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STAAD.

foundation
V8i (SELECTseries 4): Release 5.3

Verification Manual
DAA039050-1/0001

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Verification Manual i

Table of Contents
Introduction

Section 1 Australian Code (AS3600-2001[AMnd


2004])

1.1 General Isolated Foundation 1

1.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

1.3 General Combined Foundation 1

14

1.4 General Combined Foundation 2

16

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)

23

2.1 General Isolated Foundation 1

23

2.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

26

2.3 General Isolated Foundation 3

32

2.4 General Isolated Foundation 4

38

2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5

44

2.6 General Isolated Foundation 6

53

2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7

62

2.8 General Combined Foundation 1

71

2.9 General Combined Foundation 2

77

2.10 Mat Combined Foundation

83

2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

88

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004)

99

3.1 CSA General Isolated Foundation 1

99

3.2 CSA General Isolated Foundation 2

105

3.3 CSA General Isolated Foundation 3

112

3.5 CSA Pilecap Foundation 1

115

3.4 CSA General Combined Foundation s1

123

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)

125

4.1 IS General Isolated Foundation 1

125

4.2 IS General Isolated Foundation 2

129

4.3 IS General Isolated Foundation 3

133

4.4 IS General Isolated Foundation 4

138

4.5 IS General Isolated Foundation 5

140

4.6 IS General Isolated Foundations 6

145
Verification Manual iii

4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7

150

4.8 IS Toolkit Combined 1

158

4.9 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 2

164

4.10 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 3

170

4.11 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 4

176

4.12 IS Pilecap 1

182

4.13 ISPilecap 2

189

4.14 IS Mat Combined Foundation 1

196

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)

201

5.1 US General Isolated Foundation 1

201

5.2 US General Isolated Foundation 2

206

5.3 US General Isolated Foundation 3

211

5.4 US General Isolated Foundation 4

215

5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5

220

5.6 US General Isolated Foundation 6

229

5.7 US General Isolated Foundation 7

233

5.8 US General Combined Foundation 1

240

5.9 US General Combined Foundation 2

247

5.10 US General Combined Foundation 3

253

5.11 US General Combined Foundation 4

258

5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1

264

5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2

271

5.14 US Pilecap Foundation 3

280

5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4

287

5.16 US Mat Combined Foundation 1

295

5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning

302

5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

311

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005)

321

6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1

321

6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2

330

6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3

338

6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

347

Section 7 Drilled Pier Foundations

357

7.1 Drilled Pier Foundation 1 API

357

7.2 Drilled Pier Foundation 2 API

361

iv STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

7.3 Drilled Pier Foundation 3 FHWA

366

7.4 Drilled Pier Foundation 4 FHWA

371

7.5 Drilled Pier Foundation 5 VESIC

375

7.6 Drilled Pier Foundation 6 Vesic

380

Section 8 Plant Foundation

385

8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1

385

8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

394

8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

403

8.4 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 1

412

8.5 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 2

413

8.6 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 3

414

8.7 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 4

415

8.8 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 5

416

8.9 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 6

418

8.10 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 7

418

8.11 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 8

419

8.12 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 9

420

8.13 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 1

421

8.14 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 2

422

8.15 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 3

424

8.16 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 4

425

8.17 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 1

426

8.18 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 2

430

Section 9 Technical Support

435

Index

437

List of Figures & Tables

439

Figures

439

Tables

443

Verification Manual v

Introduction
This document is intended to use as a hand calculation reference for STAAD.foundation
V8i (SELECTseries 4) Release 5.3 verification problems. Verification Problems can be found
under Start Page > Example > Verification.
Each section in this manual represents either specific design code (e.g., AS3600-2001) or
particular foundation type (e.g., Dead Man Anchor Guy Foundation). Hand calculation title
(e.g., AS GEN ISO 1) indicates corresponding STAAD.foundation file name.
At end of each hand calculation a comparison table between hand calculations and program
results is provided for various output parameters like bearing pressure, overturning and
sliding factor of safety, shear force, etc.

Verification Manual 1

Chapter 4

2 (Undefined variable: Primary.ProductName)

Section 1

Australian Code (AS36002001[AMnd 2004])


1.1 General Isolated Foundation 1
1.1.1 Reference
1.1.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 500 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 450
MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 110 KN/m2.
Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5. Height
of soil above footing=500 mm, GWT is 200 mm from GL.
Surcharge= 10 KN/m2

Verification Manual 3

Chapter 1
1.1 General Isolated Foundation 1
Figure 1-1: Australian code General isolated foundation

1.1.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 500/110 m2 = 4.545 m2
Assuming 2.4 m x 2.4 m x 0.400 m footing dimension,
Weight of footing = 2.4 x 2.4 x 0.400 x 25 KN = 57.6 KN
Weight of above soil = 2.4 x 2.4 x 0.500 x 18 KN = 51.84 KN
Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 2.4 x 2.4 x (0.500+0.400-0.200) x
9.81 KN = 39.554 KN
Load due to surcharge = 2.4 x2.4 x 10 KN =57.6 KN
Therefore, total load on the footing = (500+57.6 +51.84+57.6 -39.554 ) KN
= 627.486 KN
Maximum pressure = 627.486 /(2.4x2.4) = 108.94 KN/ m2
108.94 KN/m2 <110 KN/m2 (Hence safe)
Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for sliding

Along X Direction
Sliding force =0

4 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 1 Australian Code (AS3600-2001[AMnd 2004])


1.1 General Isolated Foundation 1

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation


Total Service load on foundation = 627.486 KN
Hence Max possible Resisting Sliding force =0.5 x 627.486 = 313.74 KN
Hence OK

Along Z Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation
Total Service load on foundation = 627.486 KN
Hence Max possible Resisting Sliding force =0.5 x 627.486 = 313.74 KN
Hence OK

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning
WRT Z Direction
Overturning Moment =0
Max Resisting Moment = 0.5 x 2.4 x 627.486 = 752.98 KNm
Hence OK

WRT X Direction
Overturning Moment =0
Max Resisting Moment = 0.5 x 2.4 x 627.486 = 752.98 KNm
Hence OK

1.1.4 Comparison
Table 1-1: Australian verification example 1 comparison
Reference
STAAD.foundation
Value of
Result
Result
Bearing Pressure
108.94 KN/m2
108.63 KN/m2
Resisting force for sliding (x)
313.74 KN
312.867 KN
Resisting Moment for
752.98 KNm
750.87 KNm
Overturning (z)
Resisting force for sliding (z)
313.74 KN
312.867 KN
Resisting Moment for
752.98 KNm
750.87 KNm
Overturning (x)

Percent Difference
Negligible
Negligible
Negligible
Negligible
Negligible

Verification Manual 5

Chapter 1
1.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

1.2 General Isolated Foundation 2


1.2.1 Reference
1.2.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1500 KN,Mz=50 KNm,Mx=50
KNm, fc = 25 N/m2m, fy = 450 N/m2m, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and
Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding
=1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5
Figure 1-2: Plan and Elevation

1.2.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 1500/120 m2 = 12.5 m2
Assuming 3.935 m x 3.935 m x 0.5 m footing dimension,
Tot Moment wrt Z =50 KNm
Tot Moment wrt X =50 KNm

6 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 1 Australian Code (AS3600-2001[AMnd 2004])


1.2 General Isolated Foundation 2
Stress at four corners ( service condition)
1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz
2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz
3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz
4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz
Tot Vertical Load on soil
Self wt of fdn = 3.935x3.935x0.5x25 = 193.56 KN
Col reaction load = 1500 KN
Tot Vertical load V =1693.56 KN
Zz = Z.X2/6 = 3.935 x 3.9352/6 =10.156 m3
Zx = Z.X2/6 = 3.935 x 3.9352/6 =10.156 m3
Mx= 50 KNm
Mz = 50 KNm
1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 109.373KN/m2
2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 99.53 KN/m2
3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 109.373 KN/m2
4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 119.22 KN/m2
Max stress = 119.22 KN/m2 <120 KN/m2
Hence safe

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


sliding
Along X Direction
Sliding force = 0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1693.56 =
846.78 KN
Hence OK

Along Z Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1693.56 =
846.78 KN
Hence OK
Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning

Verification Manual 7

Chapter 1
1.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

Along X Direction
Overturning Moment =50 KNm
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.935x 1693.56 = 3332.08 KNm
Hence FOS=3332.08 /50 = 66.64> 1.5
Hence OK

Along Z Direction
Overturning Moment =50 KNm
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.935x 1693.56 = 3332.08 KNm
Hence FOS=3332.08 /50 = 66.64 > 1.5
Hence OK

Check For Trial Depth against moment about Z Axis


Average Base Pressure along one edge = (121.83 + 135.63)x0.5 = 128.73 KN/m2 (left end)
Average Base Pressure along other edge = (135.63+149.43)x0.5 = 142.53 KN/m2 (right
end)
Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 142.53+(128.73142.53)x2117.5/3935 = 135.11 KN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 142.53+(128.73142.53)x1817.5/3935 = 136.16 KN/m2
Hence, the moment at the critical section Mu (Right) = F xLA
F = (142.53+136.16)x0.5x1.8175x3.935 = 996.5763 KN
LA = (136.16+2x142.53)x1.8175/(3x(136.16+142.53)) = 0.916 m
Mu(right) = 912.864 KNm
So max moment wrt Z axis Mu(Z) = 913 KNm

8 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 1 Australian Code (AS3600-2001[AMnd 2004])


1.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth


deff = (500-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 442 mm
m= fc/fy =0.0555
= 0.85-0.007.fc = 0.65
Kumax = 0.4
Ku = 0.34.. (1-0.2x) = 0.192
Rumax = 0.85.fc. Kumax .(1- Kumax /2) = 6.8
Mumax = Rumax.b.d2 = 5227.55 KNm
Mu < Mumax
Hence OK

Check For Trial Depth against moment about X Axis


AverageBasePressurealongoneedge=(135.63+121.83)x0.5=128.73kN/m2(leftend)
AverageBase Pressure along other edge = (135.63 +149.43)x0.5 = 142.53 kN/m2 (right
end)
Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 142.53+(128.73-142.53)x2117.5/3935
= 135.11 KN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 142.53+(128.73142.53)x1817.5/3935 = 136.16 KN/m2
Hence, the moment at the critical section Mu (Right) = F xLA

Verification Manual 9

Chapter 1
1.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

F = (142.53+ 136.16)x0.5 x 1.8175 x 3.935 = 996.58 KN


LA = (136.16 + 2x 142.53) x 1.8175 / (3x (136.16 + 142.53)) = 0.916 m
Mu(right) = 912.867 KNm
So max moment wrt X axis Mu (X) = 913 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth


deff = (500-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 442 mm
m= fc/fy =0.0555
= 0.85-0.007.fc = 0.65
Kumax = 0.4
Ku = 0.34.. (1-0.2x) = 0.192
Rumax = 0.85.fc. Kumax .(1- Kumax /2) = 6.8
Mumax = Rumax.b.d2 = 5227.55 KNm
Mu < Mumax
Hence OK

Area of Steel Required along X dir


Therefore, Astx = 6391 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.002 x B x D = 3935 mm2
10 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 1 Australian Code (AS3600-2001[AMnd 2004])


1.2 General Isolated Foundation 2
So, provided area of steel = 4165 mm2

Area of Steel Required along Z dir


Therefore, Astx = 6391 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.002 x B x D = 3935 mm2
So, provided area of steel = 4165 mm2

Check for One-Way Shear ( along X dir)


Critical section for moment is at d dist from the face of column
Average Base Pressure along one edge = (121.83 + 135.63)x0.5=128.73kN/m2
AverageBase Pressure along other edge = (135.63 +149.43)x0.5 = 142.53 kN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 142.53 + (128.73 - 142.53)x
2559.5/3935 = 133.55 kN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 142.53 + (128.73 - 142.53)x
1375.5/3935 = 137.71 kN/m2
Hence, the SF at critical section (right)
F = (142.53 +137.71)x0.5 1.3755 x 3.935 = 758.41 kN
Developed shear stress v = 759 x 1000/(3935 x 442) = 0.44 N/mm2
cmax = 0.2.fc = 5 N/mm2
1 =1.1(1.6-d/1000) = 1.2738
2 = 1
3 = 1
c =1.2.3.(Ast.fc/b.d)1/3 = 0.575N/mm2
Hence OK

Verification Manual 11

Chapter 1
1.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

Along Z Direction
Average Base Pressure along one edge = (121.83 + 135.63)x0.5=128.73kN/m2
AverageBase Pressure along other edge = (135.63 +149.43)x0.5 = 142.53 kN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 142.53 + (128.73 - 142.53)x
2559.5/3935 = 133.55 kN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 142.53 + (128.73 - 142.53)x
1375.5/3935 = 137.71 kN/m2
Hence, the SF at critical section (right)
F = (142.53 +137.71)x0.5 1.3755 x 3.935 = 758.41 kN
So max SF along Z axis Fuz = 759 kN
Developed shear stress v = 759x1000/(3935 x442) =
= 0.44 N/mm2
cmax = 0.2.fc = 5 N/mm2
1 =1.1(1.6-d/1000) = 1.2738
2 = 1
3 = 1
c =1.2.3.(Ast.fc/b.d)1/3 = 0.575N/mm2
Hence OK

12 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 1 Australian Code (AS3600-2001[AMnd 2004])


1.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

Punching Shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d from the column face.


Vmax= 2026 KN
v =

= 1.544 N/mm2

Allowable stress= c =0.4. 0.85.fc = 1.844 N/mm2


v < c
Hence safe

Verification Manual 13

Chapter 1
1.3 General Combined Foundation 1

1.2.4 Comparison
Table 1-2: Australian verification example 2 comparison
Reference
STAAD.foundation
Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Corner Pressure
109.373 KN/m2 109.373 KN/m2
None
99.53 KN/m2

99.525 KN/m2

109.373 KN/m2 109.373 KN/m2


Governing Moment

119.22 KN/m2
912.86 KNm

119.22 KN/m2
912.45 KNm

Negligible

Shear Force(One-Way)

912.86 KNm
758.4 KN

912.42 KNm
757.25 KN

Negligible

Shear Force(Two-Way)
Resisting force for sliding

758.4 KN
2026 KN
846.78 KN

757.25 KN
2024.93 KN
846.78 KN

Negligible
None

846.78 KN
3332 KNm

846.78 KN
3332 KNm

None

3332 KNm

3332 KNm

Resisting Moment for


Overturning

1.3 General Combined Foundation 1


1.3.1 Reference

14 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 1 Australian Code (AS3600-2001[AMnd 2004])


1.3 General Combined Foundation 1

1.3.2 Problem
Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 600 KN each column., fc = 25
MPa, fy = 450 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal height-500 mm.
and C/C column distance=3000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 105 KN/m2. Coefficient of
friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5
Ht of soil =450 mm. Depth of GWT=250 mm.
Figure 1-3: Plan and Elevation

1.3.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 2x600/115 m2 = 10.435 m2
Assuming 5 m x 2.7 m x 0.600 m footing dimension,
( left overhang=right overhang = 1 m)
Weight of footing = 5 x 2.7 x 0.600 x25 KN = 202.5 KN
Weight of pedestal=2x0.3x0.3x0.5x25=2.25 KN
Weight of soil above footing = (5 x 2.7-2x0.3x0.3) x 0.450 x18 KN = 107.892 KN
Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 5 x 2.7 x (0.45+0.6-0.25) x9.81 KN = 105.948 KN
Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x600+202.5 +2.25+107.892 -105.948) KN =
1406.694 KN
Maximum pressure= 1406.694 /(5 x2.7) = 104.199 KN/ m2
104.2 KN/ m2 <105 KN/m2 (Hence safe)

Verification Manual 15

Chapter 1
1.4 General Combined Foundation 2

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning
About Z Direction
Overturning Moment =0
Total Service load on foundation = 2x600+202.5 +2.25+107.892 -105.948 KN= 1406.694
KNm
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5x 1406.694 = 3516.735 KNm
Hence OK

About X Direction
Overturning Moment = 0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 2.7x 1406.694 = 1899.04 KNm
Hence OK

1.3.4 Comparison
Table 1-3: Australian verification example 3 comparison
Reference
STAAD.foundation
Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
2
2
Bearing Pressure
104.2 KN/m
104.2 KN/m
None
Resisting Moment for
3516.735 KNm 3516.816 KNm
Negligible
Overturning (Z)
Resisting Moment for
1899.04 KNm 1899.08 KNm
Negligible
Overturning (X)

1.4 General Combined Foundation 2


1.4.1 Reference
1.4.2 Problem
Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 600 KN and 550 KN on two
col., fc = 25 MPa, fy = 450 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal
height-500 mm. and C/C column distance=3000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 100
KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning
=1.5

16 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 1 Australian Code (AS3600-2001[AMnd 2004])


1.4 General Combined Foundation 2
Figure 1-4: Plan and Elevation

1.4.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = (600+550)/100 m2 = 1.15 m2
Assuming 5 m x 2.85 m x 0.500 m footing dimension,
( left overhang=right overhang=1m)
Weight of footing = 5 m x 2.85 m x 0.500 x25 KN = 178.125 KN
Weight of pedestal=2x0.3x0.3x0.5x25=2.25 KN
Therefore, total load on the footing = (600+550+178.125 +2.25) KN = 1330.38 KN
Pressure from axial load = 1330.38 /(5x2.85) = 118.34 KN/ m2
CG of foundation raft = 5/2= 2.5
CG of load = (1x600+4x550)/(600+550) = 2.43478 m
Eccentricity= 2.5 - 2.43478 = 0.065217 m
So Moment Mz = Pxe = 75 KNm
Zz = 2.85 x 52/6 = 11.875 m3
stress due to moment = M/Z = 6.32 KN/m2
Stress at left end = P/A + M/Z = 99.68 KN/m2
Stress at right end = P/A + M/Z = 87.04 KN/m2
So, Maximum stress
99.68 KN/m2<100 KN/m2 (Hence safe)
Verification Manual 17

Chapter 1
1.4 General Combined Foundation 2

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning
About Z Direction
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5 x 1330.38 = 3325.95 KNm
Hence OK

Wrt X Direction
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 2.85 x 1330.38 = 1895.79 KNm
Hence OK

Check For Trial Depth against moment


About Z Axis (sagging)
Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 172 KNm
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm
m= fc/fy =0.0555
= 0.85-0.007.fc = 0.65
Kumax = 0.4
Ku = 0.34.. (1-0.2x) = 0.192
Rumax = 0.85.fc. Kumax .(1- Kumax /2) = 6.8
Mumax = Rumax.b.d2 = 3820.4 KNm
Mu < Mumax Hence OK

About Z Axis (hogging)


Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 201 KNm
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm
m= fc/fy =0.0555
= 0.85-0.007.fc = 0.65
Kumax = 0.4
Ku = 0.34.. (1-0.2x) = 0.192

18 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 1 Australian Code (AS3600-2001[AMnd 2004])


1.4 General Combined Foundation 2

Rumax = 0.85.fc. Kumax .(1- Kumax /2) = 6.8


Mumax = Rumax.b.d2 = 3820.4 KNm
Mu < Mumax Hence OK

Check For Trial Depth


Moment About X Axis
Cantilever length=(2.85-0.3)/2 = 1.275 m
Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 121.84 x5x1.275 2/2 =495 KNm
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm
m= fc/fy =0.0555
= 0.85-0.007.fc = 0.65
Kumax = 0.4
Ku = 0.34.. (1-0.2x) = 0.192
Rumax = 0.85.fc. Kumax .(1- Kumax /2) = 6.8
Mumax = Rumax.b.d2 = 6702.6 KNm
Mu < Mumax Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction (Bottom)
Astx = 991 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.002 x B x D = 2850 mm2
Provided area = 2850 m2m

Along X Direction (Top)


Astx = 1333.34 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.002 x B x D = 2850 mm2
Provided area = 2850 m2m

Along Z Direction (Bottom)


Therefore, Astz = 3064 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.002 x B x D = 5000 mm2
Provided area = 5000 m2m

Verification Manual 19

Chapter 1
1.4 General Combined Foundation 2
Figure 1-5: Graphs of combined strip footing internal forces

Check for One-Way Shear


Vumax = 299.418 KN
Developed shear stress V = 299.418(10)3/(2850 x 444)= 0.2367 N/mm2
cmax = 0.2.fc = 5 N/mm2
1 =1.1(1.6-d/1000) = 1.2716

20 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 1 Australian Code (AS3600-2001[AMnd 2004])


1.4 General Combined Foundation 2

2 = 1
3 = 1
c =1.2.3.(Ast.fc/b.d)1/3 = 0.488 N/mm2
Hence OK

Punching Shear
For Column One
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d from the column face.
2 way shear= 774.52 KN
v =
N/mm2

= 774.52x1000/(300x2+300x2+444x4)x444 = 0.5862

Now allowable stress= c =0.4. 0.85.fc = 1.844 N/mm2


v < c , Hence safe

For Column Two


Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d from the column face.
Two way shear= 710.396 KN
v =
N/mm2

= 710.396 x1000/(300x2+300x2+444x4)x444 = 0.5377

Now allowable stress= c =0.4. 0.85.fc = 1.844 N/mm2


v < c , Hence safe

Verification Manual 21

Chapter 1
1.4 General Combined Foundation 2

1.4.4 Comparison
Table 1-4: Australian verification example 4 comparison
Reference
STAAD.foundation
Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Bearing Pressure
99.68 KN/m2 99.68 KN/m2
Negligible
Governing Moment

Shear Force(One-Way)
Shear Force(Two-Way)
Resisting Moment for
Overturning (Z)
Resisting Moment for
Overturning (X)

87.64 KN/m2
172 KN-m

87.04 KN/m2
167 KN-m

201 KN-m

201 KN-m

495 KN-m
299.42 KN
774.52 KN

481 KN-m
299.37 KN
774.52 KN

None
Negligible

710.4 KN
3326 KNm

710.04 KN
3326 KNm

None

1896 KNm

1896 KNm

None

22 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Negligible

Section 2

British Code (BS8110-11997)


2.1 General Isolated Foundation 1
2.1.1 Reference
Reinforced Concrete by T.J.Macgingley & B.S.Choo, Page 333 and Example: 11.1.

2.1.2 Problem
A column 400mm X 400mm carries a dead load of 800 kN and an imposed load of 300 kN.
The safe bearing pressure is 200 kN/m2. Design a square base to resist the loads. The
concrete is grade 35 and the reinforcement is grade 460.

Verification Manual 23

Chapter 2
2.1 General Isolated Foundation 1

2.1.3 Solution
Figure 2-1: Bending section considered

Figure 2-2: One way shear section considered

Figure 2-3: Two way shear section considered

24 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.1 General Isolated Foundation 1

Size of base
Self-weight of footing = 2.5 x 2.5 x 0.5 x 25 = 78.125 kN.
Therefore, Service load = Dead load + Imposed load + Self weight
= (800 + 300 + 78.125) kN = 1178.125 kN.
Area required = 1178.125 / 200 m2 = 5.890625 m2.
Make the base 2.5 m x 2.5 m.

Moment Steel
Ultimate load = (1.4 x 800) + (1.6 x 300) = 1600 kN.
Ultimate pressure = 1600 / (2.5 x 2.5) = 256 kNm2
The critical section YY at the column face is shown in Figure 6.1.
MYY= 256 x (2.5 / 2 - 0.4 / 2) x 2.5 x 0.525 = 352.8 kNm.
Try an overall depth of 500 mm with 20 mm bars.
Effective depth = 500 40 20 10 = 430 mm.

Therefore z = 0.95d,

= 1976.31 mm2.
Minimum area of steel = 0.0015 x B x d = 0.0012 x 2500 x 430 = 1625 mm2 < AS (Hence
Safe)
Let us provide 10 nos. 16 mm bars, AS = 2010.62 mm2.

One Way Shear


The critical section Y1 Y1 at d = 430 mm from the face of the column is shown in Figure 6.2.
Design shear force, VU = 256 x (2.5 /2 0.43 0.4 / 2) x 2.5 = 396.8 kN
Design shear stress, v = 396.9(10)3 / (2500 x 430) = 0.369 N/mm2
Now, vC1 = min(0.8

,5) = 4.7328 N/mm2 > v (Hence Safe)

Verification Manual 25

Chapter 2
2.2 General Isolated Foundation 2
= 0.395 N / mm2 > v (Hence Safe)
Hence no shear reinforcement is required.

Punching Shear
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 625.5 mm from the column face. The
critical perimeter is shown in Figure 6.3.
Perimeter = 1690 x 4 = 6760 mm.
Shear = 256 x (2.52 1.69 2) = 868.8 kN.
v = 868 x 103 / (6760 x 430) = 0.3 N / mm2 < VC (Hence Safe).
Hence no shear reinforcement is required.

Spacing
We provided 10 nos. 16 mm bars, AS = 2010.62 mm2.
Spacing = (2500 - 40 x 2 - 16) / (10 -1) = 267.11 mm.

2.1.4 Comparison
Table 2-1: British verification example 1 comparison
Reference
STAAD.foundation
Value of
Results
Result
Effective Depth
430 mm
430 mm
Governing Moment
352.8 KN-m
352.8 KN-m
Area of Steel
1976.31
1976.31
2
Shear Stress (One0.369 N/mm
0.369 N/mm2
Way)
Shear Stress (Two0.3 N/mm2
0.3 N/mm2
Way)

Percent Difference
None
None
None
None
None

2.2 General Isolated Foundation 2


2.2.1 Reference
Reinforced Concrete by T.J.Macgingley & B.S.Choo, Page 340 and Example: 11.2.

2.2.2 Problem
The characteristic loads for an internal column footing in a building are given in the
following table. The proposed dimensions for the column and base are shown in Figure
6.4. The safe bearing pressure of soil is 150 kN / m2. The materials to be used in the
foundation are grade 35 concrete and grade 460 reinforcement.
Table 2-2: Table BS2.1 - Column loads
Vertical Load (kN) Moment (KN m)
Dead Load
770
78
Imposed Load
330
34

26 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.2 General Isolated Foundation 2
Figure 2-4: Plan and Elevation

2.2.3 Solution
Self-weight of footing = 0.5 x 3.6 x 2.8 x 24 = 120.96 kN.
Total axial load = 770 + 330 + 120.96 = 1220.96 kN.
Total moment = 78 + 34 = 112 kN-m.
Base area = 2.8 x 3.6 = 10.08 m2.
Section modulus = (I / y) = (1/12)BD3/(D/2) = 6.048 m3.
Maximum pressure = 1220.96/10.08 + 112/6.048 = 139.65 kN / m2 < 150 kN / m2 (Hence
Safe).
Factored axial load = (1.4 x 770) + (1.6 x 330) = 1606 kN.
Factored moment = (1.4 x 78) + (1.6 x 34) = 163.6 kN-m.
Maximum pressure = 1606/10.08 +163.6/6.048 = 186.38 kN / m2.
Minimum pressure = 1606/10.08 -163.6/6.048 = 132.28 kN / m2.

Calculation of Reinforcement Along Shorter Span (X - X ):


1

Average pressure for section X1X1 (as shown in Figure 6.5) = 159.33 kN / m2.
Moment (MY) = (159.33 x 1.175 x 3.6) x (1.175 / 2) = 395.955 kN-m.
Effective depth (d) = 500 40 10 = 450 mm.

0.015 < 0.156 (Hence Safe)

Verification Manual 27

Chapter 2
2.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

Therefore z = 0.95d,

= 2119.475 mm2.
The minimum area of steel = 0.13 x 3600 x 500 / 100 = 2340 mm2 > calculated area of
steel.
Provide minimum steel.
Figure 2-5: Sections considered for bending in both directions

Calculation of Reinforcement Along Longer Span (Y -Y ):


1

Pressure at section Y1 Y1 (as shown in Figure 6.5) = 162.7 kN / m2.

28 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.2 General Isolated Foundation 2
Moment(MX) = (162.7 x 2.8 x 1.575)x(1.575 / 2)+(0.5 x 1.575 x (186.38 162.7) x 2.8)x(2
/ 3 x 1.575) = 619.862 kN-m.
Effective depth (d) = 500 40 20 10 = 430 mm.

0.034 < 0.156 (Hence Safe)

= 0.96d
Therefore z = 0.95d,

= 3472.334 mm2.
The minimum area of steel = 0.13 x 2800 x 500 / 100 = 1820 mm2 <
calculated area of steel. (Hence safe)

One Way Shear Along Section Y -Y :


2

The critical section Y2 Y2 at d = 430 mm from the face of the column is shown in Figure
6.6.
Average pressure for the required section = 177.78 kN / m2.
Design shear force, VU = 177.78 x 2.8 x 1.145 = 569.96 kN

Design shear stress, v =


Now, vC1 = min(0.8

=473.388 kN / m2
,5) = 4732.8 kN / m2 > v (Hence Safe)

= 429.6 kN / m2.
Let us consider 1.5 times shear enhancement.
Vce = 1.5 x 429.6 = 644.4 kN/m2 > v (Hence safe)
Hence no shear reinforcement is required.

Verification Manual 29

Chapter 2
2.2 General Isolated Foundation 2
Figure 2-6: Sections considered for one-way shear in both directions

Along Section X -X :
2

The critical section X2X2 at d = 450 mm from the face of the column is shown in Figure
6.6.
Average pressure for the required section = 159.33 kN / m2.
Design shear force, VU = 159.33 x 3.6 x 7.25 = 415.85 kN

Design shear stress, v =


Now, vC1 = min(0.8

=256.698 kN / m2
,5) = 4732.8 kN / m2 > v (Hence Safe)

30 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.2 General Isolated Foundation 2

= 409.6 kN / m2.
Let us consider 1.5 times shear enhancement.
Vce = 1.5 x 409.6 = 614.4 kN/m2 > v (Hence safe)
Hence no shear reinforcement is required.

Punching Shear
Figure 2-7: Section considered for punching shear

The punching shear will be calculated for an area outside the area enclosed by the rectangle
at a distance 1.5d from the column face as shown in Figure 6.7.
Total pressure under the base = 2.8 x 3.6 x 132.28 + 0.5 x 3.6 x 2.8 x (186.38 132.28) =
1606.05 kN.
Pressure under enclosed rectangle = (1.74)2 x 146.255 + 0.5 x (1.74)2 x (172.4 146.255) =
482.38 kN
Punching shear force = 1606.05 482.38 = 1123.67 kN.
Critical perimeter = 1.74 x 4 = 6.96 m.
Punching shear stress = 1123.67 / (6.96 x 0.43) = 375.46 kN / m2.

Verification Manual 31

Chapter 2
2.3 General Isolated Foundation 3

2.2.4 Comparison
Table 2-3: British verification example 2 comparison
Reference
STAAD.foundation
Value of
Result
Result
Effective Depth (X-X)
430 mm
430 mm
Effective Depth (Y-Y)
450 mm
450 mm
Governing Moment (My)
395.955 KN-m 395.943 KN-m
Governing Moment (Mx )
619.862 KN-m 619.909 kN-m
Area of Steel (Along X-X)
2340.00
2340.00
Area of Steel (Along Y-Y)
3472.2334
3472.2334
2
Shear Stress (One-Way) (Y1- 473.388 kN/m 444.81 kN/m2
Y1)
Shear Stress (One-Way) (X1- 256.698 kN/m2 256.698 kN/m2
X1)
Shear Stress (Two-Way)
375.46 kN/m2 375.44 kN/m2

Percent Difference
None
None
None
None
None
None
Negligible
None
None

2.3 General Isolated Foundation 3


2.3.1 Reference
2.3.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1500 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415
MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120
KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning
=1.5

32 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.3 General Isolated Foundation 3
Figure 2-8: Plan and Elevation

2.3.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 1500/120 m2 = 12.5 m2
Assuming 3.85 m x 3.85 m x 0.65 m footing dimension,
Weight of footing = 3.85 x 3.85 x 0.65 x 25 KN = 240.865 KN
Therefore, total load on the footing = (1500+240.865) KN = 1740.865 KN
Maximum pressure =1740.865/(3.85x3.85)=KN/ m 2 = 117.45 KN/m 2 <120 KN/m 2 (Hence
safe)
Ultimate pressure =1500x1.4/(3.85x3.85) KN/m 2 = 141.676 KN/m 2

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning and sliding
Along X Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1740.865 = 870.43 KN

Verification Manual 33

Chapter 2
2.3 General Isolated Foundation 3
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.85 x 1740.865 = 3351.1 KNm
Hence OK

Along Z Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1740.865 = 870.43 KN
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.85 x 1740.865 = 3351.1 KNm
Hence OK

Check For Trial Depth


Moment About X Axis
Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 141.676 x 3.85 x1.775x1.775/2 = 859.26 KN-m
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth
d

eff

= (650-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 594 mm

K=

= =0.0253 <

0.156

Hence safe

Moment About Z Axis


Bending moment at critical section, Muz = 141.676 x 3.85 x1.775x1.775/2 = 859.26 KN-m
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth
d

eff

= (650-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 594 mm

K=

= 0.0253 <

0.156

Hence safe

34 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.3 General Isolated Foundation 3

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction

Z=d

= 0.971 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

= 3862.3 m 2m

Therefore, Astx =

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0013 x B x D = 3253.25 mm2

Along Z Direction

Z=d

= 0.971 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

= 3862.3 m 2m

Therefore, Astz =

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0013 x B x D = 3253.25 mm2

Check for One-Way Shear


Along X Direction

Percentage of steel p =

= 0.1689

umax

= 141.676 x 3.85 x

= 644.18 KN

Developed shear stress V =

= 0.282N/mm2

Now allowable stress= V =

= 4 N/mm 2

c1

V < Vc1, Hence Safe


V1 =
V2 =

0.17 N/mm 2
1 N/mm 2

Verification Manual 35

Chapter 2
2.3 General Isolated Foundation 3

1 N/mm 2

V3 =

= 0.352 N/mm 2

Vc =
0.704 N/mm 2

Vce =

So V < Vce , Hence Safe

Check for One-Way Shear


Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel p =

= 0.1689

umax

= 141.676 x 3.85 x

= 644.18 KN

Developed shear stress V =

= 0.282N/mm2

Now allowable stress= V =

= 4 N/mm 2

c1

V < Vc1, Hence Safe


0.17 N/mm 2

V1 =

1 N/mm 2

V2 =

1 N/mm 2

V3 =

= 0.352 N/mm 2

Vc =
Vce =

0.704 N/mm 2

So V < Vce , Hence Safe

Punching Shear
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 891 mm from the column face.
Area within Critical Perimeter A
Vmax =

= 4.3347 m 2

1485.87 KN

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 6 x d) = 8.328 m

36 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.3 General Isolated Foundation 3

Vm1 =

= 0.3 N/mm 2
= 4 N/mm 2

Now allowable stress= V =


t1

Vm1< Vt1 , Hence safe


V1 =
V2 =
V3 =

0.17 N/mm 2
1 N/mm 2
1 N/mm 2

Vc =

= 0.352 N/mm 2

Vm1 < Vc, Hence safe

Bar Spacing
In the X Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 35

= 110 mm

Spacing for 12 mm bar = 110 mm

In the Z Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 35

= 110 mm

Spacing for 12 mm bar = 110 mm

Check For Development Length


Along x & Z direction
Max dia permitted =25 mm
= 0.5
Hence Fbu = x fc =0.5 x 5 = 2.5
Ld = 0.95x fy x / 4Fbu = 0.95x 415x25/4x2.5 = 985.6 mm
available length = 1725 mm

Verification Manual 37

Chapter 2
2.4 General Isolated Foundation 4
Hence OK

2.3.4 Comparison
Table 2-4: British verification example 3 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Effective Depth
594 mm
594 mm
None
Bearing Pressure
117.45
117.45 KN/m2
None
2
KN/m
Ku
0.0253
0.0252
Negligible
Governing Moment
859.26 KN- 856.92 KN-m
Negligible
m
Shear Force(One-Way) 644.18 KN 642.87 KN
Negligible
Shear Force(Two-Way) 1485.87 KN 1483.64 KN
Negligible
Steel required
3862 m2m 3851 m2m
0.28% (
Negligible)
Resisting force for
870.43 KN 870.43 KN
None
sliding
Resisting Moment for
3351.1 KNm 3351.1 KNm
None
Overturning

2.4 General Isolated Foundation 4


2.4.1 Reference
2.4.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 2000 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415
MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 100
KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning
=1.5 Soil cover above footing =500 mm
Plan and Elevation

38 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.4 General Isolated Foundation 4

2.4.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 2000/100 m2 = 20 m2
Assuming 5.3 m x 5.3 m x 0.75 m footing dimension,
Weight of footing = 5.3 x 5.3 x 0.75 x 25 KN = 526.687 KN
Weight of soil = 5.3 x 5.3 x 0.5 x 18 KN = 252.81 KN
Therefore, total load on the footing = (2000+526.687+252.81) KN = 2779.5 KN
Maximum pressure = 2779.5 KN/ (5.3 m x 5.3 m) KN/ m 2 = 98.9 KN/m 2 <100 KN/m 2
(Hence safe)
Ultimate pressure = 1.4(2000 KN) / (5.3 m x 5.3 m)KN/m 2 = 99.678 KN/m 2

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning and sliding
Along X Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 2779.5 = 1389.75 KN
Hence OK
Verification Manual 39

Chapter 2
2.4 General Isolated Foundation 4

Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5.3 x 2779.5 = 7365 KNm
Hence OK

Along Z Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 2779.5 = 1389.75 KN
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5.3 x 2779.5 = 7365 KNm
Hence OK

Check for Trial Depth Against Moment


About X Axis
Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 99.68 x 5.3 x 2.5 x 2.5 / 2 = 1651 KN-m
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth
d

eff

= (750-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 692 mm

K=

= =0.026 <

0.156

Hence safe

About Z Axis
Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 99.68 x 5.3 x = 1651 KN-m
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (750-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 692 mm

K=

= =0.026 <

0.156

Hence safe

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction

Z=d
40 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.4 General Isolated Foundation 4
= 0.97 d>0.95d
So, Z= 0.95d

= 6351.73 m2m

Therefore, Astx =

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0013 x B x D = 5167.5 mm2


Area of Steel Required along Z dir

Z=d
= 0.97 d>0.95d
So, Z= 0.95d

= 6351.73 m2m

Therefore, Astz =

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0013 x B x D = 5167.5 mm2

Check for One-Way Shear


Along X Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.173

Vumax = 99.68 x 5.3 x

= 955.2 KN

Developed shear stress V =

955.2(103)/(5300

= 4 N/mm2

Now allowable stress= Vc1 =


V < Vc1, Hence Safe
0.173 N/mm2

V1 =
V2 =

1 N/mm2
1 N/mm2

V3 =

= 0.354 N/mm2

Vc =
Vce =

x 692) = 0.26N/mm2

0.708 N/mm2

So V < Vce , Hence Safe

Verification Manual 41

Chapter 2
2.4 General Isolated Foundation 4

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel p =

= 0.173

umax

= 99.68 x 5.3 x

= 955.2 KN

Developed shear stress V = = 0.26N/mm2


= 4 N/mm 2

Now allowable stress= V =


c1

V < V , Hence Safe


c1

0.173 N/mm 2

V1 =

1 N/mm 2

V2 =

1 N/mm 2

V3 =

= 0.354 N/mm 2

Vc =
0.708 N/mm 2

Vce =
So V < Vce , Hence Safe

Punching Shear
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 1038 mm from the column face.
Area within Critical Perimeter Am = 5.645 m2
Vmax =

2237.3 KN

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 6 x d) = 9.504 m


Vm1 =

= 0.345 N/mm 2

Now allowable stress= V =


t1

Vm1< Vt1 , Hence safe


V1 =
V2 =
V3 =

0.173 N/mm 2
1 N/mm 2
1 N/mm 2

42 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

= 4 N/mm 2

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.4 General Isolated Foundation 4

Vc =

= 0.354 N/mm 2

Vm1 < Vc, Hence safe

Bar Spacing
In the X Direction

No. of 16 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 32

= 165 mm

Spacing for 16 mm bar = 165 mm

In the ZDirection

No. of 16 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 32

= 165 mm

Spacing for 16 mm bar = 165 mm

Check For Development Length


Along X & Z direction
Max dia permitted =25 mm
= 0.5
Hence Fbu = x fc =0.5 x 5 = 2.5
Ld = 0.95x fy x / 4Fbu = 0.95x 415x25/4x2.5 = 985.6 mm
available length = 1725 mm
Hence OK

Verification Manual 43

Chapter 2
2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5

2.4.4 Comparison
Table 2-5: British verification example 4 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Effective Depth
692 mm
692 mm
None
Bearing Pressure
98.9
98.75 KN/m2
Negligible
2
KN/m
Ku
0.026
0.026
Negligible
Governing Moment
1651 KN-m 1647.74 KN-m
Negligible
Shear Force(One-Way) 955.2 KN
952.85 KN
Negligible
Shear Force(Two-Way) 2237.3 KN 2232.14 KN
Negligible
2
2
Steel required
6352 m m 6357.649 m m
Negligible
Resisting force for
1389.75 KN 1374.762 KN
Negligible
sliding
Resisting Moment for
7365 KNm 7148.63 KN
Negligible
Overturning

2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5


2.5.1 Reference
2.5.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1200 KN,Mz=80 KNm, fc = 25
MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of
Soil = 120 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against
overturning =1.5

44 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5

2.5.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 1200/120 m2 = 10 m2
Assuming 3.65 m x 3.65 m x 0.75 m footing dimension,
Tot Moment wrt Z =80 KNm
Stress at four corners ( service condition)
1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz
2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz
3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz
4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz
Tot Vertical Load on soil
Self wt of fdn = 3.65x 3.65x 0.75x25 = 249.8 KN
Dry wt of soil = 0
Col reaction load = 1200 KN
Tot Vertical load V =1449.8 KN
Zz = Z.X2/6 = 3.65 x 3.652/6 =8.105 m 3
Zx = X.Z2/6 = 3.65 x 3.652/6 =8.105 m 3
Verification Manual 45

Chapter 2
2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5

Mx=0
Mz = 80 KNm
1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 118.694 KN/m 2
2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 98.953 KN/m 2
3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 98.953 KN/m 2
4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 118.694 KN/m 2
= 118.694 KN/m 2 <120 KN/m 2
Hence safe

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning and sliding
Along X Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1449.8 = 724.9 KN
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.63x 1449.8 = 2645.885 KNm
Hence OK

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning and sliding
Along Z Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1449.8 = 724.9 KN
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =80 KNm
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.63x 1449.8 = 2645.885 KNm
Hence FOS =2645.885/80 = 33.074
Hence OK

Check For Trial Depth


Moment About Z Axis
Force creating Moment= (139.922 +127.239) x 0.5 x 1.675 x 3.65 = 816.68 KN
Lever arm =(127.239 + 2 x 139.922) x 1.675/ 3x (139.922 + 127.239) = 0.8508 m
Moment = Fx LA = 694.84 KNm
46 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth
d

eff

= (750-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 692 mm

K=

= =0.016 <

0.156

Hence safe
Figure 2-9: Section considered for bending about the Z axis

Moment About X Axis


Force creating Moment= 126.103 x 1.675 x 3.65 = 770.97 KN
Lever arm = 1.675x 0.5 = 0.823 m
Moment = Fx LA =646.08 KNm

K=

= =0.01481 <

0.156

Hence safe

Verification Manual 47

Chapter 2
2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5
Figure 2-10: Section considered for bending about the Z axis

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction

Z=d

= 0.983 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

Therefore, Astx =
Minimum area of steel Ast

= 2594 m 2m
min

= 0.0013 x B x D = 3558.75 mm 2

So, provided area of steel = 3558.75 mm2

Along Z Direction

Z=d

= 0.97 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

Therefore, Astz =
Minimum area of steel Ast

= 2412 m 2m
min

= 0.0013 x B x D = 3558.75 mm 2

So, provided area of steel = 3558.75 mm2


48 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5

Check for One-Way Shear


Along X Direction

Percentage of steel p =

= 0.14

umax

=1/2 x (139.922+132.479)x0.983 x 3.65 = 488.69 KN

Developed shear stress V =

= 0.19N/mm2
= 4 N/mm2

Now allowable stress= Vc1 =


V < Vc1, Hence Safe
V1 =
V2 =
V3 =

0.14 N/mm 2
1 N/mm 2
1 N/mm 2
= 0.329 N/mm 2

Vc =
Vce =

0.658 N/mm 2

So V < Vce , Hence Safe

Verification Manual 49

Chapter 2
2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5
Figure 2-11: Section considered for one-way shear along X direction

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel pt =
= 0.141
V
126.103 x 0.983 x 3.65= 452.46 KN
umax

Developed shear stress V =

= 0.177 N/mm2
= 4 N/mm 2

Now allowable stress= V =


c1

V < Vc1, Hence Safe


V1 =
V2 =
V3 =

0.141 N/mm 2
1 N/mm 2
1 N/mm 2
= 0.329 N/mm 2

Vc =
Vce =

0.658 N/mm 2

50 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5
So V < Vce , Hence Safe
Figure 2-12: Section considered for one-way shear along z direction

Punching Shear
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 1038 mm from the column face.
Area within Critical Perimeter A
Vmax =

= 2.376 x 2.376 =7.68 m 2

968.11 KN

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 6 x d) = 9.504 m


Vm1 =

= 0.1472 N/mm 2
= 4 N/mm 2

Now allowable stress= V =


t1

Vm1< Vt1 , Hence safe


V1 =
V2 =
V3 =

Vc =

0.14 N/mm 2
1 N/mm 2
1 N/mm 2
= 0.329 N/mm 2

Vm1 < Vc, Hence safe

Verification Manual 51

Chapter 2
2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5
Figure 2-13: Section considered for punching shear

Bar Spacing
In the X Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 32

= 115 mm

Spacing for 12 mm bar = 115 mm

In the Z Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 32

= 115 mm

Spacing for 12 mm bar = 115 mm

52 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.6 General Isolated Foundation 6

Check For Development Length


Along X & Z direction
Max dia permitted =25 mm
= 0.5
Hence Fbu = x fc =0.5 x 5 = 2.5
Ld = 0.95x fy x / 4Fbu = 0.95x 415x25/4x2.5 = 985.6 mm
available length = 1725 mm
Hence OK

2.5.4 Comparison
Table 2-6: British verification
Reference
Value of
Result
Effective Depth (mm)
692
Corner Pressure (KN/m2)
118.69

Ku
Governing Moment (KNm)
Shear Force ,One-Way
(KN)
Shear Force, Two-Way
(KN)
Steel required (mm2)
Resisting force for sliding
(KN)
Resisting Moment for
Overturning (KN-m)

example 5 comparison
STAAD.foundation Percent DifResult
ference
692
None
118.69
None

98.95

98.95

98.95

98.95

118.69
0.01481

118.69
0.0146

Negligible

0.0156
646.08

0.0158
643.82

Negligible

694.84
488.69

692.8
486.65

Negligible

452.46
968.11

456.42
961.62

Negligible

3558.75

3558.75

None

3558.75
724.9

3558.75
724.898

Negligible

724.9
2645.8

724.898
2645.8

Same

2645.8

2.6 General Isolated Foundation 6


2.6.1 Reference

Verification Manual 53

Chapter 2
2.6 General Isolated Foundation 6

2.6.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1500 KN, Fx100 KN, fc = 25
MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of
Soil = 90 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against
overturning =1.5

2.6.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 1500/90 = 16.67 m2
Assuming 4.65 m x 4.65 m x 0.65 m footing dimension,
Tot Moment wrt Z =-0.65x100 =-65 KNm
Stress at four corners ( service condition)
1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz
2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz
3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz
4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz
Tot Vertical Load on soil
Self wt of fdn = 4.65x 4.65x 0.65x25 = 351.37 KN
54 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.6 General Isolated Foundation 6

Dry wt of soil = 0
Col reaction load = 1500 KN
Tot Vertical load V = 1851.37 KN
Zz = Z.X2/6 = 4.65 x 4.652/6 =16.758 m 3
Zx = X.Z2/6 = 4.65 x 4.652/6 =16.758 m 3
Mx=0
Mz = -65 KNm
1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 81.75 KN/m 2
2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 89.50 KN/m 2
3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 89.50 KN/m 2
4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 81.75 KN/m 2
= 89.5 KN/m 2 <90 KN/m 2
Hence safe

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning and sliding
Along X Direction
Sliding force =100 KN
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1851.37 = 925.685 KN
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =65
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.65x 1851.37 = 4304.43 KNm
Hence OK

Along Z Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1851.37 = 925.685 KN
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.65x 1851.37 = 4304.43 KNm
Hence OK

Verification Manual 55

Chapter 2
2.6 General Isolated Foundation 6

Check For Trial Depth


Moment About Z Axis
Force creating Moment=1/2 x (102.552+97.472) x2.175x4.65 = 1011.5 KN
Lever arm =(97.472 + 2 x 102.552) x 2.175/ 3x (97.472+102.552) = 1.097m
Moment = Fx LA = 1109.62 KNm
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth
d

eff

= (650-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 594 mm

K=

=0.027 <

0.156

Hence safe

Moment About X Axis


Force creating Moment= 97.122 x 2.175 x 4.65 = 982.27 KN
Lever arm =2.175 x 0.5 = 1.088 m
Moment = Fx LA =1068.71 KNm

K=

=0.02606 <

0.156

Hence safe

56 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.6 General Isolated Foundation 6

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction

Z=d

= 0.969 d > 0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

Therefore, Astx =
Minimum area of steel Ast

= 4890 m 2m
min

= 0.0013 x B x D = 3929.25 mm 2

So, provided area of steel = 4890 mm2

Along Z Direction

Z=d

= 0.97 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

Therefore, Astz =
Minimum area of steel Ast

= 4706 m 2m
min

= 0.0013 x B x D = 3929.25 mm 2

So, provided area of steel = 4706 mm2

Verification Manual 57

Chapter 2
2.6 General Isolated Foundation 6

Check for One-Way Shear


Along X Direction
Critical section for moment is at d dist from the face of column

Percentage of steel p =

= 0.178

umax

=1/2 x (102.552+98.86)x1.581 x 4.65 = 740.36 KN

Developed shear stress V = 740.36 x1000/4650 x594 = 0.268N/mm2


= 4 N/mm2

Now allowable stress= Vc1 =


V < V , Hence Safe
c1

V1 =
V2 =
V3 =

0.178 N/mm 2
1 N/mm 2
1 N/mm 2
= 0.356 N/mm 2

Vc =
Vce =

0.712 N/mm 2

So V < Vce , Hence Safe

58 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.6 General Isolated Foundation 6

Along Z Direction
Critical section for moment is at d dist from the face of column

Percentage of steel p =

= 0.171

umax

= 97.122 x1.58 x4.65= 714 KN

Developed shear stress V = 714 x1000/4650 x 594 =


= 0.258 N/mm2
= 4 N/mm 2

Now allowable stress= V =


c1

V < Vc1, Hence Safe


V1 =
V2 =
V3 =

0.171 N/mm 2
1 N/mm 2
1 N/mm 2
= 0.351 N/mm 2

Vc =
Vce =

0.702 N/mm 2

So V < Vce , Hence Safe

Verification Manual 59

Chapter 2
2.6 General Isolated Foundation 6

Punching Shear
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 1782 mm from the column face.
Area within Critical Perimeter A
Vmax =

= 2.082x2.082 =4.3347 m 2

1679 KN

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 6 x d) = 8.328 m


Vm1 =

= 0.3394 N/mm 2
= 4 N/mm2

Now allowable stress= Vt1 =


Vm1< Vt1 , Hence safe
V1 =
V2 =
V3 =

Vc =

0.171 N/mm 2
1 N/mm 2
1 N/mm 2
= 0.351 N/mm 2

Vm1 < Vc, Hence safe

60 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.6 General Isolated Foundation 6

Bar Spacing
In the X Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 44

= 105 mm

Spacing for 12 mm bar = 155 mm

In the Z Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 42

= 115 mm

Spacing for 12 mm bar = 115 mm

Check For Development Length


Along X & Z direction
Max dia permitted =25 mm
= 0.5
Hence Fbu = x fc =0.5 x 5 = 2.5
Ld = 0.95x fy x / 4Fbu = 0.95x 415x25/4x2.5 = 985.6 mm
available length = 1725 mm
Hence OK

Verification Manual 61

Chapter 2
2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7

2.6.4 Comparison
Table 2-7: British verification example 6 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Effective Depth
594 mm
594 mm
None
Corner Pressure
81.75
81.74 KN/m2
None
2
KN/m
89.5 KN/m2
89.5
89.5 KN/m2
KN/m2
81.74 KN/m2
89.5
KN/m2

Ku
Governing Moment

81.75
KN/m2
0.02606
0.027
1068.71
KNm

0.026

None

0.0269
1065.83 KNm

Negligible

1103.31 KNm

Shear Force(One-Way)

1109.62
KNm
740.36 KN

Shear Force(Two-Way)
Steel required

714 KN
712 KN
1679 KN
1677 KN
2
4890 m m 4959.354 m2m

Negligible
Negligible

4706 m2m
925.68 KN

4790.8 m2m
925.68 KN

None

925.68 KN
4304.43
KNm

925.68 KN
4304.43 KNm

None

Resisting force for


sliding
Resisting Moment for
Overturning

736.98 KN

Negligible

4304.43 KNm

4304.43
KNm

2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7


2.7.1 Reference
2.7.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1500 KN,Mz=Mx=50 KNm, fc =
25 MPa, fy = 460 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of
Soil = 100 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against
overturning =1.5

62 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7
Figure 2-14: Plan and Elevation

2.7.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required =1500/100 m2 = 15 m2
Assuming 4.45 m x 4.45 m x 0.65 m footing dimension,
Tot Moment wrt Z =50 KNm
Tot Moment wrt X =50 KNm
Stress at four corners ( service condition)
1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz
2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz
3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz
4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz
Tot Vertical Load on soil
Self wt of fdn = 4.45x 4.45x 0.65x25 = 321.79 KN
Dry wt of soil = 0
Col reaction load = 1500 KN
Tot Vertical load V = 1821.79 KN

Verification Manual 63

Chapter 2
2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7
Zz = Z.X2/6 = 4.45 x 4.452/6 =14.686 m 3
Zx = X.Z2/6 = 4.45 x 4.452/6 =14.686 m 3
Mx= 50 KNm
Mz = 50 KNm
1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 92KN/m 2
2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 85 KN/m 2
3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 92 KN/m 2
4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 98.81 KN/m 2
= 98.81 KN/m2 <100 KN/m2 (Hence safe)

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning and sliding
Along X Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1821.8 = 911 KN
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =50 KNm
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.45x 1821.8 = 4053.5 KNm
Hence FOS=4053.5/50 = 81> 1.5
Hence OK

Along Z Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1821.8 = 911 KN
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =50 KNm
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.45x 1821.8 = 4053.5 KNm
Hence FOS=4053.5/50 = 81> 1.5
Hence OK

Check for Trial Depth Against Moment


About Z Axis
Avg Base Pressure at one edge=( 96.5149+106.047)/2 = 101.282 KN/m 2
Avg Base Pressure at other edge=( 106.0473+115.5797)/2 = 110.814 KN/m 2

64 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7

Force creating Moment= (110.814+106.37)/2 x 2.075x4.45 = 1002.72 KN


Lever arm = (106.37+2x110.814)x2.075/3x(106.37+110.814) m
Moment = Fx LA = 1047.85 KNm
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth
d

eff

= (650-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 594 mm

K=

=0.027 <

0.156

Hence safe

About X Axis
Avg Base Pressure at one edge=( 96.5149+106.047)/2 = 101.282 KN/m 2
Avg Base Pressure at other edge=( 106.0473+115.5797)/2 = 110.814 KN/m 2
Force creating Moment= (110.814+106.37)/2 x 2.075x4.45 = 1002.72 KN
Lever arm = (106.37+2x110.814)x2.075/3x(106.37+110.814) m
Moment = Fx LA = 1047.85 KNm
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth
d

eff

= (650-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 594 mm

K=

= 0.027 <

0.156

Hence safe

Verification Manual 65

Chapter 2
2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction

Z=d

=<0.95d

= 0.969 d>0.95d
So, Z= 0.95d

Therefore, Astx =

= 4165 m 2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0013 x B x D = 3760 mm2


So, provided area of steel = 4165 mm2

Along Z Direction

Z=d
= 0.969 d>0.95d
So, Z= 0.95d

Therefore, Astz =

= 4165m 2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0013 x B x D = 3760 mm2

66 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7
So, provided area of steel = 4165 mm2

Check for One-Way Shear


Along X Direction

Percentage of steel p =

= 0.158

umax

=1/2 x (110.814+107.642)x1.481x4.45 = 719.87 KN

Developed shear stress V = 720x1000/(4450 x594) = 0.272N/mm2


= 4 N/mm2

Now allowable stress= Vc1 =


V < V , Hence Safe
c1

V1 =
V2 =
V3 =

0.158 N/mm 2
1 N/mm 2
1 N/mm 2
= 0.342 N/mm 2

Vc =
Vce =

0.684 N/mm 2

So V < Vce , Hence Safe

Verification Manual 67

Chapter 2
2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel p =

= 0.158

umax

=1/2 x (110.814+107.642)x1.481x4.45 = 719.87 KN

Developed shear stress V =

= 0.272 N/mm2
= 4 N/mm2

Now allowable stress= Vc1 =


V < Vc1, Hence Safe
0.158 N/mm 2

V1 =

1 N/mm 2

V2 =

1 N/mm 2

V3 =

= 0.342 N/mm 2

Vc =
Vce =

0.684 N/mm 2

So V < Vce , Hence Safe

Punching Shear
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d from the column face.
68 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7

Area within Critical Perimeter A


Vmax =

= 2.082x2.082=4.335 m 2

1640 KN

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 6 x d) = 8.328 m


Vm1 =

= 0.3315 N/mm 2
= 4 N/mm 2

Now allowable stress= V =


t1

Vm1< Vt1 , Hence safe


V1 =
V2 =
V3 =

Vc =

0.158 N/mm 2
1 N/mm 2
1 N/mm 2
= 0.342 N/mm 2

Vm1 < Vc, Hence safe


Figure 2-15: Section considered for punching shear

Verification Manual 69

Chapter 2
2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7

Bar Spacing
In the X Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 37

= 120 mm

Spacing for 12 mm bar = 120 mm

In the Z Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 37

= 120 mm

Spacing for 12 mm bar = 120 mm

70 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.8 General Combined Foundation 1

2.7.4 Comparison
Table 2-8: British verification example 7 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Effective Depth
594 mm
594 mm
None
Corner Pressure
92KN/m2
92 KN/m2
None
85.2 KN/m2 85.91 KN/m2

Ku
Governing Moment

Shear Force(One-Way)
Shear Force(Two-Way)
Steel required
Resisting force for
sliding
Resisting Moment for
Overturning

92 KN/m2

92 KN/m2

98.81
KN/m2
0.027

98.81 KN/m2
0.0266

Negligible

0.027
1047.85
KNm

0.0266
1045 KNm

Negligible

1047.85
KNm
720 KN

1045 KNm

718.71 KN

Negligible

720 KN
1640 KN
12 @ 120
c/c
910.9 KN

718.71 KN
1638 KN
12 @ 118 c/c

Negligible
Negligible

910.8 KN

Negligible

910.9 KN
4053.5
KNm

910.8 KN
4053.4 KNm

Same

4053.4 KNm

4053.5
KNm

2.8 General Combined Foundation 1


2.8.1 Reference
2.8.2 Problem
Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 500 KN each column., fc = 25
MPa, fy = 450 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal height-500 mm.
and C/C column distance=3000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 150 KN/m2. Coefficient of
friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5
Ht of soil =400 mm. Depth of GWT=200 mm

Verification Manual 71

Chapter 2
2.8 General Combined Foundation 1

2.8.3 Solution
Figure 2-16: Plan and Elevation

Approximate area of footing required = 2x500/150 m2 = 6.67 m2


Assuming 5 m x 1.5 m x 0.600 m footing dimension,
( left overhang=right overhang=1m)
Weight of footing = 5 m x 1.5 m x 0.600 x25 KN = 112.5 KN
Weight of pedestal=2x0.3x0.3x0.5x25=2.25 KN
Weight of soil above footing = (5 x 1.5-0.3x0.3x2 )x 0.400 x18 KN = 52.704 KN
Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 5 x 1.5 x (0.4+0.6-0.2) x9.81 KN = 58.86 KN
Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x500+112.5 +2.25+52.704 -58.86) KN = 1108.6 KN
Maximum pressure= 1108.6 /(5 x1.5) = 147.82 KN/ m 2
147.82 KN/ m 2 <150 KN/m 2
Hence safe

Ultimate pressure =

KN/m 2 = 186.667 KN/m 2

72 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.8 General Combined Foundation 1

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning
About Z Direction
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5x 1108.6 = 2771.5 KNm
Hence OK

About X Direction
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 1.5 x 1108.6 = 831.45 KNm
Hence OK

Check For Trial Depth


Moment About Z Axis (sagging)
Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 140 KNm
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth
d

eff

= (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm

K = Mu/fc.b.d 2 = 140x106/(25x1500x544x544) = 0.013 <0.156


eff

Hence OK

Moment About Z Axis (hogging)


Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 174.9 KN-m
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth
d

eff

= (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm

K = Mu/fc.b.d 2 = 0.016=
eff

<0.156

Hence OK

Moment About X Axis


Cantilever length=(1.5-0.3)/2 = 0.6 m
Bending moment at critical section, M

ux

= 186.667 x.5x0.62/2 =168 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth


d

eff

= (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm

K = Mu/fc.b.d 2 = 168x106/(25x6500x544x544) = 0.005 <0.156


eff

Verification Manual 73

Chapter 2
2.8 General Combined Foundation 1
Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction (Bottom)

Z=d

= 0.998 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

= 637 m 2m

Therefore, Astx =

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0013 x B x D = 1170 mm2 ( as fy>250)


Provided area = 1170 m2m

Along X Direction (Top)

Z=d

= 0.998 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

= 792 m 2m

Therefore, Astx =

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0013 x B x D = 1170 mm2 ( as fy>250)


Provided area = 1170 m2m

Along Z Direction (Bottom)

Z=d

= 0.994 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

= 761 m 2m

Therefore, Astx =

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0013 x B x D = 3900 mm2


Provided area = 3900 m2m

Check for One-Way Shear

Percentage of steel p =
t

= 0.143

74 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.8 General Combined Foundation 1

umax

= 225.68 KN

Developed shear stress V =

= 0.276 N/mm2
= 4 N/mm 2

Now allowable stress= V =


c1

V < Vc1, Hence Safe


0.143 N/mm 2

V1 =

1 N/mm 2

V2 =

1 N/mm 2

V3 =

= 0.331 N/mm 2

Vc =
0.662 N/mm 2

Vce =
So V < Vce , Hence Safe

Punching Shear
For Column One
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 816 mm from the column face.
2 way shear= 3.24 KN
Pm=300x2+300x2=544x12=7728 mm
v =

= 3.24x1000/(7728)x544 =0.00077 N/mm 2

Now allowable stress= V =


t1

= 4 N/mm 2

v < Vt1 , Hence safe

For Column Two


Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 816 mm from the column face.
2 way shear= 3.24 KN
Pm=300x2+300x2=544x12=7728 mm
v =

= 3.24x1000/(7728)x544 =0.00077 N/mm 2

Now allowable stress= V =


t1

= 4 N/mm 2

v < Vt1 , Hence safe

Verification Manual 75

Chapter 2
2.8 General Combined Foundation 1
Figure 2-17: Shear force and Bending Moment diagrams

76 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.9 General Combined Foundation 2

2.8.4 Comparison
Table 2-9: British verification example 8 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Bearing Pressure
147.82 KN/ 147.82 KN/m2
None
m2
Governing Moment
140 KN-m 135.77 KN-m
Negligible
174.9 KNm

174.9 KN-m

Shear Force(One-Way)
Shear Force(Two-Way)

168 KN-m
168 KN-m
225.68 KN 225.69 KN
3.24 KN
3.24 KN

Resisting Moment for


Overturning (Z)
Resisting Moment for
Overturning (X)

3.24 KN
2771.5
KNm
831.45
KNm

Negligible
None

3.24 KN
2771.5 KNm

Negligible

831.46 KNm

Negligible

2.9 General Combined Foundation 2


2.9.1 Reference
2.9.2 Problem
Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 600 KN, Mz=30 KNm, each
column., fc = 25 MPa, fy = 450 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal
height-500 mm. and C/C column distance=3500 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 140
KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5
No soil above footing and dry condition.

Verification Manual 77

Chapter 2
2.9 General Combined Foundation 2

2.9.3 Solution
Figure 2-18: Plan and Elevation

Approximate area of footing required = 2x600/140 m2 = 8.57 m2


Assuming 5.9 m x 1.7 m x 0.500 m footing dimension,
( left overhang=right overhang=1.2m)
Weight of footing = 5.9 m x 1.7 m x 0.500 x25 KN = 125.375 KN
Weight of pedestal=2x0.3x0.3x0.5x25=2.25 KN
Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x600+125.375 +2.25) KN = 1327.63 KN
Maximum pressure from axial load= 1327.63 /(5.9 x1.7) = 132.37 KN/ m 2
Total Moment=30+30 = 60 KNm
CG of load= 2.9 m
CG of raft = 2.9 m
Eccentricity =2.95-2.9 =0.05 m
So Moment= P x Eccentricity = 1200x0.05 =60 KNm
Z= 1.7 x 5.92/6= 9.863 m 3
So M/Z = 6.09 KN/m 2
So stress at left end= P/A + M/Z= 138.46 KN/m 2

78 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.9 General Combined Foundation 2
So stress at left end= P/A - M/Z= 126.28 KN/m 2
138.46 KN/ m 2 <140 KN/m 2
Hence safe

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning
About Z Direction
Overturning Moment =60 KNm
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5.9x 1327.63 = 3916.5085 KNm
So FOS = 3916.5085/60 = 65.27 >1.5
Hence OK

About X Direction
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 1.7 x 1327.63 = 1128.48 KNm
Hence OK

Check For Trial Depth against


Moment About Z Axis (sagging)
Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 214 KNm
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth
d

eff

= (500-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 444 mm

K = Mu/fc.b.d 2 = 214x106/(25x1700x444x444) = 0.0255 <0.156


eff

Hence OK

Moment About Z Axis (hogging)


Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 231.62 KN-m
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth
d

eff

= (500-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 444 mm

K = Mu/fc.b.d 2 = 0.0276=
eff

<0.156

Hence OK

Moment About X Axis


Cantilever length=(1.7-0.3)/2 = 0.7 m
Bending moment at critical section, M

ux

= (158.98+176.02)/2 x5.9x0.72/2 =242.122 KNm


Verification Manual 79

Chapter 2
2.9 General Combined Foundation 2
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth
d

eff

= (500-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 444 mm

K = Mu/fc.b.d 2 = 242x106/(25x6500x544x544)= 0.0083 <0.156


eff

Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction (Bottom)

Z=d

= 0.971 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

Therefore, Astx =

= 1187 m 2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0013 x B x D = 1105 mm2


Provided area = 1187 m2m

Along X Direction (Top)

Z=d

= 0.968 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

Therefore, Astx =

= 1284.5 m 2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0013 x B x D = 1105 mm2


Provided area = 1285 m2m

Along Z Direction (Bottom)

Z=d

= 0.99 d>0.95d

So, Z= 0.95d

Therefore, Astx =

= 1342.74 m 2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0013 x B x D =3835 mm2


Provided area = 3835 m2m

80 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.9 General Combined Foundation 2

Check for One-Way Shear

Percentage of steel p =

= 0.17

umax

= 347.24 KN

Developed shear stress V = 347.24x1000/(1700x444) = 0.46 N/mm2


= 4 N/mm2

Now allowable stress= Vc1 =


V < V , Hence Safe
c1

0.17 N/mm 2

V1 =

1 N/mm 2

V2 =

1 N/mm 2

V3 =

= 0.351 N/mm 2

Vc =
0.702 N/mm 2

Vce =
So V < Vce , Hence Safe

Punching Shear
For Column One
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 666 mm from the column face.
Two way shear = 380.43 KN
Pm=300x2+300x2=444x12=6528 mm
v =

= 380.43x1000/(6528)x544=0.131 N/mm 2

Now allowable stress= V =


t1

= 4 N/mm 2

v < Vt1 , Hence safe

For Column Two


Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 666 mm from the column face.
Two way shear = 407.34 KN
Pm=300x2+300x2=444x12=6528 mm
v =

= 407.34x1000/(6528)x544 =0.14 N/mm 2

Verification Manual 81

Chapter 2
2.9 General Combined Foundation 2

Now allowable stress= V =


t1

= 4 N/mm 2

v < Vt1 , Hence safe


Figure 2-19: Shear force and Bending Moment diagrams

82 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.10 Mat Combined Foundation

2.9.4 Comparison
Table 2-10: British verification example 9 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Bearing Pressure
138.46
138.45 KN/m2
None
KN/m2
126.28 KN/m2
126.28
KN/m2
Governing Moment
214 KN-m 212 KN-m
Negligible
231.62
KNm

231.78 KNm

Shear Force(One-Way)
Shear Force(Two-Way)

249.42 KNm
242.122
KNm
347.24 KN 347.24 KN
380.42 KN 380.43 KN

Resisting Moment for


Overturning (Z)
Resisting Moment for
Overturning (X)

407.34 KN 407.34 KN
3916.5
3916.5 KNm
KNm
1128.48
1128.48 KNm
KNm

None
None
None
None

2.10 Mat Combined Foundation


2.10.1 Reference
Reinforced Concrete by T.J.Macgingley & B.S.Choo, Page 351 and Example: 11.4

2.10.2 Problem
Design a rectangular base to support two columns carrying the following loads:
Column 1 Dead load 310 kN, imposed load 160 kN
Column 1 Dead load 310 kN, imposed load 160 kN
The columns are each 350 mm square and are spaced at 2.5 m centers. The width of the
base is not to exceed 2.0 m. the safe bearing pressure on the ground is 180 kN/m2. The
materials are grade 35 concrete and grade 460 reinforcement.

Verification Manual 83

Chapter 2
2.10 Mat Combined Foundation
Figure 2-20: Plan and Elevation

2.10.3 Solution
Let us assume the self weight of the base is 130 kN.
Total vertical load = (310 + 160 + 430 + 220 + 130) = 1250 kN.
Area of base = 1250 / 160 = 7.81 m 2 (considering safe base pressure as 160 kN/m 2).
Length of base = 7.81/2 = 3.91 m
Let the dimension of the mat is as follows,
Width = 2 m,
Length = 4.5 m,
Depth = 0.6 m.
Hence self-weight of mat = 2 x 4.5 x 0.6 x 24 = 129.6 kN.
Hence, total vertical load = (310 + 160 + 430 + 220 + 129.6) = 1249.6 kN.
Actual base pressure = 1249.6 / (2 x 4.5) = 138.84 kN/m 2.

Load Case I (DL & IL on both the column)


The ultimate loads are,
Column 1 load = 1.4 x 310 + 1.6 x 160 = 690 kN,
Column 2 load = 1.4 x 430 + 1.6 x 220 = 954 kN.
The distance of center of gravity from column 1 is checked for service load case 1:
x = (954 x 2.5)/(690 + 954) = 1.45 m.
84 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.10 Mat Combined Foundation
The soil pressure is checked for service loads for case 1:
Base area = 4.5 x 2 =9.0 m2,
Base modulus = 2 x 4.52 / 6 = 6.75 m3.
Direct load = 310 + 160 + 430 + 220 + 129.6 = 1249.6 kN.
The moment about the centerline of the base is,
M = (430 + 220) 1.05 (310 + 160) 1.45 = 1.0 kN-m.
Maximum pressure = 1249.6 / 9 + 1 / 6.75 = 138.9 kN / m2 < 180 kN / m2 (Hence safe)
Total uniformly distributed upward load = (690 + 954) / (4.5 x 2 / 2) = 365.33 kN / m.

Load Case II (DL & IL on column 1; DL on column 2)


The ultimate loads are,
Column 1 load = 1.4 x 310 + 1.6 x 160 = 690 kN,
Column 2 load = 1.0 x 430 = 430 kN.
Direct load = 310 + 160 + 430 + 129.6 = 1029.6 kN.
The moment about the centerline of the base is,
M = 430 X 1.54 (310 + 160) 0.96 = 230 kN-m.
Maximum pressure = 1029.6 / 9 + 230 / 6.75 = 148.47 kN / m2 < 180 kN / m2 (Hence
safe)

Load Case III (DL on column 1; DL & IL on column 2)


The ultimate loads are,
Column 1 load = 1.0 x 310 = 310 kN,
Column 2 load = 1.4 x 430 + 1.6 x 220 = 954 kN.
Direct load = 310 + 430 + 220 + 129.6 = 1089.6 kN.
The moment about the centerline of the base is,
M = (430 + 220) 1.05 310 X 1.45 = 233 kN-m.
Maximum pressure = 1089.6 / 9 + 233 / 6.75 = 155.59 kN / m2 < 180 kN / m2 (Hence safe)

Verification Manual 85

Chapter 2
2.10 Mat Combined Foundation

Design of Longitudinal (Bottom) Steel


The maximum negative BM from Figure 6.18 is 221.7 kN-m
Assuming 40 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar diameter, effective depth = 600 40 20/2
= 550 mm.

0.0104 < 0.156


Hence Safe

Therefore z = 0.95d,

86 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.10 Mat Combined Foundation

= 970.95 mm 2.
The minimum area of steel = 0.13 x 2000 x 600 / 100 = 1560 mm2 > calculated area of
steel.
Provide minimum steel.
Provide 16 bars 12 mm in diameter at 125 mm centers to give area of 1808 mm2.

Design of Transverse (Top) Steel


The maximum positive BM from Figure 6.18 is 99.7 kN-m.
Assuming 40 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar diameter, effective depth = 600 40 20/2
= 550 mm.

0.004 < 0.156


Hence Safe

Therefore z = 0.95d,

= 436.6 mm 2.
The minimum area of steel = 0.13 x 2000 x 600 / 100 = 1560 mm2 > calculated area of
steel.
Provide minimum steel as above.

Calculation of Vertical Shear


The maximum vertical shear from case 1 is V = 250.8 kN,

V=

= 0.228 N/mm 2.

= 0.39 N/mm 2.
Hence no shear reinforcement is required.
Verification Manual 87

Chapter 2
2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

Punching Shear Check


The critical perimeter for punching shear check is at 1.5 d distance from the face of the
column. Here the perimeter crosses the boundary of the base on two sides. Hence punching
shear is less critical than the vertical shear in this case.

2.10.4 Comparison
Table 2-11: British verification example 10 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Max Bending
221.7 kN-m 201.204 kN-m
9.2
Moment (-)
Max Bending
99.7 kN-m
108.94 kN-m
9.2
Moment (+)
Area of Steal
780 mm2/m 780 mm2/m
None
Required
Base Pressure
138.84
136 kN/m2
2
kN/m2

2.11 General Isolated Foundation with


Eccentricity
2.11.1 Reference
2.11.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data:
Loads:
Fx =-300 KN
Fy =-500 KN
Fz=-200 KN
Mz= 45.89 KNm
Mx=-98.32 KNm
Offset of column in X-direction (Oxd) =300 mm
Offset of column in Z-direction (Ozd) =300 mm
Density of soil =14 KN/m3
Depth of Soil = 0.5m
Density of Concrete = 25 KN/cum
Coefficient of Friction () = 0.5
Safe Bearing Capacity of the Soil () = 120 KN/m2

88 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity
Factor of Safety against Overturning =1.5
Factor of Safety against Sliding = 1.5
Permissible soil pressure =
Column dimension = 0.3m x 0.3m,
Strength of concrete (fc) = M-30 = 4349.39 Psi
Strength of steel (fy) = Fe-415
Figure 2-21: Plan and Elevation

Self-wt of footing, wt of soil and surcharge are not included for shear and moment
computations

Verification Manual 89

Chapter 2
2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

2.11.3 Solution
Design started with trial dimensions of 5.0m X 5.0m X 1.0m

Determination of base area of footing


The base area of footing is determined using service (unfactored) loads with the net
permissible soil pressure.
Net permissible soil pressure = 120 KN/ m2
Required base area of footing = (500 + 0.10 x 500)/ 120= 4.5833 m2
Use a 5 .0m x 5.0m square footing (Af =25 m2).
Using a depth of 1m;
Self-wt. of Footing =(5.0*5.0*1*25) = 625 KN
Wt. of soil = 14*0.5*[(5.0*5.0) (0.3*0.3)] =174.37

Serviceability Check
The net moments are given by:Mz =+45.89 (-300*1) +(-500*0.3) = 195.89 KNm
Mx= - 98.32 +(-200*1) (-500*0.3) = -148.32 KNm
The pressure at the four corners are given by: 1=((500+625)/25)+(6*195.89/53)-(6*148.32/53)=47.283KN/m2
2=((500+625)/25)-(6*195.89/53)-(6*148.32/53)=28.478KN/m2
3=((500+625)/25)-(6*195.89/53)+(6*148.32/53)=42.717KN/m2
4=((500+625)/25)+(6*195.89/53)+(6*148.32/53)=61.522KN/m2
which is < 120 KN/m2. Hence OK

Stability Check
Calculation for Overturning and Sliding:
For Sliding:

Along X- Direction
Disturbing force = -300 KN
Restoring Force = m*(Wt of Footing + Fy + Wt of Soil) = 649.685 KN
Hence, Factor of Safety against Sliding = (649.685/300) =2.166 > 1.5 Hence Safe

90 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

Along Z- Direction
Disturbing force = -200 KN
Restoring Force = mu*(Wt of Footing + Fy + Wt of Soil) = 649.685 KN
Hence, FacFor Overturning:tor of Safety against Sliding = (649.685/200) =3.2484 > 1.5
Hence Safe

About X- Direction
Overturning Moment = Mx + Fz* (Ht of Pedestal + Depth of Footing) = 98.32 200* (0 +1) = -298.32 KN-m
Restoring Moment = Fy * (Width of Footing *0.5 Ozd)+ (Wt of Soil + Wt of
Footing) * Width of Footing*0.5 = 3098.425 KN-m
Hence, Factor of Safety against Overturning = (3098.425/298.32) =10.386 > 1.5 Hence
Safe

About Z- Direction
Overturning Moment = Mx + Fz* (Ht of Pedestal + Depth of Footing) =45.89
+ 300* (0 +1) = 345.89 KN-m
Restoring Moment = Fy * (Width of Footing *0.5 Ozd)+ (Wt of Soil + Wt of
Footing) * Width of Footing*0.5 = 3398.425 KN-m
Hence, Factor of Safety against Overturning = (3398.425/345.89) =9.82516 > 1.5 Hence
Safe

Base Pressure for Shear and Moment Calculation


The pressure at the four corners are given by: 1=(500/25)+(6*195.89 /5.03)-(6*148.32 /5.03)= 22.2834KN/m2
2=(500/25)-(6*195.89 /5.03)-(6*148.32 /5.03)= 3.47792KN/m2
3=(500/25)-(6*195.89 /5.03)+(6*148.32 /5.03)=17.7167KN/m2
4=(500/25)+(6*195.89 /5.03)+(6*148.32 /5.03)=36.52208KN/m2

Check for Flexure and Calculation for Reinforcement


Factored loads and soil reaction:
To proportion the footing for strength (depth and required reinforcement) factored loads are
used. For this problem, the factors used are all 1.0
Figure 2-22: Bending about major axes

Verification Manual 91

Chapter 2
2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

Bending About Z-axis

Bending About X-axis

Critical section for moment is at the face of column

About X- axis
Average Base Pressure along one edge
=(22.2834+3.47792)/2 =12.8806 KN/m2
Average Base Pressure along other edge
=(17.7167+36.5221)/2 = 27.1194 KN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section
=27.1194- {(27.1194 12.8806)/5.0*2.05} =21.2815 KN/ m2 [2.05 =5(5/2+0.3+0.15)]
Hence, the moment at the critical section
Mu =5.0*{21.2815 *2.05*2.05*0.5+0.5*(27.1194-21.2815)* 2.05*2.05*2/3}=
264.48 KNm
Effective depth (d) = 1000 50 20 = 930 mm

Hence safe
Therefore,

92 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

The minimum area of steel = 0.13 x 5000 x 1000 / 100 = 6500 mm2 > Calculated area of
steel.
So, provide minimum steel = 6500 mm2

About Z- axis
Average Base Pressure along one edge
=(36.5221+22.2834)/2 =29.4027 KN/m2
Average Base Pressure along other edge
=(17.7167+3.47792)/2 = 10.5973 KN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section
=29.4027- {(29.4027-10.5973)/5.0*2.65} =19.4358 KN/ m2 [2.65 =(5/2+0.30.15)]
Hence, the moment at the critical section
Mu =5.0*{19.4358 *2.65*2.65*0.5+0.5*(29.4027 19.4358)*2.65*2.65*2/3}=
457.874 KNm
Effective depth (d) = 1000 50 20 = 930 mm

Hence safe
Therefore,

The minimum area of steel = 0.13 x 5000 x 1000 / 100 = 6500 mm2 > Calculated area of
steel.
So, provide minimum steel = 6500 mm2

Check for Shear


Assume overall footing thickness = 1.0m and average effective thickness d = 0.92m (36.22
in)
Wide-beam action (One-Way Shear) :

Verification Manual 93

Chapter 2
2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

Along Z-Z axis


Vu = qs

tributary area

Bw = 5.00m = 196.8504 in
qs is given by:Average Base Pressure along one edge
=(22.2834+3.47792)/2 =12.8806 KN/m2
Average Base Pressure along other edge
=(17.7167+36.5221)/2 = 27.1194 KN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section
=27.1194- {(27.1194 12.8806)/5.0*1.13} =23.9014 KN/ m2 [1.13=5 -(5/2
+0.3 +0.92 +0.15)]
Hence, the one- way shear at the critical section
Vux =5.0*{23.9014*1.13+0.5*(27.1194-23.9014)*1.13}= 144.134 KN
Design shear stress, v = 144.134/(5.0 x 0.93) =30.996 kN/ m2
Now, VC1 = min(0.8 (fcu),5) N/ mm2= 4381.78 kN/ m2 > v (Hence Safe)

=
348.5494 kN/ m2
Let us consider 1.5 times shear enhancement.
Vce = 1.5 x 348.5494 = 522.824 kN/m2 > v (Hence safe)
Hence no shear reinforcement is required.

Along X-X axis


Vu = qs

tributary area

Bw = 5.00m = 196.8504 in
qs is given by:Average Base Pressure along one edge
=(36.5221+22.2834)/2 =29.4027 KN/m2
Average Base Pressure along other edge

94 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

=(17.7167+3.47792)/2 = 10.5973 KN/m2


Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section
=29.4027- {(29.4027-10.5973)/5.0*1.73} =22.89603 KN/ m2 [ 1.73=(5/2 +0.3
0.92 0.15)]
Hence, the Design one-way shear at the critical section
Vuz =5.0*{22.89603*1.73+0.5*(29.4027-22.89603)*1.73}= 226.1924 KN
Design shear stress, v = 226.1924/(5.0 x 0.93) =48.64353 kN/ m2
Now, vC1 = min(0.8 (fcu),5) N/ mm2= 4381.78 kN/ m2 > v (Hence Safe)

= 348.5494 kN/ m2
Let us consider 1.5 times shear enhancement.
Vce = 1.5 x 348.5494 = 522.824 kN/m2 > v (Hence safe)
Hence no shear reinforcement is required.

Verification Manual 95

Chapter 2
2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

Two-way action (Punching Shear)


Along X-X axis

[3090 mm = 300 + 2x(1.5 x 930)]


The punching shear will be calculated for an area outside the area enclosed by the
rectangle at a distance 1.5d from the column face as shown in figure.
Total pressure under the base = 5.0 x 5.0 x 10.5973 + 0.5 x 5.0 x 5.0 x (29.4027
10.5973) = 500.00 kN.
Pressure at the critical sections:a = 29.4027 ((29.4027-10.5973)/5.0*0.955) = 25.810869 KN/m2
b = 10.5973 + ((29.4027-10.5973)/5.0*0.955) = 14.189131 KN/m2
Pressure under enclosed rectangle = (3.09)2 x 14.189131 + 0.5 x (3.09)2 x (25.810869
14.189131) = 190.962 kN
Punching shear force = 500.00-190.962 = 309.038 kN.
Critical perimeter = 3.09 x 4 =12.36 m.

96 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997)


2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

Punching shear stress = 309.038/(12.36 x 0.93) = 26.885 kN / m2.


Hence, the punching shear stress is less than VC . Hence Safe

Along Z-Z axis

The punching shear will be calculated for an area outside the area enclosed by the rectangle
at a distance 1.5d from the column face as shown in figure.
Total pressure under the base = 5.0 x 5.0 x 12.8806 + 0.5 x 5.0 x 5.0 x (27.1194 12.8806)
= 500.00 kN.
Pressure at the critical sections:a = 27.1194 ((27.1194-12.8806)/5.0*0.955) = 24.3998 KN/m2
b = 12.8806 + ((27.1194-12.8806)/5.0*0.955) = 15.60021 KN/m2
Punching shear force = 500.00-190.962 = 309.038 kN.
Critical perimeter = 3.09 x 4 =12.36 m.
Punching shear stress = 309.038/(12.36 x 0.93)= 26.885 kN / m2.

Verification Manual 97

Chapter 2
2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity
Hence, the punching shear stress is less than VC . Hence Safe
Hence, the moment at the critical section
Mu =5.0*{19.4358 *2.65*2.65*0.5+0.5*(29.4027 19.4358)*2.65*2.65*2/3}=
457.874 KNm
Effective depth (d) = 1000 50 20 = 930 mm

2.11.4 Comparison
Table 2-12: British verification example 13 comparisons
Reference STAAD.foundation Difference (Reasons
Result
Result*
there-of)
Moment about X 264.48
259.98 KNm
Error due to approxKNm
imation in base pressure interpolation
Moment about Z 457.874
448.24 KNm
Error due to approxKNm
imation in base pressure interpolation
Area of steel
6500.00 6500.00 mm2
Negligible
2
about X-X
mm
Area of steel
6500.00 6500.00 mm2
Negligible
about Z-Z
mm2
Shear Stress
48.64
46.66 KN/ m2
Error due to approx2
KN/ m
imation in base pres(One way) along
sure interpolation
X
Shear Stress
30.996
29.28 KN/ m2
Error due to approxKN/ m2
imation in base pres(One way) along
sure interpolation
Z
Shear Force
309.038 305.46 KN
Error due to approxKN
imation in base pres(Two way)
sure interpolation
Factor of Safety
2.1656
2.167
Negligible
against Sliding
(X)
Factor of Safety
3.2484
3.250
Negligible
against Sliding
(Z)
Factor of Safety
10.386
10.392
Negligible
against Overturning (X)
Factor of Safety
9.82516
9.830
Negligible
against Overturning (Z)

98 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 3

Canadian Code (CSA


A23.3-2004)
3.1 CSA General Isolated Foundation 1
3.1.1 Reference
3.1.2 Problem
Design of a square Isolated Footing
A tied column, 450 mm square, and reinforced with eight No. 35 bars carries an unfactored
dead load of 1300 kN and an unfactored live load of 1000 kN. Suitable soil with a factored
soil bearing pressure of 300 kN/m2 is available at a depth of 1.5 m . Design a square
footing.
The compressive strength fc is 30 MPa for the column and 25 MPa for the footing. All steel
has fy=400 MPa. Unit weight of concrete and soil is 24 kN/m2 and 16 kN/m2 respectively.

Verification Manual 99

Chapter 3
3.1 CSA General Isolated Foundation 1
Figure 3-1: Plan and Elevation

3.1.3 Solution
Trial Footing Size
Calculate the initial footing size based on soil bearing capacity.
As per CSA A.23.3-04 cls. 8.3 and Annex C. the 2005 National Building Code of Canada
load combination factors must be used:
Factored Load = 1.25 DL +1.5 LL = (1.25 X 1300 kN) + (1.5 x 1000 kN) =
3,125 kN
Required area of footing: 3125/300 = 10.41 m2
Total Axial load = 3125+Self Weight of footing + weight of soil
Self Weight of footing = 3.6 x 3.6 x 0.75 x 24 = 233.28 KN
weight of soil=3.6 x 3.6 x 1.5 x 16 = 311.04 KN
For square footing, the axial force on the footing is:
3125+233.28+311.04 =3669.32 KN
So stress on soil=369.32/(3.6x3.6)=283.12 KN/m2

100 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004)


3.1 CSA General Isolated Foundation 1

Calculate Factors of Safety


In this case, we do not have any sliding and overturning forces. The CSA A23.3-04
recommends for a footing that experiences horizontal shear, the designer must make sure
that this shear is transferred to the subgrade utilizing the passive soil resistance and the
friction between the subgrade and the footing surface. The passive soil resistance will be
ignored in STAAD.foundation to calculate the factor of safety against sliding check. Factor
of safety against overturning must be checked as per the NBCC.
Anyway, max sliding force equals the axial load x coefficient of friction
for coeff. of friction =0.5,
Sliding force= 0.5x 3669.32 =1834.66 KN

(same for X & Z dir)

Max resisting moment against overturning =axial force x Dimension/2= 0.5x


3669.32x3.6 KNm= 6604.78 KNm(Same wrt both x and z axis).
Stress on soil from Factored load = 3125/(3.6x3.6)=241.126 KN/m2

Check for One-Way Shear


Along X Direction
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (750-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 690 mm
Vumax =
= 768.22 KN
= 0.65, = 1
dv = 0.9.deff = 0.9 x 690 = 621 mm
bw=3600 mm
Now allowable shear
Vc =

=1030913 N =1031 KN

V < Vc, Hence Safe

Along Z Direction
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (750-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 690 mm
Vumax =

= 768.22 KN

= 0.65, = 1
dv = 0.9.deff=0.9 x 690=621 mm

Verification Manual 101

Chapter 3
3.1 CSA General Isolated Foundation 1

bw = 3600 mm
Now allowable shear
Vc =

= 1030913 N = 1031 KN

V < Vc, Hence Safe

Punching Shear
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 345 mm from the column face.
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (750-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 690 mm
Area within Critical Perimeter Am = (450+2x0.5x.69)2=1.2996 m2
Vmax =
1.2996)=2811.63 KN

241.126x(3.6x3.6-

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 2x d) = 4.56 m


v =

= 0.8936 N/mm2

=4
=L/B =4.5/4.5 =1
1.8525 N/mm2
2.5846 N/mm2
1.235 N/mm2
As effective depth>300 mm so the multiplier=1300/(1000+deff)=0.769
So,
Vr1= 1.424 N/mm2 =1424 KN/m2
Vr2= 1.987N/mm2 = 1987 KN/m2
Vr3= 0.9497 N/mm2 = 949.7 KN/m2
So min {Vr1, Vr2, Vr3} = 949.7 KN/m2
So allowable shear = Vc = 949.7 KN/m2
V < Vc , Hence safe

Development Length
Along Z Axis
ld = 0.45 k1 x k2 x k3 x k4 fy/(f'c) db

102 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004)


3.1 CSA General Isolated Foundation 1

k1 = 1 if clear cover is less than 300 mm or else use 0.45


k2 = 1 if coated reinforcement is used
k2 = 1.2 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used
k2 = 1.5 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used and clear cover is less than 3x
db
k2 = 1.5 if bar spacing is less than 6x db
k3 = 1 Normal density concrete
k4 = 0.8 for 20M and smaller bar size
k4 = 1 for 20M and larger bar size
ld = 0.45 x 1 x 0.8 x 1 x 0.8 x (400 MPa)/(25MPa) x 19.5 mm = 449.28 mm
Available Length = (3600-450)/2-50 = 1525 mm
Hence OK

Along X Axis
ld = 0.45 k1 x k2 x k3 x k4 fy/(f'c) db
k1 = 1 if clear cover is less than 300 mm or else use 0.45
k2 = 1 if coated reinforcement is used
k2 = 1.2 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used
k2 = 1.5 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used and clear cover is less than 3xdb
k2 = 1.5 if bar spacing is less than 6 xdb
k3 = 1 Normal density concrete
k4 = 0.8 for 20M and smaller bar size
k4 = 1 for 20M and larger bar size
ld = 0.45 x 1 x 0.8 x 1 x 0.8 x (400 MPa)/(25MPa) x 19.5 mm = 449.28 mm
Available Length = (3600-450)/2-50 = 1525 mm
Hence OK

Check For Trial Depth Against Moment


About X Axis
Bending moment at critical section:
Mux =

= 1076.66 KN-m

1 = 0.85-0.0015.fc=0.8125
s=0.85

Verification Manual 103

Chapter 3
3.1 CSA General Isolated Foundation 1

= 0.62817
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (750-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 690 mm
So, =0.001892
Hence OK

About Z Axis
Bending moment at critical section,
Mux =

= 1076.66 KN-m

1 = 0.85-0.0015.fc=0.8125
s=0.85

= 0.62817
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (750-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 690 mm
So, =0.001892
Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction(Bottom)
Astx =.B.deff= 4700 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 6750 mm2
Provided area = 6750 m2m

Along Z Direction (Bottom)


Astz = .L.deff= 4700 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 6750 mm2
Provided area = 6750 m2m

Along X Direction (Top)


Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 6750 mm2
Provided area = 6750 m2m

104 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004)


3.2 CSA General Isolated Foundation 2

(as no uplift is present so min steel is provided)

Along Z Direction (Top)


Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 6750 mm2
Provided area = 6750 m2m
(as no uplift is present so min steel is provided)

3.1.4 Comparison
Table 3-1: CSAverification example 1 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
2
Bearing Pressure
286.45
283.5 KN/m
Negligible
KN/m2
Governing Moment
1076.66 KN- 1076.64 KN-m
Negligible
m
1076.66 KN-m
1076.66 KNm
Shear Force(One-Way) 768.22 KN
768.01 KN
Negligible
768.22 KN
Shear Force(Two-Way) 2811.63 KN
Resisting Shear Force 1031 KN
(One-Way)
1031 KN
Resisting Shear Stress 949.7 KN/m2
(Two-Way)
Resisting force for
1834.66 KN
sliding
1834.66 KN
Resisting Moment for 6604.78 KNm
Overturning
6604.78 KNm
Ast (B)
6750 mm

768.01 KN
2811.49 KN
1031.14 KN

Negligible
None

1031.14 KN
949.86 KN/m2

Negligible

1837.09 KN

Negligible

1837.09 KN
6613.4 KNm

Negligible

6613.4 KNm
6750 mm

None

Ast (T)

6750 mm
6750 mm

6750 mm
6750 mm

None

Ld (rqrd)

6750 mm
449.28 mm

6750 mm
449.28 mm

None

Ld (available)

449.28 mm
1525 mm

449.28 mm
1525 mm

None

1525 mm

1525 mm

3.2 CSA General Isolated Foundation 2


3.2.1 Reference

Verification Manual 105

Chapter 3
3.2 CSA General Isolated Foundation 2

3.2.2 Problem
Design of a square Isolated Footing
A tied column, 500 mm square, and reinforced with eight No. 35 bars carries an unfactored
dead load of 900 kN and an unfactored live load of 800 kN. Suitable soil with a factored
soil bearing pressure of 300 kN/m2 is available at a depth of 1.5 m . Design a square
footing.
The compressive strength fc is 20 MPa for the column and 20 MPa for the footing. All
steel has fy=350 MPa. Unit weight of concrete and soil is 24 kN/m2 and 16 kN/m2
respectively.
Figure 3-2: Plan and Elevation

3.2.3 Solution
Trial Footing Size
Initial footing size is based on soil bearing capacity.
As per CSA A.23.3-04 cls. 8.3 and Annex C. the 2005 National Building Code of Canada
load combination factors must be used:
Factored Load = 1.25 DL + 1.5 LL = (1.25 X 900 kN) + (1.5 x 800 kN) =
2,325 kN
Required area of footing: 2,325 /300 = 7.75 m2

106 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004)


3.2 CSA General Isolated Foundation 2

Total Axial load = 2,325 +Self Weight of footing + weight of soil


Self Weight of footing = 3 x 3 x 0.6 x 24 = 129.6 KN
weight of soil=3 x 3 x 1.5 x 16 = 216 KN
For square footing, the axial force on the footing is:
2,325 +129.6 + 216 =2670.6 KN
So stress on soil=2670.6 /(3x3)=296.73 KN/m2

Calculate Factors of Safety


In this case, we do not have any sliding and overturning forces. The CSA A23.3-04
recommends for a footing that experiences horizontal shear, the designer must make sure
that this shear is transferred to the subgrade utilizing the passive soil resistance and the
friction between the subgrade and the footing surface. The passive soil resistance will be
ignored in STAAD.foundation to calculate the factor of safety against sliding check. Factor
of safety against overturning must be checked as per the NBCC.
Anyway, max sliding force =axial load x coeff of friction
for coeff of friction =0.5,
Sliding force= 0.5x 2670.6 =1335.3 KN

(same for X & Z dir)

Max resisting moment against overturning = axial force x Dimension/2 = 0.5x


2670.6x3 KNm= 4005.45 KNm(Same WRT both x and z axis).
Stress on soil from Factored load=2325/(3x3)=258.33 KN/m2

Check for One-Way Shear


Along X Direction
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (600-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 540 mm

Vumax =

= 550.24 KN

= 0.65, = 1
dv = 0.9.deff = 0.9 x 490 = 441 mm
bw = 3000 mm
Now allowable shear
Vc =

=655986 N =655.99 KN

V < Vc, Hence Safe

Verification Manual 107

Chapter 3
3.2 CSA General Isolated Foundation 2

Along ZDirection
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (600-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 540 mm

Vumax =

= 550.24 KN

= 0.65, = 1
dv = 0.9.deff = 0.9 x 490 = 441 mm
bw = 3000 mm
Now allowable shear
Vc =

= 655986 N = 655.99 KN

V < Vc, Hence Safe

Punching Shear
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 270 mm from the column face.
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (600-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 540 mm
Area within Critical Perimeter Am = (500+2x0.5x.54)2 = 1.0816 m2
Vmax =

258.33 x (3x3-1.0816) = 2045.56 KN

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 x ( b + h + 2x d) = 4.16 m

v =

= 0.91 N/mm2

=4

=L/B =5/5 =1

1.657 N/mm2
2.645 N/mm2
1.1046 N/mm2
As effective depth > 300 mm so the multiplier = 1300/(1000+deff) = 0.844
So,
108 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004)


3.2 CSA General Isolated Foundation 2

Vr1= 1.398 N/mm2 =1398KN/m2


Vr2= 2.232N/mm2 ==2232 KN/m2
Vr3= 0.932 N/mm2 =932 KN/m2
So min{ Vr1,Vr2,Vr3} = 932 KN/m2
So allowable shear = Vc = 932 KN/m2
V < Vc , Hence safe

Development Length
Along Z Axis
ld = 0.45 k1 x k2 x k3 x k4 fy/(f'c) db
k1 = 1 if clear cover is less than 300 mm or else use 0.45
k2 = 1 if coated reinforcement is used
k2 = 1.2 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used
k2 = 1.5 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used and clear cover is less than 3xdb
k2 = 1.5 if bar spacing is less than 6 xdb
k3 = 1 Normal density concrete
k4 = 0.8 for 20M and smaller bar size
k4 = 1 for 20M and larger bar size
ld = 0.45 x 1 x 0.8 x 1 x 0.8 x (350 MPa)/(20MPa) x 19.5 mm = 439.52 mm
Available Length = (3000-500)/2-50 = 1200 mm
Hence OK

Along X Axis
ld = 0.45 k1 x k2 x k3 x k4 fy/(f'c) db
k1 = 1 if clear cover is less than 300 mm or else use 0.45
k2 = 1 if coated reinforcement is used
k2 = 1.2 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used
k2 = 1.5 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used and clear cover is less than 3xdb
k2 = 1.5 if bar spacing is less than 6 xdb
k3 = 1 Normal density concrete
k4 = 0.8 for 20M and smaller bar size
k4 = 1 for 20M and larger bar size
ld = 0.45 x 1 x 0.8 x 1 x 0.8 x (350 MPa)/(20MPa) x 19.5 mm = 439.52 mm
Available Length = (3000-500)/2-50 = 1200 mm
Hence OK
Verification Manual 109

Chapter 3
3.2 CSA General Isolated Foundation 2

Check For Trial Depth Against Moment


About X Axis
Bending moment at critical section
Mux =

= 605.46 KN-m

1 = 0.85-0.0015.fc=0.82
s=0.85

= 0.0346
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (600-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 540 mm
So, =0.002405
Hence OK

About Z Axis
Bending moment at critical section
Mux =

= 605.46 KN-m

1 = 0.85-0.0015.fc=0.82
s=0.85

= 0.0346
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (600-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 540 mm
So, =0.002405
Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction(Bottom)
Astx =.B.deff= 3896 m2m

110 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004)


3.2 CSA General Isolated Foundation 2

Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 4599.9 mm2


Provided area = 4600 m2m

Along Z Direction (Bottom)


Astz = .L.deff=

3896 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 4599.9 mm2


Provided area = 4600 m2m
Use #20 @ 190 c/c

Along X Direction (Top)


Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 4599.9 mm2
Provided area = 4600 m2m
(as no uplift force is present only min steel is provided)
Use #20 @ 190 c/c

Along Z Direction (Top)


Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 4599.9 mm2
Provided area = 4600 m2m
(as no uplift force is present only min steel is provided)
Use #20 @ 190 c/c

Verification Manual 111

Chapter 3
3.3 CSA General Isolated Foundation 3

3.2.4 Comparison
Table 3-2: CSA verification example 2 comparison
STAAD.foundation
Value of
Reference Result
Result
Bearing Pressure
296.73 KN/m2
296.07 KN/m2
Governing
605.46 KN-m
605.46 KN-m
Moment
605.46 KN-m
605.46 KN-m
Shear Force(One- 550.24 KN
550.06 KN
Way)
550.24 KN
550.06 KN
Shear Force(Two- 2045.56 KN
2045.45 KN
Way)
Resisting force for 1335.3KN
1332.3 KN
sliding
1335.3KN
1332.3 KN
Resisting Moment 4005.45 KNm
3996.827 KNm
for Overturning
4005.45 KNm
3996.827 KNm
Ast (B)
#20@190 c/c
#20@190 c/c

Percent
Difference
Negligible
None
Negligible
Negligible
Negligible
Negligible
None

Ast (T)

#20@190 c/c
#20@190 c/c

#20@190 c/c
#20@190 c/c

None

Ld (rqrd)

#20@190 c/c
439.52 mm

#20@190 c/c
439.52 mm

None

Ld (available)

439.52 mm
1200 mm

439.52 mm
1200 mm

None

1200 mm

1200 mm

3.3 CSA General Isolated Foundation 3


3.3.1 Reference
3.3.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1200 KN, fc = 30 MPa, fy = 400
MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 90KN/m2.
Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5. Height
of soil above footing=450 mm, GWT is 300 mm from GL.
Surcharge= 10 KN/m2

112 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004)


3.3 CSA General Isolated Foundation 3
Figure 3-3: Plan and Elevation

3.3.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 1200/90 m2 = 13.33 m2
Assuming 4.3 m x 4.3 m x 0.500 m footing dimension,
Weight of footing = 4.3 x 4.3 x 0.500 x 25 KN = 231.125 KN
Weight of above soil = 4.3 x 4.3 x 0.450 x 18 KN = 149.77 KN
Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 4.3x4.3 x (0.500+0.450-0.300) x 9.81
KN = 117.9 KN
Load due to surcharge = 4.3x4.3 x 10 KN =184.9 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing = (1200+231.125 +149.77 +184.9 -117.9)


KN = 1647.895 KN
Maximum pressure = 1647.895 /(4.3x4.3) = 89.12 KN/m2
89.12 KN/ m2 <90 KN/m2
Hence safe
Stress for Factor design = 1.25x1200/(4.3x4.3) = 81.12 KN/m2

Verification Manual 113

Chapter 3
3.3 CSA General Isolated Foundation 3

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


sliding
Along X Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation

Total Service load on foundation = 1647.895 KN


Max resisting force against sliding = 0.5 x 1647.895 KN = 823.95 KN
Hence OK

Along Z Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation

Total Service load on foundation = 1647.895 KN


Max resisting force against sliding = 0.5 x 1647.895 KN = 823.95 KN
Hence OK

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning
WRT X Direction
Overturning Moment = 0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.3 x 1647.895 = 3542.97 KNm
Hence OK

WRT Z Direction
Overturning Moment = 0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.3 x 1647.895 = 3542.97 KNm
Hence OK

114 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004)


3.5 CSA Pilecap Foundation 1

3.3.4 Comparison
Table 3-3: CSA verification
Reference
Value of
Result
Bearing Pressure
89.12 KN/
m2
Resisting force for sliding 823.95 KN
(x)
Resisting Moment for
3542.97
Overturning (z)
KNm
Resisting force for sliding 823.95 KN
(z)
Resisting Moment for
3542.97
Overturning (x)
KNm

example 3 comparison
STAAD.foundation Percent DifResult
ference
89.03 KN/ m2
Negligible
823.12 KN

Negligible

3539.366 KNm

Negligible

823.12 KN

Negligible

682.862 KNm

Negligible

3.5 CSA Pilecap Foundation 1


3.3.5 Reference
3.3.6 Problem
Design pilecap foundation with the given data: Load Fy = 800 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 450
MPa, Column Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm. Pedestal ht= 500 mm

Pile Data
Dia of pile= 400 mm.
Vertical capacity = 250 KN,
Horizontal capacity = 100 KN
Uplift capacity = 80 KN

Verification Manual 115

Chapter 3
3.5 CSA Pilecap Foundation 1
Figure 3-4: Elevation and Plan, with dimension and loads

3.3.7 Solution
depth of pilecap= 1.5 x piledia, D=600 mm
Take D=600 mm
c/c pile distance = 3xpile dia =1200 mm. Edge diatance =350 mm
Assuming 4 pile combination,
Coordinates of piles considering pedestal at 0,0,0)
Pile No
1
2
3
4

X Coordinate (mm)
-600
-600
600
600

Z Coordinate (mm)
-600
600
600
-600

pilecap dimension is 1900 mm x1900 mm x 600 mm


Weight of footing = 1.9 x1.9 x 0.60 x 25 KN = 54.15 KN
Weight of pedestal = 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5 x 25 KN = 0.78 KN
Therefore, total load on the pilecap = (800+54.15 +0.78) KN = 854.93 KN
116 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004)


3.5 CSA Pilecap Foundation 1
So Pile reaction = 854.93 /4= 213.73 KN < 250 KN, Hence OK
As there is no lateral load, moment or uplift force, so each pile is safe in lateral & uplift
capacity.

Factored Design
Load factor for self wt is taken =1
Load factor for axial load is taken 1.25
SO, Load on pilecap = 1.25x800+54.15 x1+0.78x1= 1054.93 KN
Load on each pile =1054.93 /4=263.73 KN
Figure 3-5: Bending sections considered

Calculation of Moment wrt Z Axis


For moment wrt X1X1
Contribution from pile 1=from pile2=263.73 x 0.475=125.27 KNm
So Total Mz X1X1 = 250.54 KNm
For moment wrt X2X2
Contribution from pile3=from pile4=263.73 x 0.475=125.27 KNm
So Total Mz X2X2 = 250.54 KNm
So Max value of Mz = 250.54 KNm

Check For Trial Depth against moment wrt Z Axis


Bending moment at critical section, Muz = 250.54 KN-m

Verification Manual 117

Chapter 3
3.5 CSA Pilecap Foundation 1
Assuming 50 mm clear cover, 75 mm pile in pilecap & and 11.3 mm bar ( Bar No 10),
effective depth
deff = 463.7 mm
B =1900 mm ,
c = Resistance Factor of concrete = 0.6 (Clause No 8.4.2)
1 = 0.8125 (Clause No 10.1.7.c)
1 = 0.8475 (Clause No 10.1.7.c)
c = (700.d)/(700+fy) = 282.25 mm (Clause No 10.5.2)
a = 239.208 mm (Clause No 10.1.7.a)
C = 5539 x 103 KN(Clause No 10.1.7.a)
Resisting Moment=C.(d-a/2)=1906 KNm
Muz < Resisting Moment, Hence OK

Calculation of Moment wrt X Axis


For moment wrt Z1Z1
Contribution from pile 1=from pile4=263.73 x 0.475=125.27 KNm
So Total Mx Z1Z1 = 250.54KNm
For moment wrt Z2Z2
Contribution from pile 2=from pile3=263.73 x 0.475=125.27 KNm
So Total Mx Z2Z2 = 250.54KNm
So Max value of MX = 250.54 KNm
Check For Trial Depth against moment wrt X Axis
Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 250.54 KN-m
deff = 463.7 mm
B =1900 mm ,
C=5539 x 103 KN
Resisting Moment=C.(d-a/2)=1906 KNm
Mux < Resisting Moment, Hence OK

118 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004)


3.5 CSA Pilecap Foundation 1

Calculation of Shear parallel to X Axis


Figure 3-6: Shear sections considered

For shear wrt X1X1


Contribution from pile 1 =pile2=263.73 x528=139.25 KN
So Total V X1X1 = 274.5 KN
For shear wrt X2X2
Contribution from pile 3=pile4=263.73 x528=139.25 KN
So Total V X2X2 = 274.5 KN
So Max V parallel to X direction = 274.5 KN

Check for One-Way Shear (along X dir)


Shear Strength Vr = 260/(1000+d).c..(f'c ).bw.d=>0.1..c.(f^' c).bw.d
= max(469.497, 264.309) KN = 469.5 KN (Clause no 11.3.5.2)
Where
c = Resistance Factor of concrete=0.6 (Clause No 8.4.2)
= factor to account Concrete density=1(Clause No 8.6.5)
bw = Section Width=1900 mm
d = effective Depth= 463.7 mm (Clause 11.0)
VX < VResistanceX, Hence Safe

Calculation of Shear parallel to Z Axis


For shear wrt Z1Z1

Verification Manual 119

Chapter 3
3.5 CSA Pilecap Foundation 1

Contribution from pile 1 =pile 4 =263.73 x528=139.25 KN


So Total V Z1Z1 = 274.5 KN
For shear wrt Z2Z2
Contribution from pile 2=pile 3 =263.73 x528=139.25 KN
So Total V Z2Z2 = 274.5 KN
So Max V parallel to Z direction = 274.5 KN

Check for One-Way Shear (along Z dir)


Shear Strength Vr=260/(1000+d).c..(f'c ).bw.d=>0.1..c.(f^' c).bw.d
= max(469.497, 264.309) KN = 469.5 KN
VZ < VResistanceZ, Hence Safe

Punching Shear
Figure 3-7: Two-way shear sections considered

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d =231.85 mm from the column face.
Contribution from pile 1=from pile2=from pile3=from pile 4= 263.73 KN
So total punching shear Vmax= 1054.92 KN
b0=Perimeter of failure line at d/2 distance from column face=2.(Column Length+Column
Width+2d)x 2= 4x(250+463.7/2+463.7/2)=2854.88
Therefore Shear stress c= =Vmax/(b0 x d)= 797 KN/m2
Calculation of punching shear stress capacity
= 1 (Clause 8.6.5)
c = 0.6 (Clause 8.4.2)
f' = Strength of concrete (in MPa)
c

= (Column Length)/(Column Width)=1900/1900=1


c

= 4 (Clause No 13.0 & 13.4.4.a)


s

120 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004)


3.5 CSA Pilecap Foundation 1

mod factor=1
Vr1=(1+2/c).0.2..c.(f'c).mod factor=1800 KN/m 2 (Eqn no 13.5 Clause no 13.4.4a)
Vr2=(0.2+(s. dv)/bo)..c.(f'c).mod factor=2549 KN/m 2 (Eqn no 13.6 Clause no13.4.4b)
Vr3=0.4..c.(f'c).mod factor= 1200 KN/m 2 (Eqn no 13.7 Clause no 13.4.4c)
Vr=Min (Vr1,Vr2,Vr3)=1200 KN/m 2
V < VResistance , Hence safe

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction
Calculate Kr (neutral axis/depth ratio) for Actual Bending Moment

Where
1= 0.85- 0.0015.fc>=0.67 (Clause No 10.1.7)
c = 0.6 (clause 8.4.2)
s = 0.85 (clause 8.4.3)
Solving the equation (steel area ratio = 0.165 %
Therefore, Astx = .b,d= 1450 m2m
Minimum area of steel Astmin = 0.2/100 x B x D = 2280 mm2
Provided area = 2280 mm2

Along Z Direction
Calculate Kr (neutral axis/depth ratio) for Actual Bending Moment

Solving the previously stated equation (steel area ratio = 0.165 %


Therefore, Astx = .b,d= 1450 m2m
Minimum area of steel Astmin = 0.2/100 x B x D = 2280 mm2
Provided area = 2280 mm2

Verification Manual 121

Chapter 3
3.5 CSA Pilecap Foundation 1

Check for Development Length


Ld (required)=1.15.k1.k2.k3.k4.fy/((dcs+Kr) ).Ab/(f' )= 380.7 mm
c

(CSA A23-3-04 Clause No 12.2.2 & 12.2.3)


Ld (available)Along X=(Length-pedestal length) 1/2 Cover=775 mm
Ld (required)<Ld (available)Along X
Hence OK
Ld (available)Along Z=(Length-pedestal length) 1/2 -Cover=775 mm
Ld (required)<Ld (available)Along Z
Hence OK

3.3.8 Comparison
Table 3-4: CSA verification
Reference
Value of
Result
Depth
600 mm
Governing Moment (wrt 250.54 KNX axis)
m
Resisting Moment (wrt 1906 KN-m
Z axis)
Governing Moment (wrt 250.54 KNX axis)
m
Resisting Moment (wrt 1906 KN-m
Z axis)
Shear Force(One-Way) 274.5 KN
X
Shear Resistance(One- 469.5 KN
Way) X
Shear Force(One-Way) 274.5 KN
Z
Shear Resistance(One- 469.5 KN
Way) Z
Shear stress(Two-Way) 797 KN/m2
Resistance Shear Stress 1200
(Two-Way)
KN/m2
Ld required
381 mm
Ld Available ( Along X) 775 mm
Ld Available ( Along Z) 775 mm
Ast ( Along X)
2280 mm2

example 5 comparison
STAAD.foundation Percent DifResult
ference
598 mm
Negligible
250.54 KN-m
None

122 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

1933 KN-m

Negligible

250.54 KN-m

None

1933 KN-m

Negligible

274.3 KN

None

471.8 KN

Negligible

274.3 KN

None

471.8 KN

Negligible

787.6 KN/m2
1200 KN/m2

None
None

381 mm
775 mm
775 mm
2240 mm2

None
None
None
Negligible

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004)


3.4 CSA General Combined Foundation s1

3.4 CSA General Combined Foundation s1


3.4.1 Reference
3.4.2 Problem
Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 900 KN each column., fc = 30
MPa, fy = 400 MPa, Column Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm, Pedestal height-400 mm.
and C/C column distance=3500 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2. Coefficient of
friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5
Ht of soil =500 mm. Depth of GWT=200 mm. Surcharge= 5 KN/m2
Figure 3-8: Plan and Elevation

3.4.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 2x900/120 m2 = 15 m2
Assuming 5.7 m x 3.15 m x 0.500 m footing dimension,
left overhang = right overhang = 1.1 m, C/C col dist=3500 mm
Weight of footing = 5.7 x 3.15 x0.500 x25 KN = 224.44 KN
Weight of pedestal=2x0.25x0.25x0.4x25=1.25 KN

Verification Manual 123

Chapter 3
3.4 CSA General Combined Foundation s1

Weight of soil above footing = (5.7 x 3.15-2x0.25x0.25) x 0.500 x18 KN =


160.47 KN
Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 5.7 x 3.15 x (0.500+0.500-0.200)
x9.81 KN = 140.91 KN
Surcharge load = ( 5.7x3.15-2x0.25x0.25)x5= 89.15 KN
Therefore, total load on the footing is
(2x900+224.44 +1.25+160.47 +89.15 -140.91) KN = 2134.4 KN
Maximum pressure= 2134.4 /(5.7 x3.15) = 118.87 KN/m2
118.87 KN/ m2 <120 KN/m2 (Hence safe)

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning
About Z Direction
Overturning Moment =0
Total Service load on foundation = 2134.4 KN
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5.7x 2134.4 = 6083 KNm
Hence OK

About X Direction
Overturning Moment =0
Total Service load on foundation = 2134.4 KN
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.15x 2134.4 = 3361.7 KNm
Hence OK

3.4.4 Comparison
Table 3-5: CSA verification
Reference
Value of
Result
Bearing Pressure
118.87
KN/m2
Resisting Moment for
6083 KNm
Overturning (Z)
Resisting Moment for
3361.7
Overturning (X)
KNm

example 5 comparison
STAAD.foundation Percent DifResult
ference
118.87 KN/m2
None

124 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

6083 KNm

None

3361.7 KNm

None

Section 4

Indian Code (IS 456 2000)


4.1 IS General Isolated Foundation 1
4.1.1 Reference
Reinforced Concrete by A.K. Jain, Page 539, Example 18.2.

4.1.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1000 KN, fc = 15 MPa, fy = 415
MPa, Column Dimension = 400 mm X 400 mm, Bearing Capacity of Soil = 100 KN/m2,
and Load Factor = 1.5.

Verification Manual 125

Chapter 4
4.1 IS General Isolated Foundation 1
Figure 4-1: Plan and Elevation

4.1.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 1000/10 m2 = 10 m2
Assuming 3.5 m x 3.5 m x 0.6 m footing dimension (I = 12.5 m4)
Weight of footing = 3.5 x 3.5 x 0.6 x 25 KN = 183.75 KN
Therefore, total load on the footing = (1000 +183.75) KN = 1183.75 KN
Maximum pressure = 1183.75/(3.5 x 3.5) KN/ m2 = 96.633 KN/m2 <100
KN/m2
Hence safe
Ultimate pressure = 1000 x 1.5/ (3.5 x 3.5) KN/m2 = 122.45 KN/m2
Bending moment at critical section,
Mu = 122.45 x 3.5 x 1.55 x 1.55/2 = 514.826 KN-m
Assuming 35 mm clear cover and 10 mm bar, effective depth
de = (600-35-0.5 x 10) mm = 560 mm

Ku,max =

= 0.479

126 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.1 IS General Isolated Foundation 1

Ru,max = 0.36 x fc x Ku,max x (1-0.42 Ku,max ) = 2.066


Mulim = Ru,max x B x de2 = 2267.642 x 106 N-mm = 2267.642 KN-m> Mu
Hence safe

Area of Steel Required


Area of steel required along length,

x B x de = 2646.4 mm2

Ast = 0.5 x

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 2520 mm2

Check for One-Way Shear

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.135

Corresponding allowable

Developed shear stress

= 0.28 N/mm2

Vumax = 122.45 x 3.5 x


Developed shear stress
safe)

= 424.289 KN

= 0.2165 N/mm2 <

c,all

(Hence

Check for Two-Way Shear


Vumax = 1500 KN

Developed shear stress

= 0.698 N/mm2

Ks = min (0.5+1,1) = 1
Allowable shear stress = Ks x

= 1 x 0.25

= 0.968 N/mm2

Note: There is no deduction for the upward force underneath the area enclosed by the
critical perimeter. This approach is conservative.

Verification Manual 127

Chapter 4
4.1 IS General Isolated Foundation 1

Spacing

No. of 10 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 33.69 (34)

= 102.73 mm

Spacing for 10 mm bar = 102.73 mm


Figure 4-2: Plan of Reinforcement

128 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.2 IS General Isolated Foundation 2
Figure 4-3: Cross Section showing Reinforcement

4.1.4 Comparison
Table 4-1: IS verification example 1 comparison
Reference
STAAD.foundation
Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Effective Depth
560 mm
560 mm
None
Governing
514.826 KN- 514.821 KN-m
Negligible
Moment
m
Area of Steal
2646.40
2645.01 mm2
0.05
2
mm
Shear Stress (One- 0.216 N/mm2 0.216 N/mm2
None
Way)
Shear Stress (Two- 0.698
0.700 N/mm2
0.286
2
Way)
N/mm

4.2 IS General Isolated Foundation 2


4.2.1 Reference
Reinforced Concrete Structure by Punmia-Jain-Jain, Example 25.1.

4.2.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 600 KN, fc = 15 MPa, fy = 250
MPa, Column Dimension = 500 mm x 500 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2.

Verification Manual 129

Chapter 4
4.2 IS General Isolated Foundation 2
Figure 4-4: Plan and Elevation

4.2.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 600/ 120 m2 = 5 m2
Assuming 2.4 m x 2.4 m x 0.35 m footing dimension,
Weight of footing = 2.4 x 2.4 x 0.35 x 25 KN = 50.4 KN
Therefore, total load on the footing = (600+50.4) KN = 650.4 KN
Maximum pressure = 650.4 / (2.4 x 2.4) KN/ m2 = 112.92 KN/m2 <120
KN/m2
Hence safe
Ultimate pressure = 600 x 1.5 /(2.4 x 2.4) KN/m2 = 156.25 KN/m2
Bending moment at critical section, Mu = 56.25 x 2.4 x 0.95 x 0.95 /2=
169.21875 KN-m
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth
de = (350-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 294 mm

130 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.2 IS General Isolated Foundation 2

Ku,max =

= 0.53

Ru,max = 0.36 x fc x Ku,max x (1- 0.42 Ku,max ) = 2.225


Mulim = Ru,max x B x de2 = 461.568 x 106 N-mm = 461.568 KN-m > Mu
Hence safe

Area of Steel Required


Area of steel required along length,

x B x de = 2837.87 mm2
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0015 x B x D = 1260 mm2
Ast = 0.5 x

Check for One-Way Shear

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.4022

Corresponding allowable

Developed shear stress

= 0.42 N/mm2

Vumax = 156.25 x 2.4 x


Developed shear stress

= 246 KN

= 0.3486N/mm2 <

c,all

Hence safe

Check for Two-Way Shear


Vumax = 900 KN

Developed shear stress

= 0.96 N/mm2

Ks = min (0.5+1, 1) = 1
Allowable shear stress = Ks x

= 1 x 0.25

= 0.968 N/mm2

Hence safe

Verification Manual 131

Chapter 4
4.2 IS General Isolated Foundation 2

Note: There is no deduction for the upward force underneath the area enclosed by the
critical perimeter. This approach is conservative.

Spacing

No. of 12 mm bar =

Spacing =

= 25.09 (26)

= 91.52 mm

Spacing for 12 mm bar = 91.52 mm


Figure 4-5: Elevation and Plan showing reinforcement design

132 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.3 IS General Isolated Foundation 3

4.2.4 Comparison
Table 4-2: IS verification example 2 comparison
Reference
STAAD.foundation
Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Effective Depth
294 mm
294 mm
None
Governing
169.2187 KN- 169.2187 KN-m
None
Moment
m
Area of Steel
2837.87 mm2 2836.34 mm2
0.05
Shear Stress (One- 0.3486
0.3486 N/mm2
None
Way)
N/mm2
Shear Stress (Two- 0.96 N/mm2 0.96 N/mm2
None
Way)

4.3 IS General Isolated Foundation 3


4.3.1 Reference
4.3.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 2000 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415
MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 100
KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Verification Manual 133

Chapter 4
4.3 IS General Isolated Foundation 3
Figure 4-6: Plan and Elevation

4.3.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 2000/100 m2 = 20 m2
Assuming 4.95 m x 4.95 m x 0.700 m footing dimension,
Weight of footing = 4.95x4.95x0.7 x 25 KN = 428.79 KN
Therefore, total load on the footing = (2000+428.79) KN = 2428.79 KN
Maximum pressure = 2428.79/(4.95x4.95) = 99.124 KN/ m2 <100 KN/m2
Hence safe

Ultimate pressure =

KN/m2 = 122.436 KN/m2

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning and sliding
Along X Direction
Sliding force =0

134 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.3 IS General Isolated Foundation 3

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 2428.79 =


1214.395 KN
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.95 x 2428.79 = 6011.25 KNm
Hence OK

Along Z Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 2428.79 =
1214.395 KN
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.95 x 2428.79 = 6011.25 KNm
Hence OK

Check For Trial Depth Against Moment


About X Axis
Bending moment at critical section
Mux = 122.436 x 4.95 x 2.325 x 2.325 / 2 = 1638.06 KN-m
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (700-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 642 mm
K=700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru= 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2
Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 7026 KNm
Hence OK

About Z Axis
Bending moment at critical section
Mux = 122.436 x 4.95 x 2.325 x 2.325 / 2 = 1638.06 KN-m
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (700-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 642 mm
K=700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru= 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Verification Manual 135

Chapter 4
4.3 IS General Isolated Foundation 3

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 7026 KNm


Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction
From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,
Astx = 7358 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 4158 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 7358 m2m

Along Z Direction
From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,
Astx = 7358 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 4158 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 7358 m2m

Check for One-Way Shear


Along X Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.2315

Vumax = 122.436 x 4.95 x


Developed shear stress V =

= 1020 KN

= 0.321 N/mm2

Now allowable stress = 0.348 N/mm2


V < c
Hence Safe

136 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.3 IS General Isolated Foundation 3

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.2315

Vumax = 122.436 x 4.95 x


Developed shear stress V =

= 1020 KN

= 0.321 N/mm2

Now allowable stress = 0.348 N/mm2


V < c
Hence Safe

Punching Shear
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 321 mm from the column face.
Area within Critical Perimeter Am = 0.887 m2
Vmax =

2892 KN

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 6 x d) = 3.768 m


v =

= 1.19 N/mm2

=L/B =4.95/4.95 =1
k=0.5 +=1.5 , k<=1
Hence, k=1
Now allowable stress
c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2
v < c , Hence safe

Verification Manual 137

Chapter 4
4.4 IS General Isolated Foundation 4

4.3.4 Comparison
Table 4-3: IS verification example 3 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Bearing Pressure
99.124
99.124 KN/m2
None
KN/m2
Governing Moment
1638.06
1638.038 KN-m
None
KN-m
Shear Force(One-Way)
1020 KN
1019 KN
Negligible
Shear Force(Two-Way)
2892 KN
2891 KN
Negligible
Resisting force for sliding 1214.395
1214.397 KN
None
(X)
KN
Resisting Moment for
6011.25
6011.155 KNm
None
Overturning (Z)
KNm
Resisting force for sliding 1214.395
1214.397 KN
None
(Z)
KN
Resisting Moment for
6011.25
6011.155 KNm
None
Overturning (X)
KNm

4.4 IS General Isolated Foundation 4


4.4.1 Reference
4.4.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1000 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415
MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 110
KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning
=1.5 Surcharge=20 KN/m2

138 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.4 IS General Isolated Foundation 4
Figure 4-7: Plan and Elevation

4.4.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 1000/110 m2 = 8.33 m2
Assuming 3.65 m x 3.65 m x 0.600 m footing dimension,
Weight of footing = 3.65x3.65x0.6 x 25 KN = 199.8 KN
Surcharge= 20 KN/m2
Surcharge force=20x3.65x3.65= 266.4 KN
Therefore, total load on the footing = (1000+266.4+199.8)= 1466.2 KN
Maximum pressure = 1466.2/(3.65x3.65)=
110 KN/m2 (Hence OK)

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning and sliding
Along X Direction
Sliding force =0
Max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation
Total Service load on foundation =1466.2 KN

Verification Manual 139

Chapter 4
4.5 IS General Isolated Foundation 5

Max Resisting force =0.5 x 1466.2 = 733.1 KN


Hence OK
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.65 x 1466.2 = 2675.815 KNm
Hence OK

Along Z Direction
Sliding force =0
Max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation
Total Service load on foundation =1466.2 KN
Max Resisting force =0.5 x 1466.2 = 733.1 KN
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.65 x 1466.2 = 2675.815 KNm
Hence OK

4.4.4 Comparison
Table 4-4: IS verification example 4 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
2
2
Bearing Pressure
110 KN/m 109.9 KN/m
Negligible
Resisting Moment for
2675.815
2672.535 KNm
Negligible
Overturning (x)
KNm
Resisting force for
733.1 KN
732.2 KN
Negligible
sliding (z)
Resisting Moment for
2675.815
2672.535 KNm
Negligible
Overturning (z)
KNm
Resisting force for
733.1 KN
732.2 KN
Negligible
sliding (x)

4.5 IS General Isolated Foundation 5


4.5.1 Reference
4.5.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1200 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415
MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 110

140 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.5 IS General Isolated Foundation 5
KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5.
Height of soil above footing=450 mm, dry condition.
Figure 4-8: Plan and Elevation

4.5.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 1200/110 m2 = 10.91 m2
Assuming 3.7 m x 3.7 m x 0.55 m footing dimension,
Weight of footing = 3.7x3.7x0.55 x 25 KN = 188.237 KN
Weight of above soil = 3.7x3.7x0.45 x 18 KN = 110.889 KN
Therefore, total load on the footing = (1200+188.237+110.889) KN = 1499.126
KN
Maximum pressure = 1499.126/(3.7x3.7) = 109.5 KN/m2 <110 KN/m2
Hence safe

Ultimate pressure =

KN/m2 = 131.4828 KN/m2

Verification Manual 141

Chapter 4
4.5 IS General Isolated Foundation 5

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning and sliding
Along X Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 1499.126
= 749.6 KN
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.7 x 1499.126 = 2773.383 KNm
Hence OK

Along Z Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 1499.126
= 749.6 KN
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.7 x 1499.126 = 2773.383 KNm
Hence OK

Check For Trial Depth against moment about X Axis


Bending moment at critical section,
Mux = 131.4828 x 3.7 x 1.7 x 1.7/2 = 702.97 KN-m
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (550-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 492 mm
K=700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru= 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4443 N/mm2
Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 3084.8 KNm
Hence OK

Check For Trial Depth against moment about Z Axis


Bending moment at critical section,
Mux = 131.4828 x 3.7 x 1.7 x 1.7/2 = 702.97 KN-m
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth
142 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.5 IS General Isolated Foundation 5

deff = (550-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 492 mm


K=700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru= 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4443 N/mm2
Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 3084.8 KNm
Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction
From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,
Astx = 4120 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 2442 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 4120 m2m

Along Z Direction
From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,
Astx = 4120 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 2442 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 4120 m2m

Check for One-Way Shear ( along X dir)

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.226

Vumax = 131.4828 x 3.7 x

= 587.7 KN

Developed shear stress v = 587.7x1000/(3700x492)


= 0.322 N/mm2
Now allowable stress = 0.344 N/mm2
v < c
Hence Safe
Verification Manual 143

Chapter 4
4.5 IS General Isolated Foundation 5

Check for One-Way Shear ( along Z dir)

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.226

Vumax = 131.4828 x 3.7 x

= 587.7 KN

Developed shear stress v = 587.7x1000/(3700x492) = 0.322 N/mm2


Now allowable stress = 0.344 N/mm2
v < c
Hence Safe

Punching Shear
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 246 mm from the column face.
Area within Critical Perimeter Am = 0.627 m2
Vmax =

1718 KN

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 6 x d) = 3.168 m


v =

= 1.1 N/mm2

=L/B =3.7/3.7 =1
k=0.5 +=1.5 , k<=1
Hence, k=1
Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2
v < c , Hence safe

144 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.6 IS General Isolated Foundations 6

4.5.4 Comparison
Table 4-5: IS verification example 5 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation
Value of
Result
Result
Bearing Pressure
109.5
109.45 KN/m2
KN/m2
Governing Moment (x&Z) 702.97 KN- 700.1 KN-m
m
Shear Force(One-Way) ( 587.7 KN
586 KN
x&Z)
Shear Force(Two-Way)
1718 KN
1716.5 KN
Resisting force for sliding 749.6 KN 749.187 KN
(X)
Resisting Moment for
2773.4
2771.9 KNm
Overturning (Z)
KNm
Resisting force for sliding 749.6 KN 749.187 KN
(Z)
Resisting Moment for
2773.4
2771.9 KNm
Overturning (X)
KNm

Percent Difference
Negligible
Negligible
Negligible
Negligible
Negligible
Negligible
Negligible
Negligible

4.6 IS General Isolated Foundations 6


4.6.1 Reference
4.6.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 2000 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415
MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 100
KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5.
Height of soil above footing=500 mm, depth of GWT =200 mm

Verification Manual 145

Chapter 4
4.6 IS General Isolated Foundations 6
Figure 4-9: Plan and Elevation

4.6.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 2000/100 m2 = 20 m2
Assuming 4.95 m x 4.95 m x 0.700 m footing dimension,
Weight of footing = 4.95x4.95x0.7 x 25 KN = 428.79 KN
Weight of above soil = 4.95x4.95x0.5 x18 KN = 220.522 KN
Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 4.95x4.95x0.5 x18 KN = 240.369 KN
Therefore, total load on the footing = (2000+428.79+220.522-240.369) KN =
2408.943 KN
Maximum pressure = 2408.943/(4.95x4.95) = 99.12 KN/m2 <100 KN/m2
Hence safe

Ultimate pressure =

KN/m2 = 122.436 KN/m2

146 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.6 IS General Isolated Foundations 6

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning and sliding
Along X Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 2408.943
= 1204.5 KN
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.95 x 2408.943 = 5962 KNm
Hence OK

Along Z Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation=0.5 x 2408.943 =
1204.5 KN
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.95 x 2408.943 = 5962 KNm
Hence OK

Check For Trial Depth against moment


About X Axis
Bending moment at critical section
Mux = 122.436 x 4.95 x 2.325 x 2.325 / 2 = 1638.06 KN-m
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (700-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 642 mm
K=700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru= 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2
Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 7026 KNm
Hence OK

About Z Axis
Bending moment at critical section

Verification Manual 147

Chapter 4
4.6 IS General Isolated Foundations 6

Mux = 122.436 x 4.95 x 2.325 x 2.325 / 2 = 1638.06 KN-m


Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (700-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 642 mm
K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 7026 KNm


Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction
From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,
Astx = 7358 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 4158 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 7358 m2m

Along Z Direction
From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,
Astx = 7358 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 4158 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 7358 m2m

148 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.6 IS General Isolated Foundations 6

Check for One-Way Shear


Along X Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.2315

Vumax = 122.436 x 4.95 x

= 1020 KN

Developed shear stress V =

= 0.321 N/mm2

Now allowable stress = 0.348 N/mm2


V < c
Hence Safe

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.2315

Vumax = 122.436 x 4.95 x


Developed shear stress V =

= 1020 KN

= 0.321 N/mm2

Now allowable stress = 0.348 N/mm2


V < c
Hence Safe

Punching Shear
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 321 mm from the column face.
Area within Critical Perimeter Am = 0.887 m2
Vmax =

2892 KN

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 6 x d) = 3.768 m


v =

= 1.19 N/mm2

=L/B =4.95/4.95 =1
k=0.5 +=1.5 , k<=1
Hence, k=1
Verification Manual 149

Chapter 4
4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7

Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2


v < c , Hence safe

4.6.4 Comparison
Table 4-6: IS verification example 6 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Bearing Pressure
98.314
98.2832 KN/m2
None
KN/m2
Governing Moment
1638.06
1634 KN-m
Negligible
(x&Z)
KN-m
Shear Force(One-Way) ( 1020 KN
1017 KN
Negligible
x&Z)
Shear Force(Two-Way)
2892 KN
2889.7 KN
Negligible
Resisting force for
1204 KN
1204 KN
None
sliding (x)
Resisting Moment for
5962 KNm 5960 KNm
Negligible
Overturning (z)
Resisting force for
1204 KN
1204 KN
None
sliding (z)
Resisting Moment for
5962 KNm 5960 KNm
Negligible
Overturning (x)

4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7


4.7.1 Reference
4.7.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1500 KN, Fz=120 KN fc = 25
MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of
Soil = 120 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against
overturning =1.5

150 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7
Figure 4-10: Plan and Elevation

4.7.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 1500/120 m2 = 12.50 m2
Assuming 3.95 m x 3.95 m x 0.600 m footing dimension,
Weight of footing = 3.95x3.95x0.6 x 25 KN = 234.04 KN
Therefore, total axial load on the footing = (1500+234.04) KN = 1734.04 KN
Maximum axial pressure =P/A= 1734.04 /(3.95x3.95) = 111.138 KN/ m2
Moment due to lateral load= 120x0.6 72 KNm
Total moment (Mx=72 KNm
Zx=3.95x3.952/6 = 10.27 mm3
M/Z=7.01 KN/m2
So,
1=P/A M/Z=104.129 KN/m2
2=P/A M/Z=104.129 KN/m2
3=P/A +M/Z=118.148 KN/m2
4=P/A +M/Z=118.148 KN/m2
118.148 KN/m2 <120 KN/m2 (Hence safe)
Verification Manual 151

Chapter 4
4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning and sliding
Along X Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 1734.04 =
867.02 KN
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =72 KNm
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.95 x 1734.04 = 3429.729 KNm
FOS = 47.6 > 1.5
Hence OK

Along Z Direction
Sliding force =120
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 1734.04 =
867.02 KN
FOS = 7.22 > 1.5
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =0 KNm
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.95 x 1734.04 = 3429.729 KNm
Hence OK

Check For Trial Depth Against Moment


About X Axis
Critical section for moment is at the face of column; wrt z axis:
Average Base Pressure along one edge = (113.69 + 154.73)x0.5 = 144.21
KN/m2 (left end)
Average Base Pressure along other edge = (113.69 + 154.73)x0.5 = 144.21
KN/m2 (right end)
Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 144.21 +(144.21144.21) x 2125/3950 = 144.21 KN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 144.21 +(144.21144.21) x 1825/3950 = 144.21 KN/m2
Hence, the moment at the critical section, Mu = F x LA
Where:
152 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7

F = (144.21 + 144.21) x 0.5 x 1.825 x 3.95 = 1039.57 KN


LA = (144.21 +2x 144.21) x 1.825/ [3x (144.21 +144.21)] = 0.913 m
Mu (right) = 949.13 kNm
So, max moment wrt Z axis Mu (z) = 950 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth


deff = (600-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 542 mm
K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2
Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 3997 KNm
Hence OK

About Z Axis
Critical section for moment is at the face of column; wrt x axis:
Average Base Pressure along one edge = (133.69 + 133.69)x0.5 = 133.69
KN/m2 (left end)
Average Base Pressure along other edge = (154.73 + 154.73)x0.5 = 154.73
KN/m2 (right end)
Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 154.73 +(133.69154.731) x 2125/3950 = 143.42 KN/m2

Verification Manual 153

Chapter 4
4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7

Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 154.73 +(133.69154.73) x 1825/3950 = 145.01 KN/m2
Hence, the moment at the critical section, Mu = F x LA
Where:
F = (133.69 + 143.42) x 0.5 x 1.825 x 3.95 = 1080.38 KN
LA = (143.42 +2x 133.69) x 1.825/ [3x (144.21 +144.21)] = 0.923 m
Mu (right) = 997.19 kNm
So, max moment wrt Z axis Mu (z) = 998 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth


deff = (600-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 542 mm
K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2
Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 3997 KNm
Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction
From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,

154 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7

Astx = 5056 m2m


Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 2844 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 5056 m2m

Along Z Direction
From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,
Astx = 5323 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 2844 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 5323 m2m

Check for One-Way Shear


Along X Direction

Percentage of steel pt =
= 0.236
Average Base Pressure along one edge = (133.69 + 154.73)x0.5 = 144.21
KN/m2
Average Base Pressure along other edge = (133.69 + 154.73)x0.5 = 144.21
KN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 144.21 +(144.21 144.21) x 2667/3950 = 144.21 KN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 144.21 +(144.21 144.21) x 2667/3950 = 144.21 KN/m2
Hence, the SFat critical section
F = (144.21 +144.21) x0.5 x 1.283 x 3.95 = 730.84 KN
So max SFalong X axis Fux = 731 KN
Developed shear stress v = 731 x 1000 / (3950 x 542) = 0.341 N/mm2

Verification Manual 155

Chapter 4
4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7

Now allowable stress = 0.348 N/mm2


v < c, Hence Safe

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel pt =
= 0.2486
Average Base Pressure along one edge = (133.69 + 133.69)x0.5 = 133.69
KN/m2
Average Base Pressure along other edge = (154.73 + 154.73)x0.5 = 154.73
KN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 154.73 +(133.69 154.73) x 2667/3950 = 144.21 KN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 154.73 +(133.69 154.73) x 1283/3950 = 144.21 KN/m2
Hence, the SFat critical section (left)
F = (133.69 +140.53) x0.5 x 1.283 x 3.95 = 694.84 KN
Hence, the SF at critical section (right)
F = (15473 +147.90) x0.5 x 1.283 x 3.95 = 766.83 KN
So max SFalong X axis Fux = 731 KN

156 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7

So max SF=767 KN
Developed shear stress v = 767 x 1000 / (3950 x 542) = 0.358 N/mm2
Now allowable stress = 0.359 N/mm2
v < c
Hence Safe

Punching Shear
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 271 mm from the column face.
Area within Critical Perimeter Am = 0.709 m2
Vmax =

2148 KN

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 6 x d) = 3368 mm


v =

= 1.177 N/mm2

=L/B =3.95/3.95 =1
k=0.5 +=1.5 , k<=1
Hence, k=1
Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2
v < c
Hence safe

Verification Manual 157

Chapter 4
4.8 IS Toolkit Combined 1
Figure 4-11: Final Plan Dimensions

4.7.4 Comparison
Table 4-7: IS verification example 7 comparison
Reference
STAAD.foundation
Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Max Bearing
104.129
104.129 KN/m2
None
Pressure
KN/m2
MinBearing
118.148 KN
118.148 KN
None
Pressure
Governing
999 KN-m
994 KN-m
Negligible
Moment
950 KN-m
946 KN-m
Shear Force(One- 767 KN
764 KN
Negligible
Way)
731 KN
728 KN
Shear Force(Two- 2148 KN
2146 KN
Negligible
Way)

4.8 IS Toolkit Combined 1


4.8.1 Reference

158 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.8 IS Toolkit Combined 1

4.8.2 Problem
Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 400 KN each column., fc = 25
MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal height-500 mm.
and C/C column distance=3000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2. Coefficient of
friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5
Figure 4-12: Plan and Elevation

4.8.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 2x400/120 m2 = 6.67 m2
Assuming 5.75 m x 1.35 m x 0.600 m footing dimension,
(left overhang = right overhang = 1.375 m)
Weight of footing = 5.75 m x 1.35 m x 0.600 x 25 KN = 116.375 KN
Weight of pedestal=2x 0.3 x 0.3 x 0.5 x 25 = 2.25 KN
Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x400+116.375+2.25) KN = 918.625 KN
Maximum pressure = 918.625 /(5.75x1.35) = 118.34 KN/ m2 < 120 KN/m2
Hence safe
Ultimate pressure = 800 x 1.5/ (5.75 x 1.35) KN/m2 = 154.589 KN/m2

Verification Manual 159

Chapter 4
4.8 IS Toolkit Combined 1

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning
With Respect to Z Direction
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5.75 x 918.625 = 2641 KNm
Hence OK

With Respect to X Direction


Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 1.35 x 918.625 = 620 KNm
Hence OK

Check For Trial Depth Against Moment


About Z Axis (Sagging)
Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 197.2 KNm
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm
K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2
Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1376 KNm
Hence OK

About Z Axis (Hogging)


Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 37.49 KNm
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm
K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2
Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1376 KNm
Hence OK

160 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.8 IS Toolkit Combined 1

With Respect to X Axis


Cantilever length = (1.35-0.3)/2 = 0.525 m
Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 154.589 x5.75 x0.5252/2 =
122.5KNm
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm
K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2
Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 =5860 KNm
Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction (Bottom)
From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,
Astx = 1029 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 972 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 1029 m2m

Along X Direction (Top)


From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,
Astx = 192 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 972 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 972 m2m

Along Z Direction (Bottom)


From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,

Verification Manual 161

Chapter 4
4.8 IS Toolkit Combined 1

Astz = 627 m2m


Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 4140 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 4140 m2m
Figure 4-13: Dimension, Moment, and Shear and diagrams

Check for One-Way Shear

Percentage of steel pt =
Vumax = 168.2 KN

= 0.133

162 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.8 IS Toolkit Combined 1

Developed shear stress V = 168.2 x 1000 / (1350 x 544)= 0.229 N/mm2


Now allowable stress = 0.29 N/mm2
V < c, Hence Safe

Punching Shear
For Column 1
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face.
2 way shear= 489.89 KN
v =
N/mm2

= 489.89 x 1000/(300 x 2 + 300 x 2 + 544 x 4) x 544 = 0.2668

=L/B = 5.75/1.35 = 4.26


k=0.5 +=5.26 , k<=1
Hence, k=1
Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2
v < c , Hence safe

For Column 2
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face.
2 way shear= 489.89 KN
v =
N/mm2

= 489.89 x 1000 / (300 x 2 + 300 x 2 +544 x 4) x 544 = 0.2668

=L/B =5.75/1.35 =4.26


k=0.5 +=5.26 , k<=1
Hence, k=1
Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2
v < c , Hence safe

Verification Manual 163

Chapter 4
4.9 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 2

4.8.4 Comparison
Table 4-8: IS verification example 8 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Bearing Pressure
118.35
118.35 KN/m2
None
KN/m2
Governing Moment
197 KN-m 191.4 KN-m
Negligible
37.49 KNm

Shear Force(One-Way)
Shear Force(Two-Way)
Resisting Moment for
Overturning (Z)
Resisting Moment for
Overturning (X)

37.4 KN-m

122.5 KN-m
122.5 KNm
168.2 KN
168.2 KN
489.89 KN 489.88 KN

None
Negligible

489.89 KN 489.88 KN
2641 KNm 2641 KNm

None

620 KNm

None

620 KNm

4.9 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 2


4.9.1 Reference
4.9.2 Problem
Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 350 KN each column., fc = 25
MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal height-500 mm.
and C/C column distance=3000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 110 KN/m2. Coefficient of
friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5
Ht of soil =500 mm. Dry condition

164 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.9 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 2
Figure 4-14: Plan and Elevation

4.9.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 2x350/110 m2 = 6.36 m2
Assuming 5 m x 1.65 m x 0.600 m footing dimension,
( left overhang=right overhang=1m)
Weight of footing = 5 m x 1.65 m x 0.600 x25 KN = 123.75 KN
Weight of pedestal=2x0.3x0.3x0.5x25=2.25 KN
Weight of soil above footing = 5 m x 1.65 m x 0.500 x18 KN = 74.25 KN
Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x350+123.75+2.25+74.25) KN =
900.25 KN
Maximum pressure = 900.25 /(5 x1.65) = 109.12 KN/ m2
109.12 KN/ m2 <110 KN/m2
Hence safe
Ultimate pressure = 700 x 1.5 / (5.0 x 1.65) = 127.273 KN/m2

Verification Manual 165

Chapter 4
4.9 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 2

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning
About Z Direction
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5x 900.25 = 2250 KNm
Hence OK

About X Direction
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 1.65 x 900.25 = 742.7 KNm
Hence OK

Check For Trial Depth


Moment About Z Axis (Sagging)
Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 105 KNm
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm
K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2
Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1681.78 KNm
Hence OK

Moment About Z Axis (Hogging)


Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 131.2 KNm
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm
K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2
Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1681.78 KNm
Hence OK

Moment About X Axis


Cantilever length=(1.65-0.3)/2 = 0.675 m

166 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.9 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 2
Bending moment at critical section
Mux = 127.273 x5x0.6752/2 = 144.97 KNm
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm
K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2
Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 =5096.3 KNm
Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction (Bottom)
From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,
Astx = 541 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1188 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 1188 mm2

Along X Direction (Top)


From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,
Astx = 677 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1188 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 1188 mm2

Along Z Direction (Bottom)


From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,
Astz = 742 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 3600 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 3600 mm2

Verification Manual 167

Chapter 4
4.9 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 2

Check for One-Way Shear

Percentage of steel pt =
Vumax = 169.3 KN

= 0.133

Developed shear stress v = 169.3 x 1000 / (1650 x 544) = 0.1886 N/mm2


Now allowable stress = 0.29 N/mm2
v < c, Hence Safe

Punching Shear
For Column One
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face.
2 way shear= 434.3 KN
v =
N/mm2

= 434.3 x 1000 / (300 x 2 + 300 x 2 + 544 x 4) x 544 = 0.2356

=L/B =5.75/1.35 =4.26


k=0.5 +=5.26 , k<=1
Hence, k=1
Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2
v < c , Hence safe

For Column Two


Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face.
2 way shear= 434.3 KN
v =
N/mm2

= 434.3 x 1000 / (300 x 2 + 300 x 2 + 544 x 4) x 544 = 0.2356

=L/B =5.75/1.35 =4.26


k=0.5 +=5.26 , k<=1
Hence, k=1
Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2
v < c , Hence safe

168 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.9 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 2
Figure 4-15: ShearForce andBending Momentdiagrams

Verification Manual 169

Chapter 4
4.10 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 3

4.9.4 Comparison
Table 4-9: IS verification example 9 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Bearing Pressure
109.12
108.92
KN/m2 Negligible
KN/m2
Governing Moment
105 KN-m 101.8 KN-m
Negligible
131.2 KN-m 131.2 KN-m

Shear Force(One-Way)
Shear Force(Two-Way)
Resisting Moment for
Overturning (Z)
Resisting Moment for
Overturning (X)

144.97 KN- 144.97 KN-m


m
169.3 KN
169.26 KN
434.3 KN 434.3 KN

None
None

434.3 KN 434.3 KN
2250 KNm 2246 KNm

Negligible

742.7 KNm 741.37KNm

None

4.10 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 3


4.10.1 Reference
4.10.2 Problem
Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 350 KN each column., fc = 25
MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal height-500 mm.
and C/C column distance=3000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 130 KN/m2. Coefficient
of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5
Ht of soil =500 mm. Depth of GWT=200 mm

170 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.10 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 3
Figure 4-16: Plan and Elevation

4.10.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 2 x 500/130 m2 = 7.69 m2
Assuming 5.4 m x 1.65 m x 0.600 m footing dimension,
(left overhang = right overhang = 1.2m)
Weight of footing = 5.4 m x 1.65 m x 0.600 x25 KN = 133.65 KN
Weight of pedestal=2x0.3x0.3x0.5x25=2.25 KN
Weight of soil above footing = 5.4 m x 1.65 m x 0.500 x18 KN = 80.19 KN
Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 5.4 m x 1.65 m x (0.5+0.6-0.2) x9.81
KN = 78.67 KN
Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x500+133.65+2.25+80.19-78.67) KN =
1137.42 KN
Maximum pressure= 1137.42 /(5.4 x1.65) = 127.66 KN/ m2
127.66 KN/ m2 <130 KN/m2
Hence safe
Ultimate pressure = 1000 x 1.5 / (5.4 x 1.65) = 168.35 KN/m2

Verification Manual 171

Chapter 4
4.10 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 3

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning
wrt Z Direction
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5x 1137.42 = 3071 KNm
Hence OK

Wrt X Direction
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 1.65 x 1137.42 = 938.37 KNm
Hence OK

Check For Trial Depth Against Moment


About Z Axis (Sagging)
Bending moment at critical section
Mux = 200 KNm
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm
K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2
Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1681.78 KNm
Hence OK

About Z Axis (Hogging)


Bending moment at critical section
Mux = 112.4 KNm
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm
K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2
Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1681.78 KNm
Hence OK

172 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.10 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 3

About X Axis
Cantilever length = (1.65-0.3)/2 = 0.675 m
Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 168.35 x5.4x0.6752/2 = 207 KNm
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm
K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2
Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 =5504 KNm
Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction (Bottom)
From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,
Astx = 1040 mm2
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1188 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 1188 mm2

Along X Direction (Top)


From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,
Astx = 579 mm2
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1188 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 1188 mm2

Along Z Direction (Bottom)


From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,
Astz = 1062 mm2

Verification Manual 173

Chapter 4
4.10 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 3

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 3888 mm2 ( as fy>250)


Provided area = 3888 mm2
Figure 4-17: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

Check for One-Way Shear


Percentage of steel pt =
Vumax = 223.95 KN

= 0.133

Developed shear stress V = 223.95 x 1000 / (1650 x 544) = 0.249 N/mm2


Now allowable stress = 0.29 N/mm2
V < c, Hence Safe

174 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.10 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 3

Punching Shear
For Column 1
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face.
2 way shear= 630.07 KN
v =
N/mm2

= 630.07 x 1000 / (300 x 2 + 300 x 2 + 544 x 4) x 544 = 0.343

=L/B =5.4/1.65 =3.27


k=0.5 +=4.27 , k<=1
Hence, k=1
Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2
v < c , Hence safe

For Column 2
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face.
2 way shear= 630.07 KN
v =
N/mm2

= 630.07 x 1000 / (300 x 2 + 300 x 2 + 544 x 4) x 544 = 0.343

=L/B =5.4/1.65 =3.27


k=0.5 +=4.27 , k<=1
Hence, k=1
Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2
v < c , Hence safe

Verification Manual 175

Chapter 4
4.11 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 4

4.10.4 Comparison
Table 4-10: IS verification example 10 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Bearing Pressure
127.48
127.66
KN/m2 Negligible
KN/m2
Governing Moment
200 KN-m 199.9 KN-m
Negligible
112.4 KNm
Shear Force(One-Way)
Shear Force(Two-Way)
Resisting Moment for
Overturning (Z)
Resisting Moment for
Overturning (X)

112.4 KN-m

207 KN-m
207 KN-m
223.95 KN 223.89 KN
630.07 KN 630.08 KN

Negligible
None

630.07 KN 630.08 KN
3071 KNm 3067 KNm

Negligible

938.4 KNm 937 KNm

Negligible

4.11 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 4


4.11.1 Reference
4.11.2 Problem
Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 350 KN & Fx=-30 KN each
column., fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal
height-500 mm. and C/C column distance=4000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 90
KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning
=1.5. No soil above footing. Dry condition

176 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.11 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 4
Figure 4-18: Plan and Elevation

4.11.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 2x350/00 m2 = 7.78 m2
Assuming 6 m x 1.75 m x 0.600 m footing dimension,
(left overhang = right overhang = 1 m)
Weight of footing = 6 m x 1.75 m x 0.600 x25 KN = 157.5 KN
Weight of pedestal = 2 x 0.3 x 0.3 x 0.5 x 25 = 2.25 KN
Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x350+157.5 +2.25) KN = 859.75 KN
Maximum pressure for axial load=P/A = 859.75 /(6x1.75) = 81.88 KN/ m2
Moment on each col = 30 x (0.5 x 0.6) = 33 KNm
So total moment = 33 + 33 = 66 KNm
Z=1.75x6 2/6 = 10.5 m3
M/Z = 66/10.5 = 6.28 KN/m2
Streaa at left end = 81.88+6.28= 88.16 KN/m2
Streaa at right end = 81.88-6.28= 75.6 KN/m2
88.16 KN/ m2 <90 KN/m2
Hence safe

Verification Manual 177

Chapter 4
4.11 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 4

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning
wrt Z Direction
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 6 x 859.75 = 2579.25 KNm
Hence OK

Wrt X Direction
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 1.75 x 859.75 = 752.28 KNm
Hence OK

Check For Trial Depth against moment


About Z Axis (Sagging)
Bending moment at critical section
Mux = 95 KNm
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm
K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2
Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1783.71 KNm
Hence OK

About Z Axis (Hogging)


Bending moment at critical section
Mux = 264.25 KNm
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm
K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2
Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1783.71 KNm
Hence OK

178 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.11 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 4

About X Axis
Cantilever length=(1.75-0.3)/2 = 0.725 m
Bending moment at critical section, Mux = (109.43+90.57) x6x0.7252/2 = 157
KNm
Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth
deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm
K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2
Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 =5860 KNm
Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction (Bottom)
From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,
Astx = 490 mm2
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1260mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 1260 mm2

Along X Direction (Top)


From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,
Astx = 1380 mm2
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1260 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 1380 mm2

Along Z Direction (Bottom)


From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,

Verification Manual 179

Chapter 4
4.11 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 4

Astz = 807 mm2


Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 4321 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 4320 mm2

Check for One-Way Shear


Percentage of steel pt = 0.133
Vumax = 248.613 KN
Developed shear stress V = 0.261 N/mm2
Now allowable stress = 0.29 N/mm2
V < c, Hence Safe

Punching Shear
For Column One
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face.
2 way shear= 449.289 KN
v =
= 449.289 x 1000 / (300 x 2 + 300 x 2 + 544 x 4) x 544 =
0.245 N/mm2
=L/B =6/1.75 =3.43
k=0.5 +=4.43 , k<=1
Hence, k=1
Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2
v < c , Hence safe

For Column Two


Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face.
2 way shear= 458.245 KN
v =
= 458.245 x 1000 / (300 x 2 + 300 x 2 + 544 x 4) x 544 =
0.2496 N/mm2
=L/B =6/1.75 =3.43
k=0.5 +=4.43 , k<=1
Hence, k=1
Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2
v < c , Hence safe

180 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.11 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 4
Figure 4-19: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

Verification Manual 181

Chapter 4
4.12 IS Pilecap 1

4.11.4 Comparison
Table 4-11: IS verification example 11 comparison
Reference
STAAD.foundation Percent
Value of
Result
Result
Difference
Bearing Pressure
88.17 KN/m2 88.16 KN/m2
Negligible
Governing Moment

75.59 KN/m2
129.7 KN-m

75.6 KN/m2
95 KN-m

8.5%

264.25 KN-m

264.25 KN-m

None

157 KN-m
Shear Force(One-Way) 248.61 KN
Shear Force(Two-Way) 449.289 KN
458.245 KN
Resisting Moment for
Overturning (Z)
Resisting Moment for
Overturning (X)

167 KN-m
248.61 KN
449.29 KN

6%
None
None

2579.25 KNm

458.24 KN
2579.25 KNm

None

752.28 KNm

752.28 KNm

None

4.12 IS Pilecap 1
4.12.1 Reference
4.12.2 Problem
Design pilecap foundation with the given data: Load Fy = 800 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415
MPa, Column Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm. Pedestal ht= 500 mm
Pile Data- Dia of pile= 400 mm.
Vertical capacity = 250 KN,
Horizontal capacity = 100 KN
Uplift capacity = 80 KN

182 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.12 IS Pilecap 1
Figure 4-20: Plan and Elevation

4.12.3 Solution
depth of pilecap= 1.5xpiledia, D = 600 mm
Take D=650 mm
c/c pile diatance = 3xpile dia =1200 mm. Edge diatance = 350 mm
Assuming 4 pile combination, Coordinates of piles (considering pedestal at 0,0,0)
Table 4-12: Pile Locations
X CoorPile No
dinate
(mm
1
-600
2
-600
3
600
4
600

in Plan
Z Coordinate
(mm)
-600
600
600
-600

pilecap dimension is 1900 mm x1900 mm x 650 mm


Weight of footing = 1.9 x1.9 x 0.65 x 25 KN = 58.66 KN

Verification Manual 183

Chapter 4
4.12 IS Pilecap 1

Weight of pedestal = 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5 x 25 KN = 0.78 KN


Therefore, total load on the pilecap = (800+58.66 +0.78) KN = 859.44 KN
So Pile reaction = 859.44 /4= 214.86 KN<250 KN
Hence OK
As there is no lateral load , moment or uplift force, so each pile is safe in lateral & uplift
capacity.

Factored Design
Load factor for self wt is taken =1
Load factor for axial load is taken 1.5
So, Load on pilecap = 1.5 x 800 + 58.66 x 1 + 0.78 x 1 = 1259.44 KN
Load on each pile = 1259.44 /4 = 314.86 KN

Calculation of Moment about Z Axis

For moment wrt X1X1


Contribution from pile 1 = from pile 2 = 314.86 x 0.475 = 149.56 KN
So Total Mz X1X1 = 299.12 KNm
For moment wrt X2X2
Contribution from pile 3 = from pile 4 = 314.86 x 0.475 = 149.56 KNm
So Total Mz X2X2 = 299.12 KNm
So Max value of Mz = 299.12 KNm

Calculation of Moment about X Axis


For moment wrt Z1Z1
184 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.12 IS Pilecap 1

Contribution from pile 1 = from pile 4 = 314.86 x 0.475 = 149.56 KNm


So Total Mx Z1Z1 = 299.12 KNm
For moment wrt Z2Z2
Contribution from pile 2 = from pile 3 = 314.86 x 0.475 = 149.56 KNm
So Total Mx Z2Z2 = 299.12 KNm
So Max value of MX = 299.12 KNm

Check For Trial Depth against moment


About Z Axis
Bending moment at critical section
Muz = 299.12 KN-m
Assuming 50 mm clear cover, 50 mm pile in pilecap & and 12 mm bar, effective depth
deff = 532 mm
K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy ) = 0.479107
Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2
B =1900 mm ,

deff = 532 mm

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1852 KNm


Hence OK

AboutX Axis
Bending moment at critical section
Mux = 299.12 KN-m
Assuming 50 mm clear cover, 50 mm pile in pilecap & and 12 mm bar, effective depth
deff = 532 mm
K=700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2
B =1900 mm ,

D = 532 mm

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1852 KNm


Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction
From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

Verification Manual 185

Chapter 4
4.12 IS Pilecap 1

Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,
Astx = 1558 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1482 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 1558 m2m

Along Z Direction
From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,
AstZ = 1558 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1482 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 1558 m2m

Calculation of Shear

Parallel to X Axis
For shear wrt X1X1
Contribution from pile 1 = pile 2 = 317.116 x 0.375 = 113.37 KN
So Total V X1X1 = 226.74 KN
For shear wrt X2X2
Contribution from pile 3 = pile 4 = 317.116 x 0.375 = 113.37 KN

186 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.12 IS Pilecap 1

So Total V X2X2 = 226.74 KN


So Maximum V parallel to X direction = 226.74 KN

Parallel to Z Axis
For shear wrt Z1Z1
Contribution from pile 1 = pile 4 = 317.116 x 0.375 = 113.37 KN
So Total V Z1Z1 = 226.74 KN
For shear wrt Z2Z2
Contribution from pile 2 = pile 3 = 317.116 x 0.375 = 113.37 KN
So Total V Z2Z2 = 226.74 KN
So Max V parallel to Z direction = 226.74 KN

Check for One-Way Shear


Along X Direction

Percentage of steel pt =
Vumax = 226.74 KN

= 0.154

Developed shear stress V = 226.74 x 1000 / 1900 x 532 = 0.224 N/mm2


Now allowable stress = 0.293 N/mm2
V < c, Hence Safe

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel pt =
Vumax = 226.74 KN

= 0.154

Developed shear stress V = 226.74 x 1000 / 1900 x 532 = 0.224 N/mm2


Now allowable stress = 0.293 N/mm2
V < c, Hence Safe

Verification Manual 187

Chapter 4
4.12 IS Pilecap 1

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d =266 mm from the column face.
Contribution from pile 1 = from pile 2 = from pile 3 = from pile 4 = 317.12
KN
So total punching shear Vmax= 1268.464 KN
4x(250+532/2+532/2)=3128 mm
v =

= 0.76 N/mm2

=L/B =1900/1900 =1
k=0.5 +=1.5 , k<=1
Hence, k=1
Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2
v < c , Hence safe

4.12.4 Comparison
Table 4-13: IS verification example 12 comparison
Reference
STAAD.foundation
Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Governing
299.12 KNm 229.112 KN-m
None
Moment
Shear Force(One- 226.74 KN
222 KN
Negligible
Way)
Shear Force(Two- 1268.464 KN 1259.44 KN
None
Way)

188 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.13 ISPilecap 2

4.13 ISPilecap 2
4.13.1 Reference
4.13.2 Problem
Design pilecap foundation with the given data: Load Fy = 1100 KN, Mx= 50 KNm, Fz= 50
KN,fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm. Pedestal ht= 500
mm
Pile Data- Dia of pile= 400 mm.
Vertical capacity =300 KN,
Horizontal capacity = 100 KN
Uplift capacity = 80 KN
Figure 4-21: Plan, Elevation, and Pedestal dimensions

4.13.3 Solution
depth of pilecap= 1.5 x pile dia, D=600 mm
Take D=800 mm
Verification Manual 189

Chapter 4
4.13 ISPilecap 2
c/c pile diatance = 3xpile dia =1200 mm. Edge diatance =350 mm
Assuming 5 pile combination,
Coordinates of piles considering pedestal at 0,0,0)

Table 4-14: Pile Coordinates in Plan


Pile X Coordinate Z Coordinate
No
(mm)
(mm)
1
-849
-849
2
-849
849
3
0
0
4
849
-849
5
849
-849
pilecap dimension is 2397 mm x2397 mm x 800 mm
Weight of footing = 2.397 x 2.397 x 0.8 x 25 KN = 114.9 KN
Weight of pedestal = 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5 x 25 KN = 0.78 KN
Therefore, total load on the pilecap = (1100+114.9 +0.78) KN = 1215.69 KN
So Pile reaction from axial load= 1215.69 /5= 243.136KN
Moment from lateral load = (0.8+0.5) x 50= 65 KNm
Moment Mx ( from input) = 50 KNm
So Total moment = 115 KNm
Using Rivet theoryReaction from moment= +/- 115x0.849/(4x0.849 2) = +/-33.86 KNm
So
Reaction at Pile 2= reaction at pile 5 = 243.136+33.86 =276.996 KN
Reaction at Pile 1= reaction at pile 4 = 243.136-33.86 =209.276 KN
Reaction at Pile 3= 243.136 KN
So Critical vertical reaction= 277 KN< 300 KN
Lateral reaction = 50/5 = 10 KN < 50 KN, Hence OK
As there is no net uplift load, so each pile is safe in uplift capacity.

190 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.13 ISPilecap 2

Factored Design
Load factor for self wt is taken =1
Load factor for axial load is taken 1.5
So, Axial Load on pilecap = 1.5x1100+114.9 x1+0.78x1= 1765.68 KN
Moment on pilecap = 1.5x115= 172.5 KNm
Load on each pile from axial reaction =1765.68 /5=353.136 KN
Reaction from moment= +/- 172.5x0.849/(4x0.849 2) = +/-50.795 KNm
So
Reaction at Pile 2= reaction at pile 5 = 353.136 +50.795 =403.931 KN
Reaction at Pile 1= reaction at pile 4 = 353.136 -50.795 =302.341 KN
Reaction at Pile 3= 353.136 KN

Calculation of Moment

About Z Axis
For moment wrt X1X1
Contribution from pile 1=302.341 x 0.724=218.89 KNm
Contribution from pile 2=403.931 x 0.724=292.446 KNm
Contribution from pile 3=1.4 KNm
So Total Mz X1X1 = 512.74 KNm

Verification Manual 191

Chapter 4
4.13 ISPilecap 2
For moment wrt X2X2
Contribution from pile 4=302.341 x 0.724=218.89 KNm
Contribution from pile 5=403.931 x 0.724=292.446 KNm
Contribution from pile 3=1.4 KNm
So Total Mz X2X2 = 512.74 KNm
So Max value of Mz = 512.74 KNm

About X Axis
For moment wrt Z1Z1
Contribution from pile 1=302.341 x 0.724=218.89 KNm
Contribution from pile 4=302.341 x 0.724=218.89 KNm
Contribution from pile 3=1.4 KNm
So Total Mx Z1Z1 = 439.18 KNm
For moment wrt Z2Z2
Contribution from pile 2 = 403.931 x 0.724=292.446 KNm
Contribution from pile 5 = 403.931 x 0.724=292.446 KNm
Contribution from pile 3=1.4 KNm
So Total Mx Z2Z2 = 586.292 KNm
So Max value of MX = 586.292 KNm

Check For Trial Depth


Moment About Z Axis
Bending moment at critical section
Muz = 512.74 KN-m
Assuming 50 mm clear cover, 50 mm pile in pilecap & and 12 mm bar, effective depth
deff = 695 mm
K=700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2
B =2397 mm ,

deff = 532 mm

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 3987.7 KNm


Hence OK

Moment AboutX Axis


Bending moment at critical section

192 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.13 ISPilecap 2

Mux = 586.292 KN-m


Assuming 50 mm clear cover, 50 mm pile in pilecap & and 12 mm bar, effective depth
deff = 695 mm
K=700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107
Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2
B =2397 mm ,

deff = 532 mm

Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 3987.7 KNm


Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction
From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,
Astx = 2046 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 2300 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 2300 m2m

Along Z Direction
From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:
Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck)
So solving equation for Ast,
AstZ = 2341 m2m
Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 2300 mm2 ( as fy>250)
Provided area = 2341 m2m

Verification Manual 193

Chapter 4
4.13 ISPilecap 2

Calculation of Shear
Parallel to X Axis

For shear wrt X1X1


Contribution from pile 1 =302.341 x0.572=173 KN
Contribution from pile 2=403.931 x0.572=231KN

So Total V X1X1 = 404 KN


For shear wrt X2X2
Contribution from pile 4 =302.341 x0.572=173 KN
Contribution from pile 5=403.931 x0.572=231KN
So Total V X2X2 = 404 KN
So Max V parallel to X direction = 404 KN

Parallel to Z Axis
For shear wrt Z1Z1
Contribution from pile 1 =302.341 x0.572=173 KN
Contribution from pile 4 =302.341 x0.572=173 KN
So Total V Z1Z1 = 346 KN
For shear wrt Z2Z2
194 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.13 ISPilecap 2

Contribution from pile 2=403.931 x0.572=231KN


Contribution from pile 5=403.931 x0.572=231KN
So Total V Z2Z2 = 462 KN
So Max V parallel to Z direction = 462 KN

Check for One-Way Shear


Along X Direction

Percentage of steel pt =
Vumax = 404 KN

= 0.138

Developed shear stress V = 404 x 1000 / (2397 x 695) = 0.24 N/mm2


Now allowable stress = 0.29 N/mm2
V < c, Hence Safe

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel pt =
Vumax = 462 KN

= 0.141

Developed shear stress V = 462 x 1000 / (2397 x 695) = 0.277 N/mm2


Now allowable stress = 0.29 N/mm2
V < c, Hence Safe

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d =347.5 mm from the column face.

Verification Manual 195

Chapter 4
4.14 IS Mat Combined Foundation 1

Contribution from pile 1 = from pile 4 = 302.34 KN


Contribution from pile 2 = from pile 5 = 403.93 KN
Contribution from pile 3 =0 KN
So total punching shear Vmax= 1412.544 KN
4x(250+347.5 +347.5)=3780 mm
v =

= 0.538 N/mm2

=L/B =2397/2397 =1
k=0.5 +=1.5 , k2397<=1
Hence, k=1
Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2
v < c , Hence safe

4.13.4 Comparison
Table 4-15: IS verification example 13 comparison
Reference
STAAD.foundation
Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Governing
586 KNm
570 KNm
Negligible
Moment
512.74 KNm 512.5 KNm
Shear Force(One- 462 KN
461 KN
Negligible
Way)
404 KN
415 KN
Shear Force(Two- 1412.544 KN 1412 KN
None
Way)
Depth
800 mm
800 mm
None

4.14 IS Mat Combined Foundation 1


4.14.1 Reference
Reinforced Concrete Design by Pillai & Menon, Page 652, Example 14.7.

4.14.2 Problem
Design a combined footing for two columns with the given data: C1 (400 mm x 400 mm)
with 4-25 bars and C2 (500 mm x 500mm) with 4-28 bars supporting axial loads P1
= 900 KN and P2 = 1600 KN respectively (under service dead and live loads). The column
C1 is an exterior column whose exterior face is flush with the property line. The center-tocentre distance between C1 and C2 is 4.5 meters. The allowable soil pressure at the base of
the footing, 1.5 m below ground level, is 240 KN/m2. Assume a steel of grade Fe 415 in
the columns as well as the footing, and a concrete grade of M 20 in the footing.

196 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.14 IS Mat Combined Foundation 1
Figure 4-22: Footing Plan

Figure 4-23: >Loads on Footing

4.14.3 Solution
Dimension of Mat (Based on the bearing Capacity given):
Length = 6.16 m
Width = 2 m
Depth = 0.95 m

Calculation for base-pressure


Self-weight of mat = 6.16 x 2 x 0.95 x 25 KN = 292.6 KN
Total load on the mat = (1600+900+200.2) KN = 2792.6 KN
Base pressure = 279.6 / (6.16 x 2) KN/m2 = 226.67 KN/m2 < 240 KN/m2
(Hence Safe)
Ultimate load for C 1 = Pu1 = 1.5 x 900 = 1350 KN
Ultimate load for C 2 = Pu2 = 1.5 x 1600 = 2400 KN
Then uniformly distributed upward load = (Pu1+Pu2)/6.16 KN/m = 608.8
KN/m
Developed shear stress,
Verification Manual 197

Chapter 4
4.14 IS Mat Combined Foundation 1

= 0.533 N/mm2 <

c,allowable

Hence safe
Maximum shear for C 2 = 2400 KN
Developed shear stress,

= 0.508 N/mm2 <

c,allowable

Hence safe
Note: There is no deduction for the upward force underneath the area enclosed by the
critical perimeter. This approach is conservative.

Calculation of reinforcement
Maximum negative moment Mu(-) = 1227 KN-m
Maximum negative moment/width = 1227/2 KN-m/m = 613.5 KN-m/m
Area of steel required on top face along length,

Ast = 0.5 x

x B x de

B = 1000 mm
de = 865 mm
Mu= 613.5 x 106 N-mm
Ast = 2067.97 mm2/m
Ast,min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1140mm2/m

198 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000)


4.14 IS Mat Combined Foundation 1
Figure 4-24: Shear Force (kN, top) and Bending Moment (kNm, bottom) diagrams

4.14.4 Comparison
Table 4-16: IS verification example 14 comparison
Reference
STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Max Bending
603.201 KN- 613.5 KN-m/m
1.68
Moment(-)
m/m
Max Bending
219.687 KN- 223 KN-m/m
1.48
Moment(+)
m/m
Area of Steal
2014.835
2067.97 mm2/m
2.56
Required
mm2/m
Base Pressure
227 KN/m2
226.67 KN/m2
Negligible

Verification Manual 199

Chapter 4
4.14 IS Mat Combined Foundation 1

200 (Undefined variable: Primary.ProductName)

Section 5

United States Code (ACI


318 -2005)
5.1 US General Isolated Foundation 1
5.1.1 Reference
Notes on ACI318-02 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete with Design
Applications by B.A. Fanella and B. G. Robert, Page 22-7, Example 22.1-22.3.

5.1.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Service dead load = 350 kips, Service live
load = 275 kips, Service surcharge = 100 psf, Average weight of soil above footing = 130 pcf,
Permissible soil pressure = 4.5 ksf, Column dimension = 30 x 12 in, Strength of concrete
(fc) = 3,000 psi, and Strength of steel (fy) = 60,000 psi.

Verification Manual 201

Chapter 5
5.1 US General Isolated Foundation 1
Figure 5-1: Elevation and loads

5.1.3 Solution
Determination of base area of footing:
The base area of footing is determined using service (unfactored) loads with the net
permissible soil pressure.
Total weight of surcharge = (0.130 x 5 + 0.1) = 0.75 ksf
Net permissible soil pressure = 4.5 0.75 = 3.75 ksf
Required base area of footing = (320 + 275) / 3.75 = 166.667 ft 2
[Clause 15.2.2]
Use a 13 x 13 ft square footing (Af = 169 ft 2).
Factored loads and soil reaction:
To proportion the footing for strength (depth and required reinforcement) factored loads
are used. [Clause 15.2.1]
Pu = 1.2 x 350 + 1.6 x 275 = 860 kips [Eq. 9-2]
qu = (Pu/A) = (860/169) = 5.089 ksf

202 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.1 US General Isolated Foundation 1
Figure 5-2: Considered sections for two-way (b ) and beam (b ) action
o

Depth requirement for shear usually controls the footing thickness.


Both wide action and two-way action for strength computation need to be investigated to
determine the controlling shear criteria for depth. [Clause 11.2]
Assume overall footing thickness = 33 in. and average effective thickness d = 28 in. = 2.33
ft.

Wide-beam action
Vu = qs x tributary area
Bw = 13 ft = 156 in.
Tributary area = 13(6.0 2.33) = 47.71 ft 2
Vu = 5.089 x 47.71 = 242.796 kips
V = (2(f'c)bwd) [Eq 11 - 3]
= 0.75(2(3000) x 156 x 28)/1000 [Clause 9.3.2.3]
= 359 kips > Vu O.K.

Two-way action
Vu = qs x tributary area

Tributary area =

= 152.889 ft 2

Vu = 5.089 x 152.889 = 778.052 kips

Verification Manual 203

Chapter 5
5.1 US General Isolated Foundation 1

= Minimum of
[Eq 11-33,11-34 & 11-35 respectively]
bo = 2(30 + 28) + 2(12 + 28) = 196 in.

bo/d= 196/28 = 7
= 40 for interior columns

=
Vc = 0.75 x 3.6 (3000) x 196 x 28/1000 = 812 kips > Vu = 780 kips
O.K.

Calculation of Reinforcement
Figure 5-3: Critical section for moment (long projection)

Critical section for moment is at face of column [Clause 15.4.2]


Mu = 5.089 x 13 x 6 2/2 = 1190.862 ft-kips
Compute required As assuming tension-controlled section ( = 0.9)
[Clause 10.3.4, 9.3.2.1]
204 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.1 US General Isolated Foundation 1

Required Rn =

psi

p(gross area) = (d/h) x 0.0022 = (28/33) x 0.0022 = 0.00186


Check minimum As required for footings of uniform thickness; for grade 60 reinforcement:
[Clause 10.5.4]
min = 0.00180 < 0.00186 O.K. [Clause 7.12.2]
Required As = bd = 0.0022 x 156 x 28 = 9.61 in. 2
Try 13-No. 8bars (As = 10.27 in. 2) each way

Check for Development Length


Critical section for development length is same as that for moment (at face of column).
[Clause 15.6.3]

Ld =

[Eq. 12-1]

Clear cover (bottom and side) = 3.0 in.

Center-to-center bar spacing =

in.

[Clause 12.2.4]

C = minimum of

Ktr = 0 (no transverse reinforcement)

= 3.5 > 2.5, use 2.5 [Clause 12.2.3]


= 1.0 (less than 12 in. of concrete below bars) [Clause 12.2.4]
= 1.0 (uncoated reinforcement)
= 1.0 < 1.7
= 1.0 (larger than No.7 bars)

Verification Manual 205

Chapter 5
5.2 US General Isolated Foundation 2

= 1.0 (Normal weight concrete)

Ld =
12.2.1]

= 32.9 in. >12.0 in. O.K. [Clause

Since Ld = 32.9 in. is less than the available embedment length in the short direction
(156/2 - 30/2 - 3 = 60 in.), the No.8 bars can be fully developed.
Use 13 No.8 each way.

5.1.4 Comparison
Table 5-1: US verification example 1 comparison
Reference
STAAD.foundation
Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Effective Depth
28 in
28 in
None
Governing
1190.86 ft1190.77 ft-kips
Negligible
Moment
kips
Area of Steal
9.61 in2
9.70 in2
0.94
Shear Stress (One- 242.79 kips
242.56 kips
Negligible
Way)
Shear Stress (Two- 778.05 kips
778.01 kips
Negligible
Way)

5.2 US General Isolated Foundation 2


5.2.1 Reference
5.2.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 200 Kip, fc = 4 Ksi, fy = 60 Ksi,
Column Dimension = 12 inch x 12 inch, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 2.2 Kip/sqft.
Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

206 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.2 US General Isolated Foundation 2
Figure 5-4: Elevation and Plan

5.2.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 200/2.2 = 90.9 sqft
Assuming 122 inch x122 inch x18 inch footing dimension,
Weight of footing = 122 x122 x18 x 0.159/(123)= 24.66 Kip
Therefore, total load on the footing = (200+24.66) KN = 224.66 Kip
Maximum pressure = 224.66 /(122 x 122) = 0.0151 Ksi=2.17 Kip/sqft <2.2
Kip/sqft (Hence safe)
Ultimate pressure =200x1.5/(122x122)= KN/m2 = 0.020156 Ksi

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning and sliding
Along X Direction
Sliding force = 0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 224.66 =
112.33 Kip
Hence OK

Verification Manual 207

Chapter 5
5.2 US General Isolated Foundation 2

Overturning Moment = 0
max resisting Moment = 0.5x 122 x 224.66 = 13704.26 in kip
Hence OK

Along Z Direction
Sliding force = 0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation= 0.5 x 224.66 =
112.33 Kip
Hence OK
Overturning Moment = 0
max resisting Moment = 0.5x 122 x 224.66 = 13704.26 in kip
Hence OK

Punching Shear
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 7.5 inch from the column face.
Effective Depth=D-clear cover-1=18-2-1=15 inch
Punching Shear Vm = 0.018813 x 122 x 122 - 0.0189 x 27 x 27 = 266.24 Kip
Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 2 x d) = 108 inch
Vm1 = Vmax / (Pm*d)= 164.81 Ksi
c=Width of col/depth of col=12/12=1
bc=2.(b+d+2.deff)=108 inch
V1

fc.bc.d = (2+4/1).(4000) x 108 x 15 = 614746.78 lb

V2
774125.57 lb

fc.bc.d = (40x15/108+2). (4000) x 108 x 15 =

V2 = 4.fc.bc.de=4.(4000) x 108 x 15 = 409831.18 lb


Vc = min {V1, V2, V3} =409831.185 lb
So, 0.75Vc = 307.374 Kip
Vm< 0.75.Vc , Hence safe

Check for One-Way Shear


Along Z Direction

Vumax = 0.0189 x 122 x

= 92.24 Kip

208 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.2 US General Isolated Foundation 2

Now allowable shear = Vc1 =


231.48 Kip

= 2x(4000) x 122 x 15 lb =

0.75.Vc1=173.61 Kip
V < Vc1, Hence Safe
So Vumax < Vc1 , Hence Safe

Along Z Direction

Vumax = 0.0189 x 122 x

= 92.24 Kip

Now allowable shear = Vc1 =


231.48 Kip

= 2x(4000) x 122 x 15 lb =

0.75.Vc1=173.61 Kip
V < Vc1, Hence Safe
So Vumax < Vc1 , Hence Safe

Check For Trial Depth Against Moment


About X Axis
m = fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471
1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4)
bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507
max = 0.75. bal = 0.02138
min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)
Bending moment at critical section
Mux = 0.0189 x 122 x 55 x 55 / 2 = 3487.55 in kip
So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =3875.56 in kip
Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.1412 Ksi
2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002405
min < < max Hence OK

About Z Axis
m = fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471
1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4)
bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507

Verification Manual 209

Chapter 5
5.2 US General Isolated Foundation 2

max = 0.75. bal = 0.02138


min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)
Bending moment at critical section
Mux = 0.0189 x 122 x 55 x 55 /2 = 3487.55 in kip
So Resisting Moment = Mnz = Muz/ =3875.56 in kip
Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.1412 Ksi
2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002405
min < < max Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction
x = 0.002405
Therefore, Astx = x *b*d = 4.4 in2

Along Z Direction
z = 0.002405
Therefore, Astz = z*b*d = 4.4 in2

5.2.4 Comparison
Table 5-2: US verification example 2 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Effective Depth
15 inch
15 inch
None
Bearing Pressure
0.0151 Ksi 0.0151 Ksi
None
Governing Moment
3487 in kip 3471 in kip
Negligible
Shear Force(One-Way)
Shear Force(Two-Way)
Resisting force for
sliding
Resisting Moment for
Overturning

3487 in kip 3471 in kip


92.24 Kip
91.8 Kip

Negligible

92.24 Kip
91.8 Kip
266.24 Kip 266.29 Kip
112.33 Kip 112.33 Kip

Negligible
None

13704.26
in kip

210 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

13703.75 in kip

Negligible

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.3 US General Isolated Foundation 3

5.3 US General Isolated Foundation 3


5.3.1 Reference
5.3.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 250 Kip, fc = 4 Ksi, fy = 60 Ksi,
Column Dimension = 12 inch x 12 inch, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 2Kip/sqft.
Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5
Figure 5-5: Elevation and Plan

5.3.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 250/2 = 125 sqft
Assuming 160 inch x160 inch x21 inch footing dimension,
Weight of footing 160 x160 x21 x 0.159/(123)= 49.47 Kip
Weight of soil above footing 160 x160 x32 x 0.159/(123)= 53.57 Kip
Therefore, total load on the footing = (250+49.47 +53.57) KN = 353.04 Kip

Verification Manual 211

Chapter 5
5.3 US General Isolated Foundation 3

Maximum pressure = 353.04/(160x160) = 0.0138 Ksi=1.9872 Kip/sqft <2


Kip/sqft
Hence safe
Ultimate pressure = 200 x 1.5/(122 x 122)= KN/m2 = 0.020156 Ksi

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning and sliding
Along X Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 353.04 =
176.52 Kip
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5x 160 x 353.04 = 28243.2 in kip
Hence OK

Along Z Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 353.04 =
176.52 Kip
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5x 160 x 353.04 = 28243.2 in kip
Hence OK

Punching Shear
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 9 inch from the column face.
Effective Depth=D-clear cover-1=21-2-1=18 inch
Punching Shear Vm= 0.013673x160x160-0.0137x30x30=337.68 Kip
Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 2 x d) = 120 inch
c=Width of col/depth of col=12/12=1
bc=2.(b+d+2.deff)=120 inch
V1

fc.bc.d = (2+4/1).(4000) x120x18 =819662.37 lb

212 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.3 US General Isolated Foundation 3

V2

fc.bc.d = (40x18/120+2).(4000) x120x18=1092883.16 lb

V2= 4 .fc.bc.de=4.(4000) x120x18=546441.58 lb


Vc =
=546441.58 lb
So, 0.75Vc=409.832 Kip
Vm< 0.75xVc , Hence safe

Check for One-Way Shear


Along X Direction

Vumax = 0.0137 x 160 x


Now allowable shear = Vc1 =
0.75.Vc1 = 273.2 Kip

= 122.76 Kip
= 2x(4000) x160x18 lb =364.3 Kip

So Vumax < 0.75x Vc1, Hence Safe

Along Z Direction

Vumax = 0.0137 x 160 x


Now allowable shear = Vc1 =
0.75.Vc1 = 273.2 Kip

= 122.76 Kip
= 2x(4000) x160x18 lb =364.3 Kip

So Vumax <0.75x Vc1 , Hence Safe

Check For Trial Depth against moment


About X Axis
m = fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471
1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4)
bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507
max = 0.75. bal = 0.02138
min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)
Bending moment at critical section
Mux = = 0.0137 x 160 x 74 x 74 /2 = 6002 in kip
So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =6668.89 in kip

Verification Manual 213

Chapter 5
5.3 US General Isolated Foundation 3

Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.1287 Ksi


2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002188
min < < max Hence OK

About Z Axis
m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471
1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4)
bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507
max = 0.75. bal = 0.02138
min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)
Bending moment at critical section
Mux = = 0.0137 x 160 x 74 x 74 / 2 = 6002 in kip
So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =6668.89 in kip
Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.1287 Ksi
2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002188
min < < max Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction
x = 0.002188
Therefore, Astx = x *b*d = 6.3 in2

Along Z Direction
z = 0.002188
Therefore, Astz = z*b*d = 6.3 in2

214 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.4 US General Isolated Foundation 4

5.3.4 Comparison
Table 5-3: US verification example 3 comparison
Reference
STAAD.foundation
Value of
Result
Result
Effective Depth
18 inch
18 inch
Bearing Pressure
0.0138 Ksi
0.0138 Ksi
Governing Moment
6002 in kip
5989 in kip
6002 in kip
5989 in kip
Shear Force(One92.24 Kip
91.8 Kip
Way)
92.24 Kip
91.8 Kip
Shear Force(Two337.68 Kip
337.7 Kip
Way)
Resisting force for
176.52 Kip
176.37 Kip
sliding
Resisting Moment for 28243.2 in kip 28218.85 in kip
Overturning

Percent Difference
None
None
Negligible
Negligible
None
Negligible
Negligible

5.4 US General Isolated Foundation 4


5.4.1 Reference
5.4.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 300 Kip, fc = 4 Ksi, fy = 60 Ksi,
Column Dimension = 12 inch x 12 inch, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 2.1Kip/sqft.
Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Verification Manual 215

Chapter 5
5.4 US General Isolated Foundation 4
Figure 5-6: Elevation and Plan

5.4.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required =300/2.1 = 142.86 sqft
Assuming 158 inch x158 inch x21 inch footing dimension,
Weight of footing 158 x158 x21 x 0.159/(123)= 48.24 Kip
Weight of soil above footing 158 x158 x25 x 0.159/(123)= 40.82 Kip
Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 158 x158 x(25+21-10) x 3.61398x105= 32.479 Kip
Therefore, total load on the footing = (300+48.24 +40.82 -32.479) = 356.581
Kip
Maximum pressure = 356.581 /(158x158) = 0.0143 Ksi=2.059 Kip/sqft <2.1
Kip/sqft
Hence safe
Ultimate pressure =200x1.5/(122x122)= KN/m2 = 0.020156 Ksi

216 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.4 US General Isolated Foundation 4

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning and sliding
Along X Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation=0.5 x 356.581 =
178.29 Kip
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5x 158 x 356.581 = 28169.899 in kip
Hence OK

Along Z Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation=0.5 x 356.581 =
178.29 Kip
Hence OK
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5x 158 x 356.581 = 28169.899 in kip
Hence OK

Punching Shear
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 9 inch from the column face.
Effective Depth=D-clear cover-1=21-2-1=18 inch
Punching Shear Vm= 0.016825 x 158 x 158 - 0.0169 x 30 x 30 = 404.81 Kip
Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 2 x d) = 120 inch
c = Width of col/depth of col = 12/12=1
bc = 2.(b+d+2.deff) = 120 inch

Verification Manual 217

Chapter 5
5.4 US General Isolated Foundation 4
Figure 5-7: Section considered for two-way shear

V1

fc.bc.d = (2+4/1).(4000) x120x18 =819662.37 lb

V2
lb

fc.bc.d = (40x18/120+2).(4000) x120x18=1092883.16

V3= 4.fc.bc.de=4.(4000) x120x18=546441.58 lb


Vc = min{V1, V2, V3} = 546441.58 lb
So, 0.75Vc=409.832 Kip
Vm< 0.75.Vc , Hence safe

Check for One-Way Shear


Along X Direction

Vumax = 0.0169 x 158 x


Now allowable shear = Vc1 =
0.75.Vc1=269.81 Kip

= 146.87 Kip
= 2x(4000) x158x18 lb = 359.74 Kip

So Vumax <0.75x Vc1 , Hence Safe

218 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.4 US General Isolated Foundation 4

Along Z Direction

Vumax = 0.0169 x 158 x


Now allowable shear = Vc1 =
0.75.Vc1=269.81 Kip

= 146.87 Kip
= 2x(4000) x158x18 lb = 359.74 Kip

So Vumax < 0.75xVc1 , Hence Safe

Check for Trial Depth


Moment About X Axis
m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471
1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4)
bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507
max = 0.75. bal = 0.021381
min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)
Bending moment at critical section
Mux = 0.0169 x 158 x 73 x 73 / 2 = 7114.95 in kip
So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =7905.56 in kip
Rn = Mnx/b.d2 =0.1545 Ksi
2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002637
min < < max Hence OK

Moment About Z Axis


m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471
1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4)
bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507
max = 0.75. bal = 0.021381
min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)
Bending moment at critical section
Mux = 0.0169 x 158 x 73 x 73 / 2 = 7114.95 in kip
So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =7905.56 in kip
Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.1545 Ksi

Verification Manual 219

Chapter 5
5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5

2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK


= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002637
min < < max Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction
x = 0.002637
Therefore, Astx = x *b*d = 7.45 in2

Along Z Direction
z = 0.002637
Therefore, Astz = z*b*d = 7.45 in2

5.4.4 Comparison
Table 5-4: US verification
Reference
Value of
Result
Effective Depth
18 inch
Bearing Pressure
0.0143 Ksi
Governing Moment
7114.95

Shear Force(One-Way)
Shear Force(Two-Way)
Resisting force for
sliding
Resisting Moment for
Overturning

example 4 comparison
STAAD.foundation Percent DifResult
ference
18 inch
None
0.0143 Ksi
None
7082.85 in kip
Negligible

in kip

7082.85 in kip

7114.95
in kip
146.87 Kip

146.2 Kip

Negligible

146.87 Kip
404.81 Kip
178.29 Kip

146.2 Kip
404.86 Kip
178.18 Kip

None
Negligible

28169.899
in kip

28152.53 in kip

Negligible

5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5


5.5.1 Reference
5.5.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 200 Kip,Mx=Mz=240 in kip. fc
= 4 Ksi, fy = 60 Ksi, Column Dimension = 12 inch x 12 inch, and Bearing Capacity of Soil

220 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5
= 2.2 Kip/sqft. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against
overturning =1.5
Figure 5-8: Elevation and Plan

5.5.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 200/2.2 = 90.9 sqft
Assuming 130 inch x130 inch x19 inch footing dimension,
Weight of footing 130 x130 x19 x 0.159/(123)= 29.55 Kip
Therefore, total load on the footing = (200+29.55) KN = 229.55 Kip
Zx = 130x1302 = 366166.667 in3
Zz = 130x1302 = 366166.667 in3
Maximum pressure from axial load = 229.55/(130x130) = 0.0136 Ksi
Mx/Zx=240/366166.667 =0.0007 Ksi
Mz/Zz=240/366166.667 =0.0007 Ksi
So stress at four corners

Verification Manual 221

Chapter 5
5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5

1=P/A-Mx/Zx+Mz/Zz= 0.0136 Ksi


2=P/A-Mx/Zx-Mz/Zz= 0.0122 Ksi
3=P/A+Mx/Zx-Mz/Zz= 0.0136 Ksi
4=P/A+Mx/Zx+Mz/Zz= 0.015 Ksi
Max stress = 0.0136 Ksi = 2.16 Ki/sqft <2.2 Kip/sqft (Hence safe)

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning and sliding
Along X Direction
For Sliding
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 229.55 =
114.775 Kip
Hence OK

Along Z Direction
Sliding force =0
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 229.55 =
114.775 Kip
Hence OK

For overturning
About X Direction
Overturning Moment =240 in kip
max resisting Moment = 0.5x 130 x 229.55 = 14920.75 in kip
FOS= 14920.75/240 = 62.17>1.5
Hence OK

About Z Direction
Overturning Moment =240 in kip
max resisting Moment = 0.5x 130 x 229.55 = 14920.75 in kip
FOS= 14920.75/240 = 62.17>1.5
Hence OK

222 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5

Punching Shear
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 8 inch from the column face.
Effective Depth=D-clear cover-1=19-2-1=16 inch
Punching Shear Vm= 0.018813x122x122-0.0189x27x27=266.24 Kip
Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 2 x d) = 108 inch
Vm1 =

= 164.81 Ksi

c=Width of col/depth of col=12/12=1


bc=2.(b+d+2.deff)=108 inch
V1

fc.bc.d = (2+4/1).(4000) x108x15 =614746.78 lb

V2

fc.bc.d = (40x15/108+2).(4000) x108x15=774125.57 lb

V2= 4.fc.bc.de=4.(4000) x108x15=409831.18 lb


Vc = min{V1, V2, V3} = 409831.185 lb
So, 0.75Vc=307.374 Kip
Vm< 0.75xVc , Hence safe

Verification Manual 223

Chapter 5
5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5

Check for One-Way Shear


Along X Direction
Critical section for moment is at distance d from the face of the column.

Shear at Longitudinal Direction (XAxis)


Average Base Pressure along one edge = (0.014733 +0.016569) x0.5 = 0.157
Ksi
Average Base Pressure along other edge = (0.016569 +0.018405) x 0.5 =
0.0175 Ksi
Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x87/130 = 0.0163 Ksi
Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x 43/130 = 0.0170 Ksi
Hence, the shear force at the critical section:
F = (0.0175 + 0.0170) x0.5 x 43 x 130 = 96.43 kip
So, max shear force along X axis, Fux = 97 kip
Now allowable shear = Vc1 =
0.75.Vc1 = 197.327 Kip

= 2x(4000) x130x16 lb =263.101 Kip

So Vumax < 0.75x Vc1 , Hence Safe

224 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5

Along Z Direction

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (0.014733 +0.016569) x0.5 = 0.157
Ksi
Average Base Pressure along other edge = (0.016569 +0.018405) x 0.5 =
0.0175 Ksi
Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x87/130 = 0.0163 Ksi
Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x 43/130 = 0.0170 Ksi
Hence, the shear force at the critical section:
F = (0.0175 + 0.0170) x0.5 x 43 x 130 = 96.43 kip
So, max shear force along Z axis, Fuz = 97 kip
Now allowable shear = Vc1 =
0.75.Vc1 = 197.327 Kip

= 2x(4000) x122x15 lb =263.101 Kip

So Vumax <0.75x Vc1 , Hence Safe

About Z Axis
Critical section for moment is at the face of the column.

Verification Manual 225

Chapter 5
5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (0.014733 + 0.016569) x 0.5 =


0.0157 Ksi (left end)
Average Base Pressure along other edge = (0.016569 +0.018405) x 0.5 =
0.0175 Ksi (right end)
Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x 71/130 = 0.0166 Ksi
Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x 59/130 = 0.0167 Ksi
Hence, the moment at the critical section (right):
Mu = F x LA
F = (0.0175 + 0.0167) x 0.5 x 59 x 130 = 131.16 Kip
LA = (0.0167 +2 x 0.0175) x 59/(3x (0.0167 + 0.0175)) = 29.731 inches
Mu(right) = 3899.52 in-kips
So, max moment wrt Z axis, Mu(x) = 3900 in-kips
m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471
1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4)
bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507
max = 0.75. bal = 0.021381
min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)
So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =4333.3334 in kip
Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.1303 Ksi
2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK

226 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002215


min < < max Hence OK

Check for Trial Depth Against Moment


About X Axis
Critical section for moment is at the face of the column.

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (0.014733 + 0.016569) x 0.5 = 0.0157
Ksi (left end)
Average Base Pressure along other edge = (0.016569 +0.018405) x 0.5 =
0.0175 Ksi (right end)
Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x 71/130 = 0.0166 Ksi
Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x 59/130 = 0.0167 Ksi
Hence, the moment at the critical section (right):
Mu = F x LA
F = (0.0175 + 0.0167) x 0.5 x 59 x 130 = 131.16 Kip
LA = (0.0167 +2 x 0.0175) x 59/(3x (0.0167 + 0.0175)) = 29.731 inches
Mu(right) = 3899.52 in-kips
So, max moment wrt Z axis, Mu(z) = 3900 in-kips
m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471

Verification Manual 227

Chapter 5
5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5

1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4)
bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507
max = 0.75. bal = 0.021381
min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)
So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =4333.3334 in kip
Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.1303 Ksi
2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002215
min < < max Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction
x = 0.002215
Therefore, Astx = x *b*d = 4.61 in2

Along Z Direction
z = 0.002215
Therefore, Astz = z*b*d = 4.61 in2

228 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.6 US General Isolated Foundation 6

5.5.4 Comparison
Table 5-5: US verification example 5 comparison
Reference
Percent DifValue of
STAAD.foundation
Result
ference
Effective Depth
16 inch
16 inch
None
Bearing Pressure
0.0136 Ksi 0.0136 Ksi
None

Governing Moment

Shear Force(One-Way)
Shear Force(Two-Way)
Resisting force for
sliding
Resisting Moment for
Overturning

0.0122 Ksi

0.0123 Ksi

0.0136 Ksi

0.0136 Ksi

0.015 Ksi
3899.52
in kip

0.0149 Ksi
3893.52 in kip

Negligible

3893.52 in kip

3899.52
in kip
96.43 Kip

96.05 Kip

Negligible

96.43 Kip
266.96 Kip
114.775 Kip

96.05 Kip
267.01 Kip
114.773 Kip

Negligible
None

114.775 Kip
14920.75
in kip

114.773 Kip
14920.466 in kip

Negligible

14920.466 in kip

14920.75
in kip

5.6 US General Isolated Foundation 6


5.6.1 Reference
5.6.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1000 KN, Concrete grade M25,
Steel Grade Fe 415, Pedestal Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm x 500 mm.
Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.4, FOS against sliding
=1.4, FOS against overturning =1.4
Soil Depth is 500 mm , depth of GWT from GL is 200 mm and surcharge on foundation
is 5 KN/m2. (consider unt wight of soil 18 KN/m2)

Verification Manual 229

Chapter 5
5.6 US General Isolated Foundation 6
Figure 5-9: Elevation and Plan

5.6.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 1000/120 = 8.33 m2
Assuming 3140 mm x 3140 mm footing dimension, with 490 mm depth

Punching Shear
Weight of footing = 3.14 x 3.14 x 0.49 x 25 = 120.78 KN
Punching Shear Vm = 1400/(3.14 x 3.14) x (3.14 x 3.14-0.665 x 0.665) =
1337.2 KN
Critical perimeter Pm = 2 x (b + d + 2 x d) = 2660 mm
Vm1 = Vmax/(Pm .d) = 1211.34 KN/m2
c = Width of col/depth of col = 250/250 = 1
bc = 2.(b+d+2.deff) = 2660 mm
V1 = (2+4/c)fc.bc.d = 0.083x(2+4/1)x25 x 2660 x 415x 1/1000 = 2748.7
KN
V2 = (40.d/b+2)fc.bc.d = 0.083x(40x 415/2660+2)x25 x 2660 x 415x
1/1000 = 3775.17 KN
V3 = 4.fc.bc.de =0.083 x 4 x 25 x 2660 x 415x 1/1000 =1832.47 KN
Vc =min(V1,V2,V3) =1832.47

230 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.6 US General Isolated Foundation 6
So, 0.75Vc = 1374.35 KN
Vm < 0.75.Vc , Hence safe

Check for One-Way Shear


Along X Direction
Vumax = 141.993 x 3.14 x ((3.14-0.25)/2-0.415) = 459.23 KN
Now allowable shear = Vc1 =2fc.b.d = 0.083x2x25 x 3140 x 415x 1/1000 =
1081.57 KN
0.75.Vc1=811.18 KN
V < Vc1, Hence Safe
So Vumax < Vc1 , Hence Safe

Along Z Direction
Vumax = 141.993 x 3.14 x ((3.14-0.25)/2-0.415) = 459.23 KN
Now allowable shear = Vc1 =2fc.b.d =0.083x2x25 x 3140 x 415x 1/1000 =
1081.57 KN
0.75.Vc1=811.18 KN
V < Vc1, Hence Safe
So Vumax < Vc1 , Hence Safe

Check For Trial Depth Against Moment


About X Axis
m = fy/0.85.fc = 415/(0.85x25) = 19.529
1 = 0.85 ( as fc < 27.6 N/mm2)
bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87 + fy) = 0.025759
max = 0.75. bal = 0.0193
min = 0.0018 ( as fy = 415 N/mm2)
Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 1/2 x 141.993 x 3.14 x [(3.140.25)/2)]2 = 465.48 KNm
So Resisting Moment = Mnz = Muz/ = 517.2 KNm
Rn = Mnz/b.d2 = 0.956 N/mm2
2m.Rn/fy < 1 , Hence OK
= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002359
min < < max Hence OK

Verification Manual 231

Chapter 5
5.6 US General Isolated Foundation 6

About Z Axis
m = fy/0.85.fc = 415/(0.85x25) = 19.529
1 = 0.85 ( as fc < 27.6 N/mm2)
bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87 + fy) = 0.025759
max = 0.75. bal = 0.0193
min = 0.0018 ( as fy = 415 N/mm2)
Bending moment at critical section, Muz = 1/2 x 141.993 x 3.14 x [(3.140.25)/2)]2 = 465.48 KNm
So Resisting Moment = Mnz = Muz/ = 517.2 KNm
Rn = Mnz/b.d2 = 0.956 N/mm2
2m.Rn/fy < 1 , Hence OK
= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002359
min < < max Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction
z = 0.002359
Therefore, Astx = z.b.d = 3074 m2m

Along Z Direction
x = 0.002359
Therefore, Astz = x.b.d = 3074 m2m

232 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.7 US General Isolated Foundation 7

5.6.4 Comparison
Table 5-6: US verification example 6 comparison
Reference
Percent DifValue of
STAAD.foundation
Result
ference
Effective Depth
415 mm
415 mm
None
Bearing Pressure
119.92 KN/m2
119.96 KN/m2
None
Resisting force for sliding
472.936 KN
472.945 KN
None
472.936 KN
1856.23 KNm

472.945 KN
1856.276 KNm

Negligible

Governing Moment

1856.23 KNm
465.48 KNm

1856.276 KNm
465.48 KNm

None

Shear Force(One-Way)

465.48 KNm
459.23 KN

465.48 KNm
459.4 KN

Negligible

Shear Resistance (One-Way)

459.23 KN
811.18 KN

459.4 KN
810.737 KN

Negligible

Shear Force(Two-Way)
Shear Resistance (Two-Way)
Reinf X
Reinf Z

811.18 KN
1337.2 KN
1374.35 KN
3074 m2m
3074 m2m

810.737 KN
1337.28 KN
1372.8 KN
3076.9 m2m
3076.9 m2m

None
Negligible
Negligible
Negligible

Resisting Moment for Overturning

5.7 US General Isolated Foundation 7


5.7.1 Reference
5.7.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = -1200 KN, Fx=Fz=5 KN,
Mx=Mz=10 KNm. fc = 25 N/m2m, fy = 415 N/m2m, Column Dimension = 250 mm x 250
mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2. Assume 500 mm soil depth above footing
and depth of GWT 200 mm. Assume unit weight of concrete & soil are 25 & 18 KN/cum
respectively. Coefficient of friction =0.4, FOS against sliding =1.4, FOS against overturning
=1.4

Verification Manual 233

Chapter 5
5.7 US General Isolated Foundation 7
Figure 5-10: Elevation and Plan

5.7.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 1200/120 = 10 m2
Assuming 3500 mm x 3500 mm x 540 mm footing dimension,
Weight of footing = 3.5 x 3.5 x 0.54 x 25 = 165.38 KN
Weight of soil = (3.5 x 3.5- 0.25 x 0.25) x 0.5 x 18 = 109.69 KN
Weight reduction for Buoyancy = 3.5 x 3.5 x (0.54 + 0.5 0.2) x 9.81 =
100.95 KN
Surcharge Load = (3.5 x 3.5 0.25 x 0.25) x 5 = 60.94 KN
Therefore, total Axial load on the footing = 1435.063 KN
Total Moment on the footingMx = 10 + 5x 0.54 = 12.7 KNm
Mz = 10 - 5x 0.54 = 7.3 KNm
Zx = 3.5x3.52 /6 = 7.1458 cum
Zz = 3.5x3.52 /6 = 7.1458 cum
Maximum pressure from axial load = 1435.063 /(3.5 x 3.5) = 117.15 KN/m2
Mx/Zx = 12.7 /7.1458 = 1.78 KN/m2
Mz/Zz = 7.3 /7.1458 = 1.03 KN/m2
234 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.7 US General Isolated Foundation 7
So stress at four corners
1 = P/A-Mx/Zx+Mz/Zz= 116.39 KN/m2
2 = P/A-Mx/Zx-Mz/Zz= 114.35 KN/m2
3 = P/A+Mx/Zx-Mz/Zz = 117.09 KN/m2
4 = P/A+Mx/Zx+Mz/Zz= 119.94 KN/m2
Max stress = 119.94 KN/m2 < 120 KN/m2 (Hence safe)

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning and sliding
Along X Direction
For Sliding
Sliding force = 5 KN
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.4 x 1435.063 =
574 KN
Hence OK

Along Z Direction
Sliding force = 5 KN
max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.4 x 1435.063 =
574 KN
Hence OK

For Overturning
About X Direction
Overturning Moment = 12.7 KNm
max resisting Moment = 0.5x 3.5 x 1435.063 = 2511.36 KNm
FOS= 2511.36/12.7 = 197.75 > 1.4
Hence OK

About Z Direction
Overturning Moment = 7.3 KNm
max resisting Moment = 0.5x 3.5 x 1435.063 = 2511.36 KNm
FOS= 2511.36/7.3 = 344 > 1.4
Hence OK

Verification Manual 235

Chapter 5
5.7 US General Isolated Foundation 7

Section Design
Fy = -1.4 x 1200 KN = -1680 KN
Fx = 1.4 x 5 KN = 7 KN
Fz = 1.4 x 5 KN = 7 KN
Mx = 1.4 x 10 KNm = 14 KNm
Mz = 1.4 x 10 KNm = 14 KNm
Modifying Moments due to lateral forces:
Mx= 17.78 KNm & Mz= 10.22 KNm
D= 540 mm, So deff = 650- 50-25 = 465 mm

Punching Shear
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 232.5 from the column face.
Effective Depth= 465 mm
Punching Shear bc = 1609.9 KN = 1610 KN
Figure 5-11: Corner pressure values on plan for punching shear

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 2 x d) = 2860 mm


Vm1 = Vmax/(bc .d) = 1.21 N/m2m
c = Width of col/depth of col=250/250=1
V1 = (2+4/c)fc.bc.d = 3311.45 KN
V2 = (40.d/b+2)fc.bc.d = 4693.15 KN
V3 = 4.fc.bc.de=2207.63 KN

236 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.7 US General Isolated Foundation 7

Vc =min(V1,V2,V3) = 2207.63 KN
So, 0.75Vc = 1655.73 KN
Vm< 0.75xVc , Hence safe

Check for One-Way Shear


Along X Direction
Critical Section for shear is at d distance from face of column
Average Base pressure at left edge = 134.66 KN/m2
Average Base pressure at right edge = 139.64 KN/m2
Approximate Base pressure at left critical section = 136.311 KN/m2
Approximate Base pressure at right critical section = 137.99 KN/m2

Figure 5-12: One-way shear pressure values along x-direction

Hence Maximum Shear Force at critical section = 563.589 KN


Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 2fc.b.d= 1350.825 KN
0.75.Vc1 = 1013.12 KN
So Vumax < 0.75x Vc1 , Hence Safe

Along Z Direction
Critical Section for shear is at d distance from face of column
Average Base pressure at left edge = 138.59 KN/m2
Average Base pressure at right edge = 135.71 KN/m2
Approximate Base pressure at left critical section = 137.636 KN/m2
Approximate Base pressure at right critical section = 136.665 KN/m2

Verification Manual 237

Chapter 5
5.7 US General Isolated Foundation 7
Figure 5-13: One-way shear pressure values along z-direction

Hence Maximum Shear Force at critical section = 561 KN


Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 2fc.b.d = 1350.825 KN
0.75.Vc1 = 1013.12 KN
So Vumax < 0.75x Vc1 , Hence Safe

Check For Flexure


Critical Section for Moment is at the face of column
m = fy/0.85.fc = 19.5295
1 = 0.85 (as fc=M 25)
bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.025729
max = 0.75. bal = 0.019297
min = 0.0018

Check For Trial Depth Against Moment


About Z Axis
Average Base pressure at left edge = 138.59 KN/m2
Average Base pressure at right edge = 135.71 KN/m2
Approximate Base pressure at left critical section = 137.26 KN/m2
Approximate Base pressure at right critical section = 137.05 KN/m2

238 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.7 US General Isolated Foundation 7
Figure 5-14: Bending pressure about Z axis

So Maximum Bending Moment at Critical Section = 638.54 KNm


So Resisting Moment = Mnz = Muz/ = 710 KNm
Rn = Mnz/b.d2 = 0.93822 N/m2m
2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002313
min < < max Hence OK

About X Axis
Average Base pressure at left edge = 134.66 KN/m2
Average Base pressure at right edge = 139.64 KN/m2
Approximate Base pressure at left critical section = 136.98 KN/m2
Approximate Base pressure at right critical section = 137.33 KN/m2
Figure 5-15: Bending pressure about X axis

So Maximum Bending Moment at Critical Section = 641.93 KNm


So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ = 642 KNm

Verification Manual 239

Chapter 5
5.8 US General Combined Foundation 1

Rn = Mnz/b.d2 = 0.9426 N/m2m


2m.Rn/fy < 1 , Hence OK
= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002325
min < < max Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction
z = 0.002313
Therefore, Astx = z.b.d = 3765 m2m

Along Z Direction
x = 0.002325
Therefore, Astz = x.b.d = 3784 m2m

5.7.4 Comparison
Table 5-7: US Verification problem 9 comparison
Value of
Effective Depth
Bearing Pressure

Reference Result STAAD.foundation


540 mm
116.39 KN/m2

540 mm
116.397 KN/m2

114.35 KN/m2

114.35 KN/m2

117.9 KN/m2

117.91 KN/m2

Percent Difference
None
None

Resisting force for sliding

119.95 KN/m2
119.95 KN/m2
574.05 KN (Xdir) 574.05 KN (Xdir)

Resisting Moment for Overturning

574.05 KN (Zdir
2511 KNm (WRT
Z)

Governing Moment

2511 KNm (WRT


X)
639 KNm

638 KNm

Negligible

Shear Force(One-Way)

642 KNm
564 KN

642 KNm
564 KN

Negligible

Shear Force(Two-Way)

561 KN
1610 KN

561 KN
1610 KN

None

None

574.05 KN (Zdir)
2511 KNm (WRT Z) None
2511 KNm (WRT X)

5.8 US General Combined Foundation 1


5.8.1 Reference

240 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.8 US General Combined Foundation 1

5.8.2 Problem
Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 60 Kip each column., fc = 4 Ksi,
fy = 60 Ksi, Column Dimension = 12 inch x 12 inch, Pedestal height-20 inch. and C/C
column distance=195 inch . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 2 Kip/sqft. Coefficient of friction
=0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5
Ht of soil =24 inch. Depth of GWT=10 inch

5.8.3 Solution
Figure 5-16: Elevation and Plan

Approximate area of footing required = 2x60/2 sqft = 60 sqft


Assuming 275 inch x40 inch x 24 inch footing dimension,
( left overhang=right overhang = 40 inch)
Weight of footing = 275 x 40 x 24 x 0.159/123 = 24.3Kip
Weight of pedestal=2 x 12 x 12 x 20 x 0.159 /123 = 0.530 kip
Weight of soil above footing = (275 x 40-2x12x12) x 24 x 0.127/123 = 18.9 Kip
Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 275 x 40 x (24 +24-10) x 3.61398x105 = 15.1Kip
Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x60+24.3+18.9- 15.1) = 148.624 Kip

Verification Manual 241

Chapter 5
5.8 US General Combined Foundation 1

Maximum pressure= 148.624 /(275x40) = 0.0136 Ksi = 1.9584 Kip/sqft < 2


Kip/sqft
Hence safe
Ultimate pressure = 1.4x2x60/(275x40) = 0.015273 Ksi

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning
With Respect to Z Direction
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 275x 148.624 = 20435.8 in kip
Hence OK

With Respect to X Direction


Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 40x 148.624 = 2972.48 in kip
Hence OK

242 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.8 US General Combined Foundation 1
Figure 5-17: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

Punching Shear
For Column 1
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 10.5 inch from the column face.
deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch
2 way shear Vm = 67.37 Kip
c=Width of col/depth of col=12/12=1

Verification Manual 243

Chapter 5
5.8 US General Combined Foundation 1

bc=2.(b+d+2.deff)=132 inch
V1
V2
lb

fc.bc.d = (2+4/1).(4000) x132x21 = 1051900 lb


fc.bc.d = (40x21/132+2).(4000) x132x21 = 1466284.9

V3= 4.fc.bc.de = 4.(4000) x132x21 = 701266.694 lb


Vc = min{V1, V2, V3} = 701266.694 lb
So, 0.75Vc=525.95 Kip
Vm< 0.75xVc , Hence safe

For Column 2
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 10.5 inch from the column face.
deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch
2 way shear Vm = 67.37 Kip
c=Width of col/depth of col=12/12=1
bc=2.(b+d+2.deff)=132 inch
V1
V2
lb

fc.bc.d = (2+4/1).(4000) x132x21 = 1051900 lb


fc.bc.d = (40x21/132+2).(4000) x132x21 = 1466284.9

V3 = 4.fc.bc.de = 4.(4000) x132x21 = 701266.694 lb


Vc = min{V1, V2, V3} = 701266.694 lb
So, 0.75Vc=525.95 Kip
Vm< 0.75xVc , Hence safe

Check for One-Way Shear


Vumax = 43.072 Kip
Now allowable shear = Vc1 =
0.75.Vc1=79.69 Kip

= 2x(4000) x40x21 lb =106.252 Kip

So Vumax < 0.75xVc1 , Hence Safe

Check For Trial Depth against moment


About Z Axis (Sagging)
m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471

244 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.8 US General Combined Foundation 1

1 = 0.85

(as fc=4)

bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507


max = 0.75. bal = 0.021381
min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)
Bending moment at critical section
Mux = 488.74 in kip
deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch
So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =543.04 in kip
Rn = Mnx/b.d2 = 0.0308 Ksi
2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.000516
Hence OK

About Z Axis (Hogging)


m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471
1 = 0.85

(as fc=4)

bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507


max = 0.75. bal = 0.021381
min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60
Bending moment at critical section
Mux = 2414.897 in kip
deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch
So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =2683.219 in kip
Rn = Mnx/b.d2 = 0.1522 Ksi
2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002597
max Hence OK

With Respect to the X Axis


m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471
1 = 0.85

(as fc=4)

bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507


max = 0.75. bal = 0.021381
min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60

Verification Manual 245

Chapter 5
5.8 US General Combined Foundation 1

Cantilever length=(40-12)/2 = 14 inch


Bending moment at critical section
Mux = 411.608 in kip
deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch
So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =457.34 in kip
Rn = Mnx/b.d2 = 0.0038 Ksi
2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.000064
Hence OK

Reinforcement Calculation
z (top) = 0.002597
z (bot) = 0.0018
x = 0.0018
Therefore, Ast =*b*d
Area of Steel Required along X dir ( bot) = 1.512 in2
Area of Steel Required along X dir (top) = 2.18 in2
Area of Steel Required along Z dir ( bot) = 10.395 in2

5.8.4 Comparison
Table 5-8: US verification
Reference
Value of
Result
Bearing Pressure
0.0136 Ksi
Governing Moment
488.736
in kip
2414.897
in kip

Shear Force(One-Way)
Shear Force(Two-Way)

411.608
in kip
42.73 Kip
66.8 Kip

Resisting Moment for


Overturning

66.8 Kip
2972.44
in kip

example 7 comparison
STAAD.foundation Percent DifResult
ference
0.0135 Ksi
Negligible
461.95 in kip
Negligible
2414.41 in kip
411 in kip

43.07 Kip
67.37 Kip

Negligible
Negligible

67.37 Kip
2972.48 in kip

Negligible

20435.8 in kip

20435.52
in kip

246 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.9 US General Combined Foundation 2

5.9 US General Combined Foundation 2


5.9.1 Reference
5.9.2 Problem
Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 60 Kip, Mz=360 in kip for each
column., fc = 4 Ksi, fy = 60 Ksi, Column Dimension = 12 inch x 12 inch, Pedestal height20 inch. and C/C column distance=195 inch . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 2 Kip/sqft.
Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5
Figure 5-18: Elevation and Plan

5.9.3 Solution
Approximate area of footing required = 2x60/2 sqft = 60 sqft
Assuming 275 inch x44 inch x 24 inch footing dimension,
( left overhang=right overhang = 40 inch)
Weight of footing = 275 x 44 x 24 x 0.159/123 = 26.73 Kip
Weight of pedestal=2x12x12x20x0.159/123 = 0.530 kip
Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x60+26.73 +0.530) Kip = 147.26 Kip
Maximum pressure from axial load= P/A = 147.26 /(275x44) = 0.0122 Ksi
Mz=360+360=720 Kip
Mz=0

Verification Manual 247

Chapter 5
5.9 US General Combined Foundation 2

Zz= 44x2752/6 = 554583.334 inch3


Mz/Zz = 720/554583.334 =0.0013 Ksi
So, stress at left end
1 = P/A + Mz/Zz = 0.0135 Ksi
stress at right end
1 = P/A - Mz/Zz = 0.0109 Ksi
So maximum stress= 0.0135 Ksi= 1.944 Kip/sqft < 2 Kip/sqft
Hence safe

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning
wrt Z Direction
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 275x 147.26 = 20248.25 in kip
Hence OK

Wrt X Direction
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 44x 147.26 = 3239.72 in kip
Hence OK

Punching Shear
For Column One
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 10.5 inch from the column face.
deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch
2 way shear Vm = 67.48 Kip
c=Width of col/depth of col=12/12=1
bc=2.(b+d+2.deff)=132 inch
V1
V2
lb

fc.bc.d = (2+4/1).(4000) x132x21 = 1051900 lb


fc.bc.d = (40x21/132+2).(4000) x132x21 = 1466284.9

V3= 4.fc.bc.de = 4.(4000) x132x21 = 701266.694 lb

248 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.9 US General Combined Foundation 2

Vc = min{V1, V2, V3} = 701266.694 lb


So, 0.75Vc=525.95 Kip
Vm< 0.75xVc , Hence safe

For Column Two


Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 10.5 inch from the column face.
deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch
2 way shear Vm = 70.28 Kip
c=Width of col/depth of col=12/12=1
bc=2.(b+d+2.deff)=132 inch
V1

fc.bc.d = (2+4/1).(4000) x132x21 = 1051900 lb

V2

fc.bc.d = (40x21/132+2).(4000) x132x21 = 1466284.9 lb

V3 = 4.fc.bc.de = 4.(4000) x132x21 = 701266.694 lb


Vc= min{V1, V2, V3} = 701266.694 lb
So, 0.75Vc=525.95 Kip
Vm< 0.75xVc , Hence safe

Check for One-Way Shear


Vumax = 47.126 Kip
Now allowable shear = Vc1 =
0.75.Vc1=87.66 Kip

= 2x(4000) x44x21 lb =116.877 Kip

So Vumax < 0.75xVc1 , Hence Safe

Check For Trial Depth against moment


About Z Axis (sagging)
m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471
1 = 0.85

(as fc=4)

bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507


max = 0.75. bal = 0.0214
min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)
Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 791 in kip
deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch
So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =879 in kip

Verification Manual 249

Chapter 5
5.9 US General Combined Foundation 2

Rn = Mnx/b.d2 = 0.0453 Ksi


2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.000761
Hence OK

About Z Axis (hogging)


m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471
1 = 0.85

(as fc=4)

bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507


max = 0.75. bal = 0.0214
min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60
Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 2440 in kip
deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch
= 0.9
So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =2711.1967 in kip
Rn = Mnx/b.d2 = 0.1398 Ksi
2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.00238
max Hence OK

About X Axis
m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471
1 = 0.85

(as fc=4)

bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507


max = 0.75. bal = 0.0214
min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60
Cantilever length=(40-12)/2 = 14 inch
Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 0.013885x275x16 2/2 =552.82
in kip
deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch
So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =614.24 in kip
Rn = Mnx/b.d2 = 0.0051 Ksi
2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.000086
Hence OK

250 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.9 US General Combined Foundation 2

Reinforcement Calculation
z (bot) = 0.0018
z (top) = 0.00238
x(bot) = 0.0018
Therefore, Ast = *b*d

Area of Steel Required along X dir ( bot)= 1.7 in2


Area of Steel Required along X dir (top) = 2.2 in2
Area of Steel Required along Z dir ( bot) = 10.4 in2

Verification Manual 251

Chapter 5
5.9 US General Combined Foundation 2
Figure 5-19: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

252 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.10 US General Combined Foundation 3

5.9.4 Comparison
Table 5-9: US verification example 8 comparison
STAAD.foundation Percent
Value of
Reference Result
Result
Difference
Bearing Pressure
0.0135 Ksi
0.0135 Ksi
None
Governing Moment

Shear Force(OneWay)
Shear Force(TwoWay)
Resisting Moment
for Overturning

0.0109 Ksi
791 in kip

0.0109 Ksi
830 in kip

2440 in kip

2439.66 in kip

552.82 in kip
47.126 Kip

534 in kip
46.8 Kip

Negligible

67.48 Kip

66.91 Kip

Negligible

70.28 Kip
3239.72 in kip
20248.25 in kip

69.81 Kip
3239.518 in kip

Negligible

Negligible

20246.985 in kip

5.10 US General Combined Foundation 3


5.10.1 Reference
5.10.2 Problem
Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1500 KN on each column.,
Concrete Grade = M 25, Steel Grade Fe 415, Column Dimension = 250 mm x250 mm,
Pedestal height-500 mm each. and C/C column distance=5000 mm . Bearing Capacity of
Soil = 120 KN/m2., FOS against overturning =1.4
Ht of soil =500 mm. Depth of GWT=200 mm

Verification Manual 253

Chapter 5
5.10 US General Combined Foundation 3

5.10.3 Solution
Figure 5-20: Elevation and Plan

Approximate area of footing required = 2x1500/120 = 25 m2


Assuming 7000 mm 4500 mm x 840 mm footing dimension,
( left overhang=right overhang = 1000 mm)
Weight of footing = 7 x 4.5 x 0.84 x 25 = 661.5 KN
Weight of pedestal=2 x 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5 x 25 = 1.5625 KN
Weight of soil above footing = (7 x 4.5- 0.25 x0.25 x 2) x 0.5 x 18 = 282.375 KN
Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 7 x 4.5 x (0.84+0.5-0.2) x 9.81 = 352.277 KN
Surcharge = (7 x 4.5 -0.25 x0.25 x2) x 5 = 156.875 KN
Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x1500+661.5 +1.5625 - 352.277 +156.875) = 3750.04
KN
Maximum pressure= 3750.04 /(7 x 4.5) = 119.05 KN/m 2 =119.05 KN/m 2 120 KN/m 2
Hence safe

254 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.10 US General Combined Foundation 3

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning
With Respect to Z Direction
Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 7x 3750 = 13125 KNm
Hence OK

With Respect to X Direction


Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.5 x 3750 = 8437.5 KNm
Hence OK

Ultimate design
Ultimate pressure = 1.4 x 2 x1500/(7 x 4.5) = 133.33 KN/m2
Deff = 784 mm
Figure 5-21: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

Punching Shear
For Column 1
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 392 mm from the column face.
Verification Manual 255

Chapter 5
5.10 US General Combined Foundation 3

2 way shear Vm = 1957.5 KN


= Width of col/depth of col=250/250 = 1
c

b = 2 (b + d + 2 d ) = 4136 mm
c

eff

V = (2 +4/ )(f b d) = 8074 KN


1

V = (40 d/b +2)fc.bc.d = 12894.7 KN


2

V = 4.f bc de = 5382.76 KN
3

V = min(V , V , V ) = 5382.76 KN
c

So, 0.75 V = 4037 KN


c

Vm < 0.75 Vc , Hence safe

For Column 2
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 392 mm from the column face.
2 way shear Vm = 1957.5 KN
= Width of col/depth of col=250/250 = 1
c

b = 2 (b + d + 2 d ) = 4136 mm
c

eff

V = (2 +4/ )(f b d) = 8074 KN


1

V = (40 d/b +2)fc b d = 12894.7 KN


2

V = 4 f b d = 5382.76 KN
3

V = min(V , V , V ) = 5382.76 KN
c

So, 0.75 V = 4037 KN


c

Vm< 0.75xVc , Hence safe

Check for One-Way Shear


Vumax = 954 KN
Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 2 fc b d = 2928 KN
0.75 Vc1 = 2196 KN
So Vumax < 0.75 Vc1 , Hence Safe

Check For Trial Depth against moment


m=fy/0.85.fc=415/(0.85x25) = 19.5295
1 = 0.85 (as fc=25 N/m2m)
bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.025729
max = 0.75. bal = 0.019297
min = 0.0018 ( as fy=415 N/m2m)

256 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.10 US General Combined Foundation 3

About Z Axis (Sagging)


Bending moment at critical section
Muz = 300.54 KNm
So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =333.93 KNm
Rn = Mnz/b.d2 = 0.1208 N/m2m
2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.000292 <max Hence OK
Take = min = 0.0018
Hence OK

About Z Axis (Hogging)


Bending moment at critical section
Muz = 1574.8 KNm
So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =1749.8 KNm
Rn = Mnz/b.d2 = 0.6327 N/m 2m
2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.001548 <max Hence OK
Take = min = 0.0018
Hence OK

With Respect to the X Axis


Cantilever length = (4500 - 250)/2 = 2125 mm
Bending moment at critical section
Mux = 2107.4 KNm
So Resisting Moment =Mnx= Mux/ =2341.55 KNm
Rn = Mnx/b.d2 = 0.762 N/m 2m
2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.001871 < max
Hence OK

Reinforcement Calculation
z (top) = 0.0018
z (bot) = 0.0018
x = 0.001871

Verification Manual 257

Chapter 5
5.11 US General Combined Foundation 4
Therefore, Ast = b d
Area of Steel Required along X dir ( bot) = 6350 mm2
Area of Steel Required along X dir (top) = 6350 mm2
Area of Steel Required along Z dir ( bot) = 10268 mm2

5.10.4 Comparison
Table 5-10: US verification example 7 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Bearing Pressure
119.05
119.05
None
2
(KN/m )
Governing Moment
300.54
293.97
Negligible
(KNm)
1574.82
1574.60
Shear Force, OneWay (KN)
Shear Force, TwoWay (KN)

2107.4
954.8

2107.4
43.07 Kip

Negligible

1957.4

1957.4

None

1957.4

1957.4

5.11 US General Combined Foundation 4


5.11.1 Reference
5.11.2 Problem
Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = -1200 KN & Fx= 10 KN on each
column., Concrete Grade = M 25, Steel Grade Fe 415, Column Dimension = 250 mm x250
mm, Pedestal height-500 mm each. and C/C column distance=5000 mm . Bearing
Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2., FOS against overturning =1.4

258 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.11 US General Combined Foundation 4

5.11.3 Solution
Figure 5-22: Elevation and Plan

Approximate area of footing required = 2x1200/120 = 20 m2


Assuming 7000 mm 3250 mm x 530 mm footing dimension,
( left overhang=right overhang = 1000 mm)
Weight of footing = 7 x 3.25 x 0.53 x 25 = 301.44 KN
Weight of pedestal=2 x 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5 x 25 = 1.5625 KN
Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x1200+301.44 +1.5625) = 2703 KN
Mz1 = -10 x (0.5+0.53) = -10.3 KNm
Mz2 = -10 x (0.5+0.53) = -10.3 KNm
Maximum pressure from axial load= 2703/(7 x3.25) = 118.813 KN/ m2
Total Moment = -10.3 + -10.3 = -20.6 KNm
CG of load= 3.5085 m
CG of raft = 3.5 m
Eccentricity =-8.5833 mm

Verification Manual 259

Chapter 5
5.11 US General Combined Foundation 4

So Moment= P x Eccentricity = -20.6 KNm


Hence OK
Zz= 3.25 x 72/6 = 26.542 m3
So M/Z = -0.78 KN/m2
So stress at left end= P/A - M/Z= 118.04 KN/m2
So stress at right end= P/A + M/Z= 119.6 KN/m2
Maximum pressure =119.6 KN/m2 120 KN/m2
Hence safe

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for


overturning
With Respect to Z Direction
Overturning Moment =20.6 KNm
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 7x 2703 = 9460 KNm
So FOS= 9460/20.6 = 459.25 >1.4
Hence OK

With Respect to X Direction


Overturning Moment =0
max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.25x 2703 = 4392.4 KNm
Hence OK

Ultimate design
Ultimate pressure from axial load = 1.4 x 2 x1200/(7 x 3.25) = 147.692 KN/m2
Mz1 = 1.4x-10 x90.5+0.53) = -14.42 KNm
Mz2 = 1.4x-10 x90.5+0.53) = -14.42 KNm
Total Moment = -14.42 + -14.42 = -28.84 KNm
CG of load= 3.5085 m
CG of raft = 3.5 m
Eccentricity =-8.5833 mm
So Moment= P x Eccentricity = -28.84 KNm (Hence OK)
Zz= 3.25 x 72/6 = 26.542 m3
So M/Z = -1.09 KN/m2
So stress at left end= P/A - M/Z= 146.61 KN/m2

260 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.11 US General Combined Foundation 4

So stress at right end= P/A + M/Z= 148.79 KN/m2


Deff = 474 mm
Figure 5-23: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

Punching Shear
For Column 1
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 392 mm from the column face.
Two way shear, V

= 1602.987 KN

Verification Manual 261

Chapter 5
5.11 US General Combined Foundation 4

= Width of col/depth of col=250/250 = 1


c

b = 2 (b + d + 2 d ) = 2896 mm
c

eff

V = (2 +4/ )(f ) b d = 3418 KN


1

V = (40 d/b +2)(f ) b d = 4868.97 KN


2

V = 4.(f ) b d = 2278.69 KN
3

V = min(V , V , V ) = 2278.69 KN
c

So, 0.75 V = 1709 KN


c

Vm < 0.75 Vc , Hence safe

For Column 2
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 392 mm from the column face.
Two way shear, V

= 1602.17 KN

= Width of col/depth of col=250/250 = 1


c

b = 2 (b + d + 2 d ) = 2896 mm
c

eff

V = (2 +4/ )(f ) b d = 3418 KN


1

V = (40 d/b +2)(f ) b d = 4868.97 KN


2

V = 4.(f ) b d = 2278.69 KN
3

V = min(V , V , V ) = 2278.69 KN
c

So, 0.75 V = 1709 KN


c

Vm< 0.75 Vc , Hence safe

Check for One-Way Shear


Vumax = 916.99 KN
Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 2 (fc) b d = 1278 KN
0.75 Vc1 = 958.96 KN
So Vumax < 0.75 Vc1 , Hence Safe

Check For Trial Depth against moment


m = fy/0.85 fc=415/(0.85x25) = 19.53
1 = 0.85 (as fc = 25 N/mm2)
bal = 0.85 1 fc 87/fy (87 + fy) = 0.025729
max = 0.75 bal = 0.0193
min = 0.0018 ( as fy=415 N/mm2)

About Z Axis (Sagging)


Bending moment at critical section
262 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.11 US General Combined Foundation 4

uz

= 238.94 KNm

So Resisting Moment = Mnz= Muz/ = 265.5 KNm


Rn = Mnz/b d2 =0.3636 N/mm2
2 m Rn /fy <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m (1-1-2m Rn /fy) = 0.000884 <max
Hence OK
Take = min = 0.0018
Hence OK

About Z Axis (Hogging)


Bending moment at critical section
M

uz

= 1259.84KNm

So Resisting Moment = Mnz= Muz/ = 1400 KNm


R = M /b d 2 = 1.9171 N/mm 2
n

nz

2 m R /f < 1 , Hence OK
n y

= 1/m (1-1-2m Rn/fy) = 0.00485 <

max

Hence OK
Take =

min

= 0.0018

Hence OK

With Respect to the X Axis


Cantilever length = (3250-250)/2 = 1500 mm
Bending moment at critical section
M

ux

= 1163 KNm

So Resisting Moment =Mnx= Mux/ = 1292 KNm


R = M /b d 2 =1.593 N/mm 2
n

nz

2 m R /f < 1 , Hence OK
n y

= 1/m (1-1-2m Rn/fy) = 0.003995 <

max

Hence OK

Reinforcement Calculation
z (top) = 0.0018
z (bot) = 0.0018
x = 0.004
Therefore, Ast = b d

Verification Manual 263

Chapter 5
5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1

Area of Steel Required along X dir ( bot) = 2773 mm2


Area of Steel Required along X dir (top) = 7472 mm2
Area of Steel Required along Z dir ( bot) = 13256 mm2

5.11.4 Comparison
Table 5-11: US verification example 7 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Bearing Pressure
119.6
119.6
None
2
(KN/m )
118.04
118.04
Governing Moment
239
237
Negligible
(KNm)
1260
1260
Shear Force, OneWay (KN)
Shear Force, TwoWay (KN)

1163
917

1169
917

None

1602.99

1602.99

None

1602.17

1602.18

5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1


5.12.1 Reference
5.12.2 Problem
Design pilecap foundation with the given data: Load Fy = 330 kip, fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi,
Column Dimension = 12 in x 12 in. Pedestal ht= 20 in.
Dia of pile= 18 in
Vertical capacity = 65 kip
Horizontal capacity = 20 kip
Uplift capacity = 15 kip

264 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1
Figure 5-24: Elevation and Plan

5.12.3 Solution
Depth of pilecap= 1.5 x pile diameter, D = 27 in.
Take D = 31 in.
c/c pile distance = 3 x pile diameter =54 mm
Edge distance =18 inch
Assuming 6 pile combination, coordinates of piles(considering pedestal at 0,0,0):

Verification Manual 265

Chapter 5
5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1
Table 5-12: Pile Coordinates in Plan
Pile X Coordinate Z Coordinate
No
(in)
(in)
1
-54
-27
2
-54
27
3
0
-27
4
0
27
5
54
-27
6
54
27
Pilecap Length = 2(54)+2(18) = 144 inch
Pilecap Width = 54+2(18) = 90 inch
pilecap dimension is 144 inch x90 inch x 31 inch
Weight of footing = 144 x 90 x 31 x 0.16/123 = 37.2 kip
Weight of pedestal = 12 x 12 x 20 x 0.16 /123 = 0.267 kip
Therefore, total load on the pilecap = (330+37.2 +0.267) =367.467 kip
So Pile reaction = 367.467 /6= 61.244 kip < 65 kip
Hence OK
As there is no lateral load , moment or uplift force, so each pile is safe in lateral & uplift
capacity.

Factored Design
Load factor for self wt is taken = 1
Load factor for axial load is taken = 1.4
So, Load on pilecap = 1.4(330) + 1(37.2)+0 1(.267) = 499.467
Load on each pile =499.467/6=83.245 kip

266 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1

Punching Shear
Figure 5-25: Section considered for punching shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d =13inch from the column face.
Contribution from pile 1 = from pile2 = from pile5 = from pile 6 = 83.245 kip
Contribution from pile 3 = from pile4 = 0.944 x 83.245 = 78.58 kip
So total punching shear Vm= 490.14 kip
Pm = 4 (12+13+13) =152 inch
= L/B =12/12 =1
V1= (2 +4/ c)(fc) bc d = (2+4/1) (4000) 152 26 =1499.6 (10)3 lb
V2 = (40 d/b +2)(fc) bc d = (40 26/152 + 2) (4000) 152 26 =
2210 (10)3 lb
V3= 4.(fc) bc de = 4 (4000) 152 26= 999.78 (10)3 lb
Vc = min(V1, V2, V3) = 999.78 kip
So, 0.75 Vc = 749.8 kip
Vm< 0.75 Vc , Hence safe

Punching Shear Check for Corner Piles


Corner piles are 1,2,5,6
Verification Manual 267

Chapter 5
5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1
Each pile is taking reaction 83.245 kip
d critical = 5.486 inch
Effective depth = 26 inch
d critical< Effective depth, Hence Safe

Calculation of Shear
Parallel to X Axis
For shear wrt X1X1
Contribution from pile 1 =pile2=83.245 Kip
Contribution from pile 3,4,5,6 =0 Kip
So Total V X1X1 = 166.49 Kip
For shear wrt X2X2
Contribution from pile 5 =pile6=83.245 Kip
Contribution from pile 1,2,3,4 =0 Kip
So Total V X2X2 = 166.49 Kip
So V parallel to X direction = 166.49 Kip
Now allowable shear = Vc1 =2(fc) bc d =2 (4000) 90 26 lb
=295.99 (10)3 lb
0.75 Vc1=222 Kip
V < Vc1, Hence Safe

Parallel to Z Axis
For shear wrt Z1Z1
Contribution from pile 1 =pile 6 =pile 7 =83.245 x0.222=18.498 Kip
Contribution from pile 2 =pile 4 =pile 6 =0 Kip
So Total V Z1Z1 = 55.5 Kip
For shear wrt Z2Z2
Contribution from pile 2 =pile 4 =pile 6 =83.245 x0.167=18.498 Kip
Contribution from pile 1 =pile 3 =pile 5 =0 Kip
So Total V Z2Z2 = 55.5 Kip
So V parallel to Z direction = 55.5 Kip
Now allowable shear = Vc1 =2(fc) bc d =2 (4000) 90 26 lb
=295.99 (10)3 lb
0.75 Vc1 = 222 Kip
V < Vc1, Hence Safe
268 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1

Calculation of Moment
For either direction:
m = f /0.85 f = 60/(0.85 4) = 17.65
y

= 0.85 (as f = 4)
1

bal

= 0.85 f 87/f (87 + f ) = 0.028507


1 c

= 0.75

= 0.0018 ( as f = 60 Ksi)

max
min

bal

= 0.02138
y

Calculation of Moment about Z Axis


Calculation of MzFor moment wrt X1X1
Contribution from pile 1=from pile2=83.245 x 48=3995.76 in kip
Contribution from pile 3=from pile 4=12 in kip
Contribution from pile 5,6=0 in kip
So Total Mz X1X1 = 8014 in kip = 670 ft kip
For moment wrt X2X2
Contribution from pile 5=from pile6=83.245 x 48=3995.76 in kip
Contribution from pile 3=from pile 4=12 in kip

Verification Manual 269

Chapter 5
5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1

Contribution from pile 5,6=0 in kip


So Total Mz X2X2 = 8014 in kip = 670 ft kip
So Resisting Moment = Mnz= Muz/ = 744.44 ft kip
Rn = Mnz/b d2 = 0.147 Ksi
2 m Rn /fy = 0.0864 <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m (1-1-2m Rn /fy) = 0.0025
min < < max , Hence OK

Calculation of Moment about X Axis


Calculation of MxFor moment wrt Z1Z1
Contribution from pile 1=from pile 3=from pile 5= 83.245 x 21=1748.145
in kip
So Total Mx Z1Z1 = 437 ft kip
For moment wrt Z2Z2
Contribution from pile 2=from pile 4=from pile 6= 83.245 x 21=1748.145
in kip
So Total Mx Z2Z2 = 437 ft kip
So Max value of MX = 437 ft kip
So Resisting Moment = Mnx = Mxux / = 485.55 ft kip
Rn = Mnz/b d2 = 0.06 Ksi
2 m Rn /fy = 0.035 <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m (1-1-2m Rn /fy) = 0.001
So = min =0.0018
< max ,Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction
= 0.0025
b = 90 in, d=26 in
Therefore, Astx = 5.85 in2

Along Z Direction
= 0.0018

270 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2

b = 144 in , d=26 in
Therefore, Astxz = 6.74 in2

5.12.4 Comparison
Table 5-13: US verification example 10 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Pile Reaction (kip)
83.245
83.244
None
Governing Moment
670
718
15%
(ft kip)
437
502.6
Shear Force, One166.49
166.49
None
Way (kip)
55.5
55.5
Shear Force, Two490.14
490.217
Negligible
Way (kip)

5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2


5.13.1 Reference
5.13.2 Problem
Design pilecap foundation with the given data: Load Fy = 150 kip, Mx= 50 ft kip.
ksi, fy = 60 ksi, Column Dimension = 12 inchx12 inch. Pedestal ht= 20 inch

fc = 4

Pile Data- Dia of pile= 18 inch


Vertical capacity = 65 kip,
Horizontal capacity = 20 kip
Uplift capacity = 15 kip

Verification Manual 271

Chapter 5
5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2
Figure 5-26: Elevation and Plan

272 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2

5.13.3 Solution
depth of pilecap= 1.5xpiledia, D=27 inch
Take D=27 inch
c/c pile diatance = 3xpile dia =54 mm. Edge diatance =18 inch
Assume a 4 pile combination.
Coordinates of piles; considering pedestal at 0,0,0
Table 5-14: Pile Coordinates in Plan
Pile X Coordinate ZCoordinate
No
(in)
(in)
1
-27
-27
2
-27
27
3
27
27
4
27
-27
Pilecap Length = 54+2x18 = 90 inch
Pilecap Width = 54+2x18 = 90 inch
pilecap dimension is 90 inch x90 inch x 27 inch
Weight of footing = 90 x 90 x 27 x 0.16/123 = 20.25 kip
Weight of pedestal = 12 x 12 x 20 x 0.16 /123 = 0.267 kip
Therefore, total load on the pilecap = (150+20.25 +0.267) =170.517 kip
So Pile reaction from axial load = 170.517 /4= 42.629 kip
Moment Mx ( from input) = 50 ft kip =600 in kip
Using Rivet theoryReaction from moment= +/- 600x0.27/(4x272) = +/-5.55 Kip
So,
Reaction at Pile 2= reaction at pile 3 = 42.629 +5.55 = 48.185 Kip
Reaction at Pile 1= reaction at pile 4 = 42.629 -5.55 = 37.085Kip
So Critical vertical reaction= 48.185 Kip < 65 kip
As there is no net uplift/lateral load, so each pile is safe in uplift & lateral capacity.

Factored Design
Load factor for self wt is taken =1
Load factor for axial load is taken 1.4
So, Axial Load on pilecap = 1.4x150+20.25 x1+0.267x1= 230.517 Kip
Moment on pilecap = 1.4x50 ft kip = 840 in kip
Load on each pile from axial reaction =230.517 /4=57.629 Kip
Reaction from moment= +/- 840x27/(4x272) = +/-7.78 Kip
Verification Manual 273

Chapter 5
5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2
So,
Reaction at Pile 2= reaction at pile 3 = 57.629 +7.78 = 65.409 Kip
Reaction at Pile 1= reaction at pile 4 = 57.629 -7.78 = 49.849 Kip

Punching Shear
Figure 5-27: Section considered for two-way shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d =11.5 inch from the column face.
Contribution from pile 1=from pile 4= 49.849 Kip
Contribution from pile 2=from pile 3= 65.409 Kip
So total punching shear Vm= 230.516 kip
Pm = 4x(12+11+11) =136 inch
=L/B =12/12 =1

274 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2

V1

fc.bc.d = (2+4/1).(4000) x136 x 22 =1135.4 x1000 lb

V2
= 1602.9 x 1000 lb

fc.bc.d = (40x22/136+2).(4000) x136x22

V3 = 4.fc.bc.de = 4.(4000) x 136 x 22= 756.9 x 1000 lb


Vc = min{V1, V2, V3} = 756.9 kip
So, 0.75Vc = 567.7 Kip
Vm< 0.75.Vc , Hence safe

Punching Shear Check for Corner Piles


Corner piles are 1,2,3,4
Pile 1/4 are taking reaction 49.849 Kip & Pile 2/3 are taking reaction 65.409 Kip
d critical = 4.46 inch
Effective depth = 22 inch
d critical< Effective depth, Hence Safe

Verification Manual 275

Chapter 5
5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2

Calculation of Shear
Figure 5-28: Section considered for one-way shear

Parallel to X Axis
For shear wrt X1X1
Contribution from pile 1 =49.849 x 0.444=22.155 Kip
Contribution from pile 2 =65.409 x 0.444=29.04 Kip
Contribution from pile 3,4 =0 KN
So Total V X1X1 = 51.195 Kip
For shear wrt X2X2
Contribution from pile 4 =49.849 x 0.444=22.155 Kip
Contribution from pile 3 =65.409 x 0.444=29.04 Kip
Contribution from pile 1,2 =0 KN
So Total V X2X2 = 51.195 Kip

276 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2

So V parallel to X direction = 51.195 Kip


Now allowable shear = Vc1 =
1000 lb

= 2x(4000) x 90 x 22 lb = 250.4 x

0.75.Vc1=187.84 Kip
V < Vc1, Hence Safe

Parallel to Z Axis
For shear wrt Z1Z1
Contribution from pile 1 =49.849 x 0.444=22.155 Kip
Contribution from pile 4 =49.849 x 0.444=22.155 Kip
Contribution from pile 2,3 =0 KN
So Total V Z1Z1 = 44.31 Kip
For shear wrt Z2Z2
Contribution from pile 2 =65.409 x 0.444=29.04 Kip
Contribution from pile 3 =65.409 x 0.444=29.04 Kip
Contribution from pile 1,4 =0 KN
So Total V Z2Z2 = 58.08 Kip
So V parallel to Z direction = 58.08 kip
Now allowable shear = Vc1 =
1000 lb

= 2x(4000) x 90 x 22 lb = 250.4 x

0.75.Vc1 = 187.8 Kip


V < Vc1, Hence Safe

Verification Manual 277

Chapter 5
5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2

Calculation of Moment
Figure 5-29: Section considered for bending

About Z Axis
Calculation of MzFor moment wrt X1X1
Contribution from pile 1=49.849 x21/12=87.24 ft kip
Contribution from pile 4=65.409 x21/12=114.46 ft kip
Contribution from pile 3,4=0 in kip
So Total Mz X1X1 = 207.1 ft kip
For moment wrt X2X2
Contribution from pile 4=49.849 x21/12=87.24 ft kip

278 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2
Contribution from pile 3=65.409 x21/12=114.46 ft kip
Contribution from pile 1,2=0 in kip
So Total Mz X2X2 = 207.1 ft kip
So max Mz = 207.1 ft kip
So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =224.11 ft kip
m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471
1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4)
bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507
max = 0.75. bal = 0.02138
min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60)
Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.0617 Ksi
2m.Rn/fy = 0.0363 <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.001
So, =min = 0.0018
< max Hence OK

About X Axis
Calculation of MxFor moment wrt Z1Z1
Contribution from pile 1=from pile 4=49.849 x 21/12=87.24 ft kip
Contribution from pile 2=from pile 3=0 ft kip
So Total Mx Z1Z1 = 174.47 ft kip
For moment wrt Z2Z2
Contribution from pile 2=from pile 3=65.409 x 21/12=114.465 ft kip
Contribution from pile 1=from pile 4=0 ft kip
So Total Mx Z2Z2 = 228.93 ft kip
So Max value of MX = 228.93 ft kip
So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =254.37 ft kip
m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471
1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4)
bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507
max = 0.75. bal = 0.02138
min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60
Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.07 Ksi
2m.Rn/fy = 0.0412 <1 , Hence OK

Verification Manual 279

Chapter 5
5.14 US Pilecap Foundation 3

= 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.0012


So = min=0.0018
< max Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction
= 0.0018
b= 90 inch , d=22 inch
Therefore, Astx = 3.6 in2

Along Z Direction
= 0.0018
b= 90 inch , d=22 inch
Therefore, AstZ = 3.6 in2

5.13.4 Comparison
Table 5-15: US verification example 11 comparison
STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Reference Result
Result
ference
Pile Reaction
49.849 Kip
49.851 Kip
None
Governing
Moment

65.409 Kip
207.1 ft kip
228.93 ft kip

Shear
51.195 Kip 58.08
Force(One-Way) Kip
Shear
Force(TwoWay)

230.516 kip

65.407 Kip
219.654 ft kip

Negligible

294.254 ft kip
51.226 Kip

None

58.14 Kip
230.517 kip

None

5.14 US Pilecap Foundation 3


5.14.1 Reference
5.14.2 Problem
Design pilecap foundation with the given data: Load Fy = 1000 KN, fc = M 25, fy = Fe 415
Column Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm, Pedestal ht= 500 mm

280 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.14 US Pilecap Foundation 3

Dia of pile= 300 mm


Vertical capacity = 250 KN
Horizontal capacity = 50 KN
Uplift capacity = 100 KN
Figure 5-30: Elevation and Plan

5.14.3 Solution
Depth of pilecap= 1.5 x pile diameter, D = 450 mm
Take D = 655 mm
c/c pile distance = 3 x pile diameter =1200 mm
Edge distance =350 mm
Assuming five pile combination, coordinates of piles(considering pedestal at 0,0,0):
Table 5-16: Pile Coordinates in Plan
Pile X Coordinate Z Coordinate
No
(mm)
(mm)
1
-848.528
-848.528
2
-848.528
848.528
3
0
0
4
848.528
-848.528
5
848.528
848.528

Verification Manual 281

Chapter 5
5.14 US Pilecap Foundation 3

Pilecap Length = 2(850)+2(350) = 2400 mm


Pilecap Width = 2(850)+2(350) = 2400 mm
pilecap dimension is 2400 mm x 2400 mm x 740 mm
Weight of footing = 2.4 x 2.4 x 0.74 x 25 = 106.56 KN
Weight of pedestal = 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5 x 25 = 0.78 KN
Therefore, total load on the pilecap= (1000+106.56 +0.78) =1107.34 KN
So Pile reaction = 1107.34 /5 = 221.47 KN < 250 KN
Hence OK
As there is no lateral load , moment or uplift force, so each pile is safe in lateral & uplift
capacity.

Factored Design
Load factor for self wt is taken = 1
Load factor for axial load is taken = 1.4
So, Load on pilecap = 1.4(1000) + 1(106.56)+0 1(0.78) = 1507.34 KN
Load on each pile = 1507.34/5 = 301.468 KN
deff = 740 - 50 - 50 - 25 = 615 mm

Punching Shear
Figure 5-31: Section considered for punching shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d =307.5 mm from the column face.
Contribution from pile 1 = from pile2 = from pile4 = from pile 5 = 301.468
KN
Contribution from pile 3 = 0 KN
So total punching shear Vm= 1205.9 KN
Pm = 4 (250 + 307.5 + 307.5) =3460 mm
= L/B = 250/250 = 1

282 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.14 US Pilecap Foundation 3

V1= (2 +4/ c)(fc) bc d = 5298.5 KN


V2 = (40 d/b +2)(fc) bc d = 5530.9 KN
V3= 4.(fc) bc de = 3532 KN
Vc = min(V1, V2, V3) = 3532 KN
So, 0.75 Vc =2649 KN
Vm< 0.75 Vc , Hence safe

Punching Shear Check for Corner Piles


Corner piles are 1, 2, 4, & 5
Each pile is taking reaction 301.47 KN
B1 = 1418.27 mm & B2 =2025 mm
d1 = 151 mm
d2 = 211 mm
d critical =212 mm
Effective depth = 615 mm
d critical < Effective depth, Hence Safe

Calculation of Shear
Figure 5-32: Section considered for one-way shear

Parallel to X Axis
Shear Plane is at a distance d (615 mm from face of column)
For shear wrt X1X1
Contribution from pile 1 = pile 2 = 0.8667 x 301.47 = 261.27 KN
Contribution from pile 3,4,5 =0 KN
So Total V X1X1 = 522.548 KN
Verification Manual 283

Chapter 5
5.14 US Pilecap Foundation 3
For shear wrt X2X2
Contribution from pile 4 = pile 5 = 0.8667 x 301.47=261.27 KN
Contribution from pile 3,2,1 =0 KN
So, Total V X2X2 = 522.548 KN
Shear, V, parallel to X direction = 522.548 KN
Now allowable shear = Vc1 =2(fc) bc d = 1225 KN
0.75 Vc1= 918.8 KN
V < Vc1, Hence Safe

Parallel to Z Axis
For shear wrt Z1Z1
Contribution from pile 1 =pile 4 = 0.8667 x 301.47 = 261.27 KN
Contribution from pile 2 = pile 3 = pile 5 = 0 KN
So Total V Z1Z1 = 522.548 KN
For shear wrt Z2Z2
Contribution from pile 2 = pile 5 = 0.8667 x 301.47 = 261.27 KN
Contribution from pile 1 = pile 3 = pile 4 =0 KN
So Total V Z2Z2 = 522.548 KN
Shear, V, parallel to Z direction = 522.548 KN
Now allowable shear = Vc1 =2(fc) bc d = 1225 KN
0.75 Vc1= 918.8 KN
V < Vc1, Hence Safe

Calculation of Moment
For either direction:
m = f /0.85 f = 415/(0.85 25) = 19.529
y

= 0.85 (as f = M 25)


1

bal

= 0.85 f 87/f (87 + f ) = 0.025729


1 c

= 0.75

= 0.0018 (as f = 415 N/mm 2)

max
min

bal

= 0.019297
y

284 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.14 US Pilecap Foundation 3
Figure 5-33: Section considered for moment

Calculation of Moment about Z Axis


Calculation of MzFor moment wrt X1X1
Contribution from pile 1 = pile 2 = 301.47 x 0.725 = 218.56 KNm
Contribution from pile 3 = 0.083 x 301.47 x 0.0083 = 0.21 KNm
Contribution from pile 4= pile 5 = 0 KNm
So Total Mz X1X1 = 437.34 KNm = 440 KNm
For moment wrt X2X2
Contribution from pile 4 = pile 5 = 301.47 x 0.725 = 218.56 KNm
Contribution from pile 3 = 0.083 x 301.47 x 0.0083 = 0.21 KNm
Contribution from pile 4 = pile 5 =0 KNm
So Total Mz X2X2 = 437.34 KNm = 440 KNm
So Resisting Moment = Mnz= Muz/ = 488.89 KNm = 490 KNm
Rn = Mnz/b d2 = 0.5398 N/mm2
2 m Rn /fy = 0.0508 <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m (1-1-2m Rn /fy) =0.00132
= min =0.0018
< max , Hence OK

Calculation of Moment about X Axis


Calculation of MxFor moment wrt Z1Z1
Contribution from pile 1= pile 4 = 301.47 x 0.725 = 218.56 KNm
Contribution from pile 3=0.083 x 301.47 x 0.0083 = 0.21 KNm
Verification Manual 285

Chapter 5
5.14 US Pilecap Foundation 3

Contribution from pile 2 = pile 5 = 0 KNm


So Total Mx Z1Z1 = 437.34 KNm = 440 KNm
For moment wrt Z2Z2
Contribution from pile 2= pile 5 = 301.47 x 0.725 = 218.56 KNm
Contribution from pile 3 = 0.083 x 301.47 x 0.0083 = 0.21 KNm
Contribution from pile 1 = pile 4 = 0 KNm
So Total Mx Z2Z2 = 437.34 KNm = 440 KNm
So Max value of MX = 440 KNm
So Resisting Moment = Mnx = Mxux / = 488.89 KNm =490 KNm
Rn = Mnz/b d2 = 0.5398 N/mm2
2 m Rn /fy = 0.0508 <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m (1-1-2m Rn /fy) = 0.00132
So = min =0.0018
< max ,Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction
= 0.0018
b = 2400 mm, d = 615 mm
Therefore, Astx = 2657 mm2

Along Z Direction
= 0.0018
b = 2400 mm, d = 615 mm
Therefore, Astz = 2657 mm2

286 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4

5.14.4 Comparison
Table 5-17: US verification example 11 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Pile Reaction, Service
221.5
221.4
Negligible
(KN)
Pile Reaction, Ulti301.5
301.4
Negligible
mate (KN)
Governing Moment
489
485
Negligible
(KNm)
489
485
Shear Force, One523
520
Negligible
Way (KN)
523
520
Shear Force, Two1206
1206
None
Way (KN)

5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4


5.15.1 Reference
5.15.2 Problem
Design pilecap foundation with the given data: Load Fy = -1200 KN &Mz = 100 KNm, fc =
M 25, fy = Fe 415
Column Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm, Pedestal ht= 500 mm
Dia of pile= 300 mm
Vertical capacity = 250 KN
Horizontal capacity = 50 KN
Uplift capacity = 50 KN

Verification Manual 287

Chapter 5
5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4
Figure 5-34: Elevation and Plan

5.15.3 Solution
Depth of pilecap= 1.5 x pile diameter, D = 450 mm
Take D = 780 mm
c/c pile distance = 3 x pile diameter = 900 mm
Edge distance =350 mm
Assuming six pile combination, coordinates of piles(considering pedestal at 0,0,0):

288 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4
Table 5-18: Pile Coordinates in Plan
Pile X Coordinate Z Coordinate
No
(mm)
(mm)
1
-900
-450
2
-900
450
3
0
-450
4
0
450
5
900
-450
6
900
450
Pilecap Length =2(900) + 2(350) = 2500 mm
Pilecap Width = 900 + 2(350) = 1600 mm
pilecap dimension is 2500 mm x 1600 mm x 780 mm
Weight of footing = 2.5 x 1.6 x 0.78 x 25 = 78 KN
Weight of pedestal = 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5 x 25 = 0.78 KN
Therefore, total load on the pilecap = 1200 + 78 + 0.78 = 1278.78 KN
So Pile reaction from axial load = 1278.78/6= 213.13 KN
So Pile reaction at Pile1 /Pile 2 = 213.13 +100 0.9/(4 0.9 0.9) = 240.91 KN
So Pile reaction at Pile3 /Pile 4 = 213.13 KN
So Pile reaction at Pile5 /Pile 6 = 213.13 - 100 0.9/(4 0.9 0.9) = 185.35 KN
So Critical Pile reaction = 240.91 KN < 250 KN
Hence OK
As there is no lateral load , moment or uplift force, so each pile is safe in lateral & uplift
capacity. Similarly, as there is no tension pile case so each pile is safe again uplift.

Factored Design
Load factor for self wt is taken = 1
Load factor for axial load is taken = 1.4
So, Load on pilecap = 1.4(1200) + 1(78) + 1(0.78) = 1758.78 KN
So Pile reaction from axial load = 1758.78/6 = 293.13 KN
Moment (Mz) = 1.4(100) = 140 KNm
So Pile reaction at Pile 1 /Pile 2 = 293.13 + 140 0.9/(4 0.9 0.9) = 332.02 KN
So Pile reaction at Pile 3 /Pile 4 = 293.13 KN
So Pile reaction at Pile 5 /Pile 6 = 293.13 -140 0.9/(4 0.9 0.9) = 254.24 KN
deff = 780 - 50 - 50 - 25 = 655 mm

Punching Shear
Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d =327.5 mm from the column face.

Verification Manual 289

Chapter 5
5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4
Figure 5-35: Section considered for punching shear

Contribution from pile 1 = pile 2 = 1(332.02) =332.02 KN


Contribution from pile 3 = pile 4= 0.492(293.13) = 144.22 KN
Contribution from pile 5 = pile 6 = 1(254.24) = 254.24 KN
So total punching shear Vm= 2(333.02 + 144.22 + 254.24) = 1462.96 KN
Pm = 4 (250 + 327.5 + 327.5) = 3620 mm
= L/B = 250/250 = 1
V1= (2 +4/ c)(fc) bc d = 5904 KN
V2 = (40 d/b +2)(fc) bc d = 9090 KN
V3= 4.(fc) bc de = 3936 KN
Vc = min(V1, V2, V3) = 3936 KN
So, 0.75 Vc = 2952 KN
Vm< 0.75 Vc , Hence safe

Punching Shear Check for Corner Piles


Corner piles are 1, 2, 5, & 6
Critical Pile 1 & 2 with axial Reaction 333.02 KN
B1 = 1450 mm & B2 =2105 mm
d1 = 163 mm
d2 = 225 mm
d critical =225 mm

290 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4

Effective depth = 655 mm


d critical < Effective depth, Hence Safe

Calculation of Shear
Figure 5-36: Section considered for one-way shear

Parallel to X Axis
Shear Plane is at a distance d (655 mm from face of column)
For shear wrt X1X1
Contribution from pile 1 = pile 2 =0.9x 333.03 = 299.72 KN
Contribution from piles 3, 4, 5, &6 =0 KN
So Total V X1X1 = = 2(299.72) KN= 599.4 KN
For shear wrt X2X2
Contribution from pile 5 = pile 6 = 0.9(254.24) = 228.82 KN
Contribution from piles 1, 2, 3, &4 = 0 KN
So, Total V X2X2 = 2(228.82) = 457.63 KN
Shear, V, parallel to X direction = 599.4 KN

Verification Manual 291

Chapter 5
5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4

Now allowable shear = Vc1 =2(fc) bc d = 869.8 KN


0.75 Vc1= 652 KN
V < Vc1, Hence Safe

Parallel to Z Axis
For shear wrt Z1Z1
Contribution from all piles = 0 KN
So Total V Z1Z1 = 0 KN
For shear wrt Z2Z2
Contribution from all piles =0 KN
So Total V Z2Z2 = 0 KN
Shear, V, parallel to Z direction = 0 KN
No shear parallel to the Z axis, Hence Safe

Calculation of Moment
For either direction:
m = f /0.85 f = 415/(0.85 25) = 19.529
y

= 0.85 (as f = M 25)


1

bal

= 0.85 f 87/f (87 + f ) = 0.025729


1 c

= 0.75

= 0.0018 (as f = 415 N/mm 2)

max
min

bal

= 0.019297
y

292 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4
Figure 5-37: Section considered for moment

Calculation of Moment about Z Axis


Calculation of Mz
For moment wrt X1X1
Contribution from pile 1 = pile 2 = 333.02(0.775)= 258.1 KNm
Contribution from pile 3 = pile 4 = 0.083(293.13 0.0083) = 0.2 KNm
Contribution from pile 5 = pile 6 = 0 KNm
So Total Mz X1X1 = 516.6 KNm = 520 KNm
For moment wrt X2X2
Contribution from pile 5 = pile 6 = 254.24(0.775) = 197 KNm
Contribution from pile 3 = pile 4 = 0.083(293.13 0.0083) = 0.2 KNm
Contribution from pile 1 = pile 2 =0 KNm
So Total Mz X2X2 = 394.4 KNm = 395 KNm
So Critical value of Mz =520 KNm
So Resisting Moment = Mnz= Muz/ = 577.78 KNm = 580 KNm
Rn = Mnz/b d2 = 0.845 N/mm2
2 m Rn /fy = 0.0795 <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m (1-1-2m Rn /fy) = 0.002
= min =0.0018
min < < max , Hence OK

Verification Manual 293

Chapter 5
5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4

Calculation of Moment about X Axis


Calculation of Mx
For moment wrt Z1Z1
Contribution from pile 1 = 332.02(0.325) = 107.9 KNm
Contribution from pile 3 = 293.13(0.325) = 95.27 KNm
Contribution from pile 5 = 254.24(0.325) = 82.63 KNm
Contribution from piles 2, 4, &6 = 0 KNm
So Total Mx Z1Z1 =285.8 KNm = 286 KNm
For moment wrt Z2Z2
Contribution from pile 2 = 332.02(0.325) = 107.9 KNm
Contribution from pile 4 = 293.13(0.325) = 95.27 KNm
Contribution from pile 6 = 254.24(0.325)= 82.63 KNm
Contribution from piles 1, 3, & 5 = 0 KNm
So Total Mx Z2Z2 = 285.8 KNm = 286 KNm
So Max value of Mx = 286 KNm
So Resisting Moment = Mnx = Mxux / = 317.78 KNm =318 KNm
Rn = Mnz/b d2 = 0.2964 N/mm2
2 m Rn /fy = 0.0279 <1 , Hence OK
= 1/m (1-1-2m Rn /fy) = 0.00072
So = min =0.0018
< max ,Hence OK

Area of Steel Required


Along X Direction
= 0.0020
b = 1600 mm, d = 655 mm
Therefore, Astx = 2096 mm2

Along Z Direction
= 0.0018
b = 2500 mm, d = 655 mm
Therefore, Astz = 2948 mm2

294 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.16 US Mat Combined Foundation 1

5.15.4 Comparison
Table 5-19: US verification example 13 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Pile Reaction, Service
241
241
Negligible
(KN)
241
241

Pile Reaction, Ultimate (KN)

Governing Moment
(KNm)
Shear Force, OneWay (KN)
Shear Force, TwoWay (KN)

213

213

213

213

185

185

185
332

185
332

332

332

293

293

293

293

254

254

254
578

254
572

Negligible

318
600

318
599

Negligible

0
1463

0
1462

Negligible

None

5.16 US Mat Combined Foundation 1


5.16.1 Reference
Foundation Analysis and Design Fifth Edition by J.E. Bowles, Page 475-481, Example
9-1.

5.16.2 Problem
Design a rectangular combined footing using the conventional method given. fc = 3000psi
(column and footing), fy = 60000 psi, qa = 2 ksf.

Verification Manual 295

Chapter 5
5.16 US Mat Combined Foundation 1
Figure 5-38: Elevation and dimensions

Column 1
12 in. x 12 in.
4 No. 7 bars
DL = 60 kips
LL = 60 kips

Column 2
15 in. x 15 in.
4 No. 8 bars
DL = 110 kips
LL = 90 kips

5.16.3 Solution
Step 1- Find out ultimate soil pressure
Pu 1 = 1.2 x 60 + 1.6 x 60 = 168 kips
Pu 2 = 1.2 x 110 + 1.6 x 90 = 276 kips
Pw= P1 + P2 = 60 + 60 + 110 + 90 = 320 kips
Ultimate ratio UR= (168 + 276) / 320 = 1.3875
qult = qa x UR= 2 x 1.3875 = 2.775 ksf
This is necessary so that eccentricity is not introduced in finding L using working loads
and then switching to ultimate values.

Step 2 - Find footing dimensions L and B; first locate load


resultant from center of column 1
Mcol1= R where R = Pu = 168 + 276 = 444 KN
444

= 15 x 276

= 9.324 ft
To make the resultant 444 kips (factored loads) fall at L/2:
L = (9.324 + 0.5) x 2 = 19.648 ft
We will use 19.75 ft.

296 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.16 US Mat Combined Foundation 1

Step 3 - Find B
BLq = 444

B=

= 8.143 ft

Use B = 8.17 ft.

Step 4 - Find out bending moment and shear force


Uniformly distributed upward load = (Pu 1 + Pu 2) / 19.75 = 22.48 kip / ft
Shear between column 1 and 2 using integration (set integration constant by inspection):

dV =
V = 22.48 x 168

V = 0 at x =

= 7.47 ft (locates point of Mmax )

Moment between column 1 and 2 (again set integration constant by inspection):

dM =

M=

168 (x 0.5)

At x = 1(right face of column 1),


M = -72.76 ft-kips
Maximum negative M at V = 0 is

M=

- 168 (7.47 0.5) = -543.76 ft-kips

These values are Mu values and can be directly used to compute steel quantities.

Verification Manual 297

Chapter 5
5.16 US Mat Combined Foundation 1
Figure 5-39: Forces on foundation

Maximum positive bending moment is at the face of column 2


= 22.48 x (3.625)2 / 2 = 147.7 ft-kips
Maximum shear force at the face of column 2
= 22.48 x 14.875 168 = 166.39 kips
Figure 5-40: Shear and Bending diagrams

Step 5 - Select depth based on analysis for both widebeam and diagonal tension
a. Critical location for wide-beam is readily obtained.
b. Diagonal tension may have to be investigated for three conditions:
i. three-side zone, column 1
ii. four-side zone, column 2
iii. three-side zone, column 2
Check wide beam first (slope of shear diagram = constant) using V diagram:
B vc d = 166.39 22.48 d
vc = 11.825 ksf (allowable =

8.17 x 11.825 d = 166.39 22.48 d

298 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.16 US Mat Combined Foundation 1

d=

= 1.397 ft (16.765 in)

Checking diagonal tension at column 1 using d just obtained for a three-side zone and
vc =

= 164.317 psi = 23.66 ksf

Perim. = (12 + 8.38) x 2 + 12 + 16.765 = 69.525 in = 5.794 ft


The net shear is column load upward soil force in diagonal tension zone:

= 4.07 ft 2

A=

V = Pcol -Psoil = 168 4.07 x


Actual v =

= 156.8 kips

= 19.37 ksf < 23.66 ksf (O.K.)

At column 2 a four side zone gives

A=

= 7.01 ft 2

And

V = 276 7.01 x

= 256.74 kips

Perim. = (15 + 16.765) x

v=

= 10.59 ft

= 17.354 ksf < 23.66 ksf (O.K.)

By inspection a three-side diagonal tension is not critical at column 2.

Step 6 - Design negative steel (between columns 1 and 2)


For fy = 60 and fc = 3 ksi and b = 12 in, obtain a = 1.96As:

As (d - a/2) =
As (16.765 0.98 As) =
As = 0.94 in2 / ft

= 14.79

Verification Manual 299

Chapter 5
5.16 US Mat Combined Foundation 1

p=
steel

= 0.00467 >

(O.K.) < maximum allowable percent of

Use 12 No. 8 bars at 8.2 in spacing across top of footing:


As = 12(0.79) = 9.48 > 7.68 in2
Run 1/3 of bars full length of footing (less 3 in end cover):
Ld is O.K.

Step 7 - Find steel in short direction in column 1


B = 12 + 16.765 x 0.75 = 24.574 in = 2.05 ft

L =

q=

M=

= 3.585 ft

= 10.03 ksf (conservative)

x 12 = 773.45 in-kips

Take d = (16.765 1) in to allow for longitudinal rebars:

As (15.765 0.98 As) =


As = 0.98 in2 / ft

= 14.323

p is O.K. from previous calculation. Use 4 No. 7 bars at 6 in:


Ld = 0.04 x 0.60 x 60000 x

= 26.3 in

or
Ld = 0.004 x 0.875 x 60000 = 21 in
Ld furnished = 3.585 x 12 3 = 40 in
Compute short direction steel at column 2; use d= 15 in:
B = 15 + 16 x 1.5 = 39 in = 3.25 ft

L =

= 3.46 ft

q=

= 10.394 ksf (conservative)

300 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.16 US Mat Combined Foundation 1

M=

x 12 = 746.6 in-kips

As (15.765 0.98 As) =


As = 0.98 in2 / ft

= 14.379

Use 6 No. 7 bars at 6.5 in

Step 8 - Check dowel requirements of column to footing


At column 1 the supporting area is not on all sides; therefore the bearing stress is limited
to:
fc = 0.75 x 0.7 x fc = 1.575 ksi
p = 12 x12 x 1.575 = 226.8 > 168 kips (dowels not required for load transfer)
Use 4 dowels to provide at least 0.05Ag:
As = 0.005 x 144 = 0.72 in2
Use 4 No. 6 for 4 x (0.44) = 1.76 in2 at column 2 with concrete all around

> 2
Use 2
fc = 0.75 x 0.7 fc x 2 = 3.15 ksi
P = 15 x 15 x 3.15 = 708.75 >> 276
Use four dowels same size as column 1.

Step 9 - Conclusion
Steel in cantilever portion is found to be 0.28 for moment and 0.67 in2 / ft for minimum
requirement of 200 / fy (could use 0.28 x 1.33 >= T and S alternatively but would require
increasing other steel by 1 / 3 also)
Use 10 No. 7 bars
Run five bars full length to use as chairs for short direction steel.

Verification Manual 301

Chapter 5
5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning

5.16.4 Comparison
Table 5-20: US verification example 12 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Average Base Pressure
0.01911
0.02 kip/in2
4.657
kip/in2
Maximum Negative
543.76 ft- 529.064 ft-kips
2.70
Bending Moment
kips
Maximum Positive
147.7 ft149.12 ft-kips
0.96
Bending Moment
kips
Required Area of
0.94 in2/ft 0.909 in2/ft
3.3
Reinforcement

5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with


Sliding & Overturning
5.17.1 Reference
5.17.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data:
Density of soil =14 KN/cum
Depth of Soil = 0.5m
Density of Concrete = 25 KN/cum
Coefficient of Friction (m) = 0.5
Safe Bearing Capacity of the Soil (s) = 120 KN/m2
Factor of Safety against Overturning =1.5
Factor of Safety against Sliding = 1.5
Permissible soil pressure =
Column dimension = 0.3m x 0.3m,
Strength of concrete (fc) = M-30 = 4349.39 Psi
Strength of steel (fy) = Fe-415
Loads:
Fx =-300 KN
Fy =-500 KN
Fz=-200 KN
Mz= -10.32KNm
Mx=45.89 KNm

302 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning

Note: Self weight of footing, wt of soil and surcharge are not included for shear and
moment computations.
Figure 5-41: Plan and Elevation

5.17.3 Solution
Design started with trial dimensions of 3.75m X 3.75m X 1.0m

Determination of base area of footing


The base area of footing is determined using service (unfactored) loads with the net
permissible soil pressure.
Net permissible soil pressure = 120 KN/ m2

Verification Manual 303

Chapter 5
5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning

Required base area of footing = [500 + 0.10(500)]/120 = 4.5833 m2


3.75m square footing (Af =14.0625 m2).
Using a depth of 1m;
Use a 3.75m

Self-wt. of Footing =(3.75*3.75*1*25) = 351.562 KN

Wt. of soil = 14*0.5*{(3.75*3.75) (0.3*0.3)} =97.8075 KN

Serviceability Check
The net moments are given by:Mz = -10.32 (-300*1) = 289.68 KNm
Mx= +45.89 +(-200*1) = -154.11 KNm
The pressure at the four corners are given by:s1=((500+351.562)/14.0625)+(6*154.11/3.753)-(6*289.68/3.753)=
75.980KN/m2
s2=((500+351.562)/14.0625)-(6*154.11/3.753)-(6*289.68/3.753)=
10.0621KN/m2
s3=((500+351.562)/14.0625)-(6*154.11/3.753)+(6*289.68/3.753)=
45.131KN/m2
s4=((500+351.562)/14.0625)+(6*154.11/3.753)+(6*289.68/3.753)=
111.049KN/m2
which is < 120 KN/m2. Hence OK

Stability Check
Calculation for Overturning and Sliding

For Sliding
Along X- Direction:
Disturbing force = -300 KN
Restoring Force = *(Wt of Footing + Fy + Wt of Soil) = 474.6848 KN
Hence, Factor of Safety against Sliding = (474.6848/300) =1.5823 > 1.5 Hence Safe
Along Z- Direction:
Disturbing force = -200 KN
Restoring Force = *(Wt of Footing + Fy + Wt of Soil) = 474.6848 KN
Hence, Factor of Safety against Sliding = (474.6848/200) =2.373 > 1.5 Hence Safe

304 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning

For Overturning
About X- Direction:
Overturning Moment = Mx + Fz* (Ht of Pedestal + Depth of Footing) = 45.89
200* (0 +1) = -154.11 KN-m
Restoring Moment = (Fy + Wt of Soil + Wt of Footing) *Width of Footing*0.5
= 1780.068 KN-m
Hence, Factor of Safety against Overturning = (1780.068/154.11) =11.5506 > 1.5 Hence Safe
About Z- Direction:
Overturning Moment = Mx + Fz* (Ht of Pedestal + Depth of Footing) =-10.32
+ 300* (0 +1) = 289.68 KN-m
Restoring Moment = (Fy + Wt of Soil + Wt of Footing) *Width of Footing*0.5
= 1780.068 KN-m
Hence, Factor of Safety against Overturning = (1780.068/289.68) =6.1449 > 1.5 Hence Safe

Check For Shear


Factored loads and soil reaction:
To proportion the footing for strength (depth and required reinforcement) factored loads are
used. For this problem, the factors used are all 1.0
The pressure at the four corners are given by:s1=(500/14.0625)+(6*154.11/3.753)-(6*289.68/3.753)=50.9804KN/m2
s2=(500/14.0625)-(6*154.11/3.753)-(6*289.68/3.753)=-14.9378KN/m2
s3=(500/14.0625)-(6*154.11/3.753)+(6*289.68/3.753)=20.1307KN/m2
s4=(500/14.0625)+(6*154.11/3.753)+(6*289.68/3.753)=86.049KN/m2
Average pressure:qu = (s1+s2+s3+s4)/4 = 35.555 KN/ m2
Figure 5-42: Critical section for punching shear is at d/2

Verification Manual 305

Chapter 5
5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning
Depth requirement for shear usually controls the footing thickness. Both wide action and
two-way action (punching shear) for strength computation need to be investigated to
determine the controlling shear criteria for depth.
Assume overall footing thickness = 1.0m and average effective thickness d = 0.92m (36.22
in)

Wide-beam action (One-Way Shear) :


Along Z-Z axis: Vu = qs tributary area
Bw = 3.75m = 147.6378 in
qs is given by:Average Base Pressure along one edge = (50.98041-14.9379)/2 =18.02126
KN/m2
Average Base Pressure along other edge = (20.1307+86.049)/2 = 53.0899
KN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 53.0899- {(53.0899 18.02126)/3.75*0.805} =45.56183 KN/ m2 [0.805=3.75-(3.75/2+0.92+0.15)]
Hence, the one- way shear at the critical section
Vux =3.75*{45.56183*0.805+0.5*(53.0899-45.56183)*0.805}= 148.9025 KN
Along X-X axis:Vu = qs

tributary area

Bw = 3.75m = 147.6378 in
qs is given by:Average Base Pressure along one edge = (86.049+50.98041)/2 =68.5147
KN/m2
Average Base Pressure along other edge = (20.1307-14.9379)/2 = 2.5964
KN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 68.5147- {(68.51472.5964)/3.75*0.805} =54.36424 KN/ m2[0.805=(3.75/20.920.15)]
Hence, the one-way shear at the critical section
Vuz =3.75*{54.36424*0.805+0.5*(68.5147-54.36424)*0.805}= 185.47 KN
Vu = (2(f'c)bwd) = 0.75(2(4349.39) 147.6378
529.0018 kips = 2354.06 KN > Vux and Vuz
Hence O.K.

Two-way action (Punching Shear):


Vu = qs

tributary area

306 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

36.22)/1000 =

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning

Tributary area = 14.0625 - (0.3+ 0.92) (0.3 + 0.92) = 12.5741 m2


V
u

= 35.555

12.5741 = 447.0791 KN = 100.467 Kip.

= Minimum of

bo = 2(0.3+0.3+2*0.92) = 4.88m =192.126 in

= 5.304348

= 40 for interior columns

=
Vc = 0.75 4 x
= 100.467 kips

192.126

36.2205/1000 = 1376.82 kips > Vu

O.K.

Calculation for reinforcement


Figure 5-43: Critical section for moment is at the face of column

Verification Manual 307

Chapter 5
5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning

Bending about X Axis

Bending About Z Axis

About X Axis
Average Base Pressure along one edge = (50.98041-14.9379)/2 =18.02126
KN/m2
Average Base Pressure along other edge = (20.1307+86.049)/2 = 53.0899
KN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 53.0899- {(53.0899 18.02126)/3.75*1.725} =36.958 KN/ m2 [1.725= 3.75-(3.75/2+0.15)]
Hence, the moment at the critical section
Mu =3.75*{36.958*1.725*1.725*0.5+0.5*(53.0899-36.958)*1.725*1.725*2/3}=
266.2033 KNm

KN/m2 =13.5105

Required Rn =
psi

(gross area) = (d/h)

0.00022 = (0.92/1.0)

0.00027 = 0.000207

Check minimum As required for footings of uniform thickness; for grade 415 reinforcement:
min

Since

is <

= 0.00180
min,

so

min

=0.00180

308 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning

bd= 0.00180 3.75 0.92 = 0.00621 m2 = 6210 m2m

Required As =

About Z Axis
Average Base Pressure along one edge = (86.049+50.98041)/2 =68.5147
KN/m2

Average Base Pressure along other edge = (20.1307-14.9379)/2 = 2.5964


KN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 68.5147- {(68.51472.5964)/3.75*1.725} =38.1923 KN/ m2 [1.725=(3.75/2-0.15)]
Hence, the moment at the critical section
Mu =3.75*{38.1923*1.725*1.725*0.5+0.5*(68.5147-38.1923)*1.725*1.725*2/3}=
325.87126 KNm
Compute required As assuming tension-controlled section (

= 0.9)

KN/m2 =8.44355

Required Rn =
psi

p(gross area) = (d/h)

0.00014 = (0.92/1.0)

0.00014 = 0.000129

Check minimum As required for footings of uniform thickness; for grade 415 reinforcement:
min

Since

is <

= 0.00180
min,

so

min

=0.00180

Required As =
bd= 0.00180 3.75 0.92 = 0.00621 m2 = 6210 m2m
Try with 16mm bars (Af =201.06 m2m)
So, no. of bars reqd = 6210/ 201.06 =31 bars

Check for development length


Critical section for development length is same as that for moment (at face of column).
As per ACI- 12.2.2 and T-1.12.2 of Reinforced Concrete Design by Salmon-Wang; For # 35M
bars and smaller:

Verification Manual 309

Chapter 5
5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning

Ld = 0.02 Ab
= 0.02* 201.06*(415/300.5)= 304.68 mm
Available development length of the bars = 0.5*(L-Dcol) C cover = 1675 mm
> 304.68 mm.
Hence OK
Clear cover (bottom and side) = 50 mm
Center-to-center bar spacing = {3750-2*(50+8)}/30 = 121.13 mm
This is to be checked with the minimum and maximum spacing permissible.

310 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

5.17.4 Comparison
Table 5-21: US verification example 14 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Difference (Reasons
Value of
Result
result*
there-of)
Moment about X 266.2033 269.53
Error due to
(KNm)
approximation in base
pressure interpolation
Moment about Z 325.87126 328.41 m
Error due to
(KNm)
approximation in base
pressure interpolation
Area of steel
6210
6106.05
Error due to
about X-X (mm2)
approximation in base
pressure interpolation
Area of steel
6210
6241.05
Error due to
about Z-Z (mm2)
approximation in base
pressure interpolation
Shear force
185.47
186.09
Error due to
approximation in base
(One way) along
pressure interpolation
X (KN)
Shear force
148.9025 144.21
Error due to
approximation in base
(One way) along
pressure interpolation
Z (KN)
Shear force
447.079 447.38
Negligible
(Two way) (KN)
Factor of Safety
against Sliding
(X)
Factor of Safety
against Sliding
(Z)
Factor of Safety
against
Overturning (X)
Factor of Safety
against
Overturning (Z)

1.582

1.582

Negligible

2.373

2.373

Negligible

11.5506

11.550

Negligible

6.1449

6.145

Negligible

5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with


Eccentric Loading
5.18.1 Reference

Verification Manual 311

Chapter 5
5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

5.18.2 Problem
Design an isolated footing with the given data:
Offset of column in X-direction (Oxd) =300 mm
Offset of column in Z-direction (Ozd) =300 mm
Density of soil =14 KN/m3
Depth of Soil = 0.5m
Density of Concrete = 25 KN/m3
Coefficient of Friction (m) = 0.5
Safe Bearing Capacity of the Soil (s) = 120 KN/m2
Factor of Safety against Overturning =1.5
Factor of Safety against Sliding = 1.5
Permissible soil pressure =
Column dimension = 0.3m x 0.3m,
Strength of concrete (fc) = M-30 = 4349.39 Psi
Strength of steel (fy) = Fe-415
Loads:
Fx =-300 KN
Fy =-500 KN
Fz=-200 KN
Mz= 45.89 KNm
Mx=-98.32 KNm
Note: Self weight of footing, wt of soil and surcharge are not included for shear and
moment computations.

312 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading
Figure 5-44: Plan and Elevation

5.18.3 Solution
Design started with trial dimensions of 5.0m X 5.0m X 1.0m
Determination of base area of footing:
The base area of footing is determined using service (unfactored) loads with the net
permissible soil pressure.
Net permissible soil pressure = 120 KN/ m2
Required base area of footing = [500 + 0.10(500)]/120 = 4.5833 m2
5.0m square footing (Af =25 m2).
Using a depth of 1m;
Use a 5 .0m

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Chapter 5
5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

Self-wt. of Footing =(5.0*5.0*1*25) = 625 KN


Wt. of soil = 14*0.5*{(5.0*5.0) (0.3*0.3)} =174.37 KN

Serviceability Check
The net moments are given by:
Mz =+45.89 (-300*1) +(-500*0.3) = 195.89 KNm
Mx= - 98.32 +(-200*1) (-500*0.3) = -148.32 KNm
The pressure at the four corners are given by:
1=((500+625)/25)+(6*195.89 /5.03)-(6*148.32 /5.03)=
47.28336KN/m2
2=((500+625)/25)-(6*195.89 /5.03)-(6*148.32 /5.03)= 28.478KN/m2
3=((500+625)/25)-(6*195.89 /5.03)+(6*148.32 /5.03)=42.7167KN/m2
4=((500+625)/25)+(6*195.89 /5.03)+(6*148.32 /5.03)=61.522
KN/m2
which is < 120 KN/m2. Hence OK

Stability Check
Calculation for Overturning and Sliding

For Sliding
Along X- Direction:
Disturbing force = -300 KN
Restoring Force = m*(Wt of Footing + Fy + Wt of Soil) = 649.685 KN
Hence, Factor of Safety against Sliding = (649.685/300) =2.1656 > 1.5
Hence Safe
Along Z- Direction:
Disturbing force = -200 KN
Restoring Force = m*(Wt of Footing + Fy + Wt of Soil) = 649.685 KN
Hence, Factor of Safety against Sliding = (649.685/200) =3.2484 > 1.5
Hence Safe

For Overturning
About X- Direction:
Overturning Moment = Mx + Fz* (Ht of Pedestal + Depth of Footing)= 98.32 200* (0 +1) = -298.32 KN-m

314 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

Restoring Moment = Fy * (Width of Footing *0.5 Ozd)+ (Wt of Soil + Wt of


Footing) * Width of Footing*0.5 = 3098.425 KN-m
Factor of Safety against Overturning = (3098.425/298.32) =10.386 > 1.5
Hence Safe
About Z- Direction:
Overturning Moment = Mx + Fz* (Ht of Pedestal + Depth of Footing) =45.89
+ 300* (0 +1) = 345.89 KN-m
Restoring Moment = Fy * (Width of Footing *0.5 Ozd)+ (Wt of Soil + Wt of
Footing) * Width of Footing*0.5 = 3398.425 KN-m
Factor of Safety against Overturning = (3398.425/345.89) =9.82516 > 1.5
Hence Safe

Check for Shear


Factored Loads and Soil Reaction
To proportion the footing for strength (depth and required reinforcement) factored loads are
used. For this problem, the factors used are all 1.0
The pressure at the four corners are given by:
1=(500/25)+(6*195.89 /5.03)-(6*148.32 /5.03)= 22.2834KN/m2
2=(500/25)-(6*195.89 /5.03)-(6*148.32 /5.03)= 3.47792KN/m2
3=(500/25)-(6*195.89 /5.03)+(6*148.32 /5.03)=17.7167KN/m2
4=(500/25)+(6*195.89 /5.03)+(6*148.32 /5.03)=36.52208KN/m2
Average pressure:
qu = (1+2+3+4)/4 = 20.000 KN/ m2
Figure 5-45: Critical section for punching shear at d/2

Depth requirement for shear usually controls the footing thickness. Both wide action and
two-way action (punching shear) for strength computation need to be investigated to
determine the controlling shear criteria for depth.
Assume overall footing thickness = 1.0m and average effective thickness d = 0.92m (36.22
in)

Verification Manual 315

Chapter 5
5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

Wide-beam action (One-Way Shear)


Along Z-Z axis: Vu = qs

tributary area

Bw = 5.00m = 196.8504 in
qs is given by:
Average Base Pressure along one edge =(22.2834+3.47792)/2 =12.8806 KN/m2
Average Base Pressure along other edge =(17.7167+36.5221)/2 = 27.1194 KN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 27.1194- {(27.1194
12.8806)/5.0*1.13} =23.9014 KN/ m2 [1.13=5 -(5/2 +0.3 +0.92 +0.15)]
Hence, the one- way shear at the critical section
Vux =5.0*{23.9014*1.13+0.5*(27.1194-23.9014)*1.13}= 144.134 KN
Along X-X axis:
Vu = qs

tributary area

Bw = 5.00m = 196.8504 in
qs is given by:
Average Base Pressure along one edge =(36.5221+22.2834)/2 =29.4027 KN/m2
Average Base Pressure along other edge =(17.7167+3.47792)/2 = 10.5973 KN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 29.4027- {(29.4027-10.5973)/5.0*1.73}
=22.89603 KN/ m2 [ 1.73=(5/2 +0.3 0.92 0.15)]
Hence, the one-way shear at the critical section
Vuz =5.0*{22.89603*1.73+0.5*(29.4027-22.89603)*1.73}= 226.1924 KN
Vu = (2(f'c)bwd) = 0.75(2(4349.39) 196.8504
705.3265 kips = 3138.703 KN > Vux and Vuz

36.22)/1000 =

Hence O.K.

Two-way action (Punching Shear)


Vu = qs

tributary area

Tributary area = [25.000 - (0.3 +0.92)x(0.3 + 0.92)] = 23.5116 m2


V
u

= 20.000 x 23.5116 = 470.232 KN = 105.6701 Kip.

316 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

= Minimum of
bo = 2(0.3+0.3+2*0.92) = 4.88m =192.126 in

= 5.304348

= 40 for interior columns

=
Vc = 0.75 4 x
= 100.467 kips O.K.

192.126

36.2205/1000 = 1376.82 kips > Vu

Calculation for reinforcement


Critical section for moment is at the face of column

Bending about X Axis

Bending About ZAxis

Verification Manual 317

Chapter 5
5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

About X-Axis
Average Base Pressure along one edge = (22.2834+3.47792)/2 =12.8806
KN/m2
Average Base Pressure along other edge = (17.7167+36.5221)/2 = 27.1194
KN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 27.1194- {(27.1194
12.8806)/5.0*2.05} =21.2815 KN/ m2 [2.05 =5-(5/2+0.3+0.15)]
Hence, the moment at the critical section
Mu = 5.0*{21.2815 *2.05*2.05*0.5+0.5*(27.1194-21.2815)* 2.05*2.05*2/3}=
264.48 KNm

KN/m2 =10.067 psi

Required Rn =

(gross area) = (d/h)

0.0001675 = (0.92/1.0)

0.0001675 = 0.0001541

Check minimum As required for footings of uniform thickness; for grade 415 reinforcement:
min = 0.00180
Since is < min , = min =0.00180
Required As = bd= 0.00180 5.0 0.92 = 0.00828 m2 = 8280 mm2

About Z- axis:
Average Base Pressure along one edge = (36.5221+22.2834)/2 =29.4027
KN/m2
Average Base Pressure along other edge = (17.7167+3.47792)/2 = 10.5973
KN/m2
Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 29.4027- {(29.402710.5973)/5.0*2.65} =19.4358 KN/ m2 [2.65 =(5/2+0.3-0.15)]
Hence, the moment at the critical section
Mu =5.0*{19.4358 *2.65*2.65*0.5+0.5*(29.4027 19.4358)*2.65*2.65*2/3}=
457.874 KNm
Compute required As assuming tension-controlled section (

318 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

= 0.9)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005)


5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

KN/m2 =17.429 psi

Required Rn =

(gross area) = (d/h)

0.00029 = (0.92/1.0)

0.00029 = 0.000267

Check minimum As required for footings of uniform thickness; for grade 415 reinforcement:
min = 0.00180
Since is < min , = min =0.00180
Required As = bd = 0.00180 5.0 0.92 = 0.00828 m2 = 8280 mm2
Try with 20 mm bars (Af =314.16 mm2)
So, no. of bars required = 8280/ 314.16 =27 bars

Check for development length


Critical section for development length is same as that for moment (at face of column).
As per ACI- 12.2.2 and T-1.12.2 of Reinforced Concrete Design by Salmon-Wang:

Ld = 0.02 Ab
(For # 35M bars and smaller)
= 0.02* 314.16*(415/300.5)= 476.0625m
Available development length of the bars= 0.5*(L-Dcol) C cover = 2375 mm
> 476.0625 mm. Hence OK
Clear cover (bottom and side) = 50mm
Center-to-center bar spacing = {5000-2*(50+10)}/26 = 187.6923 mm
This is to be checked with the minimum and maximum spacing permissible.

Verification Manual 319

Chapter 5
5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

5.18.4 Comparison
Table 5-22: US verification example 15 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Difference (Reasons
Value of
Result
result*
there-of)
Moment about X 264.48
264.53 KNm
Negligible
KNm
Moment about Z 457.874
457.83 KNm
Negligible
KNm
Area of steel
8280
8906.40 mm2
Error due to
about X-X
mm2
approximation in
base pressure
interpolation
Area of steel
8280
8321.40 mm2
Error due to
about Z-Z
mm2
approximation in
base pressure
interpolation
Shear force
226.1924 225.67 KN
Error due to
KN
approximation in
(One way) along
base pressure
X
interpolation
Shear force
144.134
143.58 KN
Negligible
KN
(One way) along
Z
Shear force
470.232
470.01 KN
Negligible
KN
(Two way)
Factor of Safety
2.1656
2.166
Negligible
against Sliding
(X)
Factor of Safety
3.2484
3.248
Negligible
against Sliding
(Z)
Factor of Safety
10.386
10.386
Negligible
against
Overturning (X)
Factor of Safety
9.82516
9.825
Negligible
against
Overturning (Z)

320 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 6

Deadman Anchors (ACI


318 -2005)
6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1
6.1.1 Reference
380 ft Brenham (Wesley), TX guyed tower Design Project

6.1.2 Problem
Design an anchor block for a guy rod supporting the following load condition
Axial Tension = 83.815 Kip
Slope with Horizontal = 54.231 degree
Min area required for guy rod =1.677 sq.inch, i.e if single guy rod is used,min
dia of rod required = 1.5 inch
Necessary Factors of Safety are as follows
FOS against Uplift = 1.5
FOS against sliding = 2
Ultimate Load Factor = 1.3
Material SpecificationAssume Strength of Concrete = 4 Ksi
Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi

Verification Manual 321

Chapter 6
6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1

Strength of Gye Rod steel = 50 Ksi


unit weight of Concrete = 150 lb/cu.ft
unit weight of Soil = 62.4 lb/cu.ft
Soil & GWT conditionTable 6-1: Soil Test Report Summary
Layer
Layer
Depth of Cohesion
Angle of
Index No
Type
Layer
(psf)
Friction
1
Sand
(0-2)
0
20
2
Sand
(2-15)
0
30
3
Sand
(15-below) 0
30

Dry Density
(pcf)
115
115
115

Assume depth of Ground Water Table from GL = 8 ft


Assume soil cone angle of uplift = 30 degree

6.1.3 Solution
First let us calculate the Horizontal & Vertical components of Axial Tension at guy rod
Horizontal component of load (H) = P.cos = 83.815 x Cos 54.231 =
48.9656 Kip
Vertical component of load (V)= P.sin = 83.815 x Sin 54.231 = 68.0245
Kip
Properties of soil (divided into relevant small strips each max 1/2 ft thick)

322 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005)


6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1

Kp=tan2 (450+ /2)


Kp=tan2 (450- /2)
Note: is in degrees
Pa = .h.Kp
So Pa or a particular layer = Pa of previous layer + .h.Ka
Where:
Ka= Active EP coeff of the present layer
= Soil density of Soil at present layer
h= Thickness of present layer)

Verification Manual 323

Chapter 6
6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1
Thus
Pp= .h.Kp + 2C.Kp
So Pp or a particular layer = Pp of previous layer + .h.Kp
Where:
Kp= Passive EP coeff of the present layer
= Soil density of Soil at present layer
h= Thickness of present layer
C= Cohesion of Present layer)
Note: Here, = Density of soil which is used when soil layer is above GWT
If Soil layer is below GWT then submerged density of soil (-soil) is used
Adhesion factor = 0.31 + 0.34/C
Figure 6-1: Deadman Anchor Guy Tension Block section

<=1
C= Cohesion in Kip/ft 2 unit

324 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005)


6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1
Figure 6-2: Dispersion of soil against vertical uplift diagram

Soil Depth
upper lvl of
layer(ft)
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
9.5
10
10.5
11
11.5
12
12.5

Soil Depth
lower lvl of
layer(ft)
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
9.5
10
10.5
11
11.5
12
12.5
13

avg Pp effective on
block surface (psf)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2167.1918
2340.028
2512.8643
2638.8093
2717.8631
2796.9169
2875.9707
0
0
0
0
0
0

weighted
avg Pp
(lb/ft)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1083.596
1170.014
1256.432
1319.405
1358.932
1398.458
1437.985
0
0
0
0
0
0

Verification Manual 325

Chapter 6
6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1

Soil Depth
upper lvl of
layer(ft)
13
13.5
14
14.5

Soil Depth
lower lvl of
layer(ft)
13.5
14
14.5
15

avg Pp effective on
block surface (psf)
0
0
0
0

weighted
avg Pp
(lb/ft)
0
0
0
0

Figure 6-3: Dispersion line diagram

Check for Safety against Sliding


Tot Passive resistance per unit length = 9024.823 lb/ft
Length = 11.5 ft
Tot Passive resistance = 9024.823 x 11.5 /1000 = 103.786 kip
Allowable Horizontal Load on Anchor = 48.9656 Kip
Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 103.786 / 48.9656 = 2.12
FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

Check for Safety against Uplift


given value of dispersion angle = 30 degree
Let us consider wedge at all sides with dimension of 0.5 ft
As wedge is present so dispersion is to be started from bottom of block

326 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005)


6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1

Height of soil above top level of block = 6.5 ft


Height of water effecting the weight of concrete = 10 - 8 = 2 ft
Weight of Concre Block = LxBxHx unit wt of concrete = 11.5 x 4 x 3.5 x 0.15
= 24.15 kip
reduction of concrete weight due to buoyancy = 2 x 4 x 11.5 x 62.4/1000 =
5.7408 kip
So, total buoyant weight of concrete = 24.15-5.7408 = 18.4092Kip
Weight of soil over top of anchor in a truncated pyramid = 215.93 Kip
Uplift Resistance due to Soil/Concrete Adhesion = 0 Kip
Therefore, Total resistance against uplift = 18.4092 + 215.93 + 0 = 234.34 Kip
Allowable anchor uplift resistance = V = 68.0245 Kip
Net Safety factor = 234.34 / 68.0245 = 3.445
Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 1.5
FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

Verification Manual 327

Chapter 6
6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1

Design checks for the top & front face rebar


Top Rebar Design Check
Figure 6-4: Top rebar force diagram

Vertical Force (V)= 68.0245 Kip


Length (L)= 11.5 Kip
Force/Length = w=V/L = 5.91517391304348 Kip
Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 97.786 ft kip
Factored Moment M = 97.786 x 1.3 = 127.1218 ft kip
Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi
Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi
Figure 6-5: Bending moment diagram - top

= 0.9
= 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4)
0.85>= >=0.65
= 0.85
width (B) = 4 ft
Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia
Hence, deff = 38.19 inch
Area of each top rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch
Total area of Top Rebar = As = 2.4040625 Ksi
a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.883847 inch

328 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005)


6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1

Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) =408.37 ft kip


ratio = 408.37 / 127.1218 = 3.213 >1,
Hence OK
Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

Front face Rebar Design Check


Vertical Force (V)= 48.9656 Kip
Length (L) = 11.5 ft
Force/Length = w=V/L = 4.25787826086957 Kip/ft
Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 70.389 ft kip
Factored Moment M = 91.5057 ft kip
Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi
Figure 6-6: Bending moment diagram - front face

Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi


= 0.9
= 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4)
0.85>= >=0.65
= 0.85
width (B) = 3.5 ft
Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia
Hence, deff = 44.19 inch
Area of each front rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch
Total area of Front Rebar = As = 1.803046875 sq.inch
a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.757583 inch
Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) = 355.47 ft kip
ratio = 355.472 / 91.5057 = 3.885 >1, Hence OK
Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

Verification Manual 329

Chapter 6
6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2

6.1.4 Comparison
Table 6-2: Deadman Anchor (US)verification example 1 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Sliding Resistance (kips)
103.786
103.71
Negligible
Uplift Resistance (kips)
234.34
234.495
Negligible
Horizontal FOS
2.12
2.117
Negligible
Vertical FOS
3.445
3.448
Negligible
Factored moment resisted by top rebar
127.122
127.086
Negligible
(ft-kip)
Max. moment capacity (vertically hog408.37
407.66
Negligible
ging) (ft-kip)
Factored moment resisted by front
91.506
91.553
Negligible
rebar (ft-kip)
Max. moment capacity (horizontally
355.472
354.856
Negligible
hogging) (ft-kip)

6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2


6.2.1 Reference
380 ft Brenham (Wesley), TX guyed tower Design Project

6.2.2 Problem
Design an anchor block for a guy rod supporting the following load conditionAxial Tension = 75.926 Kip
Slope with Horizontal = 49.816 degree
Min area required for guy rod =1.519 sq.inch, i.e if single rod is used,min dia of rod
required = 1.4 inch

330 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005)


6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2
Figure 6-7: Deadman Anchor Guy Tension Block section

Necessary FOS are as followsFOS against Uplift = 1.5


FOS against sliding = 2
Ultimate Load Factor = 1.3
Material SpecificationAssume Strength of Concrete = 4 Ksi
Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi
Strength of Gye Rod steel = 50 Ksi
unit weight of Concrete = 150 lb/cu.ft
unit weight of Soil = 62.4 lb/cu.ft
Soil & GWT condition
Table 6-3: Soil
Layer
Layer
Depth of
Index No
Type
Layer
1
clay
(0-2)
2
clay
(2-15)
3
clay
(15-below)

test report summary


Cohesion
Angle of
(psf)
Friction
0
0
800
0
800
0

Dry Density
(pcf)
106
106
106

Assume depth of Ground Water Table from GL = 8 ft


Assume soil cone angle of uplift = 0 degree

6.2.3 Solution
First let us calculate the Horizontal & Vertical components of Axial Tension at gyerod

Verification Manual 331

Chapter 6
6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2

Horizontal component of load (H) = P.cos = 75.926 x Cos 49.816 =


48.9706 Kip
Vertical component of load (V)= P.sin = 75.926 x Sin 49.816 = 58.0229
Kip
Properties of soil (divided into relevant small strips each max 1/2 ft thick)

Kp=tan2 (450 + /2)


Kp=tan2 (450 - /2)
Note: is in degree
Pa = .h.Kp

332 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005)


6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2
So Pa or a particular layer = Pa of previous layer + .h.Ka
Where:
Ka= Active EP coeff of the present layer
= Soil density of Soil at present layer
h= Thickness of present layer
Thus
Pp= .h.Kp + 2C.Kp
So Pp or a particular layer = Pp of previous layer + .h.Kp
Where:
Kp= Passive EP coeff of the present layer
= Soil density of Soil at present layer
h= Thickness of present layer
C= Cohesion of Present layer
Note: Here = Density of soil which is used when soil layer is above GWT
If Soil layer is below GWT then submerged density of soil (-soil) is used
Adhesion factor = 0.31 + 0.34/C
<=1
C= Cohesion in Kip/ft 2 unit
Figure 6-8: Dispersion of soil against vertical uplift

Verification Manual 333

Chapter 6
6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2

Soil Depth
upper lvl of
layer(ft)
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
9.5
10
10.5
11
11.5
12
12.5
13
13.5
14
14.5

Table 6-4: Soil layers


Soil Depth
avg Pp effective on
lower lvl of
block surface (psf)
layer(ft)
0.5
0
1
0
1.5
0
2
0
2.5
0
3
0
3.5
0
4
0
4.5
0
5
0
5.5
0
6
0
6.5
0
7
2317.4172
7.5
2370.4843
8
2423.5513
8.5
2460.9987
9
2482.8262
9.5
2504.6538
10
2526.4814
10.5
0
11
0
11.5
0
12
0
12.5
0
13
0
13.5
0
14
0
14.5
0
15
0

weighted
avg Pp
(lb/ft)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1158.709
1185.242
1211.776
1230.499
1241.413
1252.327
1263.241
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Check for Safety against Sliding


Tot Passive resistance per unit length = 8543.207 lb/ft
Length = 14 ft
Tot Passive resistance = 8543.207 x 14 /1000 = 119.605 kip
Allowable Horizontal Load on Anchor = 48.9706 Kip
Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 119.605 / 48.9706 = 2.443
FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

334 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005)


6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2

Check for Safety against Uplift


given value of dispersion angle = 0 degree
Let us consider no wedge to support uplift load
As wedge is not present so dispersion is to be started from top of block

Height of soil above top level of block = 6.5 ft


Height of water effecting the weight of concrete = 10 - 8 = 2 ft
Weight of Concrete Block = LxBxHx unit wt of concrete = 14 x 4 x 3.5 x 0.15
= 29.4 kip
reduction of concrete weight due to buoyancy = 2 x 4 x 14 x 62.4/1000 =
6.9888 kip
So, total buoyant weight of concrete = 29.4-6.9888 = 22.4112Kip
Weight of soil over top of anchor in a truncated pyramid = 38.58 Kip
Uplift Resistance due to Soil/Concrete Adhesion = 74.08 Kip
Therefore, Total resistance against uplift = 22.4112 + 38.58 + 74.08 = 135.072
Kip
Allowable anchor uplift resistance = V = 58.0229 Kip
Net Safety factor = 135.072 / 58.0229 = 2.328
Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 1.5
FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK
Verification Manual 335

Chapter 6
6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2

Design checks for the top & front face rebar


Top Rebar Design Check
Vertical Force (V)= 58.0229 Kip
Length (L)= 14 Kip
Figure 6-9: Top rebar force diagram

Force/Length = w=V/L = 4.14449285714286 Kip


Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 101.541 ft kip
Factored Moment M = 101.541 x 1.3 = 132.0033 ft kip
Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi
Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi
= 0.9
= 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4)
0.85>= >=0.65
= 0.85
width (B) = 4 ft
Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia
Figure 6-10: Bending moment diagram - top

Hence, deff =38.19 inch


Area of each top rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch
Total area of Top Rebars = As = 2.4040625 Ksi
a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.883847 inch
336 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005)


6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2

Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) = 408.37


ft kip
ratio = 408.37 / 132.0033 = 3.094 >1, Hence OK
Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

Front face Rebar Design Check


Vertical Force (V)= 48.9706 Kip
Length (L) = 14 ft
Force/Length = w=V/L = 3.4979 Kip/ft
Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 85.699 ft kip
Factored Moment M = 111.4087 ft kip
Figure 6-11: Bending moment diagram - front face

Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi


Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi
= 0.9
= 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4)
0.85>= >=0.65
= 0.85
width (B) = 3.5 ft
Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia
Hence, deff = 44.19 inch
Area of each front rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch
Total area of Front Rebar = As = 1.803046875 sq.inch
a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.757583 inch
Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) = 355.47 ft kip
ratio = 355.472 / 111.4087 = 3.191 >1, Hence OK
Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

Verification Manual 337

Chapter 6
6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3

6.2.4 Comparison
Table 6-5: Deadman Anchor (US)verification example 2 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent
Value of
Result
Result
Difference
Sliding Resistance (Kip)
119.605
119.542
negligible
Uplift Resistance (Kip)
135.072
135.123
negligible
Horizontal FOS
2.443
2.44
negligible
Vertical FOS
2.328
2.329
negligible
factored moment resisted by 132.0033 131.963
negligible
top rebar ( ft kip)
Max moment capacity
408.37
407.66
negligible
(vertically hogging) (ft kip)
factored moment resisted by 111.4087 111.454
negligible
front rebar (ft kip)
Max moment capacity
355.472
354.865
negligible
(horizontally hogging)
(ft kip)

6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3


6.3.1 Reference
380 ft Brenham (Wesley), TX guyed tower Design Project

6.3.2 Problem
Design an anchor block for a guy rod supporting the following load condition
Axial Tension = 92.435 Kip
Slope with Horizontal = 31.289 degree
Min area required for guy rod =1.849 sq.inch, i.e if single rod is used,min dia
of rod required = 1.6 inch
Necessary FOS are as follows
FOS against Uplift = 1.5
FOS against sliding = 2
Ultimate Load Factor = 1.3
Material Specification
Assume Strength of Concrete = 4 Ksi
Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi
Strength of Gye Rod steel = 50 Ksi
unit weight of Concrete = 150 lb/cu.ft
unit weight of Soil = 62.4 lb/cu.ft

338 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005)


6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3
Soil & GWT condition
Table 6-6: Soil test report summary
Layer
Layer
Depth of Cohesion
Angle of
Index No
Type
Layer
(psf)
Friction
1
silt
(0-2)
500
20
2
silt
(2-15)
500
20
3
silt
(15- below) 500
20

Dry Density
(pcf)
105
105
105

Assume depth of Ground Water Table from GL = 8 ft


Assume soil cone angle of uplift = 20 degree

6.3.3 Solution
First let us calculate the Horizontal & Vertical components of Axial Tension at gyerod
Horizontal component of load (H) = P.cos = 92.435 x Cos 31.289 =
78.9806 Kip
Vertical component of load (V)= P.sin = 92.435 x Sin 31.289 = 48.024 Kip
Properties of soil (divided into relevant small strips each max 1/2 ft thick)

Verification Manual 339

Chapter 6
6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3

Kp=tan2 (450+/2)
Kp=tan2 (450-/2)
Note: is in degree
Pa = .h.Kp

340 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005)


6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3
Figure 6-12: Deadman Anchor Guy Tension Block section

So Pa or a particular layer = Pa of previous layer + .h.Ka


Where:
Ka= Active EP coeff of the present layer
= Soil density of Soil at present layer

h= Thickness of present layer


Pp= .h.Kp + 2C.Kp
So Pp or a particular layer = Pp of previous layer + .h.Kp
Where:
Kp= Passive EP coeff of the present layer
= Soil density of Soil at present layer

h= Thickness of present layer

C= Cohesion of Present layer


Note: Here = Density of soil which is used when soil layer is above GWT
If Soil layer is below GWT then submerged density of soil (-soil) is used
Adhesion factor = 0.31 + 0.34/C
<=1
C= Cohesion in Kip/ft 2 unit

Verification Manual 341

Chapter 6
6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3
Figure 6-13: Dispersion of soil against vertical uplift diagram

Soil Depth
upper lvl of
layer(ft)
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
9.5
10
10.5
11
11.5

Table 6-7: Soil layers


Soil Depth
avg Pp effective on
lower lvl of
block surface (psf)
layer(ft)
0.5
0
1
0
1.5
0
2
0
2.5
0
3
0
3.5
0
4
0
4.5
0
5
0
5.5
0
6
0
6.5
0
7
0
7.5
2984.5298
8
3091.7854
8.5
3167.1708
9
3210.6859
9.5
3254.2011
10
3297.7162
10.5
3341.2313
11
3384.7465
11.5
3428.2616
12
3471.7768

342 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

weighted
avg Pp
(lb/ft)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1492.265
1545.893
1583.585
1605.343
1627.101
1648.858
1670.616
1692.373
1714.131
1735.888

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005)


6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3

Soil Depth
upper lvl of
layer(ft)
12
12.5
13
13.5
14
14.5

Soil Depth
lower lvl of
layer(ft)
12.5
13
13.5
14
14.5
15

avg Pp effective on
block surface (psf)
0
0
0
0
0
0

weighted
avg Pp
(lb/ft)
0
0
0
0
0
0

Check for Safety against Sliding


Tot Passive resistance per unit length = 16316.053 lb/ft
Length = 10 ft
Tot Passive resistance = 16316.053 x 10 /1000 = 163.161 kip
Allowable Horizontal Load on Anchor = 78.9806 Kip
Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 163.161 / 78.9806 = 2.066
FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

Check for Safety against Uplift


given value of dispersion angle = 20 degree
Let us consider no wedge to support uplift load
As wedge is not present so dispersion is to be started from top of block

Verification Manual 343

Chapter 6
6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3

Figure 6-14: Dispersion line diagram

Height of soil above top level of block = 7 ft


Height of water effecting the weight of concrete = 12 - 8 = 4 ft
Weight of Concre Block = LxBxHx unit wt of concrete = 10 x 4 x 5 x 0.15 =
30 kip
reduction of concrete weight due to buoyancy = 4 x 4 x 10 x 62.4/1000 =
9.984 kip
So, total buoyant weight of concrete = 30-9.984 = 20.016Kip
Weight of soil over top of anchor in a truncated pyramid = 61.98 Kip
Uplift Resistance due to Soil/Concrete Adhesion = 69.3 Kip

344 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005)


6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3

Therefore, Total resistance against uplift = 20.016 + 61.98 + 69.3 = 151.296


Kip
Allowable anchor uplift resistance = V = 48.024 Kip
Net Safety factor = 151.296 / 48.024 = 3.151
Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 1.5
FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

Now Design check for the top & front face rebar are to be
done
Top Rebar Design Check
Vertical Force (V)= 48.024 Kip
Figure 6-15: Top rebar force diagram

Length (L)= 10 Kip


Force/Length = w=V/L = 4.8024 Kip
Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 60.03 ft kip
Factored Moment M = 60.03 x 1.3 = 78.039 ft kip
Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi
Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi
= 0.9
= 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4)
0.85>= >=0.65
= 0.85
width (B) = 4 ft
Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia

Verification Manual 345

Chapter 6
6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3
Figure 6-16: Bending moment diagram - top

Hence, deff = 56.19 inch


Area of each top rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch
Total area of Top Rebars = As = 2.4040625 Ksi
a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.883847 inch
Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) = 603.1 ft kip
ratio = 603.099 / 78.039 = 7.729 >1, Hence OK
Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

Front face Rebar Design Check


Vertical Force (V)= 78.9806 Kip
Length (L) = 10 ft
Force/Length = w=V/L = 7.89806 Kip/ft
Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 98.726 ft kip
Factored Moment M = 128.3438 ft kip
Figure 6-17: Bending moment diagram - front face

Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi


Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi
= 0.9
= 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4)
0.85>= >=0.65
= 0.85
width (B) = 5 ft
Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia

346 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005)


6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

Hence, deff = 44.19 inch


Area of each front rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch
Total area of Front Rebar = As = 1.803046875 sq.inch
a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.530308 inch
Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) = 356.39 ft kip
ratio = 356.394 / 128.3438 = 2.777 >1, Hence OK
Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

6.3.4 Comparison
Table 6-8: Deadman Anchor (US)verification example 3 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent
Value of
Result
Result
Difference
Sliding Resistance (Kip)
163.161
163.306
Negligible
Uplift Resistance (Kip)
151.296
151.355
Negligible
Horizontal FOS
2.066
2.064
Negligible
Vertical FOS
3.151
3.153
Negligible
factored moment resisted by
78.039
78.011
Negligible
top rebar ( ft kip)
Max moment capacity
603.099 602.06
Negligible
(vertically hogging) (ft kip)
factored moment resisted by
128.3438 128.361
Negligible
front rebar (ft kip)
Max moment capacity
356.394
355.775
Negligible
(horizontally hogging) (ft kip)

6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4


6.4.1 Reference
6.4.2 Problem
Design an anchor block for a guy rod supporting the following load conditionAxial Tension = 250 Kip
Slope with Horizontal = 50 degree
Min area required for guy rod =4.167 sq.inch, (i.e if single rod is used, then
min dia of rod required = 2.4 inch).

Verification Manual 347

Chapter 6
6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4
Figure 6-18: Deadman Anchor Guy Tension Block section

Necessary FOS are as followsFOS against Uplift = 1.5


FOS against sliding = 2
Ultimate Load Factor = 1.3
Material SpecificationAssume Strength of Concrete = 4 Ksi
Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi
Strength of Gye Rod steel = 60 Ksi
unit weight of Concrete = 150 lb/cu.ft
unit weight of Soil = 62.4 lb/cu.ft
Soil & GWT condition
Layer
Index No
1
2
3
4
5
6
8

Layer
Type
sand
silt
silt
silt
silt
silt
silt

Table 6-9: Soil layers


Depth of Cohesion
Angle of
Layer
(psf)
Friction
(0-3)
0
20
(3-5)
500
22
(5-8)
800
15
(8-10)
800
20
(10-12)
850
15
(12-20)
850
15
(20-below) 850
15

Assume depth of Ground Water Table from GL = 9 ft


Assume soil cone angle of uplift = 28 degree

348 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Dry Density
(pcf)
104
105
105
106
106
106
106

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005)


6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

6.4.3 Solution
First let us calculate the Horizontal & Vertical components of Axial Tension at guy rod
Horizontal component of load (H) = P.cos = 250 x Cos 50 = 160.6297 Kip

Vertical component of load (V)= P.sin = 250 x Sin 50 = 191.5676 Kip


Properties of soil (divided into relevant small strips each max 1/2 ft thick)
Kp=tan2 (450+/2)
Kp=tan2 (450-/2)
Note: is in degree
Pa = .h.Kp
So Pa or a particular layer = Pa of previous layer + .h.Ka
Where:
Ka= Active EP coeff of the present layer
= Soil density of Soil at present layer
h= Thickness of present layer)
Pp= .h.Kp + 2C.Kp
So Pp or a particular layer = Pp of previous layer + .h.Kp
Where
Kp= Passive EP coeff of the present layer
= Soil density of Soil at present layer
h= Thickness of present layer
C= Cohesion of Present layer
Note: Here = Density of soil which is used when soil layer is above GWT
If Soil layer is below GWT then submerged density of soil (-soil) is used
Adhesion factor = 0.31 + 0.34/C
<=1
C= Cohesion in Kip/ft 2 unit

Verification Manual 349

Chapter 6
6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4
Figure 6-19: Dispersion of soil against vertical uplift diagram

350 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005)


6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

Check for Safety against Sliding


Tot Passive resistance per unit length = 34451.907 lb/ft
Length = 12 ft
Verification Manual 351

Chapter 6
6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

Tot Passive resistance = 34451.907 x 12 /1000 = 413.423 kip


Allowable Horizontal Load on Anchor = 160.6297 Kip
Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 413.423 / 160.6297 = 2.574
FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

Check for Safety against Uplift


given value of dispersion angle = 28 degree
Let us consider wedge at all sides with dimension of 0.5 ft
As wedge is present so dispersion is to be started from bottom of block

Height of soil above top level of block = 8 ft


Height of water effecting the weight of concrete = 16 - 9 = 7 ft
Weight of Concrete Block = LxBxHx unit wt of concrete = 12 x 6 x 8 x 0.15 =
86.4 kip

352 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005)


6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

reduction of concrete weight due to buoyancy = 7 x 6 x 12 x 62.4/1000 =


31.4496 kip
So, total buoyant weight of concrete = 86.4-31.4496 = 54.9504Kip
Weight of soil over top of anchor in a truncated pyramid = 491.29 Kip
Uplift Resistance due to Soil/Concrete Adhesion = 172.97 Kip
Therefore, Total resistance against uplift = 54.9504 + 491.29 + 172.97 =
719.211 Kip
Allowable anchor uplift resistance = V = 191.5676 Kip
Net Safety factor = 719.211 / 191.5676 = 3.755
Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 1.5
FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

Design checks for the top & front face rebar


Top Rebar Design Check
Figure 6-20: Top rebar force diagram

Vertical Force (V)= 191.5676 Kip


Length (L)= 12 Kip
Force/Length = w=V/L = 15.9639666666667 Kip
Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 287.352 ft kip
Factored Moment M = 287.352 x 1.3 = 373.55 ft kip
Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi
Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi
Figure 6-21: Bending moment diagram - top

Verification Manual 353

Chapter 6
6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

= 0.9
= 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4)
0.85>= >=0.65
= 0.85
width (B) = 6 ft
Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia
Hence, deff = 92.19 inch
Area of each top rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch
Total area of Top Rebar = As = 3.60609375 Ksi
a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.883847 inch
Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) = 1488.8 ft kip
ratio = 1488.835 / 373.5576 = 3.986 >1, Hence OK
Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

Front face Rebar Design Check


Vertical Force (V)= 160.6297 Kip
Length (L) = 12 ft
Force/Length = w=V/L = 13.3858083333333 Kip/ft
Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 240.945 ft kip
Factored Moment M = 313.2285 ft kip
Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi

Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi


Figure 6-22: Bending moment diagram - front face

= 0.9
= 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4)
0.85>= >=0.65
= 0.85
width (B) = 8 ft

354 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005)


6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia
Hence, deff = 68.19 inch
Area of each front rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch
Total area of Front Rebar = As = 3.60609375 sq.inch
a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.662885 inch
Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) = 1101.2 ft kip
ratio = 1101.17 / 313.2285 = 3.516 >1, Hence OK
Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

6.4.4 Comparison
Table 6-10: Deadman Anchor (US)verification example 4 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent
Value of
Result
Result
Difference
Sliding Resistance (Kip)
413.423
413.174
negligible
Uplift Resistance (Kip)
719.211
719.281
negligible
Horizontal FOS
2.574
2.571
negligible
Vertical FOS
3.755
3.756
negligible
factored moment resisted by
373.5576 373.447
negligible
top rebar ( ft kip)
Max moment capacity (ver1488.835 1486.29
negligible
tically hogging) (ft kip)
factored moment resisted by
313.2285 313.359
negligible
front rebar (ft kip)
Max moment capacity (hor1101.17
1099.277
negligible
izontally hogging) (ft kip)

Verification Manual 355

Chapter 6
6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

356 (Undefined variable: Primary.ProductName)

Section 7

Drilled Pier Foundations


7.1 Drilled Pier Foundation 1 API
7.1.1 Reference
API RP 2A-WSD

7.1.2 Problem
Design axial capacity for drilled pier with the given data: Design Method: API
Load Fy= 100 kip, fc= 4 ksi, fy= 60 ksi, Straight pier, pier diameter= 2 ft, pier height= 30
ft, water level at 40 ft.
Soil Profile by Layer
1. Sand, 8 ft deep, angle of friction 30 deg, Avg Density 108 lb/ft 3,
Density- Loose
2. Sand, 13 ft deep, angle of friction 34 deg, Avg Density 110 lb/ft 3,
Density- Medium
3. Clay - , 9 ft deep, cohesion 2 kip/ft 2, Avg Density 110 lb/ft 3,
Density- Dense
Elasticity of Soil 0.3 ksi

Verification Manual 357

Chapter 7
7.1 Drilled Pier Foundation 1 API
Figure 7-1: Pier Elevation

Factor of safety
End bearing - 3
Skin Friction - 3
% of Capacity Used
End bearing - 100%
Skin Friction - 100%
Neglected zone for skin friction
Top - 5ft
Bottom - Pier Dia = 2ft
Concrete Properties
fc= 4ksi
Ec= 3605ksi

358 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 7 Drilled Pier Foundations


7.1 Drilled Pier Foundation 1 API

Density= 150lb/ft 3
Rebar Properties
fy= 60ksi
Es= 29000ksi

7.1.3 Solution
Critical Depth
Critical depth is set to be calculated by program

Effective Overburden Pressure


Po= (Soil Density of respective layer x Depth to the center of the layer)
Effects of water and critical depth are also considered calculating Po
Effective Overburden Pressure (lb/ft2)
Layer1
432
Layer2
1579
Layer3
2789
Layer

Skin Friction
Factor from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.2
= Cohesion / Effective Overburden Pressure
Layer
Layer1
Layer2
Layer3

0
0
0.7171

Factor from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.2


= 0.5 x -0.5

<=1.0

= 0.5 x -0.25

>1.0
Layer
Layer1
Layer2
Layer3

0
0
0.59045

Verification Manual 359

Chapter 7
7.1 Drilled Pier Foundation 1 API
K Coefficient of lateral earth pressure from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.3
K=0.8 (for straight pier)
Friction angle between soil and pier
Calculated based on API RP 2A-WSD Table 6.4.3-1
Shaft friction (f), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.2 & 6.4.3
For cohesive soil layerf = x c
For cohesionless soil layerf = K xPo x tan
Layer
Layer1
Layer2
Layer3

Shaft Friction (psf)


125.788
589.040
1180.889

Skin Friction Resistance (Qf), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.1


Qf = f x As
Layer
Layer1
Layer2
Layer3
Total Skin Friction

Qf (kip)
6.3228
48.1136
66.7777
121.214

Modified Skin Friction Based on Neglected Zones for Skin Friction


Qf (modified) is calculated by considering top and bottom neglect layer
Layer
Layer1
Layer2
Layer3
Total Modified Skin
Friction

Qf_modified
(kip)
2.3711
48.1136
51.9382
102.423

Base Resistance
Unit end bearing (q), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.2 & 6.4.3
For cohesive soil layer q = 9 x c
For cohesionless soil layer q =po x Nq
Layer
Layer1
Layer2
Layer3

q (kip)
5.184
31.58
18.0

End Bearing for each layer (Qp), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.1
Qp = q x Ap

360 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 7 Drilled Pier Foundations


7.2 Drilled Pier Foundation 2 API

Layer
Layer1
Layer2
Layer3

Qp (kip)
16.286
99.211
56.549

End Bearing for bottom Layer, Qp_bott = 56.549 kips

Unfactored Capacity

Factored Capacity

7.1.4 Comparison
Table 7-1: Drilled Pier (API) verification example 1 comparison
STAAD.foundation Reference
Value of
Difference
Result
Result
UnfactoredTip
56.571 kip
56.549 kip
Negligible
Resistance
Unfactored Skin
102.487 kip
102.423 kip Negligible
Resistance
Unfactored Total Axial
144.916 kip
144.834 kip Negligible
Capacity
FactoredTip Resistance 18.857 kip
18.849 kip
Negligible
Factored Skin Resistance 34.162 kip
34.141 kip
Negligible
Factored Total Axial
48.305 kip
48.278 kip
Negligible
Capacity

7.2 Drilled Pier Foundation 2 API


7.2.1 Reference
API RP 2A-WSD

7.2.2 Problem
Design axial capacity for drilled pier with the given data: Design Method:API
Load Fy= 100kip, fc= 4ksi, fy= 60ksi, Straight pier, pier diameter= 4ft, pier height= 39ft,
water level at 50ft.

Verification Manual 361

Chapter 7
7.2 Drilled Pier Foundation 2 API
Soil Profile by Layer
1. Clay - , 6ft deep, cohesion 1kip/ft 2, Avg Density 105lb/ft 3, Density- Very Loose
2. Clay - , 13ft deep, cohesion 1.1kip/ft 2, Avg Density 110lb/ft 3, Density- Medium
3. Clay - , 8ft deep, cohesion 2kip/ft 2, Avg Density 111lb/ft 3, Density- Dense
4. Clay - , 12ft deep, cohesion 3kip/ft 2, Avg Density 113lb/ft 3, Density- Very Dense
Elasticity of Soil 0.3ksi
K = 0.8
Factor of safety
End bearing - 3
Skin Friction - 3
% of Capacity Used
End bearing - 100%
Skin Friction - 100%
Neglected zone for skin friction
Top - 5ft
Bottom - Pier Dia = 4ft
Concrete Properties
fc= 4ksi
Ec= 3605ksi
Density= 150lb/ft 3
Rebar Properties
fy= 60ksi
Es= 29000ksi

362 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 7 Drilled Pier Foundations


7.2 Drilled Pier Foundation 2 API
Figure 7-2: Pier Elevation

7.2.3 Solution
Critical Depth
Critical depth is set to be calculated by program

Effective Overburden Pressure


Po= (Soil Density of respective layer x Depth to the center of the layer)
Effects of water and critical depth are also considered calculating Po

Verification Manual 363

Chapter 7
7.2 Drilled Pier Foundation 2 API

Effective Overburden Pressure (lb/ft2)


315
1345
1874
1566

Layer
Layer1
Layer2
Layer3
Layer4

Skin Friction
Factor from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.2
= Cohesion / Effective Overburden Pressure
Layer
Layer1
Layer2
Layer3
Layer4

3.1746
0.8178
1.0672
1.9157

Factor
Layer

0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55

Layer1
Layer2
Layer3
Layer4

K Coefficient of lateral earth pressure from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.3


K=0.8 (for straight pier)
Friction angle between soil and pier
Calculated based on API RP 2A-WSD Table 6.4.3-1
Shaft friction (f), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.2 & 6.4.3
For cohesive soil layerf = x c
For cohesionless soil layerf = K xPo x tan
Layer
Layer1
Layer2
Layer3
Layer4

Shaft Friction (psf)


550
605
1100
1650

Skin Friction Resistance (Qf), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.1


Qf = f x As
Layer
Layer1
Layer2

364 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Qf (psf)
41.469
98.835

Section 7 Drilled Pier Foundations


7.2 Drilled Pier Foundation 2 API

Layer
Layer3
Layer4
Total Skin Friction

Qf (psf)
110.584
248.814
499.702

Modified Skin Friction Based on Neglected Zones for Skin Friction


Qf (modified) is calculated by considering top and bottom neglect layer
Layer
Layer1
Layer2
Layer3
Layer4
Total Skin Friction

Qf_modified
(psf)
6.9115
98.835
110.584
165.876
382.206

Base Resistance
Unit end bearing (q), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.2 & 6.4.3
For cohesive soil layerq = 9 x c
For cohesionless soil layerq =po x Nq
Layer
Layer1
Layer2
Layer3
Layer4

q (psf)
9000
9900
18000
27000

End Bearing for each layer (Qp), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.1
Qp = q x Ap
Layer
Layer1
Layer2
Layer3
Layer4

Qp (psf)
113.097
124.407
226.195
339.292

End Bearing for bottom Layer


Q

p_bott

= 339.292 kip

Unfactored Capacity

Verification Manual 365

Chapter 7
7.3 Drilled Pier Foundation 3 FHWA

Factored Capacity

7.2.4 Comparison
Table 7-2: Drilled Pier (API) verification example 2 comparison
STAAD.foundation Reference
Value of
Difference
Result
Result
UnfactoredTip
339.429 kip
339.292 kip Negligible
Resistance
Unfactored Skin
382.486 kip
382.206 kip Negligible
Resistance
Unfactored Total Axial 648.371 kip
647.985 kip Negligible
Capacity
FactoredTip Resistance 113.143 kip
113.097 kip Negligible
Factored Skin
127.495 kip
127.402 kip Negligible
Resistance
Factored Total Axial
216.124 kip
215.995 kip Negligible
Capacity

7.3 Drilled Pier Foundation 3 FHWA


7.3.1 Reference
FHWA-IF-99-025

7.3.2 Problem
Design axial capacity for drilled pier with the given data: Design Method:FHWA
Load Fy= 100kip, fc= 4ksi, fy= 60ksi, Straight pier, pier diameter= 2ft,
pier height= 30ft, water level at 40ft.
Soil Profile
1. Sand, 8ft deep, angle of friction 30deg, Avg Density 108lb/ft 3, N60- 11
2. Sand, 13ft deep, angle of friction 34deg, Avg Density 110lb/ft 3, N60- 14
3. Clay - , 9ft deep, cohesion 2kip/ft 2, Avg Density 110lb/ft 3, N60- 16
Elasticity of Soil 0.3ksi
366 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 7 Drilled Pier Foundations


7.3 Drilled Pier Foundation 3 FHWA
Factor of safety
End bearing - 3
Skin Friction - 3
% of Capacity Used
End bearing - 100%
Skin Friction - 100%
Neglected zone for skin friction
Top - 5ft
Bottom - Pier Dia = 2ft
Concrete Properties
fc= 4ksi
Ec= 3605ksi
Density= 150lb/ft 3
Rebar Properties
fy= 60ksi
Es= 29000ksi

Verification Manual 367

Chapter 7
7.3 Drilled Pier Foundation 3 FHWA
Figure 7-3: Pier Elevation

7.3.3 Solution
Critical Depth
Critical depth is set to be calculated by program

Effective Overburden Pressure


Po= (Soil Density of respective layer x Depth to the center of the layer)
Effects of water and critical depth are also considered calculating Po

368 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 7 Drilled Pier Foundations


7.3 Drilled Pier Foundation 3 FHWA

Effective Overburden Pressure (lb/ft2)


Layer1
432
Layer2
1579
Layer3
1925
Layer

Skin Friction
Factor from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.6
= 0.55
Layer

0
0
0.55

Layer1
Layer2
Layer3

Dimensionless correlation factor from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.18


Layer
Layer1
Layer2
Layer3

0.9017
0.8536
0

Friction angle between soil and pier


Assumed to be same as soil friction angle
Shaft friction (f), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.16 & 11.17
For cohesive soil layerf = x su
For cohesionless soil layerf = x vi
Layer
Layer1
Layer2
Layer3

Shaft Friction (psf)


389.50
1347.86
1100.0

Skin Friction Resistance (Qf), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 10.2


Rs = f x As
Layer
Layer1
Layer2
Layer3
Total Skin Friction

Rs (kip)
19.578
110.095
62.204
191.877

Modified Skin Friction Based on Neglected Zones for Skin Friction


Qf (modified) is calculated by considering top and bottom neglect layer

Verification Manual 369

Chapter 7
7.3 Drilled Pier Foundation 3 FHWA

Layer
Layer1
Layer2
Layer3
Total Modified Skin
Friction

Rs_modified
(kip)
7.342
110.095
48.381
165.817

Base Resistance
Unit end bearing (q), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.1, 11.2 & 11.4a
For cohesive soil layerq = 9 x c
For cohesionless soil layerq =po x Nq
Layer
Layer1
Layer2
Layer3

q (kip)
13.2
15.6
5.611

End Bearing for each layer (Qp), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 10.2
RB = q x Ap
Layer
Layer1
Layer2
Layer3

RB (kip)
41.469
49.009
17.628

End Bearing for bottom Layer, RB-bott = 17.628 kips

Un-factored Capacity

Factored Capacity

370 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 7 Drilled Pier Foundations


7.4 Drilled Pier Foundation 4 FHWA

7.3.4 Comparison
Table 7-3: Drilled Pier (FHWA) verification
STAAD.foundation
Value of
Result
UnfactoredTip
17.635 kip
Resistance
Unfactored Skin
165.884 kip
Resistance
Unfactored Total Axial
169.376 kip
Capacity
FactoredTip Resistance 5.878 kip
Factored Skin Resistance 55.295 kip
Factored Total Axial
56.459 kip
Capacity

example 3 comparison
Reference
Difference
Result
17.628 kip
Negligible
165.817 kip

Negligible

169.308 kip

Negligible

5.876 kip
55.272 kip
56.436 kip

Negligible
Negligible
Negligible

7.4 Drilled Pier Foundation 4 FHWA


7.4.1 Reference
FHWA-IF-99-025

7.4.2 Problem
Design axial capacity for drilled pier with the given data: Design Method:FHWA
Load Fy= 100kip, fc= 4ksi, fy= 60ksi, Straight pier, pier diameter= 4ft, pier height= 39ft,
water level at 50ft.
Soil Profile
1. Clay - , 6ft deep, cohesion 1kip/ft 2, Avg Density 105lb/ft 3, N60 10
2. Clay - , 13ft deep, cohesion 1.1kip/ft 2, Avg Density 110lb/ft 3, N60 12
3. Clay - , 8ft deep, cohesion 2kip/ft 2, Avg Density 111lb/ft 3, N60 14
4. Clay - , 12ft deep, cohesion 3kip/ft 2, Avg Density 113lb/ft 3, N60 15
Elasticity of Soil 0.3ksi
Factor of safety
End bearing - 3
Skin Friction - 3
% of Capacity Used
End bearing - 100%
Skin Friction - 100%
Neglected zone
for skin frictionTop - 5ft
Bottom - Pier Dia = 4ft
Verification Manual 371

Chapter 7
7.4 Drilled Pier Foundation 4 FHWA
Concrete Properties
fc= 4ksi
Ec= 3605ksi
Density= 150lb/ft 3
Rebar Properties
fy= 60ksi
Es= 29000ksi
Figure 7-4: Pier Elevation

7.4.3 Solution
Critical Depth
Critical depth is set to be calculated by program

372 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 7 Drilled Pier Foundations


7.4 Drilled Pier Foundation 4 FHWA

Effective Overburden Pressure


Po= (Soil Density of respective layer x Depth to the center of the layer)
Effects of water and critical depth are also considered calculating Po
Effective Overburden Pressure (lb/ft2)
315
1345
1874
1380

Layer
1
2
3
4

Skin Friction
Factor from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.6
= 0.55 (for all layers)
Layer
1
2
3
4

0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55

Dimensionless correlation factor from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.18


= 0 (for all layers)
Friction angle between soil and pier
Assumed to be same as soil friction angle
Shaft friction (f), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.16 & 11.17
For cohesive soil layerf = x su
For cohesionless soil layerf = x vi
Layer
1
2
3
4

Shaft Friction (psf)


550
605
1100
1650

Skin Friction Resistance (Qf), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 10.2


Rs = f x As

Verification Manual 373

Chapter 7
7.4 Drilled Pier Foundation 4 FHWA

Layer

Rs (kip)
41.469
98.835
110.584
248.814
499.702

1
2
3
4
(Total Skin Friction)

Modified Skin Friction Based on Neglected Zones for Skin Friction


Qf (modified) is calculated by considering top and bottom neglect layer
Rs_modified
(kip)
1
6.912
2
98.835
3
110.584
4
165.876
(Total Modified Skin 382.206
Friction)
Layer

Base Resistance
Unit end bearing (q), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.1, 11.2 & 11.4a
For cohesive soil layerq = 9 x c
For cohesionless soil layerq =po x Nq
Layer
1
2
3
4

q (kip)
3.646
3.880
5.611
27

End Bearing for each layer (Qp), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 10.2
RB = q x Ap
Layer
1
2
3
4

RB (kip)
45.815
48.759
70.510
339.292

End Bearing for bottom Layer, RB-bott = 339.292 kips

Un-factored Capacity

374 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 7 Drilled Pier Foundations


7.5 Drilled Pier Foundation 5 VESIC

Factored Capacity

7.4.4 Comparison
Table 7-4: Drilled Pier (FHWA) verification
STAAD.foundation
Value of
Result
Unfactored Tip
339.429 kip
Resistance
Unfactored Skin
382.360 kip
Resistance
Unfactored Total Axial
648.246 kip
Capacity
FactoredTip Resistance 113.143 kip
Factored Skin Resistance 127.453 kip
Factored Total Axial
216.082 kip
Capacity

example 4 comparison
Reference
Difference
Result
339.292 kip Negligible
382.206 kip

Negligible

647.985 kip

Negligible

113.097 kip
127.453 kip
213.658 kip

Negligible
Negligible
Negligible

7.5 Drilled Pier Foundation 5 VESIC


7.5.1 Reference
Alternate Vesic Method

7.5.2 Problem
Design axial capacity for drilled pier with the given data: Design Method: Alternate Vesic
Method
Load Fy= 100kip, fc= 4ksi, fy= 60ksi, Straight pier, pier diameter= 2ft,
pier height= 30ft, water level at 40ft.
Soil Profile
1. Sand, 8ft deep, angle of friction 30deg, Avg Density 108lb/ft 3,
2. Sand, 13ft deep, angle of friction 34deg, Avg Density 110lb/ft 3,
3. Clay, 9ft deep, cohesion 2kip/ft 2, Avg Density 110lb/ft 3,

Verification Manual 375

Chapter 7
7.5 Drilled Pier Foundation 5 VESIC
Elasticity of Soil 0.3ksi
Factor of safety
End bearing - 3
Skin Friction - 3
% of Capacity Used
End bearing - 100%
Skin Friction - 100%
Neglected zone for skin friction
Top - 5ft
Bottom - Pier Dia = 2ft
Concrete Properties
fc= 4ksi
Ec= 3605ksi
Density= 150lb/ft 3
Rebar Properties
fy= 60ksi
Es= 29000ksi

376 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 7 Drilled Pier Foundations


7.5 Drilled Pier Foundation 5 VESIC
Figure 7-5: Pier Elevation

7.5.3 Solution
Critical Depth
Critical depth is set to be calculated by program

Effective Overburden Pressure


Po= (Soil Density of respective layer x Depth to the center of the layer)
Effects of water and critical depth are also considered calculating Po

Verification Manual 377

Chapter 7
7.5 Drilled Pier Foundation 5 VESIC

Effective Overburden Pressure (psf)


432
1579
1925

Layer
1
2
3

Skin Friction
Adhesion Factor for Drilled Pier in Cohesive Soil
= 0.55
Layer

0
0
0.55

1
2
3
K Coefficient of lateral earth pressure
K=0.8 (for straight pier)
Lateral Earth Pressure and Friction Angle Factor
Layer

0.462
0.540
0

1
2
3
Friction angle between soil and pier
Assumed to be same as soil friction angle
Shaft friction (f), from Alpha or Beta Method
For cohesive soil layerf = x c
For cohesionless soil layerf = K xPo x tan
Layer
1
2
3

Shaft Friction (psf)


199.532
852.039
1100

tan(1) = 0.675
Skin Friction Resistance (Qf), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 10.2
Rs = f x As
Layer
1
2
3
(Total Skin Friction)

Rs (kip)
10.030
69.596
62.204
141.829

Modified Skin Friction Based on Neglected Zones for Skin Friction

378 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 7 Drilled Pier Foundations


7.5 Drilled Pier Foundation 5 VESIC
Qf (modified) is calculated by considering top and bottom neglect layer
Rs_modified
(kip)
1
3.761
2
69.596
3
48.381
(Total Modified Skin
121.737
Friction)
Layer

Base Resistance
Cohesive Soil (Bottom Layer)
Factor F = 1
r

Factor N

cp

=9

Cohesionless Soil (Bottom Layer)


Factor N

qp

=0

Unit end bearing (q), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.1, 11.2 & 11.4a
For cohesive soil layer q = Fr x Nqp x c
For cohesionless soil layer q =po x Nqp
Layer
1
2
3

q (psf)
0
0
18000

End Bearing for each layer (Qp), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 10.2
RB = q x Ap
Layer
1
2
3

RB (kip)
0
0
56.549

End Bearing for bottom Layer, RB_bott = 56.549 kip

Un-factored Capacity

Verification Manual 379

Chapter 7
7.6 Drilled Pier Foundation 6 Vesic

Factored Capacity

7.5.4 Comparison
Table 7-5: Drilled Pier (Vesic) verification example 5 comparison
STAAD.foundation Reference
Value of
Difference
Result
Result
UnfactoredTip
56.571 kip
16.549 kip
Negligible
Resistance
Unfactored Skin
121.824 kip
121.737 kip
Negligible
Resistance
Unfactored Total Axial 164.253 kip
164.149 kip Negligible
Capacity
FactoredTip Resistance 18.857 kip
5.516 kip
Negligible
Factored Skin
40.608kip
40.579 kip
Negligible
Resistance
Factored Total Axial
54.751 kip
54.716 kip
Negligible
Capacity

7.6 Drilled Pier Foundation 6 Vesic


7.6.1 Reference
Alternate Vesic Method

7.6.2 Problem
Design axial capacity for drilled pier with the given data: Design Method: Alternate Vesic
Method
Load Fy= 100kip, fc= 4ksi, fy= 60ksi, Straight pier, pier diameter= 4ft, pier height= 39ft,
water level at 50ft.
Soil Profile
1. Clay - , 6ft deep, cohesion 1kip/ft 2, Avg Density 105lb/ft 3, Density- Very Loose
2. Clay - , 13ft deep, cohesion 1.1kip/ft 2, Avg Density 110lb/ft 3, Density- Medium
3. Clay - , 8ft deep, cohesion 2kip/ft 2, Avg Density 111lb/ft 3, Density- Dense
4. Clay - , 12ft deep, cohesion 3kip/ft 2, Avg Density 113lb/ft 3, Density- Very Dense
Elasticity of Soil 0.3ksi
Factor of safety
End bearing - 3
Skin Friction - 3
380 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 7 Drilled Pier Foundations


7.6 Drilled Pier Foundation 6 Vesic
% of Capacity Used
End bearing - 100%
Skin Friction - 100%
Neglected zone for skin friction
Top - 5ft
Bottom - Pier Dia = 4ft
Concrete Properties
fc= 4ksi
Ec= 3605ksi
Density= 150lb/ft 3
Rebar Properties
fy= 60ksi
Es= 29000ksi

Verification Manual 381

Chapter 7
7.6 Drilled Pier Foundation 6 Vesic
Figure 7-6: Pier Elevation

7.6.3 Solution
Critical Depth
Critical depth is set to be calculated by program

Effective Overburden Pressure


Po= (Soil Density of respective layer x Depth to the center of the layer)
Effects of water and critical depth are also considered calculating Po

382 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 7 Drilled Pier Foundations


7.6 Drilled Pier Foundation 6 Vesic

Layer
1
2
3

Effective Overburden Pressure (psf)


315
1345
1874

Skin Friction
Adhesion Factor for Drilled Pier in Cohesive Soil
= 0.55 (All layers)

K Coefficient of lateral earth pressure


K=0.8 (for straight pier)
Lateral Earth Pressure and Friction Angle Factor, = 0 (All layers)
Friction angle between soil and pier
Assumed to be same as soil friction angle
Shaft friction (f), from Alpha or Beta Method
For cohesive soil layerf = x c
For cohesionless soil layerf = K xPo x tan
Layer
1
2
3
4

Shaft Friction (psf)


550
605
1100
1650

tan( ) = 0
1

Skin Friction Resistance (Qf), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 10.2


Rs = f x As
Layer
1
2
3
4
(Total Skin Friction)

Rs (kip)
41.469
98.835
110.584
248.814
499.702

End Bearing for each layer (Qp), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 10.2
RB = q x Ap
Layer
1
2
3
4

RB (kip)
0
0
0
339.292
Verification Manual 383

Chapter 7
7.6 Drilled Pier Foundation 6 Vesic
End Bearing for bottom Layer, RB_bott = 339.292 kip

Un-factored Capacity

Factored Capacity

7.6.4 Comparison
Table 7-6: Drilled Pier (Vesic) verification example 6 comparison
STAAD.foundation Reference
Value of
Difference
Result
Result
UnfactoredTip
339.429 kip
339.292 kip Negligible
Resistance
Unfactored Skin
382.360 kip
382.206 kip Negligible
Resistance
Unfactored Total Axial 648.246 kip
164.149 kip Negligible
Capacity
FactoredTip Resistance 113.143 kip
113.097 kip Negligible
Factored Skin
127.453 kip
127.402 kip Negligible
Resistance
Factored Total Axial
216.082 kip
54.716 kip
Negligible
Capacity

384 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8

Plant Foundation
8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1
8.1.1 Input Parameters
Geometric Description
Vessel Geometry
Effective Height, Hve = 10ft
Effective Diameter, Dve = 4ft
Center of Gravity, CG = 10 ft

Pedestal Geometry
Height, Tp = 1 ft
Diameter, Dp = 5 ft

Footing Geometry
Minimum Footing Diameter = 10 ft
Maximum Footing Diameter = 10 ft
Minimum Footing Depth = 2 ft
Maximum Footing Depth = 2 ft

Verification Manual 385

Chapter 8
8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1
Figure 8-1: Tank and foundation elevation

Anchor Bolt Data


Figure 8-2: Anchor bolt plan

Bolt Circle Diameter, BCD = 14.875 ft


Bolt Diameter, BD = 1.5 in.
Sleeve Diameter, SD = 2 in
Number of Anchor Bolts, Nb = 16
Effective Embedment Depth, heff = 1.5 ft

386 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1

Design Parameters
Soil
Soil Depth, Ts = 0 ft
Soil Density, Vsoil = 110 pcf
Allowable Soil Bearing Pressure, SBC = 3.8 ksf

Concrete
Cover, cc = 0.25 ft
Concrete Density, Vc = 15o pcf
Concrete strength, f'c = 4 ksi

Reinforcement
fy = 60 ksi
Bar Type : Imperial
Minimum Bar Diameter = 4
Maximum Bar Diameter = 11

Stability
Minimum Stability Ratio = 1.5

Primary Load Description


Table 8-1: Primary load description
Axial Force Base Moment (ft Load Types
(kip)
kip)
Empty Load (De)
10
0
Operating Load
20
0
(Do)
Test Load (Dt)
0
0
Erection Load (Dr)
0
0
Live Load (Dl)
0
0

Base Shear
(kip)
0
0
0
0
0

8.1.2 Solution
Wind Load
Wind Load Calculation per ASCE 7-05
Partial Wind Case: Percentage of wind = 50%
Wind Speed, V = 0 mph
Verification Manual 387

Chapter 8
8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1
Exposure category D, Case 2
Wind Directionality Factor, Kd = 0.95 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6-4
Topographic Factor, Kzt = 1 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-4
Importance factor, IW = 1.15 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6-1
Gust Effect Factor, G = 0.85 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6.5.8
Net Force Coefficient, C f = 0.9 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Gig. 6-20 & Fig. 6-21
Table 8-2: Wind loads
Elevation
Kz
Pressure Width Area Shear Moment
1
1.03023
0
4
4
0
0
11
1.03023
0
4
40
0
0
Total Wind Shear = 0 kip
Total Wind Moment = 0 kip-ft

Seismic Load
Importance Factor, I = 1
Fundamental Period, T = 6 s
Long Period, TL = 12 s
Site Class C
Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at Short Period, Ss = 0
Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at 1 Sec, S1 = 0
Short Period Site Coefficient at 0.2s Period, Fa = 1.2
Long Period Site Coefficient at 1.0s Period, Fv = 1.7
Design Spectral Response Acc. Parameter st Short Period, SDS = 0
Design Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at 1 sec, SD1 = 0
Response Modification Factor, R = 2

Calculation Of Seismic Response Coefficient


Cs = 0
Empty Seismic = C s x De = 0 kip
Operating Seismic = C s x Do = 0 kip
Test Seismic = C s x Dt = 0 kip

388 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1

Load Combination Table


Table 8-3: Applied Load Combinations - Allowable Stress Level
Load
Erection Live User User User
Empty Operating Wind Seismic Test
Load Load Load
Case
Load Load 1
2
3
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
1
0
0.7
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0.9
0
0.7
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0.9
0
0
0.7
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
8
0
0 0.83
0 0.83
0
0
0
0
0
Table 8-4: Applied Load Combinations - Strength Level
Load
Erection Live User User User
Empty Operating Wind Seismic Test
Load Load Load
Case
Load Load 1
2
3
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Table 8-5: Applied Load at Top of
Pedestal - Allowable Stress Level
Load
Axial Shear Moment
Case
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

(kips)

(kips)

(kip-ft)

20
2o
20
10
18
9
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Governing Loads
Axial = 20 kip
Shear = 0 kip

Verification Manual 389

Chapter 8
8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1
Moment = 0 ft-kip
Table 8-6: Applied Load at Top of
Pedestal - Strength Level
Load Axial Shear Moment
Case
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

(kips)

(kips)

(kip-ft)

10
o
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Governing Loads
Axial = 10 kip
Shear = 0 kip
Moment = 0 kip

Pedestal Design
Fu = 56.64 kip
Check for minimum pedestal dimension is done in accordance with PIP STE 03350 Sect.
4.5.1
Minimum Pedestal Dimension = 15.625 ft
Factored O.T.M. At Base Of Pedestal = 0 kip-ft
Seismic Load Governing, hence use Vessel Operating Weight
Nominal Axial Load (Empty/Operating), Du = 56.64 kip
Weight of Pedestal = 3.1066 kip
Dowel Circle Diameter, Dc = BCD
Number of Dowels, Nd = 32
Tensile Force In Each Dowel Per PIP STC03350 4.5.4
F =4 M
u

/(N D ) - 0.9 (D +W

uped

)/N = -0.369 kip

ped

Area of Dowel Bar Required


A

s_ped_req

= F /( f ) = -8.192(10)-3 in2
u

Minimum Dowel Reinforcement per PIP STC03350 4.5.5 : #5 - 32


Dowel Bar Size Provided = 5
Area of Steel Provided = -0.00819 in2
Area of steel required in pedestal, As, req = (dd)2 x pi/4 = 0.307 in2
Potential Conc. Failure Area per PIP STC03350 Fig. A, An = 5.5086 ft 2
390 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1
Compressive Force In Each Dowel Based on PIP STC03350 4.6.2
P =M
u

/D +0.9 (D +W

uped

) = 11.769 kip

ped

d = 0.625 in
b

F = P /A = 0.015 ksi
c

Beta = 1
Weight of Soil = 0 kip

Design Results
Stability Ratio is calculated based on PIP STE03350 Eqn. 15
Table 8-7: Stability Ratio
Load
Stability
Eccentricity
Case
Ratio
1
0
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
8
0
Soil bearing calculations are per PIP STE03350 4.7.2
Table 8-8: Soil Bearing Check
Load
Max Soil
Min Soil
Case Bearing (ksf) Bearing (ksf)
1
0.2414
0.2414
2
0.2414
0.2414
3
0.2414
0.2414
4
0.4582
0.4582
5
0.2173
0.2173
6
0.4123
0.4123
7
0
0
8
0
0
Max Diagonal Soil Bearing Pressure, fdia = 0.4582 ksf
Max Diagonal Soil Bearing Pressure, fflat = 0.4233 ksf

Verification Manual 391

Chapter 8
8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1

Concrete Design
One Way Shear
Figure 8-3: One-way shear dimensions

Location of Pedestal Face from Face of Footing, X1 = 2.7246 ft


Location of Shear check from Face of Footing, X2 = 1.0006 ft
Shear Stress, Vu = 0.266 ksf
Factored Shear Stress Capacity per ACI318-05 Eqn. 11-3, VC = 13.66 ksf

Two way Shear Check


Figure 8-4: Two-way shear check

Octagonal Perimeter, bo = 21.65 ft


Punching Shear Force, Vu = 6.463 kip
Factored Shear Capacity, Vc = 1019.8 kip

Reinforcement Calculations
Required development length for bars

392 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1

Available development length for bars (From face of Pedestal to face of Footing) = 2.724551
ft

m = f / (0.85 f ) = 17.647
y

2 m R / f = 2.597(10)-3
n

Area of Steel Required


Ast,req = d 1ft = 0.018 in2
min = 0.0018
Minimum Area of Steel Required
Ast,min = min d 1 ft = 0.447 in2
Spacing Required, s = 8 in.
Area of Steel Provided
A

st_prov

= ( d 2/4) 1ft/s = 0.205 in2


b

Bar Size = 5

Final Dimensions
Footing Diameter, Df = 10 ft
Footing Thickness, Tf = 2 ft

Verification Manual 393

Chapter 8
8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

8.1.3 Comparison
Table 8-9: Vertical Vessel verification example 1 comparison
Hand CalPercent DifSTAAD.foundation
culations
ference
Footing Diagonal
10
10
none
Footing Thickness
2
2
none
Footing Soil Bear0.458
0.496
8%
ing
Stability Check
0
0
n/a
One Way Shear
0.266
0.266
0%
Check
Punching Shear
6.463
6.564
2%
Check
Reinforcement Pro0.460
0.447
3%
vided
Note: Soil Bearing values are generated from graph; %diff also contains human errors.

8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design


8.2.1 Input Parameters
Geometrical Description
Vessel Geometry
Effective Height, Hve = 50 ft
Effective Diameter, Dve = 13 ft
Center of Gravity, CG = 8 ft

Pedestal Geometry
Height, Tp = 4 ft
Diameter, Dp = 14 ft

Footing Geometry
Minimum Footing Diameter = 16 ft
Maximum Footing Diameter = 24 ft
Minimum Footing Depth = 1 ft
Maximum Footing Depth = 16 ft

394 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design
Figure 8-5: Tank and foundation elevation

Anchor Bolt Data


Figure 8-6: Anchor bolt plan

Bolt Circle Diameter, BCD = 1.333 ft


Bolt Diameter, BD = 168 in.
Sleeve Diameter, SD = 1.5 in
Number of Anchor Bolts, Nb = 14
Effective Embedment Depth, heff = 0.167 ft

Verification Manual 395

Chapter 8
8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Design Parameters
Soil
Soil Depth, Ts = 2 ft
Soil Density, Vsoil = 110 pcf
Allowable Soil Bearing Pressure, SBC = 4 ksf

Concrete
Cover, cc = 0.25 ft
Concrete Density, Vc = 15o pcf
Concrete strength, f'c = 4 ksi

Reinforcement
fy = 60 ksi
Bar Type : Imperial
Minimum Bar Diameter = 4
Maximum Bar Diameter = 11

Stability
Minimum Stability Ratio = 1.5

Primary Load Description


Table 8-10: Primary load description
Axial Force
Base Moment (ftLoad Types
(kip)
kip)
Empty Load (De)
-28
0
Operating Load
-66
0
(Do)
Test Load (Dt)
-73
0
Erection Load
-70
0
(Dr)
Live Load (Dl)
0
0

Wind Load
Wind Load Calculation per ASCE 7-05
Partial Wind Case: Percentage of wind = 50%

396 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Base Shear
(kip)
0
0
0
0
0

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Wind Speed, V = 110 mph


Exposure category C, Case 2
Wind Directionality Factor, Kd = 0.95 ................................per ASCE 7-05
Table 6-4
Topographic Factor, Kzt = 1 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-4
Importance factor, IW = 1.15 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6-1
Gust Effect Factor, G = 0.85 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6.5.8
Net Force Coefficient, C f = 0.8 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Gig. 6-20
& Fig. 6-21
Elevation
Kz
2
0.848884
15
0.848884
20
0.901885
25
0.945265
30
0.982253
40
1.043581
50
1.093775
52
1.102844

Table 8-11: Wind loads


Pressure Width Area
0.028727
13
26
0.028727
13
169
0.030521
13
65
0.031989
13
65
0.033241
13
65
0.035316
13
130
0.037015
13
130
0.037322
13
26

Shear
Moment
0.507899 0.507899
3.301344 28.06143
1.349026 23.60796
1.413912 31.81303
1.469238 40.40405
3.121944
109.268
3.272105 147.2447
0.659847 33.65219

Total Wind Shear = 15.095 kip


Total Wind Moment = 414.449 ft-kip

Seismic Load
Importance Factor, I = 1
Fundamental Period, T = 4.1 s
Long Period, TL = 12 s
Site Class C
Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at Short Period, Ss = 0.105
Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at 1 Sec, S1 = 0.043
Short Period Site Coefficient at 0.2s Period, Fa = 1.2
Long Period Site Coefficient at 1.0s Period, Fv = 1.7
Design Spectral Response Acc. Parameter st Short Period, SDS = 0.084
Design Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at 1 sec, SD1 = 0.049
Response Modification Factor, R = 2

Calculation Of Seismic Response Coefficient


C s = 5.973x10-3

Verification Manual 397

Chapter 8
8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Empty Seismic = C s x De = 0.167 kip


Operating Seismic = C s x Do = 0.394 kip
Test Seismic = C s x Dt = 0.436 kip

Load Combination Table


Table 8-12: Applied Load Combination - Allowable Stress Level
Load
Erection Live User User User
Empty Operating Wind Seismic Test
Load Load Load
Case
Load Load 1
2
3
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
1
0
0.7
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0.9
0
0.7
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0.9
0
0
0.7
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
8
0
0 0.83
0 0.83
0
0
0
0
0
Table 8-13: Applied Load Combination - Strength Level
Load
Erection Live User User User
Empty Operating Wind Seismic Test
Load Load Load
Case
Load Load 1
2
3
1
0
1.4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
1.2
0
0
0
0 1.6
0
0
0
3
0
1.2
1.6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
1.2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0.9
0
1.6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0.9
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0.9
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
0
0
1.6
0
0
0.9
0
0
0
0
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Table 8-14: Applied Load at Top of
Pedestal - Allowable Stress Level
Load Axial
Shear
Moment
(kip-ft)
Case (kips) (kips)
1
66
0
0
2
66 15.09532 414.5593
3
66 0.275945 2.207563
4
28
15.09532 414.4493
5
59.4 0.275945 2.207563
6
25.2 0.117068 0.936542
7
70 7.547658 207.2797
8
60.59 6.264556 172.0421
398 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Governing Loads
Axial = 70 kip
Shear = 15.09532 kip
Moment = 414.5593 ft-kip
Table 8-15: Applied Load at Top of
Pedestal - Strength Level
Load Axial
Shear
Moment
(kips)
(kip-ft)
Case (kips)
1
92.4
0
0
2
79.2
0
0
3
79.2 24.15251 663.2949
4
79.2 0.394208 3.153661
5
25.2 24.15251 663.2949
6
59.4 0.394208 3.153661
7
25.2 0.16724 1.337917
8
63
12.07625 331.6474

Governing Loads
Axial = 92.4 kip
Shear = 24.15251 kip
Moment = 663.2949 kip

Pedestal Design
Fu = 56.64 kip
Check for minimum pedestal dimension is done in accordance with PIP STE 03350 Sect.
4.5.1
Minimum Pedestal Dimension = 2.0833 ft
Factored O.T.M. At Base Of Pedestal = 759.9049 kip-ft
Seismic Load Governing, hence use Vessel Operating Weight
Nominal Axial Load (Empty/Operating), Du = 56.64 kip
Weight of Pedestal = 97.42292 kip
Dowel Circle Diameter, Dc = BCD = 1.333 ft
Number of Dowels, Nd = 32
Tensile Force In Each Dowel Per PIP STC03350 4.5.4
F =4 M
u

/(N D ) - 0.9 (D +W

uped

)/N = 66.274 kip

ped

Area of Dowel Bar Required


A

s_ped_req

= F /( f ) = 1.473 in2
u

Verification Manual 399

Chapter 8
8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design
Minimum Dowel Reinforcement per PIP STC03350 4.5.5 : #5 - 32
Dowel Bar Size Provided = 5
Area of Steel Provided = 1.472746 in. 2
Potential Conc. Failure Area per PIP STC03350 Fig.
An = 0.060107
Compressive Force In Each Dowel Based on PIP STC03350 4.6.2
P =M
u

/D +0.9 (D +W

uped

) = 728.889 kip

ped

F = P /A = 84.211 ksi
c

Weight of Soil = 10.935 kip

Design Results
Stability Ratio is calculated based on PIP STE03350 Eqn. 15
Table 8-16: Stability Ratio
Load
Stability
Eccentricity
Case
Ratio
1
0
0
2
2.376857
3.36579
3
0.017400
459.778
4
2.913937
2.74543
5
0.017975
445.060
6
0.009203
869.292
7
1.165810
6.86219
8
1.012977
7.89752
Soil bearing calculations are per PIP STE03350 4.7.2
Max Diagonal Soil Bearing Pressure, fdia = 2.10298 ksf
Max Diagonal Soil Bearing Pressure, fflat = 1.94299 ksf

400 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Concrete Design
One Way Shear
Figure 8-7: One-way shear dimensions

Location of Pedestal Face from Face of Footing (X1) = 1.62742 ft


Location of Shear check from Face of Footing (X2) = 0.904783 ft
Shear Stress, Vu = 4.185682 ksf
Factored Shear Stress Capacity VC per ACI318-05 Eqn. 11-3 = 13.66104 ksf

Two way Shear Check


Figure 8-8: Two-way shear check

Octagonal Perimeter, bo = 52.41798 ft


Punching Shear Force, Vu = 17.5799 kip
Factored Shear Capacity, Vc = 661.6144 kip

Reinforcement Calculations
Required development length for bars

Verification Manual 401

Chapter 8
8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Available development length for bars (From face of Pedestal to face of Footing) =
1.628742 ft
Rn = Mu / (0.9 1ft d2) = 0.079 ksi
m = fy / (0.85 fc) = 17.647
2 m Rn / fy = 0.047

Area of Steel Required


A
p

st_req

min

= p d 1ft = 0.139 in2

= 0.0018

Minimum Area of Steel Req


A

st_min

=p

min

d 1ft = 0.188 in2

Spacing Required
s = 18 in.
Area of Steel Provided
A

st_prov

= ( d 2/4) 1ft/s = 0.205 in2


b

Bar Size = 5

Final Dimensions
Footing Diameter = 16 ft
Footing Thickness = 1 ft

402 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

8.2.2 Comparison
Table 8-17: Vertical Vessel verification example 2 comparison
Hand CalPercent DifSTAAD.foundation
culations
ference
Footing Diagonal
16
16
0
Footing Thickness
1
1
0
Footing Soil Bear2.1030
2.102
0
ing
Stability Check
2.7454
2.748
0
One Way Shear
4.1857
4.193
0
Check
Punching Shear
17.58
17.951
2
Check
Reinforcement Pro0.20453
0.18765
9
vided

8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design


8.3.1 Input Parameters
Geometric Description
Vessel Geometry
Effective Height, Hve = 30 ft
Effective Diameter, Dve - 10 ft
Center of Gravity, CG = 8 ft

Pedestal Geometry
Height = 2 ft
Diameter = 12 ft

Footing Geometry
Minimum Footing Diameter = 14 ft
Maximum Footing Diameter = 16 ft
Minimum Footing Depth = 1 ft
Maximum Footing Depth = 2 ft

Verification Manual 403

Chapter 8
8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design
Figure 8-9: Tank and foundation elevation

Anchor Bolt Data


Figure 8-10: Anchor bolt plan

Bolt Circle Diameter, BCD = 1.333 ft


Bolt Diameter, BD = 132 in.
Sleeve Diameter, SD= 1.5 in.
Number of Anchor Bolts, Nb = 11
Effective Embedment Depth, heff = 0.167 fyt

404 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Design Parameters
Soil
Soil Depth, Ts = 2 ft
Soil Density, Vsoil = 110 pcf
Allowable Soil Bearing Pressure, SBC = 4 ksf

Concrete
Cover, cc = 0.25 ft
Concrete Density, Vc = 15o pcf
Concrete strength, f'c = 4 ksi

Reinforcement
fy = 60 ksi
Bar Type : Imperial
Minimum Bar Diameter = 4
Maximum Bar Diameter = 11

Stability
Minimum Stability Ratio = 1.5

Primary Load Description


Table 8-18: Primary load description
Axial Force
Base Moment (ftLoad Types
(kip)
kip)
Empty Load (De)
-20
0
Operating Load
-40
0
(Do)
Test Load (Dt)
-60
0
Erection Load (Dr)
-30
0
Live Load (Dl)
0
0

Base Shear
(kip)
0
0
0
0
0

8.3.2 Solution
Wind Load
Wind Load Calculation per ASCE 7-05
Partial Wind Case: Percentage of wind = 50%
Wind Speed, V = 90 mph
Verification Manual 405

Chapter 8
8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design
Exposure category B, Case 2
Wind Directionality Factor, Kd = 0.95 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6-4
Topographic Factor, Kzt = 1 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-4
Importance factor, IW = 1.15 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6-1
Gust Effect Factor, G = 0.85 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6.5.8
Net Force Coefficient, C f = 0.8 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Gig. 6-20 & Fig. 6-21
Table 8-19: Wind loads
Elevation
Kz
Pressure Width Area
Shear
Moment
1
0.57472
0.01302
10
10 0.088534 0.044267
15
0.57472
0.01302
10
140
1.23948 9.915838
20
0.623954 0.014135
10
50 0.480594 8.410392
25
0.66503 0.015066
10
50
0.512232 11.52522
30
0.700591 0.015871
10
50 0.539622 14.83962
Total Wind Shear = 2.86 kip
Total Wind Moment = 44.735 ft-kip

Seismic Load
Importance Factor, I = 1
Fundamental Period, T = 4.1 s
Long Period, TL = 12 s
Site Class C
Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at Short Period, Ss = 1.997
Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at 1 Sec, S1 = 0.805
Short Period Site Coefficient at 0.2s Period, Fa = 1
Long Period Site Coefficient at 1.0s Period, Fv = 1.3
Design Spectral Response Acc. Parameter st Short Period, SDS = 1.332
Design Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at 1 sec, SD1 = 0.697
Response Modification Factor, R = 2

Calculation Of Seismic Response Coefficient


C s = 0.805
Empty Seismic = C s x De = 1.701 kip
Operating Seismic = C s x Do = 3.402 kip
Test Seismic = C s x Dt = 5.103 kip

406 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Load Combination Table


Table 8-20: Applied Load Combination - Allowable Stress Level
Load
Erection Live User User User
Empty Operating Wind Seismic Test
Load Load Load
Case
Load Load 1
2
3
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
1
0
0.7
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0.9
0
0.7
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0.9
0
0
0.7
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
8
0
0 0.83
0 0.83
0
0
0
0
0
Table 8-21: Applied Load Combination - Strength Level
Load
Erection Live User User User
Empty Operating Wind Seismic Test
Load Load Load
Case
Load Load 1
2
3
1
0
1.4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
1.2
0
0
0
0 1.6
0
0
0
3
0
1.2
1.6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
1.2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0.9
0
1.6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0.9
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0.9
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
0
0
1.6
0
0
0.9
0
0
0
0
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Table 8-22: Applied Load at Top of
Pedestal - Allowable Stress Level
Load Axial Shear Moment
Case
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

(kips)

(kips)

(kip-ft)

40
40
40
20
36
18
30
49.8

0
2.8605
2.3816
2.8605
2.3816
1.1908
1.4302
1.1871

0
44.735
19.053
44.735
19.053
9.5264
22.368
18.565

Verification Manual 407

Chapter 8
8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Governing Loads
Axial = 49.8 kip
Shear = 2.86046 kip
Moment = 44.73534 kip-ft
Table 8-23: Applied Load at
Top of Pedestal - Strength
Level
Load Axial Shear Moment
Case (kips) (kips) (kip-ft)
1
56
0
0
2
48
0
0
3
48 4.5767 71.577
4
48 3.4023 27.218
5
18 4.5767 71.577
6
36 3.4023 27.218
7
18
1.7011 13.609
8
27 2.2884 35.788

Governing Loads
Axial = 56 kips
Shear 4.57674 kips
Moment = 71.5765 ft-kip

Pedestal Design
Fu = 56.64 kip
Check for minimum pedestal dimension is done in accordance with PIP STE 03350 Sect.
4.5.1
Minimum Pedestal Dimension = 2.08333 ft
Factored O.T.M. At Base Of Pedestal = 80.730 kip-ft
Seismic Load Governing, hence use Vessel Operating Weight
Nominal Axial Load (Empty/Operating), Du = 56.64 kip
Weight of Pedestal = 35.788 kip
Dowel Circle Diameter, Dc = BCD = 1.333 ft
Number of Dowels, Nd = 32
Tensile Force In Each Dowel Per PIP STC03350 4.5.4
F =4 M
u

/(N D ) - 0.9 (D +W

uped

)/N = 5.212 kip

ped

Area of Dowel Bar Required

408 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

s_ped_req

= F /( f ) =0.116 in2
u

Minimum Dowel Reinforcement per PIP STC03350 4.5.5 : #5 - 32


Dowel Bar Size Provided = 5
Area of Steel Provided = 0.11582 in2
Area of steel required in pedestal, As, req = (dd)2 x pi/4 = 0.307 in2
Potential Conc. Failure Area per PIP STC03350 Fig. A, An = 0.075956ft 2
Compressive Force In Each Dowel Based on PIP STC03350 4.6.2
P =M
u

/D +0.9 (D +W

uped

) = 135.957 kip

ped

d = 0.625 in
b

F = P /A = 12.43 ksi
c

Beta = 1
Weight of Soil, W

soil

= 9.477 kip

Design Results
Stability Ratio is calculated based on PIP STE03350 Eqn. 15
Table 8-24: Stability Ratio
Load
Stability
Eccentricity
Case
Ratio
1
0
0
2
0.4864
14.392
3
0.2390
29.291
4
0.5949
11.766
5
0.2480
28.222
6
0.1495
46.825
7
0.2676
26.159
8
0.1853
37.780
Soil bearing calculations are per PIP STE03350 4.7.2
Table 8-25: Soil Bearing Check
Load
Max Soil
Min Soil
Case Bearing (ksf) Bearing (ksf)
1
0.6751
0.2453
2
0.8672
0.3164
3
0.7695
0.2808
4
0.7440
0.7440
5
0.7449
0.2539
6
0.5402
0.5402
7
0.7100
0.2137
8
0.8152
0.3399
Max Diagonal Soil Bearing Pressure, fdia = 0.8672 ksf
Max Diagonal Soil Bearing Pressure, fflat = 0.8012 ksf
Verification Manual 409

Chapter 8
8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Concrete Design
One Way Shear
Figure 8-11: One-way shear dimensions

Location of Pedestal Face from Face of Footing, X1 = 1.538921 ft


Location of Shear check from Face of Footing, X2 = 0.814963 ft
Shear Stress, Vu = 0.90518 ksf
Factored Shear Stress Capacity per ACI318-05 Eqn. 11-3, VC = 13.66104 ksf

Two way Shear Check


Figure 8-12: Two-way shear check

Octagonal Perimeter, bo = 45.137 ft


Punching Shear Force, Vu = 12.085 kip
Factored Shear Capacity, Vc = 589.61 kip

Reinforcement Calculations
Required development length for bars

410 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design

Available development length for bars (From face of Pedestal to face of Footing) = 1.538921
ft
Rn = Mu / (0.9 1ft d2) = 0.014 ksi
m = fy / (0.85 fc) = 17.647
2 m Rn / fy = 7.944(10)-3

Area of Steel Required


A

st,req

min

= d 1ft = 0.024 in2

= 0.0018

Minimum Area of Steel Req


A

st,min

min

d 1 ft = 0.188 in2

Spacing Required, s = 18 in.


Area of Steel Provided
A

st_prov

= ( d 2/4) 1ft/s = 0.205 in2


b

Bar Size = 5

Final Dimensions
Footing Diameter = 14 ft
Footing Thickness = 1 ft

Verification Manual 411

Chapter 8
8.4 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 1

8.3.3 Comparison
Table 8-26: Vertical Vessel verification example 3 comparison
Hand CalPercent DifSTAAD.foundation
culations
ference
Footing Diagonal
14
14
none
Footing Thickness
1
1
none
Footing Soil Bear0.8672
0.835
4%
ing
Stability Check
11.766
12.898
9%
One Way Shear
0.9052
1.13
20%
Check
Punching Shear
12.085
12.338
2%
Check
Reinforcement Pro0.2045
0.1878
9%
vided

8.4 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation


1
Location Santa Ana California
S1 = 0.5312, Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance
with ASCE 7 11.4.1
Ss = 1.378, Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with
ASCE 7 11.4.1
Site Class = A, Based On Soil Prorperties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20
R = 2, Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2
I = 1.25, Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1
T = 3 sec., Fundamental Period of Vessel
TL = 12 sec., Long-Period Transition Perios per ASCE 7 12.8.2
Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kips
Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kips
Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal (CG) = 120 in.
Fa = 0.8 Short-Period Site Coeffiecient per ASCE 7 11.4.3
Fv = 0.8 Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3
SDS = 0.735, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7
11.4.4
SD1 = 0.283, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE
7 11.4.4
C s = 0.059, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1
Empty Load Case Base Shear = 5.902 kip

412 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.5 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 2
Operating Load Case Base Shear = 11.804 kip
Empty Load Case Earthquake Moment = 59.021 kip ft
Operating Load Case Earthquake Moment = 118.043 kip ft

Comparison
Table 8-27: Vertical Vessel verification example 4 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Base Shear Empty Case
5.902132222
5.902
0.0022403
(kip)
Base Shear Operating
11.80426444
11.804
0.0022403
Case (kip)
Base Moment Empty
59.02132222
59.021
0.00054595
Case (kip ft)
Base Moment Operating 118.0426444
118.043
0.00030121
Case (kip ft)

8.5 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation


2
Location Yorba Linda California
Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with ASCE 7
11.4.1, S1 = 0.857367
Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with ASCE 7
11.4.1, SS = 2.09511
Site Class = B, Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20
Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2, R = 2
Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1, I = 1.0
Fundamental Period of Vessel, T = 6 sec.
Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2, TL = 5 sec.
Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kip
Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kip
Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 10 ft
Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FA = 1
Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FV = 1
SDS = 1.397, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7
11.4.4
SD1 = 0.572, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7
11.4.4
C S = 0.04, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1
Empty Load Case Base Shear
Verification Manual 413

Chapter 8
8.6 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 3

Shearempty = C S x Empty wt = 3.969 kips


Operating Load Case Base Shear
Shearoperating = C S x Operatingwt = 7.939 kips
Empty Load Case Earthquake Moment
Moment empty = Shearempty x CG = 39.693 kip*ft
Operating Load Case Earthquake Moment
Moment operating = Shearoperating x CG = 79.386 kip*ft

Comparison
Table 8-28: Vertical Vessel verification example 5 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Base Shear Empty Case
3.9693
3.969
0.007
(kip)
Base Shear Operating
7.9386
7.939
0.005
Case (kip)
Base Moment Empty
39.693
39.69
0.007
Case (kip ft)
Base Moment Operating
79.3858
79.39
0.005
Case (kip ft)

8.6 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation


3
Location San Antonio, Texas
Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with ASCE 7
11.4.1, S1 = 0.034656
Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with ASCE 7
11.4.1, SS = 0.12141
Site Class = C, Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20
Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2, R = 3
Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1, I= 1.5
Fundamental Period of Vessel,T = 4 sec.
Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2, TL = 12 sec.
Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kips
Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kips
Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 10 ft
Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FA = 1.2
Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FV = 1.7
414 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.7 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 4
SDS = 0.097, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7
11.4.4
SD1 = 0.039, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7
11.4.4
C S = 4.91x10-3, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1
Empty Load Case Base Shear
Shearempty = C S x Empty wt = 0.491 kips
Operating Load Case Base Shear
Shearoperating = C S x Operatingwt = 0.982 kips
Empty Load Case Earthquake Moment
Moment empty = Shearempty x CG =4.91 kip*ft
Operating Load Case Earthquake Moment
Moment operating = Shearoperating x CG = 9.819 kip*ft

Comparison
Table 8-29: Vertical Vessel verification example 6 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Base Shear Empty Case
0.49096
0.491
0.0081
(kip)
Base Shear Operating
0.98192
0.982
0.0081
Case (kip)
Base Moment Empty
4.9096
4.91
0.0081
Case (kip ft)
Base Moment Operating
9.8192
9.82
0.0081
Case (kip ft)

8.7 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation


4
Location New York, New York
Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with ASCE 7
11.4.1, S1 = 0.0937194
Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with ASCE 7
11.4.1, SS = 0.42416
Site Class = D
Site Class Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20
Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2, R = 3
Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1, I= 1.0
Fundamental Period of Vessel,T = 4 sec.
Verification Manual 415

Chapter 8
8.8 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 5
Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2, TL = 12 sec.
Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kips
Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kips
Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 10 ft
Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FA = 1.461
Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FV = 2.4
SDS = 0.413, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7
11.4.4
SD1 = 0.15 Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7
11.4.4
C S = 0.012, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1
Empty Load Case Base Shear
Shearempty = C S x Empty wt = 1.25 kips
Operating Load Case Base Shear
Shearoperating = C S x Operatingwt = 2.499 kips
Empty Load Case Earthquake Moment
Moment empty = Shearempty x CG = 12.496 kip*ft
Operating Load Case Earthquake Moment
Moment operating = Shearoperating x CG =24.992 kip*ft

Comparison
Table 8-30: Vertical Vessel verification example 7 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Base Shear Empty Case
1.249592
1.25
0.03264
(kip)
Base Shear Operating
2.499184
2.499
0.00736295
Case (kip)
Base Moment Empty
12.49592
12.496
0.0006402
Case (kip ft)
Base Moment Operating
24.99184
24.992
0.0006402
Case (kip ft)

8.8 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation


5
Location Nashville, Tennessee
Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with ASCE 7
11.4.1, S1 = 0.145056

416 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.8 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 5
Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with ASCE 7
11.4.1, SS = 0.32156
Site Class = E, Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20
Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2, R = 2
Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1, I= 1.0
Fundamental Period of Vessel,T = 12 sec.
Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2, TL = 8 sec.
Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kips
Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kips
Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 10 ft
Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FA = 2.271
Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FV = 3.365
SDS = 0.487, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7
11.4.4
SD1 = 0.325, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7
11.4.4
C S = 9.039x10-3, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1
Empty Load Case Base Shear
Shearempty = C S x Empty wt = 0.904 kips
Operating Load Case Base Shear
Shearoperating = C S x Operatingwt = 1.808 kips
Empty Load Case Earthquake Moment
Moment empty = Shearempty x CG = 9.039 kip*ft
Operating Load Case Earthquake Moment
Moment operating = Shearoperating x CG =18.077 kip*ft

Comparison
Table 8-31: Vertical Vessel verification example 8 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Base Shear Empty Case 0.903868649
0.904
0.01452995
(kip)
Base Shear Operating
1.807737298
1.808
0.01452995
Case (kip)
Base Moment Empty
9.038686492
9.039
0.00346839
Case (kip ft)
Base Moment Operating 18.07737298
18.077
0.00206331
Case (kip ft)

Verification Manual 417

Chapter 8
8.9 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 6

8.9 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation


6
Location Santa Ana California
S1 = 0.5312, Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance
with ASCE 7 11.4.1
Ss = 1.378, Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with
ASCE 7 11.4.1
Site Class = A; Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20
R = 2, Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2
I = 1.0, Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1
TL = 12 sec., Fundamental Period of Vessel
Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2
Empty Weight Of Vessel, Ewt = 100 kip
Operating Weight of Vessel, Operatingwt = 200 kip
Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 9 ft
Fa = 0.9, Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3
Fv =0.8, Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3
SDS = 0.735, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7
11.4.4
SD1 = 0.283, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE
7 11.4.4
C S = 0.024, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1
Base Shear Based on Operating Load Condition
V = Cs Operating

wt

= 4.722 kip

Comparison
Table 8-32: Vertical Vessel verification example 9 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Seismic Response Coef0.02361
0.024
1.631
ficient (C s)
Base Shear Operating
4.722
4.722
0.006
Case (kip)

8.10 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load


Generation 7
Location Yorba Linda California 92887

418 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.11 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 8
S1, 0.8574, Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with
ASCE 7 11.4.1
SS = 2.0951, Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance
with ASCE 7 11.4.1
Site Class = B, Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20
R = 2, Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2
I = 1.0, Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1
T = 4 sec., Fundamental Period of Vessel
TL = 12 sec., Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2
Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kip
Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kip
Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 2.5 ft
Fa = 1, Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3
Fv = 1, Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3
SDS = 1.397, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7
11.4.4
SD1 = 0.572, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7
11.4.4
C S = 0.071, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1
Base Shear Based on Operating Load Condition
V = Cs Operating

wt

= 14.289 kip

Comparison
Table 8-33: Vertical Vessel verification example 10 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Seismic Response Coef0.0715
0.071
0.63
ficient (C s)
Base Shear Operating
14.289
14.289
0.002
Case (kip)

8.11 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load


Generation 8
Location Mountain Valley 73062
S1 = 0.0884, Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance
with ASCE 7 11.4.1
SS = 0.329, Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with
ASCE 7 11.4.1
Site Class = C, Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20

Verification Manual 419

Chapter 8
8.12 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 9
R = 2, Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2
I = 1.0, Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1
T = 3 sec., Fundamental Period of Vessel
TL = 12 sec., Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2
Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kip
Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kip
Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 2.5 ft
Fa = 1.2, Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3
Fv = 1.7, Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3
SDS 0.263, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7
11.4.4
SD1 = 0.1, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7
11.4.4
C S = 0.017, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1
Base Shear Based on Operating Load Condition
V = Cs Operating

wt

=3.339 kip

Comparison
Table 8-34: Vertical Vessel verification example 11 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Seismic Response Coef0.0167
0.017
1.787
ficient (C s)
Base Shear Operating
3.339
3.339
0.007
Case (kip)

8.12 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load


Generation 9
Location San Bernadino 92411
S1 = 1.415, Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with
ASCE 7 11.4.1
SS = 2.984, Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance
with ASCE 7 11.4.1
Site Class = D, Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20
R =2, Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2
I = 1.0, Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1
T = 3.5 sec., Fundamental Period of Vessel
TL = 12 sec., Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2
Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kip
420 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.13 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 1
Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kip
Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 9 ft
Fa = 1, Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3
Fv = 1.5, Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3
SDS = 1.989, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7
11.4.4
SD1 = 1.415, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7
11.4.4
C s = 0.202, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1
Base Shear Based on Operating Load Condition
V = Cs Operating

wt

= 40.429 kip

Comparison
Table 8-35: Vertical Vessel verification example 12 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Seismic Response Coef0.2021
0.202
none
ficient (C s)
Base Shear Operating
40.429
40.429
none
Case (kip)

8.13 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 1


Vessel Data
Height of Vessel, H = 60 ft
Diameter of Vessel, D = 15 ft
Vessel Time Period, t = 5 sec.
Pedestal height Above Ground = 1 ft
Vessel Frequency, f = 1/t = 0.2 Hz

Wind Parameters
Wind Speed = 80 mph
Wind Directional Factor, Kd = 0.95, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6
Wind Exposure = C
Exposure Case = 2
Topographic Factor, Kzt = 1.0, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.7.2
Importance factor, I = 1.15, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.5
Gust Wind Effect Factor, G = 0.85, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.8
Net Force Coefficient, C f = 1, per ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-20 & 6-21
Verification Manual 421

Chapter 8
8.14 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 2

Velocity Pressure
Exposure Coefficient, Kz, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6
Design Wind Pressure per ASCE 7-05 6.5.10
q = 0.00256 K K V I G C
z

Shear Force on Top of Pier


F=q G C A
z

Moment on Top of Pier


M = F x Moment Arm
Kz
0.849
0.849
0.902
0.945
0.982
1.044
1.094
1.137
1.141

qz
(psf)
15.195
15.195
16.143
16.920
17.582
18.680
19.578
20.344
20.415

A
(ft2)
15
210
75
75
75
150
150
150
15

F (kip)
0.194
2.712
1.029
1.079
1.121
2.382
2.496
2.594
0.260
13.867

M (ft kip)
0.097
21.698
18.010
24.269
30.823
83.823
112.329
142.663
15.748
448.995

Total Shear Force at Top of Pier = 13.867 kip


Total Moment at Top of Pier = 448.995 ft kip

Comparison
Table 8-36: Vertical Vessel verification example 13 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Wind Shear on Top of
13.867
13.867
none
Pier (kip)
Wind Moment of Top of
448.995
448.898
negligible
Pier (ft kip)

8.14 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 2


Vessel Data
Height of Vessel, h = 74 ft
Diameter of Vessel, D = 20 ft
Vessel Time Period, t = 5 sec.
Pedestal height Above Ground = 3 ft

422 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.14 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 2
Vessel Frequency, f = 1/t = 0.2 Hz

Wind Parameters
Wind Speed = 90 mph
Wind Directional Factor, Kd = 0.95, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6
Wind Exposure = D
Exposure Case = 2
Topographic Factor, Kzt = 1.0, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.7.2
Importance factor, I = 1.15, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.5
Gust Wind Effect Factor, G = 0.85, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.8
Net Force Coefficient, C f = 0.8, per ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-20 & 6-21

Velocity Pressure
Exposure Coefficient, Kz, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6
Design Wind Pressure per ASCE 7-05 6.5.10
q = 0.00256 K K V I G C
z

Shear Force on Top of Pier


F=q G C A
z

Moment on Top of Pier


M = F x Moment Arm
Kz
1.030
1.030
1.083
1.126
1.162
1.222
1.270
1.311
1.347
1.369

qz
(psf)
23.339
23.339
24.536
25.507
26.329
27.680
28.775
29.702
30.509
31.019

A
(ft2)
20
280
100
100
100
200
200
200
200
140

F
(kip)
0.317
4.444
1.668
1.734
1.790
3.764
3.913
4.039
4.149
2.953
28.77

M (ft kip)
0.159
35.550
29.198
39.026
49.235
131.756
176.103
222.171
269.700
217.046
1169.945

Total Shear Force at Top of Pier = 28.774 kip


Total Moment at Top of Pier = 1169.945 ft kip

Verification Manual 423

Chapter 8
8.15 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 3

Comparison
Table 8-37: Vertical Vessel verification example 14 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Wind Shear on Top of
28.774
28.774
none
Pier (kip)
Wind Moment of Top of 1169.945
1168.516
0.12
Pier (ft kip)

8.15 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 3


Vessel Data
Height of Vessel = 74 ft
Diameter of Vessel = 20 ft
Vessel Time Period, t = 5 sec.
Pedestal height Above Ground = 3 ft
Vessel Frequency, f = 1/t = 0.2 Hz

Wind Parameters
Wind Speed = 110 mph
Wind Directional Factor, Kd = 0.95, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6
Wind Exposure = B
Exposure Case = 2
Topographic Factor, Kzt = 1.0, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.7.2
Importance factor, I = 1.15, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.5
Gust Wind Effect Factor, G = 0.85, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.8
Net Force Coefficient, C f = 0.8, per ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-20 & 6-21

Velocity Pressure
Exposure Coefficient, Kz, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6
Design Wind Pressure per ASCE 7-05 6.5.10
q = 0.00256 K K V I G C
z

Shear Force on Top of Pier


F=q G C A
z

Moment on Top of Pier


M = F x Moment Arm

424 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.16 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 4

Kz
0.575
0.575
0.624
0.665
0.701
0.761
0.811
0.854
0.892
0.917

qz
(psf)
19.449
19.449
21.115
22.505
23.709
25.740
27.434
28.901
30.203
31.037

A
(ft2)
20
280
100
100
100
200
200
200
200
140

F (kip)
0.265
3.703
1.436
1.530
1.612
3.501
3.731
3.931
4.108
2.955
26.771

M (ft kip)
0.132
29.625
25.127
34.433
44.336
122.522
167.899
216.183
266.993
217.169
1124.42

Total Shear Force at Top of Pier 26.771 kip


Total Moment at Top of Pier = 1124.42 ft kip

Comparison
Table 8-38: Vertical Vessel verification example 15 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Wind Shear on Top of
26.771
26.771
none
Pier (kip)
Wind Moment of Top of
1124.42
1123.23
0.11
Pier (ft kip)

8.16 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 4


Vessel Data
Height of Vessel = 22 ft
Diameter of Vessel = 6 ft
Vessel Time Period, t = 5 sec.
Pedestal height Above Ground = 2 ft
Vessel Frequency, f = 1/t = 0.2 Hz

Wind Parameters
Wind Speed = 110 mph
Wind Directional Factor, Kd = 0.95, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6
Wind Exposure = B
Exposure Case = 2
Topographic Factor, Kzt = 1.0, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.7.2
Importance factor, I = 1.15, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.5
Verification Manual 425

Chapter 8
8.17 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 1
Gust Wind Effect Factor, G = 0.85, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.8
Net Force Coefficient, C f = 0.8, per ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-20 & 6-21

Velocity Pressure
Exposure Coefficient, Kz, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6
Design Wind Pressure per ASCE 7-05 6.5.10
q = 0.00256 K K V I G C
z

Shear Force on Top of Pier


F=q G C A
z

Moment on Top of Pier


M = F x Moment Arm
Kz
0.575
0.575
0.624
0.657

qz
A
(psf) (ft2)
19.449 6
19.449 84
21.115 30
22.245 24

F
(kip)
0.079
1.111
0.431
0.363
1.984

M (ft kip)
0.040
8.888
7.538
7.987
24.452

Total Shear Force at Top of Pier = 1.984 kip


Total Moment at Top of Pier = 24.452 ft kip

Comparison
Table 8-39: Vertical Vessel verification example 16 comparison
Reference STAAD.foundation Percent DifValue of
Result
Result
ference
Wind Shear on Top of
1.984
1.984
none
Pier (kip)
Wind Moment of Top of
24.452
24.293
negligible
Pier (ft kip)

8.17 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 1


Pier Design Philosophy

Vessel Loads
You are provided an option of making both piers identical, engineering and installation
errors can be avoided by doing so. If making them identical does not lead to economical
solution, then check applied load distribution, follow PIP 4.3
Operating Load = 106 kip
Empty Load = 92 kip
Test Load = 118 kip
426 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.17 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 1
A major difference between pier loads is caused by longitudinal seismic load (i.e., when
vessel is located in higher seismic area). Thermal load and bundle pull force also contribute
towards the difference.
Thermal Load = 0 kip
Live Load = 0 kip
Erection Load = 110 kip

Anchor Bold data


Anchor bold dia., Db = 1 in
BP = 0 kip
Bolt spacing = 9 in
Bolt edge dist. = 6 in
center-to-center = 2 in

Horizontal vessel Data


Vessel CG from Top of Pier = 7 ft - 5ft/2 = 4.5 ft
Tan to Tan Length, L = 23.5 ft
CL to CL of AB, Lab = 11 ft

Vertical Load Distribution


Vessel Outer Dim including Insulation = 42 in
% Distribution For Vertical Loads At Fixed End = 40%
% Distribution For Vertical Loads At Sliding End = 60%
CG to Bott of Baseplate = 10 ft
Empty Load at fixed end = 36.8 kip
Operating Load at fixed end = 42.4 kip

Earthquake Loads
Transverse Earthquake Load Operating Condition
Bottom of the Base Plate to HPFS (est) = 10 kip
Longitudinal Earthquake Load Operating Condition = 15 kip
Transverse Earthquake Load Empty Condition = 9 kip
Longitudinal Earthquake Load Empty Condition= 10 kip
X = long
Z = trans

Wind Loads
= 0.4
Verification Manual 427

Chapter 8
8.17 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 1
Transverse Wind Load on Vessel = 10 kip
Longitudinal Wind Load on Vessel = 3.5 kip
Longitudinal Wind Load on Pier = 0.5 kip

PIP Load combinations


Table 8-40: Service level load combinations per PIP
Load
EQ
EQ
W
W
Empty Operating Test Thermal Bundle
Live Erection
Comb.
Trans Long Trans Long
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
3
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
4
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
5
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
7
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
8
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
9
0
0.9
0
0
0
0.7
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
0.9
0
0
0
0
0.7
0
0
0
0
11
0.9
0
0
0
0
0.7
0
0
0
0
0
12
0.9
0
0
0
0
0
0.7
0
0
0
0
13
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
15
0
0
0.83
0
0
0
0
0.415 0
0
0
16
0
0
0.83
0
0
0
0
0
0.415 0
0
17
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Table 8-41: Strength level load combinations per PIP
Load
EQ
EQ
W
W
Empty Operating Test Thermal Bundle
Live Erection
Comb.
Trans Long Trans Long
1
0
1.4
0
1.4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
1.2
0
1.2
0
0
0
0
0
1.6
0
3
0
1.2
0
0
0
0
0
1.6
0
0
0
4
0
1.2
0
0
0
0
0
0
1.6
0
0
5
0
1.2
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
1.2
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
7
0.9
0
0
0
0
0
0
1.6
0
0
0
8
0.9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1.6
0
0
9
0
0.9
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
0.9
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
11
0.9
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
12
0.9
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
13
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1.6
0
0
0.9
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1.6
0
0.9
15
0
0
1.2
0
0
0
0
0.8
0
0
0

428 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.17 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 1

Load
EQ
EQ
W
W
Empty Operating Test Thermal Bundle
Live Erection
Comb.
Trans Long Trans Long
16
0
0
1.2
0
0
0
0
0
0.8
0
0
17
0.9
0
0
0
1.6
0
0
0
0
0
0
Table 8-42: Service level loads applied at the top of the top of the
fixed pier
Axial
Transverse Longitudinal
Load
Longitudinal Transverse
Load
Moment
Moment (ftComb.
Shear (kip) Shear (kip)
(kip)
(ft-kip)
kip)
1
42.4
0
0
0
0
2
42.4
0
0
0
0
3
42.4
0
5
0
0
4
42.4
2.25
0
0
0
5
42.4
0
7
0
0
6
42.4
10.5
0
0
0
7
36.8
0
5
0
0
8
36.8
2.25
0
0
0
9
38.16
0
4.9
0
0
10
38.16
7.35
0
0
0
11
33.12
0
4.41
0
0
12
33.12
4.9
0
0
0
13
44.0
0
5
0
0
14
44.0
2.25
0
0
0
15
39.176
0
2.075
0
0
16
39.176
0.9338
0
0
0
17
36.8
0
0
0
0
Table 8-43: Strength level loads applied at the top of the top of the
fixed pier
Axial
Transverse Longitudinal
Load
Longitudinal Transverse
Load
Moment
Moment (ftComb.
Shear (kip) Shear (kip)
(kip)
(ft-kip)
kip)
1
59.36
0
0
0
0
2
50.88
0
0
0
0
3
50.88
0
4
0
0
4
50.88
3.6
0
0
0
5
50.88
0
7
0
0
6
50.88
10.5
0
0
0
7
33.12
0
4
0
0
8
33.12
3.6
0
0
0
9
38.16
0
7
0
0
10
38.16
10.5
0
0
0
11
33.12
0
6.3
0
0
12
33.12
7
0
0
0
13
39.60
0
4
0
0

Verification Manual 429

Chapter 8
8.18 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 2

Axial
Transverse Longitudinal
Load
Longitudinal Transverse
Load
Moment
Moment (ftComb.
Shear (kip) Shear (kip)
(kip)
(ft-kip)
kip)
14
39.60
3.6
0
0
0
15
56.64
0
2
0
0
16
56.64
1.8
0
0
0
17
33.12
0
0
0
0

Comparison
Hand Calculation results exactly match the results of STAAD.foundation analysis.

8.18 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 2


Pier Design Philosophy

Vessel Loads
You are provided an option of making both piers identical, engineering and installation
errors can be avoided by doing so. If making them identical does not lead to economical
solution, then check applied load distribution, follow PIP 4.3
Operating Load = 150 kip
Empty Load = 100 kip
Test Load = 160 kip
A major difference between pier loads is caused by longitudinal seismic load (i.e., when
vessel is located in higher seismic area). Thermal load and bundle pull force also
contribute towards the difference.
Thermal Load = 0
Bundle Pull Force = 0
Live Load = 0
Erection Load = 110 kip

Anchor Bold data


Anchor bold dia., Db = 1 in
BP = 0 kip
Bolt spacing = 9 in
Bolt edge dist. = 6 in
center-to-center = 2 in

Horizontal vessel Data


Vessel CG from Top of Pier = 7 ft - 6.5ft/2 = 3.75 ft
Tan to Tan Length, L = 23.5 ft

430 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.18 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 2
CL to CL of AB, Lab = 11 ft

Vertical Load Distribution


Vessel Outer Dim including Insulation = 42 in
% Distribution For Vertical Loads At Fixed End = 40%
% Distribution For Vertical Loads At Sliding End = 60%
CG to Bott of Baseplate = 10 ft
Empty Load at fixed end = 40 kip
Operating Load at fixed end = 60 kip

Earthquake Loads
Location Corona 92880
S1 = 0.882, Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with
ASCE 7 11.4.1
SS = 2.296, Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with
ASCE 7 11.4.1
Site Class = D, Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20
R = 1, Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2
I = 1.15, Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1
T = 6 sec., Fundamental Period of Vessel
TL = 12 sec., Long-Period Transition Periods per ASCE 7 12.8.2
Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal = 7 ft +10.416 ft - 5 ft =
fa = , Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3
fv = , Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3
SDS = 1.53, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7
11.4.4
SD1 = 0.882, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7
11.4.4
C S = 0.074, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1
Base Shear Based on Operating Load Condition = 11.029 kip
Base Shear Based on Empty Load Condition = 7.352 kip
Transverse Earthquake Load Operating Condition = 11.029 kip
Longitudinal Earthquake Load Operating Condition
Transverse Earthquake Load Empty Condition= 7.352 kip
Longitudinal Earthquake Load Empty Condition= 7.352 kip

Wind Loads
Transverse Wind Load on Vessel = 10 kip

Verification Manual 431

Chapter 8
8.18 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 2
Bottom of the Base Plate to HPFS (est)
= 0.4
Longitudinal Wind Load on Vessel = 3.5 kip
Longitudinal Wind Load on Pier = 0.5 kip
Transverse Wind Moment at top of pedestal = 20 ft-kip
X = long
Z = trans
Longitudinal Wind Load at top of pedestal = 10 ft-kip

PIP Load combinations


Table 8-44: Service level load combinations per PIP
Load
EQ
EQ
W
W
Empty Operating Test Thermal Bundle
Live Erection
Comb.
Trans Long Trans Long
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
3
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
4
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
5
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
7
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
8
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
9
0
0.9
0
0
0
0.7
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
0.9
0
0
0
0
0.7
0
0
0
0
11
0.9
0
0
0
0
0.7
0
0
0
0
0
12
0.9
0
0
0
0
0
0.7
0
0
0
0
13
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
15
0
0
0.83
0
0
0
0
0.415 0
0
0
16
0
0
0.83
0
0
0
0
0
0.415 0
0
17
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Table 8-45: Strength level load combinations per PIP
Load
EQ
EQ
W
W
Empty Operating Test Thermal Bundle
Live Erection
Comb.
Trans Long Trans Long
1
0
1.4
0
1.4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
1.2
0
1.2
0
0
0
0
0
1.6
0
3
0
1.2
0
0
0
0
0
1.6
0
0
0
4
0
1.2
0
0
0
0
0
0
1.6
0
0
5
0
1.2
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
1.2
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
7
0.9
0
0
0
0
0
0
1.6
0
0
0
8
0.9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1.6
0
0
9
0
0.9
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

432 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 8 Plant Foundation


8.18 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 2

Load
EQ
EQ
W
W
Empty Operating Test Thermal Bundle
Live Erection
Comb.
Trans Long Trans Long
10
0
0.9
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
11
0.9
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
12
0.9
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
13
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1.6
0
0
0.9
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1.6
0
0.9
15
0
0
1.2
0
0
0
0
0.8
0
0
0
16
0
0
1.2
0
0
0
0
0
0.8
0
0
17
0.9
0
0
0
1.6
0
0
0
0
0
0
Table 8-46: Service level loads applied at the top of the top of the
fixed pier
Axial
Transverse Longitudinal
Load
Longitudinal Transverse
Load
Moment
Moment (ftComb.
Shear (kip) Shear (kip)
(kip)
(ft-kip)
kip)
1
60
0
0
0
0
2
60
0
0
0
0
3
60
0
2.5
5
0
4
60
1.125
0
0
10
5
60
0
5.404
20.27
0
6
60
5.404
0
0
20.27
7
40
0
2.5
5
0
8
40
1.125
0
0
10
9
54
0
3.783
14.19
0
10
54
3.783
0
0
14.19
11
36
0
2.522
9.457
0
12
36
2.522
0
0
9.457
13
44
0
2.5
5
0
14
44
1.125
0
0
10
15
53.12
0
1.038
2.075
0
16
53.12
0.467
0
0
4.150
17
40
0
0
0
0

Table 8-47: Strength level loads applied at the top of the top of the
fixed pier
Axial
Transverse Longitudinal
Load
Longitudinal Transverse
Load
Moment
Moment (ftComb.
Shear (kip) Shear (kip)
(kip)
(ft-kip)
kip)
1
84
0
0
0
0
2
72
0
0
0
0
3
72
0
4
8
0
4
72
1.8
0
0
16
5
72
0
5.404
20.27
0
6
72
5.404
0
0
20.27

Verification Manual 433

Chapter 8
8.18 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 2

Axial
Transverse Longitudinal
Load
Longitudinal Transverse
Load
Moment
Moment (ftComb.
Shear (kip) Shear (kip)
(kip)
(ft-kip)
kip)
7
36
0
4
8
0
8
36
1.8
0
0
16
9
54
0
5.404
20.27
0
10
54
5.404
0
0
20.27
11
36
0
3.602
13.509
0
12
36
3.602
0
0
13.509
13
39.6
0
4
8
0
14
39.6
1.8
0
0
16
15
76.8
0
2
4
0
16
76.8
0.9
0
0
8
17
36
0
0
0
0

Comparison
Hand Calculation results exactly match the results of STAAD.foundation analysis.

434 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

Section 9

Technical Support
These resources are provided to help you answer support questions:
l

Service Ticket Manager http://www.bentley.com/serviceticketmanager Create


and track a service ticket using Bentley Systems' online site for reporting problems or
suggesting new features. You do not need to be a Bentley SELECT member to use
Service Ticket Manager, however you do need to register as a user.

Knowledge Base http://appsnet.bentley.com/kbase/ Search the Bentley Systems


knowledge base for solutions for common problems.

FAQs and TechNotes http://communities.bentley.com/Products/Structural/Structural_Analysis___


Design/w/Structural_Analysis_and_Design__Wiki/structural-product-technotesand-faqs.aspx Here you can find detailed resolutions and answers to the most common questions posted to us by you.

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Post questions in the BeCommunity forums to receive help and advice from fellow
users.

Verification Manual 435

Chapter 9

436 (Undefined variable: Primary.ProductName)

D
Deadman Anchors

321

Drilled Pier

357
E

Eccentricity

88
I

Index

Indian Code

125

IS 456

125
P

Plant Foundation

385

A
ACI 318

201, 321

AS3600

Australian

General Combined Footing


General Isolated Footing

14,
16

U
United States Code

201

V
Vertical Vessel Foundation 1

385

3, 6

B
British
Combined Foundation
Isolated Foundation

71, 77

23, 26, 32,


38, 44, 53,
62, 88

Mat Combined Foundation

83

British Code

23

BS8110

23
C

Canadian Code

99

CSA A23.3

99

Verification Manual 437

List of Figures & Tables


Figures
Figure 1-1: Australian code General isolated foundation

Figure 1-2: Plan and Elevation

Figure 1-3: Plan and Elevation

15

Figure 1-4: Plan and Elevation

17

Figure 1-5: Graphs of combined strip footing internal forces

20

Figure 2-1: Bending section considered

24

Figure 2-2: One way shear section considered

24

Figure 2-3: Two way shear section considered

24

Figure 2-4: Plan and Elevation

27

Figure 2-5: Sections considered for bending in both directions

28

Figure 2-6: Sections considered for one-way shear in both directions

30

Figure 2-7: Section considered for punching shear

31

Figure 2-8: Plan and Elevation

33

Figure 2-9: Section considered for bending about the Z axis

47

Figure 2-10: Section considered for bending about the Z axis

48

Figure 2-11: Section considered for one-way shear along X direction

50

Figure 2-12: Section considered for one-way shear along z direction

51

Figure 2-13: Section considered for punching shear

52

Figure 2-14: Plan and Elevation

63

Figure 2-15: Section considered for punching shear

69

Verification Manual 439

Chapter 11
Figures

Figure 2-16: Plan and Elevation

72

Figure 2-17: Shear force and Bending Moment diagrams

76

Figure 2-18: Plan and Elevation

78

Figure 2-19: Shear force and Bending Moment diagrams

82

Figure 2-20: Plan and Elevation

84

Figure 2-21: Plan and Elevation

89

Figure 2-22: Bending about major axes

91

Figure 3-1: Plan and Elevation

100

Figure 3-2: Plan and Elevation

106

Figure 3-3: Plan and Elevation

113

Figure 3-4: Elevation and Plan, with dimension and loads

116

Figure 3-5: Bending sections considered

117

Figure 3-6: Shear sections considered

119

Figure 3-7: Two-way shear sections considered

120

Figure 3-8: Plan and Elevation

123

Figure 4-1: Plan and Elevation

126

Figure 4-2: Plan of Reinforcement

128

Figure 4-3: Cross Section showing Reinforcement

129

Figure 4-4: Plan and Elevation

130

Figure 4-5: Elevation and Plan showing reinforcement design

132

Figure 4-6: Plan and Elevation

134

Figure 4-7: Plan and Elevation

139

Figure 4-8: Plan and Elevation

141

Figure 4-9: Plan and Elevation

146

Figure 4-10: Plan and Elevation

151

Figure 4-11: Final Plan Dimensions

158

Figure 4-12: Plan and Elevation

159

Figure 4-13: Dimension, Moment, and Shear and diagrams

162

Figure 4-14: Plan and Elevation

165

Figure 4-15: ShearForce andBending Momentdiagrams

169

Figure 4-16: Plan and Elevation

171

Figure 4-17: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

174

Figure 4-18: Plan and Elevation

177

Figure 4-19: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

181

Figure 4-20: Plan and Elevation

183

440 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

List of Figures & Tables


Figures

Figure 4-21: Plan, Elevation, and Pedestal dimensions

189

Figure 4-22: Footing Plan

197

Figure 4-23: >Loads on Footing

197

Figure 4-24: Shear Force (kN, top) and Bending Moment (kNm, bottom) diagrams

199

Figure 5-1: Elevation and loads

202

Figure 5-2: Considered sections for two-way (bo) and beam (bw) action

203

Figure 5-3: Critical section for moment (long projection)

204

Figure 5-4: Elevation and Plan

207

Figure 5-5: Elevation and Plan

211

Figure 5-6: Elevation and Plan

216

Figure 5-7: Section considered for two-way shear

218

Figure 5-8: Elevation and Plan

221

Figure 5-9: Elevation and Plan

230

Figure 5-10: Elevation and Plan

234

Figure 5-11: Corner pressure values on plan for punching shear

236

Figure 5-12: One-way shear pressure values along x-direction

237

Figure 5-13: One-way shear pressure values along z-direction

238

Figure 5-14: Bending pressure about Z axis

239

Figure 5-15: Bending pressure about X axis

239

Figure 5-16: Elevation and Plan

241

Figure 5-17: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

243

Figure 5-18: Elevation and Plan

247

Figure 5-19: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

252

Figure 5-20: Elevation and Plan

254

Figure 5-21: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

255

Figure 5-22: Elevation and Plan

259

Figure 5-23: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

261

Figure 5-24: Elevation and Plan

265

Figure 5-25: Section considered for punching shear

267

Figure 5-26: Elevation and Plan

272

Figure 5-27: Section considered for two-way shear

274

Figure 5-28: Section considered for one-way shear

276

Figure 5-29: Section considered for bending

278

Figure 5-30: Elevation and Plan

281

Figure 5-31: Section considered for punching shear

282
Verification Manual 441

Chapter 11
Figures

Figure 5-32: Section considered for one-way shear

283

Figure 5-33: Section considered for moment

285

Figure 5-34: Elevation and Plan

288

Figure 5-35: Section considered for punching shear

290

Figure 5-36: Section considered for one-way shear

291

Figure 5-37: Section considered for moment

293

Figure 5-38: Elevation and dimensions

296

Figure 5-39: Forces on foundation

298

Figure 5-40: Shear and Bending diagrams

298

Figure 5-41: Plan and Elevation

303

Figure 5-42: Critical section for punching shear is at d/2

305

Figure 5-43: Critical section for moment is at the face of column

307

Figure 5-44: Plan and Elevation

313

Figure 5-45: Critical section for punching shear at d/2

315

Figure 6-1: Deadman Anchor Guy Tension Block section

324

Figure 6-2: Dispersion of soil against vertical uplift diagram

325

Figure 6-3: Dispersion line diagram

326

Figure 6-4: Top rebar force diagram

328

Figure 6-5: Bending moment diagram - top

328

Figure 6-6: Bending moment diagram - front face

329

Figure 6-7: Deadman Anchor Guy Tension Block section

331

Figure 6-8: Dispersion of soil against vertical uplift

333

Figure 6-9: Top rebar force diagram

336

Figure 6-10: Bending moment diagram - top

336

Figure 6-11: Bending moment diagram - front face

337

Figure 6-12: Deadman Anchor Guy Tension Block section

341

Figure 6-13: Dispersion of soil against vertical uplift diagram

342

Figure 6-14: Dispersion line diagram

344

Figure 6-15: Top rebar force diagram

345

Figure 6-16: Bending moment diagram - top

346

Figure 6-17: Bending moment diagram - front face

346

Figure 6-18: Deadman Anchor Guy Tension Block section

348

Figure 6-19: Dispersion of soil against vertical uplift diagram

350

Figure 6-20: Top rebar force diagram

353

Figure 6-21: Bending moment diagram - top

353

442 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

List of Figures & Tables


Tables

Figure 6-22: Bending moment diagram - front face

354

Figure 7-1: Pier Elevation

358

Figure 7-2: Pier Elevation

363

Figure 7-3: Pier Elevation

368

Figure 7-4: Pier Elevation

372

Figure 7-5: Pier Elevation

377

Figure 7-6: Pier Elevation

382

Figure 8-1: Tank and foundation elevation

386

Figure 8-2: Anchor bolt plan

386

Figure 8-3: One-way shear dimensions

392

Figure 8-4: Two-way shear check

392

Figure 8-5: Tank and foundation elevation

395

Figure 8-6: Anchor bolt plan

395

Figure 8-7: One-way shear dimensions

401

Figure 8-8: Two-way shear check

401

Figure 8-9: Tank and foundation elevation

404

Figure 8-10: Anchor bolt plan

404

Figure 8-11: One-way shear dimensions

410

Figure 8-12: Two-way shear check

410

Tables
Table 1-1: Australian verification example 1 comparison

Table 1-2: Australian verification example 2 comparison

14

Table 1-3: Australian verification example 3 comparison

16

Table 1-4: Australian verification example 4 comparison

22

Table 2-1: British verification example 1 comparison

26

Table 2-2: Table BS2.1 - Column loads

26

Table 2-3: British verification example 2 comparison

32

Table 2-4: British verification example 3 comparison

38

Table 2-5: British verification example 4 comparison

44

Table 2-6: British verification example 5 comparison

53

Table 2-7: British verification example 6 comparison

62

Table 2-8: British verification example 7 comparison

71

Table 2-9: British verification example 8 comparison

77

Table 2-10: British verification example 9 comparison

83
Verification Manual 443

Chapter 11
Tables

Table 2-11: British verification example 10 comparison

88

Table 2-12: British verification example 13 comparisons

98

Table 3-1: CSAverification example 1 comparison

105

Table 3-2: CSA verification example 2 comparison

112

Table 3-3: CSA verification example 3 comparison

115

Table 3-4: CSA verification example 5 comparison

122

Table 3-5: CSA verification example 5 comparison

124

Table 4-1: IS verification example 1 comparison

129

Table 4-2: IS verification example 2 comparison

133

Table 4-3: IS verification example 3 comparison

138

Table 4-4: IS verification example 4 comparison

140

Table 4-5: IS verification example 5 comparison

145

Table 4-6: IS verification example 6 comparison

150

Table 4-7: IS verification example 7 comparison

158

Table 4-8: IS verification example 8 comparison

164

Table 4-9: IS verification example 9 comparison

170

Table 4-10: IS verification example 10 comparison

176

Table 4-11: IS verification example 11 comparison

182

Table 4-12: Pile Locations in Plan

183

Table 4-13: IS verification example 12 comparison

188

Table 4-14: Pile Coordinates in Plan

190

Table 4-15: IS verification example 13 comparison

196

Table 4-16: IS verification example 14 comparison

199

Table 5-1: US verification example 1 comparison

206

Table 5-2: US verification example 2 comparison

210

Table 5-3: US verification example 3 comparison

215

Table 5-4: US verification example 4 comparison

220

Table 5-5: US verification example 5 comparison

229

Table 5-6: US verification example 6 comparison

233

Table 5-7: US Verification problem 9 comparison

240

Table 5-8: US verification example 7 comparison

246

Table 5-9: US verification example 8 comparison

253

Table 5-10: US verification example 7 comparison

258

Table 5-11: US verification example 7 comparison

264

Table 5-12: Pile Coordinates in Plan

266

444 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

List of Figures & Tables


Tables

Table 5-13: US verification example 10 comparison

271

Table 5-14: Pile Coordinates in Plan

273

Table 5-15: US verification example 11 comparison

280

Table 5-16: Pile Coordinates in Plan

281

Table 5-17: US verification example 11 comparison

287

Table 5-18: Pile Coordinates in Plan

289

Table 5-19: US verification example 13 comparison

295

Table 5-20: US verification example 12 comparison

302

Table 5-21: US verification example 14 comparison

311

Table 5-22: US verification example 15 comparison

320

Table 6-1: Soil Test Report Summary

322

Table 6-2: Deadman Anchor (US)verification example 1 comparison

330

Table 6-3: Soil test report summary

331

Table 6-4: Soil layers

334

Table 6-5: Deadman Anchor (US)verification example 2 comparison

338

Table 6-6: Soil test report summary

339

Table 6-7: Soil layers

342

Table 6-8: Deadman Anchor (US)verification example 3 comparison

347

Table 6-9: Soil layers

348

Table 6-10: Deadman Anchor (US)verification example 4 comparison

355

Table 7-1: Drilled Pier (API) verification example 1 comparison

361

Table 7-2: Drilled Pier (API) verification example 2 comparison

366

Table 7-3: Drilled Pier (FHWA) verification example 3 comparison

371

Table 7-4: Drilled Pier (FHWA) verification example 4 comparison

375

Table 7-5: Drilled Pier (Vesic) verification example 5 comparison

380

Table 7-6: Drilled Pier (Vesic) verification example 6 comparison

384

Table 8-1: Primary load description

387

Table 8-2: Wind loads

388

Table 8-3: Applied Load Combinations - Allowable Stress Level

389

Table 8-4: Applied Load Combinations - Strength Level

389

Table 8-5: Applied Load at Top of Pedestal - Allowable Stress Level

389

Table 8-6: Applied Load at Top of Pedestal - Strength Level

390

Table 8-7: Stability Ratio

391

Table 8-8: Soil Bearing Check

391

Table 8-9: Vertical Vessel verification example 1 comparison

394

Verification Manual 445

Chapter 11
Tables

Table 8-10: Primary load description

396

Table 8-11: Wind loads

397

Table 8-12: Applied Load Combination - Allowable Stress Level

398

Table 8-13: Applied Load Combination - Strength Level

398

Table 8-14: Applied Load at Top of Pedestal - Allowable Stress Level

398

Table 8-15: Applied Load at Top of Pedestal - Strength Level

399

Table 8-16: Stability Ratio

400

Table 8-17: Vertical Vessel verification example 2 comparison

403

Table 8-18: Primary load description

405

Table 8-19: Wind loads

406

Table 8-20: Applied Load Combination - Allowable Stress Level

407

Table 8-21: Applied Load Combination - Strength Level

407

Table 8-22: Applied Load at Top of Pedestal - Allowable Stress Level

407

Table 8-23: Applied Load at Top of Pedestal - Strength Level

408

Table 8-24: Stability Ratio

409

Table 8-25: Soil Bearing Check

409

Table 8-26: Vertical Vessel verification example 3 comparison

412

Table 8-27: Vertical Vessel verification example 4 comparison

413

Table 8-28: Vertical Vessel verification example 5 comparison

414

Table 8-29: Vertical Vessel verification example 6 comparison

415

Table 8-30: Vertical Vessel verification example 7 comparison

416

Table 8-31: Vertical Vessel verification example 8 comparison

417

Table 8-32: Vertical Vessel verification example 9 comparison

418

Table 8-33: Vertical Vessel verification example 10 comparison

419

Table 8-34: Vertical Vessel verification example 11 comparison

420

Table 8-35: Vertical Vessel verification example 12 comparison

421

Table 8-36: Vertical Vessel verification example 13 comparison

422

Table 8-37: Vertical Vessel verification example 14 comparison

424

Table 8-38: Vertical Vessel verification example 15 comparison

425

Table 8-39: Vertical Vessel verification example 16 comparison

426

Table 8-40: Service level load combinations per PIP

428

Table 8-41: Strength level load combinations per PIP

428

Table 8-42: Service level loads applied at the top of the top of the fixed pier

429

Table 8-43: Strength level loads applied at the top of the top of the fixed pier

429

Table 8-44: Service level load combinations per PIP

432

446 STAAD.foundation V8i (SELECTseries 4)

List of Figures & Tables


Tables

Table 8-45: Strength level load combinations per PIP

432

Table 8-46: Service level loads applied at the top of the top of the fixed pier

433

Table 8-47: Strength level loads applied at the top of the top of the fixed pier

433

Verification Manual 447

Chapter 11
Tables

448 (Undefined variable: Primary.ProductName)

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