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Project Description

The building is a 12-storey office block in a mix commercial development comprising carparks,

shopping malls and service apartments.

A typical floor of the building measuring 24 m x 72 m with 8 m building grids in both directions

is shown in Figure 4.1. The design floor-to-floor height is 3.6 m. Staircases, lift cores and

other building services such as toilets, AHU, M&E risers are located at each end of the floor

which are to be cast in-situ.

2.

Design Information

a. Codes of Practice

BS 6399 Design Loading for Building

CP 65 The Structural Use of Concrete

CP3, Chapter V Wind Load

b. Materials

Concrete

C30 for topping, walls and all other in-situ works

C45 for precast beam

C50 for precast columns and hollow core slabs

fy = 250 N/mm mild steel reinforcement

Steel

fy = 460 N/mm high yield steel reinforcement

fy = 485 N/mm high yield steel reinforcement

Dead loads

c.

Concrete density

Partitions, finishes and services

Brickwalls

Liveloads

d.

=

=

=

24 kN/m

1.8 kN/m

3.0 kN/m

=

Offices, staircases, corridors

24 kN/m

Lift lobby, AHU rooms

=

1.8 kN/m

Toilet

=

3.0 kN/m

3.

Structural System

Precast construction is adopted from the second storey upwards to take advantage of the

regular building grids and simple structural layout. The areas from grids A to C and from J to

K are, however, cast in-situ due to drops, floor openings and water-tightness considerations.

Beside acting as load bearing walls, staircase wells and lift cores also function as stabilising

cores for the superstructure. The walls are 300 mm thick, cast in-situ and are tied monolithically

at every floor.

The precast components consist of hollow core slabs, beams, columns and staircase flights.

a. Hollow core slabs

The design of hollow core slabs (215 mm thick) is based on class 2 prestressed concrete

structure with minimum 2 hours fire rating. The hollow core slabs are cast with C50 concrete.

Each unit (1.2 m nominal width) is designed as simply supported with nominal100 mm seati

at the support.

Resultant stresses are checked at serviceability and at prestress transfer. Design of the slab

is carried out by the specialist supplier.

b. Precast beams

535 mm deep full precast beams are used in the office area. The beams, which are unpropped

during construction, are seated directly onto column corbels and are designed as simply

supported structures at the final stage. To limit cracking of the topping concrete at the supports,

site placed reinforcement is provided as shown in the typical details in Figure 4.2.

c. Precast columns

The columns are 500 mm x 700 mm and are cast 2-storey in height with base plate connection

at every alternate floor. They are designed as pin-ended at the ultimate limit state.

The base plate connection is designed with moment capacity to enable the columns to

behave as a 2-storey high cantilever. This is to facilitate floor installation works which are to

be carried out two floors in advance of a finally tied floor at any one time during the construction

of the office block. The use of base plate connection will eliminate heavy column props and

result in a safer and neater construction site. A nominal 50 mm gap is detailed in the design of

the column-to-column connection in order to provide sufficient tolerances for the insertion of

in-situ reinforcement at the beam support regions. The gap will be filled with

C50 non-shrink grout.

Each column is cast with reinforced concrete corbels in the direction of the precast beams.

The corbels are provided with T25 dowel bars which are used to prevent toppling of the

precast beams when the hollow core slabs are laid. The depth of the corbel is designed to be

concealed visually within the final ceiling space.

At the final state, all columns are considered braced in both directions.

d. Floor diaphragm action and structural integrity

All precast components are bound by a 65 mm thick concrete topping which is reinforced with

a layer of steel fabric. The steel fabric serves as structural floor ties in order to satisfy the

integrity ties requirement under the building robustness design considerations.

The final floor structure will behave as a rigid diaphragm which transmits horizontal loads to

the stabilising cores at each end of the floor.

4.

Design of Precast Components

a. Design of Hollow Core Slab

8000

250

50

50

100

Loading : DL = Topping (65 mm thick)

Imposed

LL

250

100

=

=

=

=

=

=

8000-500-100

7400

0.065X24

1.56

1.75

3

From Figure 2.9 of Chapter 2, 215 mm thick hollow core slab is adequate. Actual design

Support reinforcement

Although the slabs are designed as non-composite and simply supported, additional loose

reinforcement should be placed in the topping concrete over the support in order to minimise

surface cracking and limit the crack widths. The additional support reinforcement may be

calculated as below :

Loading : DL (imposed)

LL

Ultimate load

Support moment

h

z

As

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

1.56

3

1.4 X 1.75 + 1.6 X 3.00

7.25

0.083ql

0.083 X 7.25 X 7.4

32.95

215+65

280

0.8h

224

M/(0.87fyz)

368.1

700

4T20 (I=3000)

600

D6 Mesh

T25

700

600

4T20 (I=3000)

be grouted

65 topping

T10@200 (I=2400)

600

215

D6 mesh

320

500/800x535 deep precast

beam

150

800

1000

500

D6 Mesh

600

125

T10@200

100 seating

215 Thk H.C. slab

500/800x535 deep precast beam

150

250

400

400

250

650

T10@600 c/c

200

200

D6 mesh

2mm Gap

D6 mesh

T10@200 c/c

400

600

0.3xSlab span

300

4.

8000

500x700 PC Column

700

1.

Design Loadings

a. Bending Moment

q = DL (beam s/w)

Hollow core slab (Jointed wt)

Topping

Imposed

=

=

=

=

2.89x7.5

0.065x24x8

1.75*8

Total

LL

Design ultimate load

2.

=

=

3.0x8

1.4x56.87+1.6x24

118.03x7.3^2/8

320

535

215

At mid-span M+ = ql /8

l=7300

150

500

800

150

h

d

b

M+/(bd2fcu)

From Figure 2.26 in Chapter 2, s/fcu

s

As

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

535

mm

535-75

mm

500

mm

786.2 X 10^6/(500 X 460^2

5.3x10^-4

5.3x10^-4x45

mm

5486

X 45)

=5.3x10^-4

=0.1651

s'/fcu

=

min. 4.4x10^-4

s'

=

0.0198

mm

As'

=

460

Provide 3T16 (As = 603 mm) in top face as shown below

3T16

4T10

7T32

b. Vertical Shear

Total shear V

v

=

=

=

=

118.03 x 7.3/2

430.8

kN

430.8 x10^3/ (500x460)

N/mm

1.873

Minimum steel to be provided at the beam end to prevent bond slip failure is:

As

=

V/0.8fy

=

430.8x10^3/(0.8x460)

mm

=

1171

=

From Figure 2.27, in Chapter 2, vc

=

Hence

Asvfsv

=

=

Provide T10- 75c/c for 1.4 m both ends. (0.2l)

( Asfsv = 2.09 > 1.60, OK)

0.47%

N/mm

0.59

(1.87- 0.59) X 500/(0.87 X 460)

1.599

=

430.8- 118.0 x 1.4

=

265.6

v

=

265.6 X 10^3 / (500 X 460)

=

1.155

Asv/Sv

=

(1.16- 0.59) X 500 I (0.87 X 460)

=

0.71

Provide T10-200 links (Asv/sv) = 0.78 > 0.71) for the remaining middle span.

kN

kN

N/mm

N/mm

Although the topping is considered non-structural, it is prudent to check that there should be

no separation of the topping from the precast beam at the interface. At mid-span, compression

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Compression Force

Contact Width

Contact Length

0.45fcu be t

0.45 X 30 X 500 X 65 X 10^-3

438.8

kN

500

mm

0.5le

0.5x7300

3.65

m

vh

vh

peak vh

=

438.8 x 10^3/(500 x 3650)

N/mm

=

0.24

N/mm

=

2x0.24

N/mm

=

0.48

which is less than 0.55 N/mm in Part 1, Table 5.5, CP65 for as-cast surface without links.

Hence the topping layer should not separate at the interface.

d. Support Reinforcement

Although the beams are designed as simply supported structures, it is advisable to place

additional reinforcement over the support to prevent excessive cracking when the beams

rotate at the support under service load. The additional steel may be calculated as follows :

1.75x8

14

Loading : DL (imposed)

=

3x8

24

LL

=

Ultimate loading

1.4x14+1.6x24

58

=

Support moment

=

0.08ql

=

0.08 X 58 X 7.3

247.3

=

h

600

=

z

0.8h

=

As

=

M/(0.87fyz)

247.3 X 10^6/(0.87 X 460 X 0.8x600)

=

1286

=

Provide 4T20 (As= 1257 mm2 ) over the support as shown in Figure 4.2.

e. Deflection

At mid-span,

M+

M+/bd

786.1

=

786.2 X 10^6/ (500 X 460^2)

=

7.435

=

fs

(5/8)fy X (As req/As prov)

=

(5/8) X 460 X (5486/5629)

=

280.2

=

From Part 1, Table 3.11, CP65 the modification factor for tension reinforcement= 0.75 and for

compression reinforcement = 1.08

Minimum d

=

=

450.6mm < 460 mm

f. End Bearing

i. Effective Bearing Width

Permissible ultimate bearing stress from Part 1, clause 5.2.3.4, CP 65

0.4fcu

=

=

0.4 X 45

N/mm

18

=

To even out surface irregularities at the beam and corbel surfaces, provide 100 x 450 x 8 mm

thick neoprene pad at the beam support.

Contact pressure

430.8 X 103/(100 X 450)

=

N/mm

9.573

=

N/mm

9.57<18

=

549

H=600

200

100x450x8 thk

125

250

As

430.8 X 10^3/(0.87 X 460)

=

mm

1076

=

Provide 3T16 loops at 50 c/c at the beam ends as shown. (As=1207mm)

900

r=6

T16 Loop

Tension force per bar

Actual tension force per bar Fbt

ab

Minimum r

say r

80.44

80.4 X 1076/1207

71.71

50

16

Fbt[1 + 2(/ab)] /2fcu (Eq. 50 Part 1)

71.7x10^3[1 +2(16/50)]/(2x45x16)

81.66

6

96

A typical 2-storey high precast column is shown in Figure 4.7 below:

Bolt from lower PC column

250

3600

corbel

350

175

600

65 thk

c.

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

250

3600

corbel

15

3600

600

Column

1200

700

250

700

250

500

500

T25 dowel

DL:

1. Design Loadings

beams

h.c.s. Jointed weight)

topping

imposed dead load

self weight

corbel

= 2.89 x 7.5 x 8

= 0.065 X 24 X 8 X 8

=1.75 x 8 x 8

= 0.7 x 0.5 x 24 x 3.6

= 0.2625 x 0.5x 0.5 x 24 x 2

=

=

=

=

=

=

=3 x 8 x 8

LL:

From roof to 2nd storey (12 floors), total column load (above 1st storey):

= 480.7 X 12

DL:

LL (50% reduction)

= 192.0 X 12 X 0.5

Ultimate axial load

2.

63.69

173.4

99.84

112

30.24

1.575

480.7

192

kN

kN

kN

kN

kN

kN

kN

kN

=

=

=

5769

1152

9919

kN

kN

kN

Column Design

About minor axis

Ie

le/b

=

=

=

=

lo

1.0x3.6

3.6

3600/500

7.2

=

7.2<15

=

Columns are considered as short columns.

From Part 1, equation 38, CP 65,

Asc

Asc

N

N

fcu

(9919.0 X 10^3 -0.4 X 50 X 500 X 700) / (0.75 X 460)

=

=

=

=

0.4fcuAc + 0.75Ascfy

9919

kN

N/mm

45

N/mm

N/mm

8461

Check bearing capacity of column section in contact with base plate

The ultimate bearing stress at interface with steel plate= 0.8fcu (Part 1, clause 5.2.3.4)

mm

=

450 x 650

0.8 X 50 X 450 X 650 X

=

11700

kN

=

Steel reinforcement need not be provided from the steel plate into the column section.

3

Column to column joint

Plate size

Hence direct bearing capacity

a.

Vertical joint strength

Joint between column to column is 50 mm thick and is embedded 15 mm below the floor's

final structural level (Figure 4.2). Based on the lower column section, the ultimate bearing

stress for bedded bearing= 0.6fcu (clause 5.2.3.4).

50

Assuming non-shrink grout strength fcu

=

Total bearing strength

=

=

10500

kN

b.

Base plate connection

The steel base plate connection at alternate floors is used to provide moment capacity for the

stability of two-storey high cantilever column at the installation stage. The base plate connection

is designed to allow for precast components to be installed two storeys ahead of a

completed floor. The columns are unpropped in order to achieve fast installation and minimise

site obstruction by props. The design of the base plate connection needs to consider different

load combinations so as to arrive at the most critical stresses. In accordance with the Code,

the following load combinations are considered:

Case 1

N/mm

=

1.4DL + 1.6LL

Case 2

=

full dead + construction live +wind (or notional load)

=

1.2 (DL + LL + WL) or

=

1.2 (DL + LL) + Notional load

Case 3

=

full dead +wind (or notional load)

=

1.4 (DL + WL) or

=

1.4 (DL) + Notional load

The design wind load is considered less critical and its effects are mainly felt from the exposed

faces of the beam and column perpendicular to the wind direction. This will be less than the

notional load of 1.5% dead load.

The base plate connection is be checked in both the major and minor column axes and

taking into account the column slenderness effect.

By inspection, the most critical stresses will take place at the edge columns next to the in-situ

floor as there will be minimum axial load with maximum overturning moment and hence

maximum tensile forces in the bolts during the temporary stage. The transfer of floor loading

to the edge column is shown in Figure 4.8.

A final check on the connection should be made to ensure that continuous vertical ties are

provided through the column joint and throughout the building height.

Axial column load per floor

DL: Beams

Hollow core slab Jointed weight)

Topping

2.89 x 7.5 x 4

0.065 X 24 X 4 X 8

=

=

=

1.5 x 4 x 8

H = 1.5 x 168.5/100

LL (construction)

Notional horizontal load

Per floor

Bending moment at point 3 in Figure 4.8

=

=

31.84

86.7

49.92

168.5

48

kN

kN

kN

kN

kN

2.528

kN

(acting at the top of the corbel)

2.5 x (3.015 + 6.615)

24.08

kN

100

mm

kN/m

kN/m

kN/m

kN/m

kN/m

+ 1.6 X 3.00

kN/m

kN/m/m

mm

mm

mm/mm

D6 Mesh

T25

uted

D6 Mesh

65 topping

beam

535

600

65

535

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

8.724

21.68

12.48

14.24

57.12

24

118

kN/m

kN/m

kN/m

kN/m

kN/m

kN/m

kN/m

786.1 kNm

460

0.1651

0.0239

mm

=0.1651

N/mm

N/mm

kN/m

kN/m

kN/m

kN/m/m

mm

mm/mm

kN-m

0^6/ (500 X 460^2)

As req/As prov)

0 X (5486/5629)

N/mm

x 0.75 x 1.08)

OK

N/mm

03/(100 X 450)

N/mm

N/mm

OK

10^3/(0.87 X 460)

0 x 201 x 10^-3

kN

kN

mm

mm

/ab)] /2fcu (Eq. 50 Part 1)

[1 +2(16/50)]/(2x45x16)

mm

mm

mm

3600

column

15

3600

3600

N/mm

N/mm

N/mm

9919

kN

9919 kN

OK

N/mm

15 + 6.615)

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