congruent zijn van

Q
Figure A6-6 Actual

Q-H-curve

If w e t r a n s f o r m t i i e t l i e o r e t i c a l m o d e l to actual conditions for a centrifugal p u m p , it a p p e a r s t l i a t


it is n e c e s s a r y to m a k e a n u m b e r of corrections m a d e to the theoretical curves (see Figure A 6 - 6 ) .

Correction r e q u i r e d b e c a u s e the b e c a u s e the flow rate is not c o n g r u e n t with the b l a d e s , t h e


finite n u m b e r of b l a d e s , places in a circular impeller, t h e blade t h i c k n e s s a n d t h e internal
friction of the liquid.

C o r r e c t i o n for t h e friction losses along the walls, t h e b e n d s a n d diversions in t h e p u m p


e n t r a n c e , the impeller a n d the p u m p c a s i n g . T h i s c o r r e c t i o n i n c r e a s e s with t h e i n c r e a s e in
t h e f l o w rate t h r o u g h the p u m p . W i t h c o n t i n u o u s l y i n c r e a s i n g f l o w rates this loss b e c o m e
i n c r e a s i n g d o m i n a n t until finally the total e n e r g y s u p p l i e d to the p u m p is m a i n l y lost in t h e
intree- e n stootverlies e n t r a n c e and l o s s e s .

C o r r e c t i o n for the entry l o s s e s . For a g i v e n p u m p , t h e entry losses a r e only m i n i m a l at a


s i n g l e f l o w rate. A b o v e a n d b e l o w this f l o w rate l o s s e s o c c u r that i n c r e a s e w i t h c h a n g e s in
t h e f l o w rate (higher of lower f l o w rates).

The pump characteristics


T h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e p u m p a r e actually as s h o w n in Figure A 6 - 7 . In this f i g u r e t h e
m a n o m e t r i c h e a d Hman, the efficiency a n d p o w e r c o n s u m p t i o n of a p u m p for a specific s p e e d is
g i v e n a s a function of the flow.

273

Figure A6-7 Pump characteristics

Figure A 6 - 8 s h o w s h o w t h e Q-H

relation c h a n g e s with c h a n g e s in the s p e e d ( n u m b e r of

revolutions). If w e h a v e the Q-H c u r v e of a p u m p a n d an efficiency c u r v e for o n e r e v o l u t i o n , it is


p o s s i b l e to calculate the c o r r e s p o n d i n g characteristics for a higher or lower revolution of the
p u m p . If this relates t o a relatively s m a l l c h a n g e in the revolution, it c a n be a s s u m e d t h a t t h e
c a p a c i t y a n d the m a n o m e t r i c h e a d will c h a n g e in the following w a y .
1. T h e c a p a c i t y Q is a l m o s t directly proportional to the revolution n, t h u s

9l..ni.

(17.17)

Q2
2. T h e m a n o m e t r i c head Hman almost directly proportional with the s q u a r e of the exit velocity, t h u s :

274

(17.18)

3. T h e required p o w e r P is a l m o s t directly proportional with the c u b e of the r e v o l u t i o n s , t h u s

(17.19)

275

ted textbooks published by V S S D :

akwaters and Closure Dams


Bank and Shore Protection 2
Angremond en F.C. van Roode
/ xii+340 pp. / ISBN 90-407-2127-0 / hardback
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and Flood Channel S y s t e m s in the Netherlands
ll Waters
,LISH TRANSLATION OF THE ORIGINAL DUTCH TEXT
H ANNOTATIONS
in van Veen
duced, annotated and translated by Hans Bonekamp, Edwin
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vink, Henk Schuttelaars, Huib de Vnend, Zheng-Bin Wang, Ad
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? / 32 p. / ISBN 90-407-2338-9
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oduction to B e d , Bank and Shore Protection
neenng the interface of soil and water
it J. Schiereck
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iciples of River Engineering
non-tidal alluvial river
I. Jansen (ed.)
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