You are on page 1of 19

ICT DEPARTMENT

A2 WJEC ICT

4.3.6 Database Systems


This document contains questions and associated marking schemes from previous examination
papers provided by the WJEC examination board.
Details
Question
[17

Summer 12 Question Paper, Questions 15 - 18


15. Explain what is meant by a relational database. [2]
16. A DVD Rental Company uses a relational database management system for
organising its lending. For simplicity, a person may only borrow one DVD at

marks]

a time.
Part of one table in the DVD Rental Company database could be:
BORROWER [BorrowerID, FirstName, Surname, Borrower Type,
Address1, ........] with BorrowerID being the primary key.
Give two other suitable tables you could expect to see in this database,
identifying any primary and foreign keys. [7]
17. Relational databases are normalised to work effectively. Explain what is
meant by the term data normalisation. [2]
18. Some companies now use distributed databases. Explain what is meant by
the term distributed databases and explain their advantages and
Answer

disadvantages. [6]
Question 15
Suitable definition of a relational database, such as:
A (large) collection of data items and links/relationships between them (1)
structured in such a way that it allows it to be accessed by a number of different
applications programs (1)
OR
A group of tables linked together (1) by primary and foreign keys (1).
Question 16
DVD [DVDID, Title, Genre, Classification, ..]
LOAN [LoanID, DVDID*, BorrowerID*, DateOut, ReturnDate]
Where underscore = primary key and *=foreign key
1 mark per table name = 2
1 mark per primary key = 2
1 mark for two foreign keys = 1 (If key duplicated - no mark)
1 mark per table for 2 extra fields = 2
Question 17
Suitable definition of data normalisation, such as:
A staged (mathematical) process (1) which removes repeated groups of data and
inconsistencies. (1)
Or
Simplifying data structures (1) so that attributes in each table only relate to the
entity. (1)

DATE: 21/01/2015

PAGE 1 OF 19

ICT DEPARTMENT

A2 WJEC ICT

4.3.6 Database Systems


Marks can be gained by using an example of the process of going from first to third
form.
Do NOT accept advantages of databases
Question 18
2 marks for definition and 4 for advantages / disadvantages
A distributed database is a single database that is under the control of a DBMS
where the storage devices are not all attached to a common processor (1). Instead
the data is stored in storage devices attached to multiple computers usually
located across a network (1).
Or
A distributed database has data stored on a number of computers at different
locations (1) but appears as one logical database (1).
1 mark each for any four points but must have at least one advantage and one
disadvantage
Must be in context of a company
Advantages
If data lost on central site it could be reduplicated from local site
Allows sharing of the data and the results of processing the data
New locations can be added to the database without the need for rewriting

the entire database


Faster response to user queries of the database
Non-dependence on one central huge store of data
Easy to backup and copy data from one server to another
If one server fails then the other servers can be used
Reduces network traffic as local queries can be performed using the data on
the local server.

Disadvantages
Software more complex than a centralised database system
If data is transferred it presents more of a security risk from hackers
As all the data is not stored in one location if a local site does not have
adequate backup then this data might be lost to others
If data is stored and updated in more than one place there is an increased
chance of data inconsistency
Heavy reliance on networks and communications which may not always be
reliable
Security issues particularly if sensitive personal data is being transferred
If one of the links to a server failed then the data could not be obtained
from that server
Increased costs owing to the use of expensive communication lines. NOT
Details
Question

just costs.
January 12 Question Paper, Questions 17 - 21
Many companies would now struggle to operate effectively without database

DATE: 21/01/2015

PAGE 2 OF 19

ICT DEPARTMENT

A2 WJEC ICT

4.3.6 Database Systems


[17

technology.

marks]

17. Explain what is meant by a relational database. [2]


18. Using appropriate examples, describe the advantages of a relational
database approach over a flat file approach. [6]
19. Describe what a data warehouse is and give an example of how a company
might use it. [3]
20. Explain what is meant by data mining and give a detailed example of how a
company might use it. [3]
21. Discuss in general terms, the advantages and disadvantages distributed

Answer

databases give to a company. [3]


Question 17
A relational database is a large collection of data items/tables and links between
them (1 mark) Plus either of the following for second mark
structured in such a way that allows it to be accessed by a number of
different applications programs
use of primary and foreign keys.
Question 18
Description of any three of the following with an example/extension 3x2
1 mark for a list of all 3 terms (if nothing else).
If the term isnt fully there do not penalise if description is right
Hierarchy of passwords limits users to various parts of the program. A
receptionist would only have access to basic patient details whilst a doctor would
see all information on the patient.
Access rights to parts of the program only certain users can access and change
data. A nurse would see all the information on a patient but be unable to alter the
drug dose details whilst a doctor could.
Consistency - Data consistency is the relationship between the input data, the
processed data and the output data as well as other related data. If the system is
working properly the data will be correct at each stage and is said to be consistent.
OR
Data consistency is using one file to hold a central pool of data. A company may
hold all its customer data in one file. This avoids the need to input data twice so
that if data is changed in one file it wont need to be changed in another and
remains consistent.
OR
Data being inconsistent in a flat file due to possibility of different formats etc and
being consistent in a RDBMS as each record is only stored once so cannot have
different attributes.
Redundancy - Data redundancy is where you store an item of data more than
once / A company may hold its data in different files. This is wasteful because some

DATE: 21/01/2015

PAGE 3 OF 19

ICT DEPARTMENT

A2 WJEC ICT

4.3.6 Database Systems


data may need to be input twice and if data is changed in one it will need to be
changed in the other. / Data which is repeated unnecessarily is called redundant
data.
Independence - Data independence the data and the applications/programs
used to access it are independent/separate. / New applications can be developed
to access the data without changing the data.
New systems can still use existing data.
Question 19
1 mark for description involving: Large, Archive and used for Decision Making
Look for 2 of these 3
A large company generates huge quantities of data stored in a consistent
order to make interrogation more productive.(1)
Data is non-volatile and time invariant (archive data).Used to support
organisational decision making.(1)
Up to two marks for an example of use
Examples for one mark

Allows the company to store information about every sale. (1)


Allows the company to see who has bought what items and when. (1)
Can use it to plan future changes or developments in their business. (1)
Allows the company to use data mining. (1)
Allows the company to find the most popular product and buy more (1)

Example for two marks


Allows the company to see who has bought what items (and why) and then
target them with special offers
Question 20
One mark for the meaning
Data mining is interrogating the data to find patterns in the data which is
stored in the warehouse.
Up to two marks for example of use
Look for the idea of trends, patterns or generating new information
is the analysis of a large amount of data in a data warehouse to provide new
information.
Is interrogating large amounts of data
is a speculative process investigating potential patterns
involves the presumption that dormant within the data are undiscovered
patterns / groupings / sequences / associations.
software uses complex algorithms to search for patterns.
is drilling down into the mass of data so users can understand it more /
DATE: 21/01/2015

PAGE 4 OF 19

ICT DEPARTMENT

A2 WJEC ICT

4.3.6 Database Systems


discover meaningful patterns.
Is looking for meaningful patterns in a large mass of data and presenting
results in tables and graphs.
Examples worth 1 mark:
Can provide:
the company with a list of customers likely to buy a certain product, which

they can then use to target with a mail shot.


comparisons with competitors
useful what if results from modelling exercises
predictions for future sales
analysis of best sites for shops
analysis of sales patterns
returned information can be tested for plausibility.
data if of value can be processed into a report to help decision making.

Examples worth 2 marks:


Fighting shoplifting in clothing stores Jaeger used DM to look at
transactions and position of item in store found even with tags most items
stolen near doors led to increased CCTV, more prosecutions and recovery
of goods.
Identification of customer needs Virgin Media use DM to segment and
target customers most likely to buy new services or upgrades.
Could allow company to find a previously unknown relationship between
regions of the country and food preferences and they can then target special
promotions.
The difference here is that the why will refer to a new connection between the data
or a new
Conclusion
Question 21
1 mark each for any three points but must have at least one advantage and one
disadvantage
Must be in context of a company
Advantages
If data lost on central site it could be reduplicated from local site
Allows sharing of the data and the results of processing the data
New locations can be added to the database without the need for rewriting
the entire
database
Faster response to user queries of the database
Non-dependence on one central huge store of data
Easy to backup and copy data from one server to another
DATE: 21/01/2015

PAGE 5 OF 19

ICT DEPARTMENT

A2 WJEC ICT

4.3.6 Database Systems


If one server fails then the other servers can be used
Reduces network traffic as local queries can be performed using the data on
the local server.
Disadvantages
Software more complex than a centralised database system
If data is transferred it presents more of a security risk from hackers
As all the data is not stored in one location if a local site does not have
adequate backup then this data might be lost to others.
If data is stored and updated in more than one place there is an increased
chance of data inconsistency.
Heavy reliance on networks and communications which may not always be
reliable
Security issues particularly if sensitive personal data is being transferred
If one of the links to a server failed then the data could not be obtained

Details
Question

from that server


Increased costs owing to the use of expensive communication lines.
Summer 11 Question Paper, Questions 17 - 21
A public library in a large town uses a relational database for their book lending

[18

system. When a borrower takes out a book, the loan is recorded.

marks]

Relational databases hold the data in a number of tables. In this library system
there is a table for Borrower, which is partially shown below:
BORROWER [BorrowerID, Surname, Firstname, ....] where BorrowerID is the primary
key.
17. Explain what is meant by a primary key and a foreign key. [2]
18. Give two other suitable tables, you would expect to see in this library loan
system, identifying any primary or foreign keys. [7]
19. Give three reasons why relational databases are more secure than the flat
file approach. [3]
The Councils library service uses a data warehouse to hold details about all library
loans throughout its area. Holding this large central store of data allows the library
staff to use data mining.
20. Describe what is meant by a data warehouse and explain the advantages it
might give the library service. [3]
21. Explain what is meant by data mining and give an example of how the

Answer

library staff might use it. [3]


Question 17
A primary key is unique and used to identify a record/table. / and other fields
depend on it. [1]
A foreign key is a field of one table which is also the primary key of another table /
used to establish relationships/links between tables. [1]

DATE: 21/01/2015

PAGE 6 OF 19

ICT DEPARTMENT

A2 WJEC ICT

4.3.6 Database Systems


Question 18
2 x (1 mark table name, 1 mark for primary key field, 1 mark for foreign key) and 1
mark for 2 other fields in each table
BOOK [BookNo, Title, Author, Genre, ISBN, etc]
LOAN [LoanID, BorrowerID#, BookNo#, StartDate, Length, etc]
Where underlined are primary keys and # are foreign keys
If candidates have produced a fully working real solution using more than three
tables full marks can still be awarded.
Question 19
Hierarchy of passwords -- passwords to see separate parts [1]
Storage of data separate to programs [1]
Access rights to parts of the program. [1]
Question 20
Large, Archive and used for Decision Making Look for two of these three (1
mark)
Data warehouse refers to large amounts of data which are stored together, usually
in a single location, for further processing (a huge database specifically structured
for information access and reporting) (1)
or
A database used to store an organisations historical data which is used by a MIS to
extract information to help managers make decisions. (1)
Advantages
Allows the council to store information about every book. (1)
Allows the council to see who has borrowed books and when. (1)
Can use it to plan future changes or developments in their library system.
(1)
Allows the library system to use data mining. (1)
Speeds up searching at the local library. (1)
Allows the library to find the most popular book and buy more (1)
Question 21
Look for the idea of trends, patterns or generating new information
Example definitions (1)
is the analysis of a large amount of data in a data warehouse to provide new
information.
Is interrogating large amounts of data
DATE: 21/01/2015

PAGE 7 OF 19

ICT DEPARTMENT

A2 WJEC ICT

4.3.6 Database Systems


is a speculative process investigating potential patterns
involves the presumption that dormant within the data are undiscovered
patterns / groupings / sequences / associations.
software uses complex algorithms to search for patterns.
is drilling down into the mass of data so users can understand it more /
discover meaningful patterns.
Is looking for meaningful patterns in a large mass of data and presenting
results in tables and graphs.
Example up to two marks: what (1) and why (1) e.g.
Librarians can gather information about the lending habit of individual

Details
Question

members (1)
use this to plan future acquisitions of books or videos (1)
use this to change opening hours, etc (1)
Look at book lending habits of particular branches (1)
to determine future purchases (1)
January 11 Question Paper, Questions 19-25
Relational databases are becoming increasingly important to all organisations that

[20

handle data.

marks]

Explain what is meant by each of the following terms:


19. data consistency,
20. data redundancy,
21. data integrity,
22. data independence. [4]
23. A village sports club uses a database management system to operate a
membership and fixture system. Members normally register for more than
one sport. Fixtures against other villages are arranged in a wide variety of
sports involving a large number of teams.
One table in this database could be:
SPORT[Sportid, Sport name, Home venue] with Sportid being the primary
key.
Give two other suitable tables you could expect to see in this database,
identifying any primary or foreign keys. [8]
A commercial company uses a data warehouse to hold details about customers and
their purchases.
24. Describe what a data warehouse is and explain the advantages it gives this
company.[5]
25. Explain what is meant by data mining and give an example of how the

Answer
Details
Question
[17
marks]

company might use it. [3]


No mark scheme available
Summer 10 Question Paper, Question 10
A. A hospital uses a relational database management system for storing
patient records. Staff and patients are allocated to wards.
1. Explain what is meant by the term data normalisation. [2]
2. One table in this database could be:

DATE: 21/01/2015

PAGE 8 OF 19

ICT DEPARTMENT

A2 WJEC ICT

4.3.6 Database Systems


STAFF (Staff Id, Name, Contact no, Ward no) with Staff Id being the
primary key and Ward no the foreign key.
Give two other suitable tables you could expect to see in this database,
identifying any primary or foreign keys. [6]
3. Explain why relational databases are more secure than a flat file
approach for storing patient records. [2]
B. Most Health authorities now use distributed databases. Explain what is
meant by the term distributed database and discuss their advantages and
Answer

disadvantages. [7]
Section A
1. Suitable definition of data normalisation, such as:
A staged (mathematical) process (1) which removes repeated groups of
data and inconsistencies. (1) Or Simplifying data structures (1) so that
attributes in each table only relate to the entity. (1)
2. WARD( Ward no, NumberOfBeds, StaffId)
PATIENT ( Patient no, Name, illness, admission date, consultant, address,
contact, Ward no)
Marking award one mark for each table name, one mark for each primary
key field, one mark for both foreign keys and one mark for two other
relevant fields.
3. Explanation involving any two relevant reasons:
Hierarchy of passwords
Storage of data separate to programs
Access rights to parts of the program
Section B
2 marks for definition and 5 for advantages / disadvantages
(Must to have at least two of each)
A distributed database is a single database that is under the control of a DBMS
where the storage devices are not all attached to a common processor. Instead the
data is stored in storage devices attached to multiple computers usually located
across a network.
Or
A distributed database has data stored on a number of computers at different
locations but appears as one logical database.
Advantages:

Faster response to user queries of the database


Non-dependence on one central huge store of data
Easy to backup and copy data from one server to another
If one server fails then the other servers can be used
Reduces network traffic as local queries can be performed using the data on
the local server.

Disadvantages:
Heavy reliance on networks and communications which may not always be
DATE: 21/01/2015

PAGE 9 OF 19

ICT DEPARTMENT

A2 WJEC ICT

4.3.6 Database Systems


reliable
Security issues particularly if sensitive personal data is being transferred
If one of the links to a server failed then the data could not be obtained

Details
Question

from that server


Increased costs owing to the use of expensive communication lines
Greater chance of data inconsistency
Harder to control the security of data spread in many different locations.
January 10 Question Paper, Question 11
A mail order company uses a relational database management system for storing

[17

details of orders.

marks]

Stock and customers are allocated to orders.


A. Explain what is meant by a relational database. [2]
B. One table in this database could be
STOCK [StockID, Stock name, Price, Size, ManufacturerID]
With StockID being the primary key and ManufacturerID the foreign key.
Give two other suitable tables you could expect to see in this database,
identifying any primary or foreign keys. [5]
C. The company uses a data warehouse to hold details about customers and
their transactions. Explain how the data warehouse and data mining could
be useful to a mail order company. [4]
D. Describe the advantages of a relational database approach over a flat-file
approach in relation to data redundancy, data integrity and data

Answer

consistency. [6]
Section A
Suitable definition of a relational database, such as:
A large collection of data items and links between them (1) structured in
such a way that it allows it to be accessed by a number of different
applications programs (1)
a group of tables linked together by primary and foreign keys (1).
Section B
Award one mark for each table name,
One mark for each primary key field,
One mark for two sensible foreign keys.
Example of one possible full mark answer:
CUSTOMER (CustomerID, Name, contact no, address1, address2, etc.)
ORDERS (OrderID, Date, StockID, CustomerID)
Section C
Data Warehousing (any two points)
The mail order company generates huge quantities of data stored in a
consistent order to make interrogation more productive.
Data is non-volatile and time invariant (archive data).
Used to support organisational decision making.

DATE: 21/01/2015

PAGE 10 OF 19

ICT DEPARTMENT

A2 WJEC ICT

4.3.6 Database Systems


Data Mining (any two points)
Is interrogating the data
It is a speculative process / investigates potential patterns
Presumption is that dormant within the data are undiscovered patterns /

groupings / sequences / associations.


Software uses complex algorithms to search for patterns.
Returned information can be tested for plausibility.
Data if of value can be processed into a report to help decision making.
Could allow company to find a previously unknown relationship between
regions of the country and food preferences and they can then target
special promotions.

Section D
[2] marks for each description
One mark for definition and second mark for expansion or example x 3
Data redundancy
It refers to the unnecessary duplication of data.
In a flat-file database details about such information as customer details will
be duplicated. In a well designed relational database there should be no
repeating attributes', no piece of data should be unnecessarily repeated.
Data integrity
The integrity of data is the correctness, i.e. the extent to which it truthfully
represents the original information.
One of the problems of maintaining integrity arises when updating occurs,
and every record has to be changed in a flat-file database, if one record was
left unchanged the data would no longer be wholly correct. In a relational
database you only have to change data in one table and all other references
in any other table will automatically be changed.
Data consistency
When data is held in more than one file it should be stored in a consistent
way.
A date field could be stored in file as a text field but in another field as a
date/time field and the data would be incompatible. In a relational database
because the attributes of any one entity are contained within one file, there
is no risk of the same attribute being stored in a different format in a
Details
Question

different file (Spelling mistakes in names).


Summer 09 Question Paper, Question 7
Section A

[20

A school uses a relational database management system for storing pupil subject

marks]

choices. A pupil may take many subjects taught by many teachers.


(i)

DATE: 21/01/2015

Explain what is meant by a relational database. [2]


PAGE 11 OF 19

ICT DEPARTMENT

A2 WJEC ICT

4.3.6 Database Systems


(ii)

One table in this database could be:


TEACHER (Teacher Code, Name, Room) with Teacher Code being the

primary key.
Give two other suitable tables you could expect to see in this database,
identifying
(iii)

any primary and foreign keys. [8]

Explain why relational databases are more secure than a flat file
approach for storing subject choices. [2]

Section B
(i)

Explain, using a suitable example, what is meant by a distributed


database. [2]

(ii)

Hospitals use distributed medical databases. Describe the problems that


could arise when using such distributed medical databases. [4]

Answer

Quality of Written Communication. [2]


Section A
(i) Suitable definition of a relational database, such as
A large collection of data items and links (1) between them, structured in such a
way that it allows it to be accessed by a number of different applications programs.
(1) (mention of tables and relationships and different views)
(ii) PUPIL [Pupil Code, Name, Form, DOB, Gender]
1 for suitable table name
1 for suitable primary key field
1 for other 2 suitable fields
SUBJECT (Subject Code, Pupil Code, Teacher Code, Time, Day, Room)
1 for suitable table name
1 for suitable primary key field
1 for Pupil Code as foreign field
1 for Teacher Code as foreign field
1 for other 2 suitable fields
Or other suitable structure marked with similar rules.
(iii) Any two relevant reasons: 2 x 1

DATE: 21/01/2015

PAGE 12 OF 19

ICT DEPARTMENT

A2 WJEC ICT

4.3.6 Database Systems


Hierarchy of passwords
Storage of data separate to programs
Access rights to parts of the program
Section B
(i) A distributed database is a collection of (different) interrelated databases spread
over a network. Some computers on the network each hold part of the data and cooperate in making it available to the user. A hotel chain might use distributed
databases to store details of reservations.
Each hotel stores its own reservations on a local computer. [2]
(ii) Look for four separate points or two very well argued points for maximum
marks: 4 x 1 or 2 x 2 (second mark could be for relating the answer to medical
databases)
More complex hence more expensive to install and maintain
Increased security risk from transfer
If one location fails might hinder others
Could get data inconsistency

Details
Question

Quality of Written Communication [2]


Summer 08 Question Paper, Question 6
Section A

[18

A large medical practice uses a relational database management system for

marks]

storing patient records and running their appointment systems.


The practice has several doctors and many patients. Each patient can make one or
more appointments with a doctor. The practice receptionist records which patient
has made an appointment with which doctor and the time and date of the
appointment.
Section B
(i)

Explain what is meant by the term relational database. [2]

(ii)

One table in this database could be


DOCTOR (Doctor Code, Name, Room, Tel Num)
Give two other suitable tables you could expect to see in this database,

identifying
DATE: 21/01/2015

any primary or foreign keys. [6]


PAGE 13 OF 19

ICT DEPARTMENT

A2 WJEC ICT

4.3.6 Database Systems


Section C
Distributed databases are now widely used.
(i)

Explain what is meant by the term distributed database and discuss


their advantages and disadvantages in general terms. [6]

(ii)

Research is ongoing on the use of Electronic Patient Records (EPR).


Discuss the specific benefits that the EPR system would bring to
medicine and the main concern about its use. [4]

Answer

Section A
A relational database is a large collection of data items and links between them (1
mark), structured in such a way that allows it to be accessed by a number of
different application programs. (2nd mark) or use of primary and foreign keys.
Section B
Accept underline or asterisk as indication of key field & over line as a foreign key.
PATIENT (Patient Code, Name, Address, DOB, Gender)
1 for suitable table name
1 for suitable primary key field
APPOINTMENT(Appointment Code, Patient Code, Doctor Code, Time, Date, Room)
1 for suitable table name
1 for suitable primary key field
1 for Patient Code as foreign field
1 for Doctor Code as foreign field
Section C
(i) Distributed databases are different databases stored at different locations but
linked together so they appear to be one large database.
1 mark per point (max 6) (at least 1 of each to get 6)
Advantages
Data used locally can be stored locally and network traffic kept to a
minimum
If data lost on central site it could be reduplicated from local site
Allows sharing of the data and the results of processing the data
New locations can be added to the database without the need for rewriting
the entire database

DATE: 21/01/2015

PAGE 14 OF 19

ICT DEPARTMENT

A2 WJEC ICT

4.3.6 Database Systems


Disadvantages
Software more complex than a centralised database system
Because data is transferred it presents more of a security risk by hackers
As all the data is not stored in one location if a local site does not have
adequate backup then this data might be lost to others.
If data is stored and updated in more than one place there is an increased
chance of data inconsistency.
(ii) Any 3 benefits at a mark each and 1 concern
If you were taken into any hospital anywhere in Britain they could call up
your notes and see if you are, for example, on any medication at the
moment. This can only lead to better diagnosis of patients problems and
improve the chances of survival.
The computerising of the patient records would also create a huge database
of all the people in Britain. This could also allow an epidemiological
investigation to take place.
Peoples records could be compared to see what treatment worked and
what other factors there may have been for some complex illness. Trends
could be spotted at their early stage and remedial action taken to stop them
quickly. This information would be available no matter where the hospital
was or what the condition of it is.
A database such as this can also be seen as a step towards a national
identity programme where to get treatment one would have to have proof
of nationality and proof of residence in this country. You would have to exist
on the database before you could be dealt with. Immigrants, legal or
otherwise would have to prove their adherence to these rules.
The main concern is big brother watching you or the danger of someone
Details
Question

getting your data (hacking) and misusing it.


Summer 07 Question Paper, Question 3, Sections A & B
The Internet can be used to access many types of online distributed databases.

[4 marks]

(a) Explain, using a suitable example, what is meant by a distributed database. [2]
(b) Describe how distributed databases can be beneficial to an organisation. [2]

Answer

*Part of a larger question


Section A

DATE: 21/01/2015

PAGE 15 OF 19

ICT DEPARTMENT

A2 WJEC ICT

4.3.6 Database Systems


Shared processing across the Internet / networks / Distributed databases are
different databases stored at different locations but linked together so they appear
to be one large database.
[1 for definition].
E.g. A hotel chain may store details of guests booking on its local network but
because each hotel is networked a distributed database can be used and staff in
one hotel can see booking in another hotel and managers can monitor booking
across the whole chain. Similarly for a chain of shops.
[1 mark description of example]
Example might give explanation of 'distributed database'.
Section B
[1 mark for each benefit max of 2 marks]
Allows the local processor to be used to share processing when not being
used for other activities
Data used locally can be stored locally and network traffic kept to a
minimum
If data lost on central site it could be reduplicated from local site
Allows sharing of data and of the results of processing of the data.
New locations can be added to the database without the need for rewriting
Details
Question

the entire database.


Summer 07 Question Paper, Question 4, Section A
Many bank customers have online bank accounts. Customers can complete online

[2 marks]

forms to pay bills and transfer money between their accounts using the Internet.
Verification or validation procedures are used to reduce data entry errors.
(a) Explain, giving a different example in each case, how both the bank and the
customer can minimise data entry errors when filling in the online forms. [2]

Answer

*Part of a larger question


Section A
1 mark for customer measure and 1 mark for bank measure
Customer - Verification procedures
Read data in forms carefully before submitting e.g. when purchasing online

DATE: 21/01/2015

PAGE 16 OF 19

ICT DEPARTMENT

A2 WJEC ICT

4.3.6 Database Systems


Double entry keying e.g. when creating passwords for accounts
Bank - Validation procedures
Range checks
Presence checks
Check digits
Format checks
Details
Question

Input masks
Summer 07 Question Paper, Question 5
A college keeps details of students, staff and courses in a file. Part of this file is

[6 marks]

shown below. The data in this file is not normalised.

(a) Using data from the above file to illustrate your answer, describe two different
problems associated with data not being normalised. 2 [2]
(b) The above data can be re-organised into a normalised relational database with
tables linked using primary and foreign keys.
Re-organise this data into a normalised relational database using two tables. You
should clearly indicate the table names and any primary or foreign keys that you
Answer

use. [5]
Section A
1 mark for disadvantage and 1 mark for example x 2 [4 Marks]
Disadvanta

Data is duplicated causing unnecessary waste of storage space.

ge
Example

The lecturer name H Smith' is repeatedly stored in the above


data.

Disadvanta

If data is stored more than once there may be differences [egg in

ge

spelling] or transcription errors.

Example

J Evans might be mistyped as 'J Evins' or the course code 186

DATE: 21/01/2015

PAGE 17 OF 19

ICT DEPARTMENT

A2 WJEC ICT

4.3.6 Database Systems


might be mistyped as 816. The computer will not know which
one is correct.

Section B
1 mark for table x 2
1 mark for primary key x 2
1 mark for foreign key in other table
Primary and foreign keys must be clearly identified
Examples could be;
Student [Student No, Student Name, Date of birth, Gender, Course No#]
Details
Question

Course [Course No, Course Name, Lecturer No#, Lecturer Name]


Summer 06 Question Paper, Question 7, Sections A & B
(a) A hospital uses a relational database management system for storing patient

[14

records. Staff and patients are allocated to wards.

marks]
(i)

Explain what is meant by a relational database. [2]

(ii)

One table in this database could be


WARD (WardId, NumofBeds, StaffId)
with WardId being the primary key and StaffId the foreign key.
Give two other suitable tables you could expect to see in this
database, identifying any primary or foreign keys. [6]

(iii)

Explain why relational databases are more secure than a flat file
approach for storing patient records. [2]

(b) Hospitals use distributed medical databases. Describe the problems that could
arise when using such distributed medical databases. [4]

Answer

*Part of a larger question


Section A
(i) Suitable definition of a relational database, such as:
A large collection of data items and links between them, structured in such a way
that it allows it to be accessed by a number of different applications programs.

DATE: 21/01/2015

PAGE 18 OF 19

ICT DEPARTMENT

A2 WJEC ICT

4.3.6 Database Systems


(ii)
STAFF ( Staff no, Name, expertise, pager no, contact no, Ward no)
PATIENT ( Patient no, Name, illness, admission date, consultant, address, contact,
Ward no)
1 mark for each table name
1 mark for each key field
1 mark for both foreign keys
1 mark for two other relevant fields

(iii) Any two relevant reasons: [2 x 1]


Hierarchy of passwords
Storage of data separate to programs
Access rights to parts of the program
Section B
4 separate points or 2 very well argued points for maximum marks [4 x 1] or [2 x
2]
More complex hence more expensive to install and maintain
Increased security risk from transfer
If one location fails might hinder others
Could get data inconsistency

DATE: 21/01/2015

PAGE 19 OF 19