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Answers

1.

a)

b) i)

ii)

Graph axes labelled [1]. Graph scales and units shown [1]. All points plotted to nearest

whole number of units accurately [3] (allow [1] for at least four points plotted accurately

and [2] for at least six points plotted accurately). Straight line of best fit (judged by eye)

drawn [1].

iii) There are, in fact, no anomalous results in this example they arise from misreading the

scales on measuring apparatus (in this case the most likely misreading would be on the

measuring cylinder) or from copying results down inaccurately or unclearly. [2]

v)

If the vertical axis is mass and the horizontal axis is volume then the density can be found

from the gradient of the graph [1]. Draw a large [1] triangle to determine the gradient.

Gradient = (126 grams 30 grams)/80 cm3 [1]

Answer: density of the liquid is 12 g/cm3. [1]

vi) Drawing a graph produces a value based on all the readings taken [1] and draws attention to

anomalous results [1].

2.

Shape b) is most suitable [1] as pressure increases with depth [1] so the dam must be

strongest/thickest at the base [1] to withstand the pressure.

3.

a)

The average pressure acting on both side faces is the same [1] and the side faces have the same

area [1] so the forces acting on the block horizontally sum to zero [1] (no resultant horizontal

force).

b) i)

c)

iv) The mass of liquid ought to be directly proportional to the volume of liquid [1]. In this

experiment Martha has forgotten to take the mass of the measuring cylinder into account

[1]. (The cylinder has a mass of 30 grams as can been seen from the intercept on this

graph; the intercept is the value on the mass axis when the volume of water is zero.)

The additional pressure on the top face is gh [1] (density of water gravitational field

strength height of water) so = 1000 kg/m3 10 N/m2 10 m [1] giving extra pressure

acting on the top surface as 100 000 Pa.

ii)

Similarly extra pressure acting upward on the bottom face is 150 000 Pa. [1]

i)

Force = pressure area [1] so downward force [1] on the top surface is (A + 100 000)

Pa 25 m2 [1] (Accept 2 500 000 N this is the additional force due to the depth of water

ignoring atmospheric pressure A).

ii)

Similarly, upward force on the bottom surface is (A + 150 000) Pa 25 m2. [1] (Accept

3 750 000 N).

d) The resultant upward [1] force on the cube due to the pressure difference at different levels in

the water is 1 250 000 N [1]. This is called the buoyant upthrust [1]. (Accept just upthrust).

e)

Cannot say [1] because we dont know the density of the material of the cube or the weight of

the cube [1] so we cannot determine whether the upthrust is > weight (so it will accelerate

upwards) or upthrust = weight (neutral buoyancy so the cube will remain stationary or moving

at a constant speed) or upthrust < weight (in which case it will sink).

4.

Initially the temperature of the ice will increase [1]. When it reaches the melting [1] point of 0C the

ice will begin to melt [1]. When all the ice has changed from the solid [1] state to the liquid [1] state,

its temperature will continue to increase [1] as a result of being heated. During this time some of the

liquid [1] will turn to a gas [1]; this process is called evaporation [1]. When the boiling [1] point of

100C is reached the temperature will stop rising until all the liquid [1] has turned to water vapour

[1] (gas).

5.

a)

Labels from top to bottom : Microscope [1], Smoke Cell [1], Smoke. [1]

b)

[1]

Continuously jiggling in a random way. [1]

c)

A molecules are in a state of continuous [1] rapid [1] random [1] motion.

6.

7.

a)

p1 p2

[1] where p1 = 50 kPa T1 = (23 + 273) K [1] and p2 = 300 kPa.

=

T1 T2

T2 = (300 kPa 250 K)/ 50 kPa [1] T2 = 1500K so answer 1227C [1].

b) As the temperature is raised the mean kinetic energy of the gas molecules increases. [1]

This means more energetic collisions with the walls of the container occur more frequently [1],

so a greater pressure is exerted on the walls of the container.

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