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ANTI-THEFT MOTORCYCLE ALARM

NAME

MOHD SYAHIRAN BIN ALIAS

MATRIX NO.

D011110048

SUPERVISOR

PN. NUR HIDAYAH BINTI RAHIM

I hereby declare that I have read through this report entitle Anti-theft motorcycle alarm and
found that it has comply the partial fulfillment for awarding the Diploma of Electrical
Engineering

Signature

: ..

Supervisors Name

: Madam Nor Hidayah Binti Rahim

Date

: ..

ANTI-THEFT MOTORCYCLE ALARM

MOHD SYAHIRAN BIN ALIAS

A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the


Diploma of Electrical Engineering

Faculty of Electrical Engineering


UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA

2014

I declare that this report entitle title of the project is the result of my own research except as
cited in the references. The report has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently
submitted in candidature of any other degree.

Signature

: ...........................................................

Name

: Mohd Syahiran Bin Alias

Date

: ...........................................................

DEDICATION

This project is dedicates to my supervisor Mdm. Nor Hidayah Bte Rahim, my parents
Mr. Alias Bin Pondot and Mdm. Rosiah Bte Idrus, my family, and all lecturer and all my
fellow friends for helping me directly or indirectly in this project.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my sincere appreciation to my supervisor, Mdm. Nor Hidayah


Bt. Rahim for the permission and acknowledgement to undergo Projek Diploma for one (1)
semester and had given valuable information, support and guidance to me.

I would like to dedicate my special thanks to my family for supporting me and make
me more confident to complete this project and report. To my entire friend, thank you for all
the comment and information to give me a lot of ideas to complete this project and report.

My appreciation is to a network of people who have helped me in this project and


report but do not wish their names to be mentioned. Thank you anyway.

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ABSTRACT

An anti-theft system is any device or method used to prevent or deter the unauthorized
appropriation of items considered valuable. Nowadays, there are many cases about the
motorcycle theft happens in Malaysia. From the Royal Malaysia Police department motorcycle
theft cases increased each year. In 2010, a total of 1475 reported cases involving theft of cars,
motorcycles, vans and trucks while in 2011, a total of 2,086 cases were registered. Therefore
in this project it proposed to design anti-theft motorcycle alarm which is a system that can
prevent a motorcycle from being stolen. Alarm systems that have in the market nowadays are
very sensitive and make many false alarms. Also, the current system, use a vibrate sensor or
shock sensor as a main sensor. The false alarm will increase because if anyone touches the
motorcycle, the alarm will trigger easily even though they do not have any senses of stealing.
So, by doing this project, the motorcycle anti-theft system will reduce the false alarm as main
objective. To do so, first is a research about the alarm system for motorcycle was done. The
main component in the alarm circuit and sensor that will be used to achieve the objective was
studied. After that, the circuit was constructed and the testing was done to make sure the
system is running well. The Proteus software was used to simulate the circuit to see can the
circuit functioning well. In this project, Printed Circuit Board (PCB) design is used to develop
the circuit. In this motorcycle anti-theft system, the main sensor used is mercury tilt sensor.
This system will trigger when the mercury touch their two lids and the buzzer will ON. The
mercury tilt sensor will place on the motorcycle center stand. Then, the alarm will just trigger
when the stand is lift up. From this method, it will reduce the false alarm.

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ABSTRAK

Sistem anti-kecurian adalah sebarang peranti atau kaedah yang digunakan untuk
mencegah atau menghalang kecurian daripada berlaku. Pada masa kini, terdapat banyak keskes tentang kecurian motosikal yang berlaku di Malaysia. Oleh itu dalam projek ini, telah
dicadangkan untuk mereka bentuk satu sistem anti-kecurian penggera motosikal yang
merupakan sistem yang boleh menghalang motosikal daripada dicuri dengan mudah. Sistem
penggera yang ada dalam pasaran sekarang ini sangat sensitive. Selain itu, sistem penggera
motorsikal semasa menggunakan sensor getaran atau sensor kejutan sebagai sensor utama.
Penggera palsu akan meningkat kerana jika sesiapa menyentuh motosikal, penggera akan aktif
dengan mudah walaupun mereka tidak mempunyai apa-apa niat mencuri. Jadi, dengan
melakukan projek ini, sistem anti-kecurian motosikal akan mengurangkan penggera palsu
sebagai objektif utama. Untuk berbuat demikian, pertama sekali, kajian tentang sistem
penggera untuk motosikal telah dilakukan. Komponen utama dalam litar penggera dan sensor
yang akan digunakan untuk mencapai objektif telah dikaji. Selepas itu, litar itu dibina dan
ujian telah dilakukan untuk memastikan sistem ini berjalan dengan baik. Perisian Proteus telah
digunakan untuk mensimulasikan litar untuk melihat adakah litar tersebut boleh berfungsi
dengan baik. Dalam projek ini Printed Circuit Board (PCB) telah digunakan untuk membina
litar. Dalam sistem anti-kecurian motosikal ini, sensor utama adalah merkuri kecondongan
sensor. Sistem ini akan berfungsi apabila merkuri menyentuh dua kaki sensor itu dan
menyebabkan penggera berbunyi. Sensor merkuri itu akan ditempatkan pada dua kaki berdiri
motosikal, Kemudian, penggera hanya akan berbunyi apabila dua kaki berdiri motosikal
dialihkan daripada kedudukan asal. Dari kaedah yang dijalankan ini, ia akan dapat
mengurangkan penggera palsu.

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TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER

TITLE

PAGE

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ii

ABSTRACT

iii

ABSTRAK

iv

TABLE OF CONTENT

LIST OF TABLE

viii

LIST OF FIGURE

ix

LIST OF APPENDIX

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Project Background

1.2

Objectives

1.3

Problem Statement

1.4

Project Scope

PROJECT BACKGROUND

2.0

Overview

2.1

Literature review about alarm system

2.1.1

Anti-theft system

Previous system or technique

2.2.1

2.2

2.3

Shock Alarm Circuit

Types of component used

2.3.1

Mercury Tilt Switch

2.3.2

Transistor BC557

2.3.3

Relay 5V

2.3.4

Buzzer

11

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3

METHODOLOGY

12

3.0

Overview

12

3.1

Flowchart of project methodology

13

3.2

Design circuit

14

3.2.1

15

Component function in the circuit

3.3

Circuit operation

16

3.4

Simulation of circuit design

18

3.4.1

Troubleshooting and test the circuit using


project board

3.5

Printed Circuit Board (PCB Design)


3.5.1

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20

How design the circuit into the Printed


Circuit Board (PCB)

20

3.5.1.1 Procedure to design the circuit into the


Printed Circuit Board (PCB).
3.5.2

How to make the Printed Circuit Board


(PCB) design circuit

3.6

25

Installing the component at PCB board


(Soldering)

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27

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

28

4.0

Overview

28

4.1

Result for simulation using Proteus

29

4.1.1

4.1.2

Output voltage and current for the


simulation

29

Waveform of the simulation

30

4.2

Hardware result

32

4.3

Discussion

34

vii

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

35

5.0

Overview

35

5.1

Conclusion

35

5.2

Recommendation

36

REFERENCES

37

APPENDIX

38

viii
LIST OF TABLE

TABLE

TITLE

PAGE

3.1

Component used in the circuit

14

ix
LIST OF FIGURE

FIGURE

TITLE

PAGE

2.1

Shock Alarm circuit diagram

2.2

Mercury tilt switch

2.3

Operation of mercury tilt switch

2.4

Transistor BC557

2.5

Basic circuit of PNP transistor (emitter)

2.6

Relay 5V

2.7

How a relay works

10

2.8

Buzzer

11

3.1

Flowchart of methodology process

13

3.2

Anti-theft motorcycle alarm circuit diagram

14

3.3

Circuit operation for anti-theft alarm circuit

16

3.4

Simulation using Proteus software

18

3.5

Troubleshooting the circuit

19

3.6

Soldering the component on PCB

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4.1

Anti-theft motorcycle alarm in OFF mode.

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4.2

Anti-theft motorcycle alarm in ON mode.

29

4.3

Waveform of the simulation in OFF mode.

30

4.4

Waveform of the simulation in ON mode.

31

4.5

The PCB circuit before attached at the hardware

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4.6

The complete hardware of Anti-theft motorcycle alarm.

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x
LIST OF APPENDICES

TITLE

PAGE

Mercury tilt switch Datasheet

38

Transistor BC557 Datasheet

39-46

Diode 1N4148 Datasheet

47

Relay 5V Datasheet

48

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Project Background

Nowadays so many cases about motorcycle being stolen occurred. There are many
kind of motorcycle alarm system that available in the market. Most of the alarm system use a
vibrate sensor or shock sensor as a main sensor. When using this both sensor the alarm system
become too sensitive because if anyone touches the motorcycle, the alarm will trigger easily
even though they do not have any senses of stealing.
By doing this project that using mercury tilt switch as the main sensor, it will trigger
the alarm when the motorcycle is lifted off its center-stand. Of course this kind of alarm
unable to catch the thief 100% but it prevents the motorcycle from being stolen easily.
This project will control the false alarm because it is not only about vibrate or just
touch the motorcycle, but it will trigger when the lid at mercury switch is contacted by the
mercury. This project, cover the application of mercury sensor, relay and transistor.

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1.2

Objectives

The objectives of this project are: i. To design the anti-theft motorcycle alarm circuit.
ii. To simulate the circuit operation using Proteus software.
iii. To develop the prototype for the anti-theft motorcycle alarm.

1.3

Problem Statement

Nowadays, there are many cases about the motorcycle theft happens in Malaysia. From
the Royal Malaysia Police department motorcycle theft cases increased each year. In 2010, a
total of 1475 reported cases involving theft of cars, motorcycles, vans and trucks while in
2011, a total of 2,086 cases were registered. However, the first seven months of 2012, a total
of 832 cases have already been reported. [1] Negligence and carelessness identified as the
main causes of many of the cases of loss of motorcycle. Therefore in this project, it is
proposed to developed and constructed anti-theft motorcycle alarm to prevent this problem.

1.4

Project scope

Components such are mercury tilt switch, buzzer, relay, and transistor will be used to
develop the motorcycle anti-theft system. For the first step, the theory about this system
should be research. When all the components are ready, we will combine it in one circuit. The
alarm should be able to generate loud sound and trigger when the motorcycle is try to be
stolen.

CHAPTER 2

PROJECT BACKGROUND

2.0

Overview

In this chapter, there are some of point that will be review which is literature review about
alarm system, previous system and technique and type of component used.

2.1

Literature review about alarm system

2.1.1 Anti-theft system

An anti-theft system is any device or method used to prevent or deter the unauthorized
appropriation of items considered valuable. Theft is one of the most common and oldest
criminal behaviors. From the invention of the first lock and key to the introduction of RFID
tags and biometric identification, anti-theft systems have evolved to match the introduction of
new inventions to society and the resulting theft of them by others.

Under normal circumstances, theft is prevented simply through the application and
social acceptance of property law. Ownership is often indicated by means of visual marking
(license plates, name tags). When clear owner identification is not possible and when there is a
lack of social observance, people may be inclined to take possession of items to their own
benefit at the expense of the original owner. Motive and opportunity are two enabling factors
for theft. Given that motives for theft are varied and complex and are generally speaking not

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within the control of the victim, most methods of theft prevention rely on reducing
opportunities for theft. [2]

Items may require an anti-theft system for a variety of reasons, which may occur in
combination depending on the type of item and its use:

a. The item is expensive and/or has sentimental value (prestigious car, family heirloom,
birthday gift, war medals, coin collection)
b. The item is difficult/impossible to replace if lost (produced in low numbers, antiques, and
unique works of art)
c. The item is easy to steal (retail/supermarket products, office stationery, no security tags (TJ)
d. The item may be left unattended in an unsafe environment (laptops in a library, cars in a car
park)
e. Inappropriate use of the item may cause considerable damage or may enable further
unauthorized acts (theft of car keys, stolen building access keys, identity theft)
f. The item is desirable to others (jewelry, mobile phones, rare collectibles, auto parts,
industrial designs)

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2.2

Previous system or technique

This section will represent the previous project or system that already developed which
is shock alarm circuit.

2.2.1 Shock Alarm Circuit

The Figure 2.1 is a shock sensitive alarm circuit that has many applications from home
to automobiles. The main application of this circuit is to use it as an anti-theft alarm in
automobiles. A piezoelectric sensor is used as the shock sensor which has to mount on the
door or at body which you have to protect.

Here the IC1 LM 3558 is wired as an inverting Schmitt Trigger. The POT R1 sets the
threshold voltage of the circuit.R1 is used as a feedback resistor. When not activated the
output from the piezo sensor will be low and so do the output of the IC. When the piezo sensor
is activated its output voltage goes high and triggers the Schmitt trigger. This results the
beeping of the buzzer. The buzzer remains beeping for some time even if the vibration is
removed, this is because the increase in the inverting input has little effect when the IC is
triggered and the state cannot be easily reversed. [3]

Figure 2.1: Shock Alarm circuit diagram [3]

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2.3

Type of component used

2.3.1 Mercury tilt switch

Figure 2.2: Mercury tilt switch


Tilt switches contain a conductive liquid and when tilted this bridges the contacts
inside, closing the switch. They can be used as a sensor to detect the position of an object.
Some tilt switches contain mercury which is poisonous.
A mercury switch (also known as a mercury tilt switch) is a switch whose purpose is to
allow or interrupt the flow of electric current in an electrical circuit in a manner that is
dependent on the switch's physical position or alignment relative to the direction of the "pull"
of earth's gravity, or other inertia.
Mercury switches consist of one or more sets of electrical contacts in a sealed glass
envelope which contains a bead of mercury. The envelope may also contain air, an inert gas,
or a vacuum. Gravity is constantly pulling the drop of mercury to the lowest point in the
envelope. When the switch is tilted in the appropriate direction, the mercury touches a set of
contacts, thus completing the electrical circuit through those contacts.
Tilting the switch the opposite direction causes the mercury to move away from that
set of contacts, thus breaking that circuit. The switch may contain multiple sets of contacts,
closing different sets at different angles allowing, for example, Single-Pole, Double-Throw
(SPDT) operation. [4]

Figure 2.3: Operation of mercury tilt switch

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2.3.2 Transistor BC557

Figure 2.4: Transistor BC557 [5]


Transistors are widely used electronic components that perform the function of a
switch or an amplifier.
The properties of the transistor allow it to be used as a rectifier, allow current to flow
in only one direction. When the P side is made positive by an applied field, the barrier height
is lowered and most of the electrons from the N side flow to the P side and most of the holes
flow to the N side. The transistor is said to be forward biased in this case. When the applied
field makes the P side negative, the barrier height is increased and only a leakage current can
flow through the transistor. The transistor is said to be reverse biased in this case.
A transistor can also function as an amplifier. When a small input current is applied to
the base-emitter of a PNP transistor, it gets amplified and a larger current results in the
collector-emitter circuit. A typical application of a transistor as a vital electronic component is
in a radio wherein weak radio signals from an antenna are amplified into stronger signals
identifiable by human ear by a transistor. [5]

Figure 2.5: Basic circuit of PNP transistor (emitter) [5]

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2.3.3 Relay 5V

Figure 2.6: Relay 5V


A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to
mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state
relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with
complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits
must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits
as amplifiers: they repeated the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitted it on
another circuit. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to
perform logical operations.
A simple electromagnetic relay consists of a coil of wire wrapped around a soft iron
core, an iron yoke which provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flux, a movable iron
armature, and one or more sets of contacts (there are two in the relay pictured). The armature
is hinged to the yoke and mechanically linked to one or more sets of moving contacts. It is
held in place by a spring so that when the relay is de-energized there is an air gap in the
magnetic circuit. In this condition, one of the two sets of contacts in the relay pictured is
closed, and the other set is open. Other relays may have more or fewer sets of contacts
depending on their function. The relay in the picture also has a wire connecting the armature
to the yoke. This ensures continuity of the circuit between the moving contacts on the

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armature, and the circuit track on the printed circuit board (PCB) via the yoke, which is
soldered to the PCB. [6]

Figure 2.7: How a relay works [7]


When an electric current is passed through the coil it generates a magnetic field that
activates the armature and the consequent movement of the movable contact either makes or
breaks (depending upon construction) a connection with a fixed contact. If the set of contacts
was closed when the relay was de-energized, then the movement opens the contacts and
breaks the connection, and vice versa if the contacts were open. When the current to the coil is
switched off, the armature is returned by a force, approximately half as strong as the magnetic
force, to its relaxed position. Usually this force is provided by a spring, but gravity is also used
commonly in industrial motor starters. Most relays are manufactured to operate quickly. In a
low-voltage application this reduces noise; in a high voltage or current application it reduces
arcing.

When the coil is energized with direct current, a diode is often placed across the coil to
dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivation, which would otherwise
generate a voltage spike dangerous to semiconductor circuit components. Some automotive
relays include a diode inside the relay case. Alternatively, a contact protection network
consisting of a capacitor and resistor in series may absorb the surge. If the coil is designed to
be energized with alternating current (AC), a small copper "shading ring" can be crimped to

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the end of the solenoid, creating a small out-of-phase current which increases the minimum
pull on the armature during the AC cycle.

A solid-state relay uses a thyristor or other solid-state switching device, activated by


the control signal, to switch the controlled load, instead of a solenoid. An optocoupler (a lightemitting diode (LED) coupled with a photo transistor) can be used to isolate control and
controlled circuits. [7]

2.3.4 Buzzer

Figure 2.8: Buzzer


Buzzer is one of a transducer, which converts electrical energy to sound. This
transducer used for this project as an indicator for alarm system.

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CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.0

Overview

This chapter will explain details on the project methodology and the project
implementation to complete the project. This chapter consists of flowchart of project
methodology, design circuit, circuit operation, simulation of design circuit and PCB design.

3.1

Flowchart of project methodology

The flowchart as in Figure 3.1 shows the step that followed for this project to be
complete. The first step is gather all the information needed and do some literatures review
about the system. After that, the simulation is being done to ensure that the design circuit can
function well. Next is constructing the circuit into project board to do a testing and make a
comparison with the simulation. After the testing at project board is being well, the circuit is
constructing using PCB design. Lastly, the circuit is attached at the hardware.

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Start

Construct hardware

Research about alarm and


sensor use in the circuit

Simulated the circuit using


No

Proteus software
Is the hardware
okay?
No
Is the simulation
functioning?

Yes

Yes

Project completed

Construct the circuit

End
No

Is the circuit
functioning?

Yes

Figure 3.1: Flowchart of methodology process

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3.2

Design circuit

At this stage research and study about all motorcycle alarm available in the market will
be done. The components part that used to design the circuit will be decided. The figure 3.2
shows an Anti-theft motorcycle alarm circuit diagram that has been developed and Table 3.1
show the component used in the circuit.

Figure 3.2: Anti-theft motorcycle alarm circuit diagram

Table 3.1: Component used in the circuit


Component used
Mercury tilt switch
Fuse 2 Amp
Key switch
Resistor 1k Ohm
Resistor 4M7
Diode 1N4148
Transistor BC557
Capacitor 100uF
Relay 5V
Buzzer
Battery 12V

No. of unit
2 unit
1 unit
1 unit
2 unit
1 unit
3 unit
2 unit
1 unit
1 unit
1 unit
1 unit

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3.2.1 Component function in the circuit

a) Mercury tilt switch


-

Act as a main sensor in this circuit. It will trigger when the lid at mercury switch is
contacted by the mercury

b) Fuse 2Ampere
-

Protect the wiring in this circuit.

c) Key switch
-

Switch that can be activated only by a key. In this circuit, the key is used to
ON/OFF the alarm.

d) Resistor
-

To limit the current as the circuit needed.

e) Diode 1N4148
-

Permits the flow of current in one of the directions while the flow of high
resistance is from another direction. Hence in it flow of current is in one way only
and block the other way for the current flow.

f) Transistor BC557
-

Act as a switch to trigger the relay.

g) Capacitor 100F
-

Stores a charge in the circuit.

h) Relay 5V
-

Act as a switch to trigger the buzzer.

i) Buzzer
-

Transducer which creates sound in reaction of the electrical auditory signal given
in the input.

j) Battery 12V
-

As voltage supply for the circuit.

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3.3

Circuit operation

Start

Motorcycle alarm in OFF mode, buzzer off

Did the mercury tilt


switch trigger?
.
Yes
Motorcycle alarm in ON mode, buzzer
ON

End

Figure 3.3: Circuit operation for anti-theft


alarm circuit

No

17

For the circuit operation when the circuit is receive the supply from battery, but if the
mercury tilt switch not trigger the alarm system will not turn on because the current cannot
flow through the circuit. But when the mercury tilt switch is trigger, the current will flow to
the transistor GATE (G) terminal and trigger the transistor. When the transistor trigger, relay
is energized to generate the buzzer and the alarm system will turn on.

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3.4

Simulation of circuit design

Simulation is the imitation of the operation of real-world process or system over time.
Simulation can be used to show the eventual real effects of alternative conditions and courses
of action. It is also used when the real system cannot be engaged, because it may not be
accessible or it may be dangerous or unacceptable to engage or it is being designed but not yet
build or it may simply not exist.
To make a simulation for the circuit design, the Proteus software is used to see if the
circuit can function well. Using Proteus software the circuit design is apply at schematic
capture (ISIS) to see how the circuit works and to see if there is any error with the circuit
design. If the circuit can be operates well, after that the circuit is tested at project board. Figure
3.4 show the simulation of the circuit using Proteus software.

Figure 3.4: Simulation using Proteus software

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3.4.1 Troubleshooting and test the circuit using project board

Figure 3.5: Troubleshooting the circuit


After the circuit has been simulate using Proteus software and the circuit has no error
and functioning well, the circuit is tested at project board. Troubleshooting using project board
is made to see and confirm that the circuit can be operated at real hardware. Figure 3.5 show
the circuit is troubleshooting at project board.

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3.5

Printed Circuit Board (PCB Design)


After all the simulation and troubleshooting is done, the circuit will transform into

hardware form. In this project PCB Design is used developed the circuit.

3.5.1 How design the circuit into the Printed Circuit Board (PCB).

To construct the PCB design for the circuit, the ARES software is used. Ares software
is software that used to transform the circuit design into PCB layout. From schematic capture
(ISIS), the circuit is changed into PCB layout (ARES) to see the layout of circuit design in
PCB form. [8]

For every component in Proteus software, there is a component with packaging tool
and a few components not have it. Using packaging tool, user can see if the size and pin
number of component that used in schematic design is same with the component that user buy
for the circuit. If same, the process of PCB Design can be continuing. Components size in
PCB Design must be same as the real one to make the components fitted on the circuit that
will be printed.

The PCB design that has done will be printed on the glossy paper (photo paper) using
laser printer. This is because laser printer ink is made up from plastic material, and the design
we print will stick nicely at glossy paper. The procedure below show how to design the circuit
into the Printed Circuit Board (PCB).

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3.5.1.1

Procedure to design the circuit into the Printed Circuit Board (PCB).

Step 1. From schematic capture, changed it into PCB layout design.

Step 2. At PCB layout design, put the entire component into the screen.

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Step 3. All components have been placed on the screen.

Step 4. In step 4(a) show the auto-router button to make the design easy to route. In step 4(b)
show button (begin routing) to start the route process.

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Step 5. This step shows that the circuit has been route. After that, we arrange the component.

Step 6. The component is completely arranged.

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Step7. This step shows how to convert from PCB layout design into PDF file, to make easy to
print the design. Firstly, go to Output, Export Graphics and choose Adobe PDF File button.

Step 8. The PCB design in PDF file and can be printed.

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3.5.2

How to make the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) design circuit

Step 1. Cut the PCB board followed the printed PCB design glossy paper.

Step 2. Iron the glossy paper at the PCB board.

Step 3. After ironing the glossy paper, the paper will stick at PCB Board. Soak the PCB board
using warm water to make only the circuit design attach at the PCB Board.

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Step 4. Etching process. Soaked the PCB Board in the Ferric Chloride acid to remove excess
unused cooper at the PCB board.

Step 5. Drill the hole at the PCB Board to put the component used in the circuit, PCB design
done.

27
3.6

Installing the component at PCB board (Soldering)

Before soldering the components, the connectivity of the PCB was checked using the
multimeter to make sure that the circuit has no problem. After the PCB connection has been
checked, the board is ready for installing the component. The components pin should be
installed following. All component attach to the PCB board should be soldered after installing
the components by using soldering iron and its lead.

Figure 3.6: Soldering the component on PCB

28

CHAPTER 4

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.0

Overview
This chapter shows the results for the project. It included the results for simulation and

hardware test. For this section it consist two major sub-development of the project which is
result for simulation of the circuit using the Proteus, and the result for the hardware prototype.

4.1

Result for simulation using Proteus


This chapter will discuss about result for simulation using Proteus software for output

current and voltage and waveform of the simulation.

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4.1.1 Output voltage and current for the simulation

Anti-theft motorcycle alarm in OFF mode.

Figure 4.1: Anti-theft motorcycle alarm in OFF mode.


In figure 4.1 it show that, the key switch in normally-open state, and no current flow in
the circuit, current flow = 0A. Mercury tilt switch also in normally-open state and transistor is
not trigger. When the transistor not trigger, relay is not energized to generate the buzzer. This
show at output voltage = 0V.

Anti-theft motorcycle alarm in ON mode.

Figure 4.2: Anti-theft motorcycle alarm in ON mode.

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In figure 4.2, it shows that, the key switch in normally-closed state, and current flow in
the circuit = 1.13A. Mercury tilt switch also in normally-closed state, it mean the sensor is
trigger. When the sensor is trigger the transistor also trigger. When the transistor trigger, relay
is energized to generate the buzzer. This show at output voltage = 11.9V.

4.1.2 Waveform of the simulation

Waveform of the simulation in OFF mode.

Figure 4.3: Waveform of the simulation in OFF mode.

In figure 4.3, it show that when the alarm is in the OFF mode, no current flow and the
waveform show that no output waveform.

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Waveform of the simulation in ON mode.

Figure 4.4: Waveform of the simulation in ON mode

In figure 4.4, it show that when the alarm is in the ON mode, current flow and the
waveform show that the output waveform from 0V become 6V when the mercury tilt switch
trigger.

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4.2

Hardware result

Figure 4.5: The PCB circuit before


attached at the hardware

The Figure 4.5 show that the completed PCB circuit before attached at the hardware.

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Figure 4.6: The complete hardware of Anti-theft


motorcycle alarm.

The Figure 4.6 shows that the complete hardware of Anti-theft motorcycle alarm. The
LED is use as the indicator to show when the alarm is on the ON mode. Buzzer is attached at
outside the box to make the alarm produce loud sound. The mercury switched also is attached
at outside the box to easy the user know and saw the operation of mercury tilt switch.

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4.3

Discussion

At the beginning of this project, the research about motorcycle alarm and component it
used is made using relevance information from internet and book. The anti-theft motorcycle
alarm system is agreed. The main purpose of this project is to prevent the motorcycle from
being stolen easily and alert people around when the motorcycle is try to be stolen.

With the Proteus software the circuit design is simulated to see if the circuit can
function well before the circuit is developed and assembly into the hardware. After the circuit
has been simulate using Proteus software and the circuit has no error and functioning well, the
circuit is tested at project board. Troubleshooting using project board is made to see and
confirm that the circuit can be operated at real hardware. In this project PCB Design is used
developed the circuit.

For the circuit operation when the circuit is receive the supply from battery, but if the
mercury tilt switch not trigger the alarm system will not turn on because the current cannot
flow through the circuit. But when the mercury tilt switch is trigger, the current will flow to
the transistor GATE (G) terminal and trigger the transistor. When the transistor trigger, relay
is energized to generate the buzzer and the alarm system will turn on.

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CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0

Overview

In this chapter, all results have been discussed and conclusion has been made for the
whole project. All the conclusion and the recommendation for the future work will be
highlighted.

5.1

Conclusion

At the end of this Project Diploma, the objectives of the project have been achieved.
All the scopes already covered but still have many rooms to make the modification. While
completing this Anti-Theft Motorcycle Alarm, many new things and experience gained.

The circuit of Anti-Theft Motorcycle Alarm has been successfully designed after a few
researched about motorcycle alarm has been made. After the design of the circuit was
completed, the circuit is simulating using Proteus, the simulation was successfully done and
all the result and analysis has been discussed at Chapter 4. The simulation has been transferred
to the hardware implementation using Printed Circuit Board (PCB). The prototype of AntiTheft Motorcycle Alarm has been successfully developed.

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Anti-Theft Motorcycle Alarm is very useful for motorcycle owner. This alarm will
prevent the motorcycle from being stolen easily. By using mercury tilt switch as the main
sensor, it will trigger the alarm when the motorcycle is lifted off its center-stand. Of course
this kind of alarm unable to catch the thief 100% but it prevents the motorcycle from being
stolen easily.

By using this alarm system, the many cases about the motorcycle theft can be prevent
and reduced.

5.2 Recommendation

As the recommendations for this project, the IC555 Timer can be added to make the
alarm automatically reset after a few moment. This system also can be upgraded with using
automatic immobilizer added to the anti-theft system. The automatic immobilizer is an
electronic security device fitted to an automobile that prevents the engine from running unless
the correct key (or other token) is present. This prevents the motorcycle from being "hotwired" after entry has been achieved.
At the end of this project, hopefully this system will be achieving the objective of the
project. This system can be commercialized as an Anti-theft system for motorcycle. This is
because of the cost to developed it is low and it can be implemented in any type of
motorcycle.

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REFERENCES

[1] http://www.sinarharian.com.my/edisi/utara/kes-curi-kenderaan-meningkat/2012

[2] http://www.smartmotorist.com/auto-security-systems/anti-theft-devices.html

[3] http://www.circuitstoday.com/shock-alarm-circuit

[4] http://www.engineersgarage.com/articles/what-is-tilt-sensor

[5] http://www.radartutorial.eu/semiconductors/

[6] http://www.electronicsclub.info/relays.htm

[7] http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/relay1

[8] http://www.engineersgarage.com/contribution/expert/pcb-layout-design-with-proteus

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APPENDICES

Mercury tilt switch Datasheet

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Transistor BC557 Datasheet

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47
Diode 1N4148 Datasheet

48
Relay 5V Datasheet

49