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Department of Civil Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad

Structural Analysis Laboratory Manual


Aim of the experiment: To determine the elastic displacement of the curved members experimentally and
verification of the same by theoretical results.
Apparatus required: Various curved members, viz. quadrant of a circle, semicircle with straight arm,
quadrant of a circle with straight arm and circle, dial gauge, weights, scale and etc.
Theory: Castigliano's first theorem is used to find the elastic displacements of curved members. Theorem states
that the partial derivative of the total strain energy of a linearly elastic structure expressed in terms of
displacements with respect to any displacement j at coordinate j is equal to the force Pj at coordinate j. The
theorem may be expressed symbolically as
U
= Pj
Dj
In all cases the horizontal DB,horizontal and vertical deflection DB,vertical due to vertical load W are to be determined.
These deflections are obtained by using Castigliano's first theorem where strain energy due to bending only is
taken into account. The results obtained for the four curved members is given as below a) Quadrant of a circle
Fixed at A and free at B (having radius R) and subjected to a concentrated load W at free end.
B
W
R

A
Figure 1.a
Vertical displacement of load = DB, vertical =

pWR 3
4 EI

Horizontal displacement of load = DB, horizontal =

WR 3
2 EI

b) Semicircle with straight arm


From A to B is a semi circle of radius R, B to C is a straight length of y
W
B

C
y

A
Figure 1.b

Vertical displacement of loaded point C


D C, vertical =

W
[ 2 y 3 + 3R ( 2py 2 + 8 y R + pR 2 )]
6 EI

Horizontal displacements of loaded point C = D C, horizontal =

WR 2
(py + 2R )
EI

c) Quadrant with a straight leg


From A to B is a quadrant of a circle of radius R and from B to C, straight length of y.
A
W
R

B
y
C
Figure 1.c

Vertical displacement of load point A = DA, vertical =

Horizontal displacement of load point A = DA, horizontal =

d) Circle of radius R

pWR 3
4 EI

WR 2 y
EI

WR
(R + y) 2
2 EI

W
B
R

A
Figure 1.d
Vertical displacement of loaded point B = DB, vertical

WR 3 2
=
(p - 8)
4pEI

Procedure:
1. Place a load on the hanger to activate the member and treat this as the initial position for measuring
deflections.
2. Fix the dial gauges for measuring horizontal and vertical deflections.
3. Place the additional loads at the steps mentioned in the table below for each case and tabulate the
values of dial gauge reading against the applied loads.
4. Plot the graph load Vs deflection for each case to show that the structure remains within the elastic
limit.
5. Measure the value of R and straight length in each case. Find width and depth of steel section and
calculate the value of I as bd 3/12.
Observations and table:
Width of section (mm) b
=
Depth of section (mm) d
=
bd 3
Least moment of inertia
=
12
2
E (N/mm )
= 2 x 106.
(a)

Quadrant of a circle
Sl.
No.

(b)

Dial gauge reading (mm)


Additional
load (kg)
Horizontal
Vertical
direction
direction

Deflection (mm)
Horizontal Vertical
direction
direction

Quadrant with Straight leg


Sl.
No.

Dial gauge reading (mm)


Additional
load (kg)
Horizontal
Vertical
direction
direction

Deflection (mm)
Horizontal Vertical
direction
direction

(c)

(d)

Semi-circle with straight leg


Dial gauge reading (mm)
Additional
load (kg)
Horizontal
Vertical
direction
direction

Deflection (mm)

Sl.
No.

Dial gauge reading (mm)


Additional
load (kg)
Horizontal
Vertical
direction
direction

Deflection (mm)

Sl.
No.

Horizontal Vertical
direction
direction

Circle

Results:

Horizontal Vertical
direction
direction